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5.1 INTRODUCTION

The linear machine was introduced because of its simple construction and the fact that it served to

demonstrate clearly the principles of electromechanics. It also allowed us to establish a model to show

symbolically the relationships which exist with devices of this kind. At this point we must take a quantum jump

to see how these principles have been implemented in rotating machines, specifically generators and motors.

Historically, d-c machines came into being before a-c machines because the scientists of that time (about the

middle of the 19th century) were only familiar with battery sources and consequently strived to make motors

which operated from batteries, as well as generators to charge the batteries and operate arc lamps. Although

superior in many ways, a-c machines have not completely replaced d-c machines, and will not in the foreseeable

future, since the d-c motor offers a controllability not yet approached by a-c motors. The d-c generator, on the

other hand, is declining rapidly in use since its functions have been largely taken over by solid state rectification

of alternator outputs (in automobiles for example). Nevertheless a thorough study of d-c generators is

worthwhile because the construction of motors and generators is the same, and the bilateral nature of the energy

conversion process means their inner workings share much in common.

No mention was made of the origin of the magnetic field in the linear machine; in the loudspeaker it

was furnished by a permanent magnet. In d-c machines the magnetic field is supplied by field coils of wire

wound around pole cores which are part of the magnetic circuit. These terms and others relating to the

construction of a typical d-c generator or motor are explained in the following table.

1

Figure 5.1 Cross Section of a Typical d-c Machine. Numbers refer to items in Table 5.1

1. FIELD COILS. Coils of insulated copper wire which provide the mmf for the

magnetic field.

2. POLE CORES. Steel cores around which field coils are wound. Adjacent poles

alternate in polarity (N-S-N-S etc.)

3. POLE SHOE. Part of the pole structure (steel) which conforms to the curvature of

the armature core in order to provide a uniform air

gap length.

4. YOKE. Steel frame providing mechanical rigidity and also providing a path

of low magnetic reluctance between poles.

CORECORE Copper armature conductors

are placed in the slots. A major part of the magnetic

circuit.

6. ARMATURE. The collection of copper wires in which voltages are induced (BLu)

and on which forces are produced by current (BLi).

In the linear machine the >bar= is the armature.

7. SLOTS. Rectangular openings around the periphery of the armature core into

which armature conductors are placed.

core, i.e. material left after slots are cut out.

insulated from each other by strips of mica. The ends

of armature conductors are connected to commutator

segments.

10. SHAFT. A steel rod on which the armature core is mounted. The means by

which mechanical power is delivered from a prime

mover.

11. BRUSHES. Stationary rectangular carbon and graphite blocks which make electrical

contact with the rotating commutator for the purpose of

completing the current path from the external terminals

through the armature conductors and return.

12. BRUSH RIG- Mechanical assembly which holds the brushes in place and which

GINGprovides for adjusting tension of the springs which push the brushes against the

commutator.

13. END BELLS. Steel structures on both ends of the machine which provide support

for the bearings and brush rigging.

2

14. EXCITATION. A general term referring to the production of the magnetic field

within the machine. Separate excitation refers to

the supplying of field-coil current from an outside

source such as a battery; whereas self excitation

refers to the generator supplying field-coil current

from its own armature.

A typical armature assembly is shown below in Figure 5.2. Part (a) shows a lamination used in the core.

Multiple laminations are stacked to build the core. Laminations are used for ease of construction and to prevent

eddy currents. Part (b) shows the laminations stacked together on a shaft and part (c) includes the wires and

commutator segments.

Figure 5.2. Components of a Typical Armature Assembly

A very simple elementary AC generator is discussed first because of the similarity in concepts and

construction between AC and DC generators. Then the process of mechanical commutation is introduced.

Commutation is used to change an AC into a DC machine be it a generator or a motor.

The elementary generator of Figure 5.3 consists of a loop of wire free to rotate in a stationary magnetic

field. Relative motion between the wire and the magnetic field will induce a potential difference between the

ends of the loop. Sliding contacts are used to connect the rotating loop to an external circuit in order to use the

induced voltage.

3

Figure 5.3 The Elementary Generator

The pole pieces are the north and south poles of the magnet which supply the magnetic field. The loop

of wire which rotates through the field is called the "armature." The ends of the armature loop are connected to

rings called "slip rings," which rotate with the armature. Brushes ride up against the slip rings providing a

sliding electrical contact to pick up the electricity generated in the armature and carry it to the external circuit.

In the description of the generator action which follows, visualize the loop rotating through the

magnetic field. As the sides of the loop cut through the magnetic field, they generate an induced voltage which

causes a current to flow through the loop, slip rings, brushes, zero-center current meter and load resistor all

connected in series. The induced voltage that is generated in the loop, and therefore the current that flows,

depends upon the position of the loop in relation to the magnetic field. Now, lets analyze the action of the loop

as it rotates through the field.

Assume that the armature loop is rotating in a clockwise direction and that its initial position is at A

(zero degrees) of Figure 5.4. In position A, the loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field and the black and

white conductors of the loop are moving parallel to the magnetic field. If a conductor is moving parallel to a

magnetic field, it does not cut through any lines of magnetic flux and no voltage is generated in the conductor.

This applies to the conductors of the loop at the instant they go through position A. No voltage is induced in

them and therefore no current flows through the circuit. The current meter registers zero.

4

Figure 5.4 How the Elementary Generator Works

As the loop rotates from position A to position B, the conductors are cutting through more and more

lines of flux until at 90 degrees (position B) they are cutting through a maximum number. In other words,

between zero and 90 degrees, the induced voltage in the conductors builds up from zero to a maximum value.

Observe that from zero to 90 degrees the black conductor cuts down through the field while at the same time the

white conductor cuts up through the field. The induced voltage in each of the conductors is therefore in series,

and the resultant voltage across the brushes (the terminal voltage) is the sum of the two induced emfs, or double

that of one conductor since the induced voltages are equal to each other. The current through the circuit will

vary just as the induced emf varies, being zero at zero degrees and rising up to a maximum at 90 degrees. The

current meter deflects increasingly to the right between positions A and B, indicating that the current through

the load is flowing in the direction shown. (The reader should verify the polarity of the induced voltage and the

direction of resulting current by applying either the right hand rule or the cross product relationship.) The

direction of current flow and polarity of the induced voltage depends upon the direction of the magnetic field

and the direction of rotation of the armature loop. The waveform shows how the terminal voltage of the

elementary generator varies from position A to position B. The simple generator drawing on the right is shown

rotated by 900 to illustrate the relationship between the loop position and the generated waveform.

As the loop continues rotating from position B (90 degrees) to position C (180 degrees), the

conductors, which are cutting through a maximum number of lines of flux at position B, cut through fewer lines,

until at position C they are again moving parallel to the magnetic field and no longer cut through any lines of

flux. The induced voltage, therefore, will decrease as the loop rotates from 90 to 180 degrees in the same

manner as it increased from zero to 90 degrees. The current flow will similarly follow the voltage variations.

The generator action at positions B and C is illustrated in Figure 5.5.

5

Figure 5.5 How the Elementary Generator Works (contd)

From zero to 180 degrees the conductors of the loop have been moving in the same direction

through the magnetic field and, therefore, the polarity of the induced emf has remained the same. As the

loop starts rotating beyond 180 degrees back towards position A, the direction of motion of the conductors

through the magnetic field reverses. Now the black conductor cuts up through the field, and the white

conductor cuts down through the field. As a result, the polarity of the induced voltage and the current flow

will reverse. From positions C through D back to position A, the current flow will be in the opposite

direction than that from positions A through C. The generator terminal voltage will also have its polarity

reversed. The voltage output waveform for the complete revolution of the loop is as shown in Figure 5.6.

6

Figure 5.6 How the Elementary Generator Works (contd)

RECTIFICATION BY MECHANICAL COMMUTATION

A simple AC generator was discussed in the section above. How can this machine be modified to

produce DC voltage and current which has the property that the polarity of the voltage does not change and

the direction of current flow is always the same, although it may not be constant? One method for

producing unidirectional voltage and current flow is shown below in Figure 5.7(a). The scheme is similar to

the elementary AC generator but the hardware associated with the connection of the rotating wire loop to

the outside world is modified. Instead of slip rings and brushes, the DC machine has commutator segments

7

and brushes. The slip ring of the AC machine has been divided into two halves insulated from each other to

form a commutator. Referring to Figure 5.7(a) , the right hand brush is always connected to the side of the

loop which is traveling downward next to the South Pole at the times of maximum induced voltage. This

means that the voltage at the left hand brush will always be + relative to that of the right hand brush. A

commutator is a rotating switch which reverses the connection between the armature (the rotating loop of

wire) and the outside world every half turn just at the point in the cycle the polarity would reverse in an

elementary AC generator. Note that the poles in Figure 5.7 are reversed relative to Figure 5.6. The

reader should again use the cross product or the right hand rule to verify the direction of current.

Consider it a homework assignment. The voltage at the left hand brush relative to that at the right hand

brush is shown in Figure 5.7(b).

(a) (b)

Figure 5.7 Mechanical Commutation Produces Unidirectional Output Voltage

Note that although the voltage across the brushes is unidirectional, it is not very constant. The

voltage pulsations are undesirable for many applications. How can the voltage generated be made

smoother? The answer is by including more loops of wire in the armature and correspondingly more

commutator segments. The armature in Figure 5.8(a) contains two mutually perpendicular loops with the

corresponding output shown in Figure 5.8(b) and a 3 loop armature machine and output are shown in Figure

5.9. The generated DC voltage becomes more constant as more and more loops are included on the

armature.

8

(a) (b)

Figure 5.8 A DC Generator With Two Loops On Its Armature and Corresponding Output

(a) (b)

Figure 5.9 A DC Generator With Three Loops On Its Armature and Corresponding Output

There are two primary methods of connecting the armature windings together. The turns are

connected together in parallel in the lap winding method. This provides for greater current capability at a

lower voltage. The turns are connected in series in the wave winding method providing for higher voltage

at reduced current. Combinations of these two methods can also be used. The details of these two methods

are beyond the scope of this course. If you are interested in learning more about either type of winding,

your instructor can help or direct you to an appropriate reference.

Since the d-c generator is a practical form of the linear generator, the model introduced for the

latter may be used with only minor modifications. First, because control of the magnetic field strength by

adjusting current in the field coils is an important feature of the d-c generator, symbols for the field coils

and their resistance, RF , are included in the model. Second, since the generator is a rotating machine, the

model will show the armature symbol connected to a rotating shaft which is driven by a prime mover, as a

constant reminder that energy is being converted from one form to the other. Table 5.2 illustrates how the

basic relationships for the linear machine are modified to fit the rotating machine.

9

Table 5.2.

Item Linear Machine Rotating Machine

Current, Armature I amperes

amperes

Current, Field -------------

amperes

2

Magnetic Field B Webers/m Webers (per pole)

Voltage, Induced e = BLu newtons E = K = kn volts

Voltage, Terminal v Volts VT Volts

Force/Torque (Developed)

= BLi newtons = KIA N-m

Force/Torque (Applied)

newtons newton-meters

Resistance, Armature r ohms

ohms

Mechanical Power Dev.

watts watts

Electrical Power Dev. ei watts EIA watts

Power Equivalence

ei = EIA =

Machine Constants* ---------------- K,k

*The constant for a given machine lumps together all the effects of the unchanging quantities

such as the number of poles, dimensions of the armature core, number of armature coils and

10

the method of interconnecting them.

A few comments are in order for clarifying information given in the table. First, the rotational velocity

of the machine is stated formally as which is related to tangential velocity of u = radius x , but tachometers

in present use are calibrated in the more practical unit of revolutions per minute, symbol n. Thus in the

equation

E = K = kn volts (5-1)

The two constants K and k differ, but we need not be concerned with their actual numerical values. The

relationship between the two velocities is

The magnetic field is traditionally represented as flux () instead of flux density (B) because of the size of the

average voltage E is arrived at by considering the total flux encountered by a single revolution of a conductor

rather than the instantaneous flux densities. Finally, it will be remembered that tangential force applied to a

rotating cylinder is interpreted as torque, which is the product of the tangential force and the radius of the

cylinder,

where fd is the sum of the tangential forces developed by the individual conductors, and the radius is called

the torque arm. Consequently,

Magnetic conditions within the generator can be investigated by testing a separately excited generator

using a voltmeter connected to the output of Figure 5.10, where VT is indicated, and an ammeter in series with

the field circuit to measure field current. The test procedure is to adjust the speed of the prime mover to the

rated value as indicated on the generator name plate and then to adjust the variable resistor for increasing values

of field current (including zero) as read on the ammeter. For each setting of field current, the voltmeter

indicates the corresponding induced voltage. Data is usually taken for voltages up to 25 to 50 percent above the

rated value. The data is then plotted on a graph called the saturation curve or magnetization curve, a typical

curve is illustrated in Figure 5.11. If for any reason it should be desired to have curves for other speeds, they

can be obtained without actually running more experimental tests, by using direct proportionality. For example

if the curve is wanted for 1000 rpm a point whose voltage is 250 x 1000/1200 would be located directly below

the 250-volt ordinate on the 1200 rpm curve. By calculating a series of points in this manner a new curve can

be sketched below the 1200 rpm curve. The justification for this procedure is that for any given fixed current

the flux is the same for any speed and hence induced emf is proportional to speed only. We shall next examine

the magnetization curve in detail because its shape has a direct bearing on the operation of generators and

motors.

11

Now this graph can be interpreted as a plot of air gap flux vs mmf as well as voltage vs current, since

voltage is proportional to flux when the speed is held constant ( E = kn ) , and the current becomes mmf-per-

pole when multiplied by the number of turns of wire in each field coil. Of course the numerical scales would

differ, but the point is that with this interpretation we can explain the behavior of the magnetic circuit within the

machine by referring to the shape of the curve. For this reason the curve has been redrawn with flux and mmf

coordinates in Figure 5.12.

Beginning in the lower left corner of the graph it can be seen that a flux exists for zero mmf. This

should not be surprising since we know from previous study of magnetic phenomena (hysteresis) that residual

magnetism is left in the steel structure from previous use of the generator. Although this flux is responsible for

only a small induced voltage, it fulfills an extremely important role in self-excited generators by providing the

seed flux which starts the process of build-up to normal flux levels C to be explained in detail later. As current

(mmf) is increased, it is seen that the curve is straight for an appreciable portion, i.e. flux is directly proportional

to the mmf. In this region the steel parts of the magnetic circuit account for only a small portion of the total

mmf, most of the mmf drop occurring in the air gap between the armature core and the pole shoe. As current is

increased beyond the linear region, rotation of magnetic domains and finally magnetic saturation take place in

the steel parts resulting in a marked departure from the straight-line relationship of the curve. Since this is a

gradual process rather than an abrupt one, there is a transition region between the linear part and the saturated

part, which is referred to as the knee of the curve.

12

Operating the generator within the linear portion of the curve is recommended for applications where

terminal voltage is to be varied over a wide range, as in situations where the generator has direct control of a

single load. On the other hand, if an application requires the voltage not change much once it is set, operation

in the saturated region is preferred. In the former case the armature is more responsive to control since a given

change in field current causes a larger change in voltage than in the saturated region.

The simplest generator and one which is used for a wide variety of applications is separately excited.

The modifier separately is used to distinguish it from another class of generators which are self-excited,

referring to the manner in which electrical energy is supplied to the field coils. In generators using self

excitation (to be treated later) the field is connected to the armature; whereas with separate excitation the field is

connected to a separate source. The obvious advantage of self excitation is the cost savings realized by not

requiring additional capital investment for a separate source. The advantage of separate excitation which offsets

the extra cost is the much greater range of control available, including the ability to change polarity at will. The

principle application for this type of generator is in motor control. The method of wiring was indicated in the

13

test for acquiring data for the magnetization curve, but in Figure 5.13 a load resistor has been added and the

field control potentiometer has been modified to allow reversal of field current. We shall next investigate how

the generator reacts under load conditions, but first a few words about ratings.

The chief parameters for rating rotating machines are power output, voltage, current and speed. These

ratings assume continuous operation, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week unless otherwise stated. Operation of a

machine above its current rating for an appreciable length of time could result in overheating and to

deterioration of insulation or complete burnout. The current rating is the most likely rating to be exceeded since

it depends directly on the loading of the machine. In the graphs of external characteristics which follow, rated

(i.e. Afull-load) values will be indicated for reference. Operation beyond the rated limits is shown for

completeness, for the sake of perspective, not as recommended practice.

The load characteristic for a separately-excited generator is displayed in Figure 5.14. This graph is the

I-v relationship or terminal characteristic of the generator. The drop in terminal voltage as the current increases

is caused by the IARA voltage drop within the armature in accordance with

Just as it was in the linear generator. The voltage regulation of the generator is defined as:

FL FL (5-6)

Suppose it is desired to investigate the effect on the external characteristics of changing the field

14

current by readjusting the variable resistor in the field circuit, without changing the load resistance. First, we

can draw a family of curves for several settings of the field current, as shown in Figure 5.15. The spacing of the

curves will be equidistant for equal field current increments provided that operation is limited to the linear part

of magnetization curve, otherwise not. Second, a load line is drawn from the origin through the point where the

coordinates are rated current and voltage. The slope of this line is the resistance of the load RL. The load line is

the i-v characteristic of RL. The intersection of this load line with the external characteristic of the generator is

the point at which the generator will operate. For field current IF4 and the load line shown in Figure 5.15, rated

current and voltage will result. Now it can be seen that increasing the field current above the IF4 value results in

current and voltage overloads, but reducing it below IF4 affords full control of current without overload.

15

To further demonstrate the versatility of the separately-excited generator, note that moving the slider

of the field control resistance to the left of the centerpoint (Figure 5.13) reverses the polarity of the voltage

applied to the field coils, which reverses the direction of field current and eventually the magnetic field. This

extends operation of the generator to negative terminal voltage and negative line current with respect to Figures

5.14 and 5.15 or into the third quadrants of these plots.

EXAMPLE 5-1

A separately-excited generator with the following nameplate ratings is delivering energy at rated

voltage to 8 parallel loads with resistances of 25 ohms each:

When the loads are disconnected the voltage rises to 130 volts.

While the loads are still connected, the speed governor malfunctions, reducing the speed to 1400 rpm.

16

5. Calculate the new value of torque.

6. To what value will the voltage now rise when the loads are disconnected?

Solution

1. V.R. = (V NL V FL ) / V FL = (130 125) / 125 = .040

2. RL = 25 / 8 = 3125

. Ohms; IA = IL = V / RL = 125 / 3125

. = 40 amperes,

RA = ( E V ) / IA = (130 125) / 40 = 0125

. Ohms

E = 130(1400 / 1800) = 1011 . volts

IL = IA = E / ( RA + RL) = 1011 . / (0125

. + 3125

. ) = 311 . amperes

V = E IARA = 1011 . 311 . x 0125

. = 97.2 volts.

. x 311 . N-m.

6. E = 1011

. volts.

A large savings in the initial cost and complexity of a DC generator can be realized if the field circuit

is connected across the armature terminals instead of to a separate source. Moreover, a great amount of control

over the terminal voltage is still available, with the aid of a field rheostat (RC) connected in series with the field

coils.

17

The term shunt is synonymous with parallel. Since the field circuit is wired in parallel with the load, as far as

the armature is concerned, the field circuit is just another load to be supplied with current. From KCL:

IA = IL + IF (5-7)

V

IF = ( RF +TRC ) . (5-8)

There is an interdependence between the field circuit and the armature circuit since the field current supplies the

magnetic field which produces the armature induced voltage but at the same time the armature supplies current

to the field current, a feedback situation. This can be expressed in mathematical terms as

E = f ( IF ) (5-9)

Which describes the magnetization curve, and Equation (5-8) which describes the field circuit. Since Equation

(5-9) describes a non-linear, non-analytic function it is necessary to resort to a graphical solution of these two

simultaneous equations.

Since Equation (5-8) is a linear equation (Ohm=s law) it can be plotted as a straight line on a graph.

Specifically, we choose to plot it on the same graph as the magnetization curve. Since it is a straight line

through the origin and has a slope of ( RF + RC ) , one need only pick a single current at random and calculate

the corresponding voltage to find one point on the line, then drawing a line through that point and the origin to

18

complete the job, as illustrated in Figure 5.17. Since the magnetization curve indicates values of E and the field

resistance line indicates values of VT, the vertical difference between the curves must correspond to the

drop in the armature.

Voltage Build-Up

The build-up of voltage in a self-excited generator can be visualized with the aid of this graph. First

assume there is no load resistance connected to the terminals of the generator except the shunt field, and since

the field current is small compared with the rated load current (to keep losses low) it can also be assumed that

the IARA = IFRA voltage drop is negligible, so VT must equal E in the steady state. Second, assume the prime

mover has been brought up to rated speed. The small residual magnetic field induces a small voltage in the

armature which in turn causes a small field current. This field current increases the strength of the magnetic

field which then causes an increase in induced voltage, which causes an increase in field current, and so on. The

growth of the magnetic field, with concurrent growth in the magnitude of induced voltage, is thus seen to be an

automatic, positive feedback situation. Now, what prevents the build-up, the positive feedback cycle, from

proceeding ad infinitum? The non-linearity of the magnetization curve gives us a clue: saturation. An increase

in flux for a given increase in field current becomes smaller beyond the knee of the curve, until finally an

equilibrium condition exists. Then the field current is precisely enough to keep the induced voltage at the level

required by Ohm=s law to maintain that amount of current in the field circuit.

Remembering our assumption of negligible IARA drop under no-load conditions, the establishment of

an equilibrium condition must result in E = VT, and the only place on the graph where this is true is at the

19

intersection of the resistance line and the magnetization curve. This point can also be interpreted as the

graphical solution of simultaneous Equations (5-8) and (5-9). We can make use of this knowledge by coupling

it with the fact that the slope of the field resistance line is equal to the combined field circuit resistances

RF + RC . To be specific, we can control the voltage at which the intersection occurs by adjusting the field

rheostat Rc, as illustrated in Figure 5.18. Beginning with the original setting Rc1, which produces a voltage E1 an

increase to RC2 (steeper slope = larger resistance) drops the voltage to E2. Finally, an increase to RC3 drops the

induced voltage drastically, where build-up is practically nonexistent. This brings up a point: if a self-excited

generator fails to build up, what are the usual causes?

20

Table 5.3. Failure of a Generator to Build Up*

1. Voltage low, drops when field Field rheostat set for too Readjust field rheostat for

is much resistance lower resistance

disconnected.

2. Voltage low, rises slightly Field mmf is opposing Switch shunt field

when field is residual magnetism connections

disconnected

3. No voltage No residual magnetism Disconnect shunt field and

reconnect it to a d-c source

(flasher) for a few seconds.

Disengage field from source

and reconnect to armature.

4. No voltage Open circuit Shut down and check circuits

for continuity

5. Wrong Polarity Residual magnetism in Flash field as described

wrong direction above

*Assuming direction of rotation is correct.

Load Characteristic

If a self-excited shunt generator is connected to a load and a test is run for obtaining the load

characteristics, it is found that the voltage drops more, for a given load current than it does when connected for

separate excitation, as illustrated in Figure 5.19.

21

The additional armature current required by the field ( IA = IL + IF ) does not sufficiently increase the IARA drop to

account for the entire additional drop - we must look elsewhere for a reasonable explanation. The answer is found in

Equation (5-8) where the field current is seen to be directly proportional to the terminal voltage VT. The field current

does not remain constant as it would in a separately excited generator. A drop in VT causes a drop in IF, which in turn

results in a decreased induced voltage E. This can be seen graphically in Figure 5.20, where E has dropped from the no-

load value at the intersection (E1) to the loaded value, E2, with the accompanying change in VT from VT1 to VT2.

Correspondingly, the drop in VT has reduced field current from IF1 to IF2. In other words, the difference between the two

curves in Figure 5.19 is accounted for by the difference between E1 and E2 in Figure 5.20.

EXAMPLE 5-2

The generator of example 5-1 is rigged for self-excitation and adjusted for rated voltage and load

current, with the same load as before. The field current is noted to be 1.85 amperes. When the load is

disconnected the terminal voltage rises to 138 volts.

22

4. Calculate field current under no-load conditions.

Solution

1. V.R. = (138 - 125)/125 = .104

2. RF + RC = V / IF = 125 / 185

. = 67.6 ohms

The droop in the external characteristic of the shunt generator is a disadvantage when it is serving a

multiplicity of loads, since the voltage at one load location will fluctuate up and down as other loads are turned

on and off. This effect is rendered all the worse by the resistance of wiring between the generator and the loads,

which causes additional voltage drop. An ingenious but simple method of overcoming this difficulty was

thought of in the early days of electrical engineering, consisting of a means of incorporating automatic positive

feedback proportional to load current.

The key to offsetting voltage drop is in increasing the induced voltage by adding extra mmf. Although

this could be done by someone continually adjusting the shunt field rheostat, a better way is to add another field

winding called a series field, as shown in Figure 5.19(a). The series field is wired in series with the load and

thus carries load current. The physical location of the shunt and series field windings are the same, but because

the full-load current is typically many times greater than the shunt field current, the series field must be wound

with much larger wire. Increased wire size is offset, however, by the small number of turns needed by the series

field to achieve a significant amount of mmf. For example, a 500-turn per-pole shunt field with a current of 2

amperes produces an mmf of 1000 ampere-turns, but a series field of only 5 turns per pole with a current of 40

amperes produces an mmf of 200 ampere-turns.

23

The external characteristic illustrated in Figure 5.21(b) shows a rising terminal voltage as load current

increases. This is often more desirable than a horizontal curve because the additional voltage above the no-load

value can be used to cancel the effect of IR drop in the wires leading to the loads, If the voltage rise is greater

than needed for a given situation, a variable resistor called a diverter can be added in parallel with the series

field to bypass a portion of the load current around the field, thus, lowering the curve. If the curve is

horizontal, the generator is said to be flat-compound because the full-load and no-load voltages are the same

(voltage regulation is zero). Overcompound and undercompound generators have characteristic curves

above or below the flat curve, respectively. Generators are normally furnished by the manufacturer as

overcompound so the user can adjust the compounding to suit his or her application, by adding a diverter.

An interesting possibility arises when one considers that the series field might also be connected so its

mmf opposes the mmf of the shunt field. Under this circumstance the terminal voltage would drop quite

drastically when a load is connected. Although this defeats the purpose of adding the series field in the

beginning, there is one application which uses the series field in this way, the d-c arc welding generator.

The sharply drooping voltage characteristic fits the need in welding for a large voltage to start an arc but once

the arc begins the voltage needed to sustain it is considerably less.

Figure 5.22 Physical Location of Shunt And Series Field Windings Shown On One Pole.

Aside from its use in energy conversion, the d-c generator finds application as a transducer which

provides an output voltage proportional to shaft speed. This is accomplished quite simply by using a permanent

magnet to provide a magnetic field of constant strength and coupling its shaft directly to the rotating shaft whose

speed is to be measured. The armature terminals are then connected to a voltmeter calibrated directly in rpm.

Another use for tachometer generators is as a link in the feedback path of a servo system, for example in a

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system to maintain motor speed at a steady value in spite of fluctuating load.

5.10 SUMMARY

Knowledge of the terminology and construction of d-c machines is essential to understanding their operation

The induced emf and current emf direction in each armature coil undergoes a reversal in traveling the

distance of one pole pitch. The brush-commutator system serves as a means of rectifying the voltage and

current so they appear at the brushes as unidirectional.

The magnetization curve is a plot of induced voltage vs. Shunt field current, determined experimentally by

separately exciting the generator under no-load conditions. It is useful in explaining and predicting machine

performance. Curves for speeds other than the test speed can be constructed by direct proportionality.

The separately-excited generator requires a voltage source to supply power to the field circuit. This allows

complete control of the generator=s armature voltage from zero up to rated, for either polarity.

The self-excited generator saves the cost of providing a source for the field by wiring the field in parallel

with the armature; field current is then supplied by the armature. Initial flux to allow the system to build up

voltage is supplied by the small residual magnetism in the magnetic circuit. Indefinite build-up of voltage is

prevented by saturation of the magnetic circuit.

Reasons for the failure of a self-excited generator to build up voltage are enumerated in Table 5.3.

Addition of a series field to a self-excited shunt generator, wired in series with the armature*, provides

additional mmf as the generator load current increases, thus offsetting the voltage droop which normally

occurs with the shunt field only. A generator having both fields, shunt and series, is called a compound

generator.

5.11 QUESTIONS

Q5.2 What is the advantage of multiple pairs of commutator segments in a DC generator?

Q5.3 Describe the source of the magnetic field in which the rotor spins for (a) separately excited DC generator

and (b) a self-excited DC generator.

Q5.4 What allows the approximation to be made that the no load terminal voltage is about equal to be armture

induced voltage for a self-excited DC shunt generator?

Q5.5 What would be the effect of zero residual magnetic field in a self-excited, DC shunt generator upon

startup? How would you correct this problem?

Q5.6 What is the major advantage of a compound DC generator?

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5.12 PROBLEMS

P5.1 Assuming that Figure 5.8 of the text applies to a particular DC generator, find the open circuit

voltage of that generator if (a) the field current is 0.5A and the speed is 1800 rpm and (b) the field

current is 2.0A and the speed is 1000 rpm.

P52. Repeat Example 5-1 of the text if 10 parallel loads are supplied, each having a resistance of 20

Ohms and the generator is rated at 120 Volts, 1800 rpm, 60 Amps and 7.2 kW.

P5.3 The generator of P5.2 is reconnected for self-excitation and adjusted for rated voltage and load

current, with the same load as before. The field current is noted to be 1.8 Amps. When the load is

disconnected, the terminal voltage rises to 140 V.

2. Calculate the total field resistance.

P5.4 A separately excited DC generator is rated at 125 V, and 1 Amp at 1200 rpm. When the load is

disconnected, the terminal voltage rises to 130 Volts. Calculate (at rated conditions):

P5.5 If the speed of the generator of P5.4 is increased to 2000 rpm, calculate: (Assume linear operation.)

P5.6 A self-excited DC shunt generator is rated at 125V, and 1 Amp at 1200 rpm. The field resistance is

125 Ohms and the armature resistance is 5 Ohms. Calculate:

3. The no-load terminal voltage (the behavior is non-linear, and a graphical solution using the

curve is required),

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P5.7 A separately excited DC generator rated at 22 kW, 220 V and 100 A at 1200 rpm has the

magnetization curve shown in Figure 5.8 of the text.

1. Given the field resistance of 150 Ohms, estimate the field current if the generator has a no-

load voltage of 250 Volts.

If the generator is supplying rated voltage and current to the load, calculate:

6. the efficiency,

P5.8 A self-excited DC generator rated at 22 kW, 220 V and 100 A at 1200 rpm has the magnetization

curve shown in Figure 5.8 of the text. If the no-load voltage is 250 V, calculate:

6. the efficiency,

P5.9 If the speed governor for the generator of P5.7 were to fail and the speed increased to 1500 rpm,

what would the new no-load voltage be?

P5.10 If the speed governor for the generator of P5.8 were to fail and the speed decreased to 1000 rpm,

what would be the new no-load voltage?

P5.11 A separately-excited DC generator is rated at 130 V, and 45 A at 1200 rpm. At rated conditions, the

mechanical power losses are 250 W. When the load is disconnected, the terminal voltage rises to

136 V. Sketch and completely label a circuit model for this generator showing the following Ta, Td,

Tf, , Prime mover, E, IL, Rl, V, IA, RA, , VF, RF, RC, and IP. At rated conditions calculate:

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3. the percent voltage regulation,

11. Sketch the power flow diagram for this generator, including numeric values for each power.

P5.12 A separately-excited DC generator is running at rated conditions of 215 v and 155 A at 1800 rpm. It

has an armature resistance of 0.12 Ohms and the magnetization curve shown in Figure P5.12 applies.

300 1800 rpm

250

Generated Voltage in Volts

200

150

100

50

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Field Current in Amps

Figure P5.12

1. Sketch a circuit diagram showing all the parameters listed in P5.11 and then determine the value

of the equivalent load resistance.

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3. Determine the amount of field current required at full-load to produce the correct terminal

voltage.

4. Predict the terminal voltage for the load found in (a) if the field current is reduced by 20%.

5. If the field current is restored to its original value and the speed of rotation is slowed to 1000

rpm, determine the terminal voltage.

P5.13 A separately-excited DC generator has the magnetization curve shown in Figure P5.13. The rated

output is 5.5 kW and 210 V at 1200 rpm. The input torque to sustain these rated conditions is 49.5

N-m.

350

1200 rpm

300

250

Generated Voltage in Volts

200

150

100

50

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Field Current in Amps

Figure P5.13

To produce rated output it is found necessary to set the field current IF, equal to 1.6A. This current is

supplied from a 200 V DC source. The resistance, RF, in the field winding is 100 Ohms. Determine:

3. And the equivalent load resistor, RLD, which must be connected to the generator output terminals

to receive this amount of power.

4. And the equivalent load resistor, RLD, which must be connected to the generator output terminals

to receive this amount of power.

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With the machine delivering rated output, the load is disconnected but no other changes are made.

Study the system carefully and determine:

P5.14 A self-excited, shunt DC generator is rated at 130 V and 95 A at 1200 rpm. The total field resistance

is 120 Ohms and the armature resistance is 0.13 Ohms. Mechanical losses at rated speed are 480 W.

Under rated conditions, sketch a complete model of the generator including all appropriate labels.

Then determine:

8. construct a power flow diagram for this generator under rated condition, including the numeric

value for each power.

The load is now disconnected. Under unloaded conditions both the induced and terminal voltages

will increase. If E increases to 145 V, what will be the no load terminal voltage?

(Note: the IARA voltage drop under unloaded conditions is very small compared with E and VNL.

Therefore, the assumption that under no load conditions the voltage drop due to the armature

resistance can be ignored is a good approximation.)

P5.15 The rated output for a self-excited, DC generator is 5.2 kW. The terminal voltage is 195 V at 1200

rpm. The following resistances were measured: RA = 1.13 Ohms, and the total field resistance - 116

Ohms. The friction and windage losses are 250 W. Carefully sketch and label a circuit diagram for

this generator and then determine:

1. the terminal voltage and shunt field current for this fully loaded machine,

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2. the value of the generated voltage,

P5.16 A self-excited, DC generator is rated at 22 kW, 220 V and 100 A at 1800 rpm. It has the same

magnetization curve as shown in Figure P5.12 and its no load voltage is measured at 250 V. At rated

output, the mechanical losses are 1 Hp. Calculate:

1. the total field resistance (Hint: plot the field resistance line and make appropriate

approximations.),

2. the developed torque, the total input power and the efficiency at rated output.

P5.17 A DC shunt generator is operating at rated condition, which are: 18 kW, 150 V, and 1500 rpm. The

total field resistance is 30 Ohms and the armature resistance is 0.08 Ohms. Mechanical losses are

142 W. Draw an equivalent circuit and a power flow diagram and then calculate:

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