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Phosphoric acid project

Introduction to acids and bases: 2

Phosphoric Acid 5
Chemical formula: 5
Elements: 5
Compound type: 5
State: 5
Water Solubility 6
Density: 6
Disassociation constant: 6
Corrosivity: 6
pH: 6
Synthesis of Phosphoric acid 8
Reacts: 10
Safety and hazards 10
Uses 12


Phosphoric acid project

Introduction to acids and bases:

Acids and bases can fall into three categories: Arrhenius acids/bases, Bronsted-Lowry
acids/bases or Lewis acids/bases.

An Arrhenius acid is a compound that when dissolved in water releases H+ ions. When
an acid dissociates in water it doesn't create a free floating proton what happens is
one of the water molecules joins with the H+ ion. An Arrhenius base is a compound
that when it dissolves in water produces OH- hydroxide. Arrhenius definition only
applies to compounds dissolved in water.(Leah SCI, 2014)

Bronsted-Lowry acid is just like Arrhenius an acid that gives out H+ the difference is
that the compound does not have to be in water. A difference is seen in the base
definition for Bronsted-Lowry a base is any atom or ion capable of bonding with any
free proton in a solution.(Leah SCI, 2014)

Lewis acids and bases don't have to do with protons but with electrons. A Lewis acid
is any atom or molecule that accepts an electron pair. In a reaction the element being
the lewis acid is the one accepting the electrons. Since his definition has to do with
electrons the base for Lewis is the atom or molecule that loses or gives away the
electron pair.(Leah SCI, 2014)

We can convert from H+ to Ph using a log:


Phosphoric acid project

We can also convert from OH- to pOH:



There are two categories acids can fall into, Weak or strong. First of all i would like to
clarify that a weak or strong acid is not the same as concentrated or diluted acid.

The strength of an acid depends on how it ionizes in water. A strong acid is an acid
that is completely ionized, it has a ph of 1. A weak acid is only partly ionised in the
reactions that produce this acids some particles are ionised but other stay as
molecules, the reaction is reversible and the resulting acid has a ph of 3-5.(GCSE
science, 2015)

A dilute or concentrated solution or acid consist of two things solvents and solutes.
The difference between this two is that a diluted solution has a small amount of solute
compared to its solvent. A concentrated solution big amount of solute, the opposite of
a diluted solution. This applies to acids.

As we can see a strong and a weak acid depends on how it ionizes and a concentrated
or diluted acids depends of how much solvent it has in a solution. So we can see this
two things are not the same but both help us understand better the acid we are
looking at. Phosphoric acid is a weak acid.

There are two terms regarding acids that can be easily confused these are Amphoteric and
Amphiprotic. An amphiprotic substance is a substance that can donate hydrogen ions and
also that can accept these. In the word the protic part refers to the capability of accepting
and donating protons. All amphoteric reactions are also amphoteric but no tall amphoteric
are amphiprotic this is because some amphoteric don't donate or accept protons in some
reactions but still can be used as an acid or base.(Jim clark, 2002)
Phosphoric acid project

Figure 1

The figure above is a PH table where the numbers represent the ph and on the right there are some common

examples and on the left the amount of H+ ions in in ph level.figure. From kitchen science.
Phosphoric acid project

Phosphoric Acid


Properties are taken from the database PubChem.

Phosphoric acid is also as Orthophosphoric acid

Chemical formula:



Hydrogen, Phosphorus and oxygen.

Compound type:

Phosphorus oxoacids


Phosphoric acid is a colorless, odorless liquid with a syrupy consistency. It is non-toxic

Molecular weight:

Phosphoric acid project

Melting point:

42.35 C, 316 K, 108 F

Boiling point and decomposition:

158 C, 431 K, 316 F

Water Solubility



1.685 g/ml

Disassociation constant:

pK1: 2.15; pK2: 7.09; pK3: 12.32


Phosphoric acid is corrosive with ferrous metals and alloys


1.5, aqueous
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Figure 2

This figure shows how phosphoric acid looks and how its bonded. Figure from Fisher scientific.
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Synthesis of Phosphoric acid


There are two ways of producing phosphoric acid one is called the wet process and the

other the thermal process. The thermals process product is more pure than the wet process.

Around the world yearly 38 tons of phosphoric acid are made.(Essential chemical industry,


The wet process is conformed by phosphate rock and sulfuric put in a series of well stirred

reactions, the result of this reactions are phosphoric acid and calcium sulfate (gypsum)

among other insoluble substances. By adding water gypsum is removed by filtration along

with other substances. Through evaporation fluoride is now removed leaving us with

phosphoric acid.(Essential chemical industry, 2013)

Equation involving phosphate rock and sulfuric acid:

The thermal process materials are phosphorus and air. Phosphorus is sprayed in a

furnace and heat up with air at a very high temperature.

Phosphoric acid project

The products from the burner are then passed to a hydration tower were gaseous

phosphorus oxide is converted into phosphoric acid.

(Essential chemical industry, 2013)

Figure 3

The figure above shows a method of production of phosphoric acid. Figure from Guichon.valves.com
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Phosphoric acid reacts exothermically with bases. It can also react with active metals such
as aluminium and iron to produce hydrogen flammable gas. In reactions with
dithiocarbamates it may produce flammable or toxic gases. It can formed explosive
substances with nitromethane.(Cameo chemicals, 1999)

Figure 4

The figure above shows how the equation for the reaction of phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide looks

like. taken from Quora.

Safety and hazards

As I said before phosphoric acid is not flammable on by itself but when reacted with metals

it does become flammable. I t has 5 serious health dangers:

1-Lower bone density according to (Dr. Josh Axe, 2017) studies show that drinking colas

that contain phosphoric acid are related to the decrease of bone mineral density.(Dr. Josh

Axe, 2017)

2- Also related to colas with phosphoric acid they have been linked with chronic kidney
Phosphoric acid project

diseases, urinary changes and kidney stones.(Dr. Josh Axe, 2017)

3- By getting an excess of phosphorus in your body you can lower your body's calcium

level. this happens when you eat things with hidden phosphorus and the most common

one of this is phosphoric acid.(Dr. Josh Axe, 2017)

4-Some acids are good for you but Phosphoric acid isn't one of them since it is used to

acidify colas that aren't good for you in the first place.(Dr. Josh Axe, 2017)

5-As I said before phosphoric acid is used to remove rust from steel so this acid can

damage tissue in the human body. It can cause to irritate the eyes, nose, throat,skin and

lungs. Also burn eyes and skin.(Dr. Josh Axe, 2017)

Phosphoric acid project


Figure 5

The figure above is a graph representing what are the uses of phosphoric acid and what percentages of its

production is used for each one. Figure taken from essential chemical indsutry

How we know Phosphoric acid is corrosive and this gives it one of its many uses. Since its

corrosive with metas by applying to brown rust it creates a phosphate black layer and when

you scrape that of you are left with the clean steel. It is most used as a liquid or gel that can

be easily applied.(Dr. Sumaiya Khan, 2011)

Phosphoric acid project

Phosphoric acid is also used in foods, principally is used as an additive to foods to acidify

them. It is used in a variety of colas. It gives the foods or drinks a sour taste and since this

acid is mass produced it makes it easily available to get. Still since this substance is an acid

it has raised concerns on how it might affect the human body, even though an other of uses

is in the medical department.(Dr. Sumaiya Khan, 2011)

Figure 6

The figure above shows that phosphoric acid is one of the components in Coca-Cola.

Its uses in medicine are mostly in some drugs and it takes an important part in dentistry. In

medicine it is use in anti nausea medication, this also contain glucose. In dentistry it is

combined with zinc powder to create cement to cover teeth which is Zinc phosphate. also

it is used in many teeth whitening solutions and to clean and roughen teeth before placing

devices such as braces.(Dr. Sumaiya Khan, 2011)

Phosphoric acid has also a great part in fertilizers. It is used as fertilizer feedstock. The

Phosphoric acid that is created by the wet process is mostly used for fertilizers and the one

in the thermal process isn't because of its high cost but still it use for specialty fertilizers.
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In conclusion an acid and a base aren't just things in a pH scale. They have different

properties and definitions. Phosphoric acid is a substance composed of hydrogen,

phosphorus and oxygen. I found out a lot of things about Phosphoric acid that I didn't know

before for example it is used in foods and also what kind of consequences it can have on the

body. It also has a role in medicine and I think that in the future there would be more uses

for this acid because of its mass production. I think it is very interesting that it has 2 method

of production one that is the wet and another that is the thermal. I found this really

interesting and it was really fun to learn about an acid I didn't know anything about.
Phosphoric acid project


Bodner research web. (n.d.). Definitions of Acids and Bases and the Role of Water.

Retrieved May 25, 2017, from


Dr. Josh Axe. (2017). Dangers [article]. Retrieved May 29, 2017, from


Young Donald C. (1966, July 12). Phosphoric acid compositions. Retrieved from


Dr. Sumaiya Khan. (2011, October 3). uses for phosphoric acid [article]. Retrieved May 28,

2017, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/phosphoric-acid-uses.html

Dr. Sumaiya Khan. (2011, October 3). uses for phosphoric acid [article]. Retrieved May 28,

2017, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/phosphoric-acid-uses.html

Dr. Sumaiya Khan. (2011, October 3). uses for phosphoric acid [article]. Retrieved May 28,

2017, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/phosphoric-acid-uses.html

Essential chemical industry. (2013, March 18). Phosphoric acid production. Retrieved May

27, 2017, from

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GCSE science. (2015). weak and strong acids. Retrieved from


Leah SCI. (2014, October 25). Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis Acids and Bases in

Organic Chemistry. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from



Pub Chem. (n.d.). Pubchem compound summary CID. Retrieved from


Solutions. (n.d.). Institute for chemical education. Retrieved from

Phosphoric acid project

Juan Carlos Silva

Colegio Bolivar
Phosphoric Acid