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Heat Transfer and Radiation (Part 2) 1 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26, 2017

Heat Transfer and

Radiation (Part 2)

Heat Transfer and Radiation (Part 2) 1 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26, 2017

What are the suggested steps if I am having convergence issues for conjugate heat

transfer problems?

convergence issues for conjugate heat transfer problems? Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate Customer

Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate

Customer Portal KM ID: 2039910

There are several things that can be tried to improve convergence for a CHT problem.

1) If you have non-conformal interfaces, make sure that the grid at the interface is not too dissimilar

2) Grid should ideally be very fine at the wall becoming coarser away from the wall

3) Ensure good grid quality by checking equiangle skew and aspect ratio etc.

3) Ensure good grid quality by checking equiangle skew and aspect ratio etc. 2 © 2015

What are the suggested steps if I am having convergence issues for conjugate heat

transfer problems?

convergence issues for conjugate heat transfer problems? Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate Customer

Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate

Customer Portal KM ID: 2039910

4) First obtain converged solution using flow equations only, then activate the energy equation and solve

the flow and energy equations simultaneously

5) Obtain converged first-order solution first and then switch to second-order solution

6) Use velocity inlet instead of pressure inlet BCs.

to second-order solution 6) Use velocity inlet instead of pressure inlet BCs. 3 © 2015 ANSYS,

What are the suggested steps if I am having convergence issues for conjugate heat

transfer problems?

convergence issues for conjugate heat transfer problems? Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate Customer

Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate

Customer Portal KM ID: 2039910

7) Lower the energy under-relaxation factor. Try 0.98 (don’t go less than 0.95)

8) Use Pressure-based solver with coupled option, lower the Courant no.

9) In define>model>solver, select 'node-based' for gradient option

In define>model>solver, select 'node-based' for gradient option 4 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26, 2017

What are the suggested steps if I am having convergence issues for conjugate heat

transfer problems?

convergence issues for conjugate heat transfer problems? Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate Customer

Search Keywords: convergence issues conjugate

Customer Portal KM ID: 2039910

10) If using tetrahedral grid, turn off secondary gradients: > (rpsetvar 'temperature/secondary-gradient? #f)

11) Change multigrid settings (solve>controls>multigrid) for energy. Set it to W cycle with a termination criteria of 0.01 (or smaller)

12) Increase the upper limits of pressure and temperature in Solve-> Controls-> Limits

upper limits of pressure and temperature in Solve-> Controls-> Limits 5 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January

Defining heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Customer Portal KM ID: 593

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593
heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593 The heat transfer coefficient is a characteristic of

The heat transfer coefficient is a characteristic of the flow. It is used to measure the ability of a flow to convect energy from walls.

htc

q

"

convection

T w

T

ref

For forced convection flows, HTC is traditionally conceived to be a function of velocity (flow rate), fluid

properties, and geometry. i.e.

htc L

Nu Re, Pr

Nu

It is not thought in terms of wall boundary conditions.

This is true only if Tref is a bulk (or "mixing cup", or mass-averaged) fluid temperature. For constant properties, by this definition, HTC becomes independent of thermal field

properties, by this definition, HTC becomes independent of thermal field 6 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January

Defining heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Customer Portal KM ID: 593

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593
heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593 There are at least 3 methods in calculating

There are at least 3 methods in calculating HTC in Fluent:

The first two use heat flux to get HTC, which requires a converged thermal field.

In these two methods, HTC is determined by measuring the thermal field - by measuring heat flux.

The 3rd method does not require to run the thermal field.

heat flux. • The 3rd method does not require to run the thermal field. 7 ©

Defining heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Customer Portal KM ID: 593

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593
heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593 1. htc  q " convection T w

1. htc

q " convection T w  T ref
q "
convection
T w 
T
ref

This HTC is a Fluent variable; it can directly be selected under 'Wall Fluxes'. This cannot be used if the bulk temperature changes along the flow direction, which gives it a limited usage.

For example, it can't be used for flow inside a heated duct or

a pipe, because the bulk temperature changes along the

pipe.

a heated duct or a pipe, because the bulk temperature changes along the pipe. 8 ©
a heated duct or a pipe, because the bulk temperature changes along the pipe. 8 ©
a heated duct or a pipe, because the bulk temperature changes along the pipe. 8 ©

Defining heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Customer Portal KM ID: 593

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593
heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593 2. htc  q " convection T w

2. htc

q "

convection

T w

T

cell

In this definition, Tcell is the adjacent cell temperature. This definition is much

better than a fixed reference temperature for most complicated geometries.

In most cases, if wall functions are used and Y+ is obeyed, the adjacent cell temperature becomes close to the bulk temperature. (Note that when using

T bulk T P T w
T bulk
T
P
T
w

standard wall functions, the Y+ at adjacent cell, ideally, should be between 30

and 60, mostly depending on the application.)

This definition cannot be applied for two-layer model where the first node is too close to the wall. In this case the adjacent cell temperature will be much higher than the should-be-used bulk temperature.

cell temperature will be much higher than the should-be-used bulk temperature. 9 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc.

Defining heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Customer Portal KM ID: 593

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593
heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593 2. htc  q " convection T w

2. htc

q "

convection

T w

T

cell

To get this HTC in Fluent, you can make a Custom Field Function (CFF) of the following existing Fluent Field variable

HTC = ('Total Surface Heat Flux' - 'Radiation Heat Flux')/('Wall Temperature(outer surface)' - 'Static Temperature').

You can perform contour plot of this CFF without the node values. Without the node value 'Static Temperature' will grab the adjacent cell temperature.

value 'Static Temperature' will grab the adjacent cell temperature. 10 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26,

Defining heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient

Customer Portal KM ID: 593

Search Keywords: define heat transfer coefficient Customer Portal KM ID: 593

3. Wall Func. Heat Tran. Coeff

Another method to obtain HTC is to get it directly from wall functions. Note that this method can be used even

if there is no flux through the wall!

can be used even if there is no flux through the wall! T h  
can be used even if there is no flux through the wall! T h  

T

h

q

P r y

1

T

w

T

P

c C

p

k

P

  P

 

q



 

c C

1 4
1
4

k

1 2
1
2

" /(

T

w

T

P

)

p

*

P

T

r

t

1 4
1
4
1 2
1
2

ln Ey

P

y

T bulk T P T w
T bulk
T
P
T
w

y

T

y

y

T

  y T bulk T P T w   y  T  y

Heat transfer Reynolds analogy

Search Keywords: heat transfer Reynolds

Customer Portal KM ID: 417

heat transfer Reynolds Customer Portal KM ID: 417 Question: Heat transfer co- efficient can be calculated

Question:

Heat transfer co-efficient can be calculated using Reynold’s analogy as well as using the standard definition q"/(Twall - Tref). Which one is the better approach to compute heat transfer co-efficient? Answer:

There is lot of confusion on how to calculate heat transfer coefficient (htc): Should it be based on Reynolds Analogy or based on standard definition of heat flux divided by difference in temperature? Let’s have a look at Reynolds analogy: Reynold's analogy relates Nu and Cf.

have a look at Reynolds analogy: Reynold's analogy relates Nu and Cf. 12 © 2015 ANSYS,

Heat transfer Reynolds analogy

Heat transfer Reynolds analogy 13 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26, 2017
Heat transfer Reynolds analogy 13 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26, 2017

Heat transfer Reynolds analogy

Heat transfer Reynolds analogy 14 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26, 2017
Heat transfer Reynolds analogy 14 © 2015 ANSYS, Inc. January 26, 2017