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T WAS 21 July 1969 shortly before 7 pm. South Africa didn’t yet have TV
T
WAS 21 July 1969 shortly before
7 pm. South Africa didn’t yet have TV
so
we were glued to the radio. I could
LIFTOFF!

I feel the tension in the room. Then Neil Armstrong said, “The Eagle has wings!” An expression of joy and relief washed over my mom’s face. “ They got away!” she said with a broad smile. Like millions around the world at that moment, she’d been worried the two Americans, who about 22 hours earlier had become the first people on the moon, would be left behind forever on the unforgiving lunar landscape. Af- ter all, no human had tried taking off from the moon before The magic of that awesome historical moment (read more on page 30) stayed with me over the years, so it was such a privilege to be involved with this publi- cation in support of the 2016 YOU/ Huisgenoot/DRUM Gateway to Space exhibition taking place in Sandton from 1 June to 31 July 2016. Do you dream of becoming an astro- naut? Then see page 44–but first go to page 53 to read what challenges the human body faces in space! In about 20 years we’ll probably all be riveted again as we watch the next wave of space exploration – when the first people leave forMars (see page 66). We can’t wait

first people leave forMars (see page 66). We can’t wait The Amazing Space Race How toUse
first people leave forMars (see page 66). We can’t wait The Amazing Space Race How toUse

The Amazing Space Race How toUse the 3D App &QR Reader The World’s Top Rockets Stages of a Rocket Launch

JOURNEY TO THE MOON

The First Animal in Orbit The First Human in Space NASA’s Famous Mercury Men The First Spacewalk The Soyuz Capsule A Closer Look at the Moon Man Lands on the Moon The Apollo Spacecraft and Saturn V Rocket The Moon Buggy All About Spacesuits NASA’s Super Spacesuit

LIFE IN SPACE

The Space Shuttle So YouWant To Be An Astronaut? Tour the International Space Station Life Aboard the Space Station Trash in Space – From Bits of Old Satellites to a Spatula!

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4 13 14 18 22 23 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 42

CONTENTS

Major Disasters in Space History SA’s Role in Space Research The Square Kilometre Array Africa and MeerKATRadio Telescope

TO MARS AND BEYOND

The Red Planet The Big Plan to Colonise Mars The Mars Rover The Powerful SLS Rocket and the Orion Capsule Space Tourism

OUT OF THIS WORLD

Our Eyes in Space: Roaming Satellites and Spacecraft Weird, Wonderful Space Facts Space Hall of Fame Win Three Hampers of Space Toys Bibliography

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EDITORIAL TEAM

YOU editor Charlene Rolls Creative director and print brand extensions editor Mari van der Berg Editor: Gateway to Space Joan van Zyl Deputy editor: Gateway to Space Anton Vermeulen Writers Kim Arendse, Natalie Cavernelis, Joan van Zyl Infographics Anton Vermeulen (head), Michael De Lucchi, Elgee Strauss Senior copy editor Natalie Cavernelis

Copy editor Kim Arendse Designers Elgee Strauss, Melanie Smook, Elmarie Meyer, Lynn Reid Science consultant Dr Johan Brink Picture researcher Martinique Clayton Syndication Kim Snyders Production Jacques du Plooy (manager), Kurt Ohlson Reproduction Jéan Koegelenberg Office manager Vanessa Holies

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THE AMAZING SPACERACE

People have been determined to see what is beyond our world for ages. Let’s look at how the journey into space became a reality

T HE countdown begins! 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

We have liftoff !

2

1.

Couldalist of numbers sound more exciting than the se-

quence uttered byalaunch controller- moments before liftoff ? It’s followed by a mighty roar as the powerful rocket shoots up into the sky with smoke and flames billowing from its tail. It’s no wonder people have been fas- cinated by rockets and the promise of space travel since the earliest times. The first real rockets were built 2 000 years ago by the Chinese, who used them a little like today ’s fireworks. The first rocket propulsion systems came along in the Middle Ages, also in Asia, whenamixture of charcoal, sul- phur and saltpetre was used as rocket “fuel” for military purposes. But it’s only in the past 70 years that thesemachines have become so power- ful they can soar into outer space. But

as with many of history’s great achieve- ments, the story behind it isamixture of tragedy and triumph.

THE FOUNDING FATHERS OF ROCKETRY

The first breakthrough needed was to figure out how to reach orbit (see box above right). Three great scientists in three different countries began working on this problem separately at about the same time. In 1903 the Russian Kon- stantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) showed it would be possible for a rocket to fly into orbit if liquid hydrogen and oxygen were used as propellants instead of solid fuel. In Germany Hermann Oberth (1894- 1989) wrote ground-breaking booksand essays, using mathematics to explain howarocket can travel to space. And in America there was Robert Goddard (1882-1945), whoin 1926 man- aged to build the first rocket ever to use

ORBIT EXPLAINED

What is the difference between orbital and suborbital spacecraft? The difference is speed. An orbital spacecraft travels too fast to fall back to Earth (and is therefore able to complete an orbit around Earth). Think of throwing a ball: if you throw it softly, it will travel a little distance then fall to the ground. But the more power you put into the throw, the straighter its path above the ground is, until it starts losing speed. An orbital spacecraft flies at such a high speed that it is able to main- tain its distance from Earth. A sub- orbital spacecraft cannot go fast enough to achieve orbit.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
Konstantin
Tsiolkovsky
go fast enough to achieve orbit. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky 1903 1931 SPACE: A HISTORY Here are some
1903 1931 SPACE: A HISTORY Here are some of the most momen- tous events from
1903
1931
SPACE: A HISTORY
Here are some of the most momen-
tous events from the journey into
space. From the pioneers to the
achievements of countries such
as the US and Russia who have
competed to dominate
Russian professor of physics
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky publish-
es Exploration of Outer Space
by Means of Rocket Devices, and
influences the next generation
of Russian rocket scientists and
engineers.
Romanian-born Her-
mann Oberth (right), one
of the most influential
theorists on rocket
science, achievesasuc-
cessful liquid fuel rocket
launch in Germany.
spaceflight since 1955 and
who, among others, have
made huge strides in the
exploration of the uni-
verse. We also look
at some ambitious
future plans to ven-
ture into space.
1926
1944
Robert Goddard
(right) launches
the world’s first
liquid-fuelled
rocket in the
United States.

4| GATEWAY TO SPACE you.co.za

the United States. 4 | GATEWAY TO SP ACE yo u.co.za Using Wernher von Braun’s V-2

Using Wernher von Braun’s V-2 rocket, the Nazis terrorise Lon- don and other cities in Europe kill- ing thousands. The V-2 goes on to become the first ballistic mis- sile to achieve suborbital space- flight and becomes the blueprint of all modern rockets.

STATES

PORTFOLIO;

OF THE UNITED

MONDADORI

MUSEUM

IMAGES/

2.5 ; NATIONAL

IMAGES/GETTY

AIR FORCE; IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN

ANDRÉ KARWATH/ CC BY-SA

NASA; GALLO

PICTURES:

LIFTOFF!

liquid fuel. Can you believe that the media laughed at him for saying a trip to the moon was possible? These three men were the inspiration for the next generation of scientists who made trips to the moonareality.

VON BRAUN AND THE V-2

It is a tragic fact that modern space travel wasmade possible by war and the unimaginable suffering of thousands of people. That’s because most space rockets were originally developed as weapons of war. Towards the end of WorldWar 2 Nazi Germany was becoming desperate as its enemies (America, Britain, SovietUnion and other countries,including SouthAf- rica) were winning. German chancellor Adolf Hitler wantedapowerful new weapon that could turn things around for them. Enter Wernher von Braun (1912 – 1977), a brilliant young physicist in- spired by the work of Tsiolkovsky and Oberth, and whose dream since child- hood had been to build rockets that could send humans to space. He was so obsessed by this dream he didn’t care who paid for his rocket development nor what the rockets would be used for. Years before Von Braun had join ed Germany ’s Nazi party and agreed to be- come a member of the SS, a feared and vicious semi-military organisation re- sponsible for killing almost six million Jewish people during the war. He did this just so the government would give

(Turn over)

WERNHER VON BRAUN The German-born physicist who spearhead- ed America’s space exploration programme from 1945.
WERNHER VON BRAUN
The German-born
physicist who spearhead-
ed America’s space
exploration programme
from 1945.
1947 1949 1957 The first creatures, fruit flies, are sent into into space aboard board
1947
1949
1957
The first
creatures,
fruit flies,
are sent into into
space aboard board
Albert II,arhesus mon-
key is the first mam-
mal in space (he reach-
es 134 km altitude) ,
but dies during a crash
landing back on Earth.
America tries to
launch a satellite,
but the Vanguard
rocket only lifts a
little, topples back
a V-2 rocket. ocket.
and an burns.
1951
1957 57
1957
19
a V-2 rocket. ocket. and an burns. 1951 1957 57 1957 19 Dezik and Tsy- gan

Dezik and Tsy- gan are the first dogs to make a suborbital flight. Both survive the trip.

1958
1958

The American space programme moves from mili- tary to civilian- controlled and NASA is founded.

mili- tary to civilian- controlled and NASA is founded. 1958 NASA announces Project Mercury , the

1958

NASA announces Project Mercury, the first US- manned space programme.

Project Mercury , the first US- manned space programme. The first Earth satel- lite, Sputnik ,
Project Mercury , the first US- manned space programme. The first Earth satel- lite, Sputnik ,

The first Earth satel- lite, Sputnik, is launched atop a Semy- orka rocket.

Stray dog Laika becomes the first living being to orbit the Earth – in Sputnik 2. She dies during the flight – the technology to return from orbit had not yet been developed. She becomes a national hero.

dies during the flight – the technology to return from orbit had not yet been developed.
him the money he needed to build his rockets. In the 1940s he was working
him the money he needed to build his rockets. In the 1940s he was working
him the money he needed to build his rockets. In the 1940s he was working
him the money he needed to build his
rockets.
In the 1940s he was working on the
most powerful rocket of the time, called
the V-2 – effectively the world’s first
space rocket.
The V-2 was constructed inafactory
calledMittelwerk which was built inside
a mountain to be safe from bombings
during the war. Not far from Mittelwerk
was Buchenwald, a notorious concen-
tration camp. The Nazis had set up con-
centration camps all over the country
where mostly Jewish people were im-
prisoned in terrible conditions.Millions
of people were killed in these camps.
V-2 ROCKET
The V-2 rocket was
originally designed for
Nazi Germany by Wer-
nher von Braun for use
as a war missile.
MITTELWERK TUNNELS A US Army soldier poses with a half-assembled V-2 rocket, one of about
MITTELWERK TUNNELS
A US Army soldier poses
with a half-assembled
V-2 rocket, one of about
250 such rockets found
at Mittelwerk when the
German facility was
seized at the end of WW2.

It was decided to use the Buchenwald prisoners as slaves to build the V-2. The conditions were shocking and about 12 000 prisoners died while man- ufacturing the rocket – they were either worked to death or executed by the SS. Germany lost the war, but not before their V-2 rockets shot off to London and other Northern Europe cities carrying bombs that killed at least 9 000 people.

SCRAMBLE FOR THE V-2

Both America and the Soviet Union were impressed by the V-2 – it’s incred- ibly destructive power, its ability to reachaheight of 80 km and fly from Germany to London in just six minutes and the fact that it was more than 25 years ahead of rocketry in the rest of the world. So in 1944 as Americans and Soviets marched into the now defeated Ger- many, soldiers on both sides had orders

1961 1961 NASA astronaut Alan Shepard becomes the first American to travel into space. President
1961
1961
NASA astronaut
Alan Shepard
becomes the first
American to travel
into space.
President John F
Kennedy commits
America to landing
a man on the moon
before the end of the
decade.
1960
1961
uc-
Do
Dogs Belka and Strel-
Yuri Gagarin
ka
ka are sent into orbit
(right) becomes
o
on Sputnik 5 and
become the first dogs
to return alive from
an orbital flight.
the first person to
fly into space and
orbit the Earth in
Vostok 1.

1961

to fly into space and orbit the Earth in Vostok 1. 1961 1959 American monkeys Miss
to fly into space and orbit the Earth in Vostok 1. 1961 1959 American monkeys Miss

1959

American monkeys Miss Able and Miss Baker become the first monkeys to survive spaceflight.

Baker become the first monkeys to survive spaceflight. 1960 NASA unveils its plan to develop the

1960

NASA unveils its plan to develop the three-man spacecraft Apollo which will be able to fly past the moon.

Apollo which will be able to fly past the moon. 1959 Luna 2 (right) suc- cessfully

1959

Luna 2 (right) suc-

cessfully crashes hes

on the moon and and

becomes the e first first

man-made object object

on the moon. on.

Enos becomes the first chimpanzee to orbit Earth. He survives the trip.

the first chimpanzee to orbit Earth. He survives the trip. 1959 Luna 1 becomes the first

1959

Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the moon. It overshoots the moon and falls into orbit around the sun.

6| GATEWAY TO SPACE you.co.za

PICTURES: SCIENCE MUSEUM (UK)/CROWN COPYRIGHT; AAI/FOTOSTOCK; MAP REDONE IN ILLUSTRATOR FROM WIKIPEDIA; NASA; VALENTINA GAGARINA, SIMA EIVAZOVA AND YURI GAGARIN IN BULGARIA IN 1966 BY EV/ CC BY-SA 3.0

LIFTOFF!

to find Von Braun and his team of engi- neers. Von Braun, about to be shot by his former SS friends to keep any V-2 se- cretsfromfalling into enemy hands, de- cided his best chance of both survival and realising his space travel dream, would be to surrender to the Ameri- cans. He and his team fled from the SS and before long found themselves on American soil. In their suitcases were the plans and drawings for the V-2. The Soviets had lost out, but they did manage to capture other V-2 engineers who spent two years redrawing the V-2 plans. The V-2 launched the space age. It was the blueprint for almost every rocket developed after WW2.

the blueprint for almost every rocket developed after WW2. WORDS TO KNOW Propellant A substance that

WORDS TO KNOW

Propellant

A substance that causes an object to

move forward or change direction.

Solid fuel

Solid material used as propellant, such as the gunpowder in older rockets. Modern spacecraft use a variety of sophisticated chemicals

in powder form.

Liquid fuel Fuel that is not solid. Our cars use liquid fuel in the form of petrol and large rockets often use liquid hydro- gen burned with liquid oxygen.

THE RACE BEGINS

Von Braun and his team were put to work for the USmilitary and in 1947 the first living creatures travelled into space

aboard a V-2: a collection of fruit flies! But to Von Braun’s frustration, the Americans’ main concern at the time was the Cold War (see box below right) and they were not willing to listen to his dreams of space travel. Backin the USSR, generals were look-

ing for a top rocket scientist who could take the V-2 further. They found him in a gulag (a Soviet work prison): Sergei Korolev, a rocket genius and political prisoner (at the time the Soviet Union under its premier Joseph Stalin was a

(Turn over)

Iceland Norway West Eastern Bloc Finland Sweden United Soviet Union Ireland Kingdom Poland East Germany
Iceland
Norway
West
Eastern Bloc
Finland
Sweden
United
Soviet Union
Ireland
Kingdom
Poland
East Germany
West Germany
France
Romania
Spain
Italy
East Germany West Germany France Romania Spain Italy 1967 Apollo 1 disaster occurs after a fire

1967

Apollo 1 disaster occurs after a fire in the cockpit killing astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee.

killing astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee. 1968 Frank Borman, William Anders and James

1968

Frank Borman, William Anders and James Lovell on Apollo 8 are the first people to leave Earth’s orbit, circle the moon and return safely.

WHATWAS THE COLD WAR?

The Cold War refers to the tension that existed between Western dem- ocratic and Eastern communist countries from 1947 to 1991. On one “side” was the Soviet Union and most Eastern European states (called the Eastern Bloc), on the oth- er was the United States of America (USA) and countries in Western Eu- rope (called the West). After World War2Germany andits capitalBerlin were divided into two separate states, West Germany with Western allegiance and East Germany with Eastern Bloc allegiance.

Most other countries in the world sided with either the West or the East- ern Bloc. The Cold War never turned into real combat, but both sides were scared the other faction would launch a nuclear attack, so they armed them- selves heavily with nuclear warheads, war rockets and spying satellites.

THE IRON CURTAIN The West and Eastern Bloc in Europe. The imaginary border be- tween
THE IRON CURTAIN
The West and Eastern
Bloc in Europe. The
imaginary border be-
tween the two was
called the Iron Curtain.
border be- tween the two was called the Iron Curtain. 1962 John Glenn (right) becomes the
border be- tween the two was called the Iron Curtain. 1962 John Glenn (right) becomes the

1962

John Glenn (right) becomes the first American to orbit Earth.

Glenn (right) becomes the first American to orbit Earth. 1966 Gemini VII ac- complishes the first

1966

Gemini VII ac- complishes the first docking (joining) with another space vehicle.

the first docking (joining) with another space vehicle. 1965 Ed White becomes the first American to

1965

Ed White becomes the first American to conduct a spacewalk.

White becomes the first American to conduct a spacewalk. 1961 Gherman Titov , in the Vostok

1961

Gherman Titov, in the Vostok 2, goes on the first manned space mission to orbit Earth multiple times (17).

manned space mission to orbit Earth multiple times (17). 1962 First simultaneous flight of two spacecraft:

1962

First simultaneous flight of two spacecraft: Andriyan Nikolayev in Vostok 3 and Pavel Popovich in Vostok 4. In their four-day flight the two spacecraft also haveaspace rendezvous (fly past each other).

also haveaspace rendezvous (fly past each other). 1963 Russian Valenti- na Tereshkova , in the Vostok

1963

Russian Valenti- na Tereshkova, in the Vostok 6, becomes the first woman in space.

, in the Vostok 6, becomes the first woman in space. 1965 On 18 March Alexei

1965

On 18 March Alexei Leonov is the first person to conduct a spacewalk. It lasts 12 minutes.

first person to conduct a spacewalk. It lasts 12 minutes. 1966 Luna 9 becomes the first

1966

Luna 9 becomes the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the moon and take the first close-up pic- tures of the surface.

yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SPAC E |7

fearsome place where innocent people were often imprisoned or killed for po- litical crimes they never committed). Korolev was released and made head of the Soviet rocket programme. He de- veloped the R-7 rocket (evolved from the R-1, which was a copy of the V-2) which in 1957 became the first inter- continental ballistic missile. The R-7 then became the Sputnik rocket, which sent the first human-made satellite and

first living being (Laika the dog)into or- bit in 1957 (read more on page 22). Von Braun was furious

about the Soviet achieve- ments because his team had already built a Jupiter rocket capable of launch- ingasatellite, but could not get permission to use it. But the Americans were now at least interested. The Space Race was now underway.

the first human in space (see page 23), Gagarin became aninternational celeb- rity while Korolev stayed in the shad- ows. Von Braun, on the other hand, was never onefor the shadows. A charismat- ic man, he was becoming frustrated with US president Dwight Eisenhower’s lack of enthusiasm for a moon pro- gramme. So he turned to the media for help. Several magazine articles and a hugely popular Disney TV series fol- lowed in which he explained that a moon trip would be the ad-

venture of the century and that it was not science fic- tion, but within America’s reach. He managed to get the public so excited that they also put pressure on government to pay more attention to a moon pro-

gramme. While all this was hap- pening, Korolev managed to land the first human-built craft on the moon (called Luna 2) in 1959. In 1960 the So- viet dogs Belka and Strelka became the first dogs to return alive from an orbital flight and in 1961 Gagarin orbited Earth. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev even sent the new American president, John F Kennedy, a puppy from Strelka’s litter called Pushinka! A new American president meant a change in attitude towards space. When the charismatic and popular John F Kennedy arrived in the White House in 1960, he soon bought into the idea of

space travel. In a famous speech he promised that America would land a person on the moon before the decade was out. At last things were moving forward. The Apollo project for a moon landing

(Turn over)

Sergei Korolev designed the Soviets’ rockets but his identity was kept a secret.
Sergei Korolev
designed the
Soviets’ rockets
but his identity
was kept a secret.

Von Braun didn’t know who his rival on the Soviet Union side was. He was known only as ‘Chief Designer’

OFF TO THE MOON
OFF TO THE MOON

Over the next two decades Von Braun and Korolev would be adver- saries, each trying to achieve the next space breakthrough first. Von Braun didn’t know who his rival on the other side of the world was – the Soviet government was con- cerned Korolev would be assassi- nated by Americans so his identity was kept secret and he was known only as the “Chief Designer”. When some years later Korolev’s Vostok 1 rocket made Yuri Gagarin

1969 1971 1973 Apollo 11 (left) lands on the moon. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
1969
1971
1973
Apollo 11 (left) lands
on the moon. Neil
Armstrong and Buzz
Aldrin are the first
two people to per-
form moonwalks.
The first American
lunar rover (below)
is used on the moon.
Skylab, America’s first space
station, is launched by NASA
and is manned by three teams from
1973-74. After that it is not used
and re-enters the atmosphere and
disintegrates in 1979.
and re-enters the atmosphere and disintegrates in 1979. 1966 Space probe Venera crashes into Venus, which

1966

Space probe Venera crashes into Venus, which it was built to explore – the first craft to land on another planet.

to explore – the first craft to land on another planet. 1967 Soyuz 1 , the

1967

Soyuz 1, the first manned Soviet spacecraft, is launched into orbit but its astronaut, Vladimir Komarov, dies as the module crashes to the ground due to a parachute failure.

the module crashes to the ground due to a parachute failure. 1970 Luna 17 carries the

1970

Luna 17 carries the first suc- cessful robotic lunar rover, Lunokhod 1, to the moon.

suc- cessful robotic lunar rover, Lunokhod 1 , to the moon. 1971 Unmanned space probe Mars

1971

Unmanned space probe Mars 3 lander is launched by a Proton-K rocket and is the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on Mars.

8| GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

PICTURES: NASA ; RUSSIAN GOVERNMENTAL ARCHIVE OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION; AAI/FOTOSTOCK SA

OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION; AAI/FOTOSTOCK SA WHATWAS THE SOVIET UNION? The Union of Soviet So- cialist

WHATWAS THE SOVIET UNION?

The Union of Soviet So- cialist Republics (USSR) wasacommunist state that existed between 1922 and 1991. After 1991 it was dissolved into Russia and several other independent coun- tries such as Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia and Kazakhstan.

BELKA AND STRELKA These two dogs became famous when they returned from space – alive!
BELKA AND STRELKA
These two dogs became
famous when they returned
from space – alive! They were
accompanied by a grey rab-
bit, 42 mice, 2 rats, flies and
several plants and fungi.
All the passengers survived.
and several plants and fungi. All the passengers survived. 1975 The first joint US-Soviet space flight

1975

The first joint US-Soviet space flight – Soyuz 19 and Apollo 18 (last Apollo flight) leave seven and a half hours apart and dock in orbit, open the hatch con- necting them and exchange gifts, food and souvenirs. Joint and separate scientific experiments are conducted.

LIFTOFF!

and separate scientific experiments are conducted. LIFTOFF! 1981 Launch of the first Space Shuttle , Columbia
and separate scientific experiments are conducted. LIFTOFF! 1981 Launch of the first Space Shuttle , Columbia
and separate scientific experiments are conducted. LIFTOFF! 1981 Launch of the first Space Shuttle , Columbia
and separate scientific experiments are conducted. LIFTOFF! 1981 Launch of the first Space Shuttle , Columbia
and separate scientific experiments are conducted. LIFTOFF! 1981 Launch of the first Space Shuttle , Columbia
and separate scientific experiments are conducted. LIFTOFF! 1981 Launch of the first Space Shuttle , Columbia

1981

Launch of the first Space Shuttle, Columbia.

1981 Launch of the first Space Shuttle , Columbia . 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger explodes (right)

1986

Space Shuttle Challenger explodes (right) 73 seconds after liftoff, killing all seven on board, including Christa McAuliffe, who would have been the first teacher to give lessons in space.

would have been the first teacher to give lessons in space. 1977 Launch of Salyut 6

1977

Launch of Salyut 6, the next- generation space station where astronauts can remain for longer periods.

station where astronauts can remain for longer periods. 1986 Assembly of space station Mir begins in

1986

Assembly of space station Mir begins in space. It is the first continuously inhabited long-term research station in space and remains in orbit until 2001, when it re-enters the atmosphere and burns up.

yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SPAC E |9

MOON LANDING ABOVE LEFT: The Eagle, as it was known, on its way to the
MOON LANDING
ABOVE LEFT: The Eagle, as it
was known, on its way to the
moon’s surface. ABOVE RIGHT:
Neil Armstrong climbs down
to the surface of the moon.
RIGHT: Buzz Aldrin’s bootprint
in the lunar soil.
was announced, with Project Mercury
(read more on page 24) and Project
Gemini paving the way. Twenty-three
days after Gagarin, Alan Shepard be-
came the first American to fly to space.
Korolev died in 1966, while he was
working on his own moon rocket called
the N1. His heart, damaged from all
those years in the harsh conditions in
the Siberian gulag, gave in while he was
having surgery after being diagnosed
with cancer. Korolev was givenaspec-
tacular funeral and declaredahero of
the Soviet Union. On the other side of
the planet, Von Braun at last learnt the
identity of the Chief Designer, his rival
for so many years.
After Korolev ’s death, the Russian
moon programme faltered. It was clear
his successor could not overcome the
challenges. The N1 was launched four
times, and each time it blew up.
But America was brimming with
space fever. In 1969 Von Braun’s mighty
Saturn V rocket–modelled on the V-2
of all those years before–shot off into
space followed by one of the most mo-
mentous occasions in the history of hu-
mankind: the landing of astronauts Neil
Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the sur-
face of the moon on 20 July (read more
on page 31).
1990
1998
8
2003
1990
The Space Shuttle
Discovery carries
the Hubble Space
Telescope into space.
Japan becomes
the third country
in the world to
launch a probe,
Hiten, to orbit
the moon.
Zarya, the first
module of the
International
Space Station
is launched into
space.
The Interna-
tional Space
Station
China becomes the
third country to
successfully send
an astronaut into
space, aboard the
Shenzhou 5.
1988
1989-’91
2003
Spaceplane Buran the So-
viet version of the reusable
Space Shuttle is launched.
The programme is stopped
soon after the Soviet Union
collapses.
Collapse of
the Soviet
Union.
The Space Shuttle Columbia
breaks up on re-entry – one
of the protective panels cov-
ering the wing is damaged.
All seven crewmembers
(right) are killed.
10 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

PICTURES: NASA; NASA /BUZZ ALDRIN; AAI /FOTOSTOCK SA

LIFTOFF!

MEETTHE

ANIMANAUTS

Many animals were sent to space to see how it would affect living beings. Here are a few we won’t forget

The US sent 32 monkeys into space. Albert II was the first in 1949, but
The US sent 32 monkeys into
space. Albert II was the first in
1949, but his craft crashed due
to parachute failure. The first
monkeys to return alive were Miss Able and
Miss Baker, who went up together. Baker
lived to a ripe old age, but Able died four
days after landing during an operation to
remove an electrode. Another famous
monkeynaut was the chimpanzee Ham,
who in 1961 went up in a Mercury capsule
and returned safely.
The Soviets sent up 12 dogs.
The most famous and tragic
one was Laika, a little stray
who in 1957 was the first
living being in orbit but died from heat
exhaustion. Belka and Strelka were the
first dogs to return alive, while Veterok
and Ugolyok orbited
k orbited
22 22
days before
days before
landing safely.
ely.
In 1963
the French
launched a cat
at
into space.
Félicette made
de
a safe landing
g
when her capsule
sule
parachuted to
o

Earth.

Soon after the Soviets decided there was no point in continuing their moon programme as the race had been lost. Von Braun was already preparing for his next plan: sending people to Mars. But the US government was not inter- ested. They had reached their goal – puttingahuman on the moon–and were not willing to continue pumping billions of dollars into space exploration. Defeated and disappointed, Von Braun resignedfrom NASA. Once huge- ly popular in the US, his reputation was faltering. More and more stories of his history with Nazi slave labour were coming out and he was almost charged with war crimes. In 1977 he contracted cancer, just like his old rival 11 years earlier.

While dying in hospital, he repeatedly asked his friends, “ Was what we did worth the suffering it caused?”

THE SPACE RACE ENDS

The last Apollo trip to the moon was Apollo 17 in 1972. Its com- mand/service module atop a smaller Saturn 1B rocket then made three trips to the brand-new US space research facility called Skylab. On 15 July 1975 an Apollo spacecraft soared into the sky one last time as part of another historical event – the first joint US-Soviet space flight on which an American Apollo and Soviet Soyuz would connect in space. Their meeting would be a symbol of

the end of the Space Race and an increasingly more relaxed relationship between the US and the USSR. The two spacecraft launched a few hours apart and docked in orbit. The commanders shook hands and gifts were exchanged. They conducted joint and separate scientific experiments be- fore saying goodbye and returning to their respective countries.

NOW FOR THE SPACE STATIONS

With the race to the moon over, both the United States and Soviet Russia turned their attention to building labo- ratories in space–similar to today’s In- ternational Space Station, but much

to today’s In- ternational Space Station, but much s m a l l e r .

smaller. In 1971 the Soviet

Union’s Salyut1became the first space station. Six more Salyuts were launched, followed in 1986 by Mir, the first continu- ously inhabited space sta- tion. As the Cold War con-

tinued to relax, Mir started hosting astronauts from the West as well. NASA assembled its own space station called Skylab in 1973. World politics was changing fast. In 1985 MikhailGorbachev became the So- vietleader and pursued a policy of great- er openness. This gave several Eastern Bloc states the courage to kick out their communist dictators. Soon Germany was reunited while the Soviet Union broke up into different

The end of the Cold War had an enormous impact on space exploration

(Turn over)

h ad an enormous impact on space ex ploration (Turn over) 2011 The final (and 135th)
2011
2011

The final (and 135th) Space Shuttle launch takes place using the Atlantis, after which the Space Shuttle programme is retired. The only way astronauts can currently travel to the ISS is on the Russian Soyuz.

2012 The Dragon, developed by the private ivate space transport company SpaceX eX (founded by
2012
The Dragon, developed by the private ivate
space transport company SpaceX eX
(founded by South African-born Elon Elon
Musk), becomes the first commercial ercial
The SpaceX
spacecraft to successfully attach ch to to
Dragon
the ISS. From October 2012 it delivers elivers
capsule
cargo to the ISS regularly.
2016 2016
2006 2011 2013 The Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) programme begins in which the US
2006
2011
2013
The Commercial Orbital
Transportation Services (COTS)
programme begins in which the
US relies heavily on the private
sector to create space vehicles
and service the ISS.
China launches its
first space station,
Tiangong-1.
Yutu, China’s
first lunar rover,
arrives on the
moon.

China plans to launch its second space station,

Tiangong-2.

PICTURES: NASA; NASA/ESA/THE HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM (STSCI/AURA)

countries, with Russia the largest and most powerful. The impact on space exploration was enormous.As the US andRussiawere no longer enemies, they could nowwork to- gether. The International Space Station (ISS) became the first station in space built by 16 different countries under the leadership of the two former arch-rivals (read about the ISS on page 46). In the early 1980s the US Apollo pro- ject was replaced by the Space Shuttle programme–anew generation of reus- able spacecraft that were propelled into space byamassivemain rocket and two solid rocket boosters. The Shuttles were orbiters that could circle Earth for anything from hours to weeks, with enough room on board for the crew to work and live (read more about the Space Shuttle on page 42). And when the ISS was built, they pro- vided transport to the space station. The Shuttle programme lasted 30 years and ended in 2011. Since then all astronauts have been travelling to the ISS aboard the Russian Soyuz space- craft (read more on page 26).

WHATS NEXT?

A NEW SPACE RACE?

China is becoming a space force to be reckoned with – it’s already sent several crewed missions into orbit on board its Shenzhou spacecraft, launched its own space station, landedarover on the moon and is said to be in discussion

The Canadarm2 ro- botic arm of the ISS attached to SpaceX’s Dragon spacecraft. Read more about the ISS on page 46.

Dragon spacecraft. Read more about the ISS on page 46. JOURNEYTO MARS with Russia to build
JOURNEYTO MARS
JOURNEYTO MARS

with Russia to build a joint base on the moon. Some experts even sayasecond space race between the US and China is on the way

THE PRIVATISATION OF SPACE TRAVEL

Space has traditionally been the domain of governments, but this is changing rapidly as more and more private com- panies enter the industry. NASA wants to focus more on Mars and less on getting crew and supplies to the ISS. They’ve signed contracts with several private companies to supply the ISS. These include SpaceX (started by South African-born Elon Musk) with its Falcon rocket and Dragon capsule, and Orbital ATK, with its Cygnus craft atop NASA’s Atlas rocket. Dragon will also take as- tronauts to the ISS from next year, as may the Boeing/Bigelow Starliner. The company Bigelow is also considering

building an inflatable private space sta- tion. The first prototype of a module was delivered to the ISS for testing in April 2016. With more private com- panies involved, space tourism should also take off soon–the opening up of space travelfor ordinary people who are not astronauts (more on page 72).

The US has also abandoned its plans to return to the moon while it focuses on Mars, where it intends establishing a human colony (read more on page 66). All of this is very exciting and we will be following it with great interest

exciting and we will be following it with great interest 2017 Manned spacecraft from the private
2017
2017

Manned spacecraft from the private sector are ex- pected to start travelling to the ISS.

2021- 2025

Exploration Mission-2 is expected to be NASA’s Orion capsule’s first manned flight launched on the SLS rocket. Astronauts will work on an asteroid boulder that has been dragged into lunar orbit by a robotic probe.

that has been dragged into lunar orbit by a robotic probe. 2018 Exploration Mission-1 will be
that has been dragged into lunar orbit by a robotic probe. 2018 Exploration Mission-1 will be
2018
2018

Exploration Mission-1 will be the deepest flight ever into space, thousands of kilometres beyond the moon. There NASA’s Orion capsule, powered by the SLS rocket, will orbit the moon and deploy about 13 small satellites during a three-week mission.

2030s

In NASA’s vision SLS will blast a crewed

wed

Orion to Mars (right). The first mission

ion net, the the o
ion
net,
the
the
o

may not touch down on the Red Planet,

but walking on Mars is definitely in

space agency’s plans.The journey to

Mars is expected to last six months.

s.

space agency’s plans.The journey to Mars is expected to last six months. s. 1 2 |

12 | GATEWAY TO SPACE you.co.za

EXPLORE SPACE!

Download the Media24 3D app to view amazing 3D models or use a QR Reader app to watch videos or take virtual tours in space!

W ANT to see the International

Space Station up close in

3D? Maybe you would like

to “walk” on the surface

of Mars with the Curiosity

rover? Or watch a video of

how the future Mars colony

will be set up? The Media24 3D app and a QR Reader app will help make all of this and more

a reality as you explore space! The 3D app is fast

and displays high-quality animation. Both are free

to download and suitable for iOS and Android with

a smartphone or tablet.

suitable for iOS and Android with a smartphone or tablet. GET THE APPS Go to the
suitable for iOS and Android with a smartphone or tablet. GET THE APPS Go to the

GET THE APPS

Go to the iTunes App or Google Play stores and download the Media24 3D app and a QR Reader (there are a couple to choose from) on your smartphone or tablet then open to start using it.

on yo ur smartphone or tablet then open to start using it. HOW TO USE THE

HOW TO USE THE APPS

STEP 1 Find the icons in the magazine, either

a 3D icon or QR code (see how they look on the right).

STEP 1 Find the icons in the magazine, either a 3D icon or QR code (see

STEP 2 Open either the Media24 3D app or the QR Reader.

STEP 3 Hold your smartphone or tablet over the page (about 30 cm away) and watch the image come to life, or play a video or take

a virtual tour!

or tablet ov er the page (about 30 cm away) and watch the image come to
or tablet ov er the page (about 30 cm away) and watch the image come to
or tablet ov er the page (about 30 cm away) and watch the image come to
or tablet ov er the page (about 30 cm away) and watch the image come to
LET’S BLAST OFF! This is our selection of the coolest carrier rockets ever sent into

LET’S BLAST OFF!

This is our selection of the coolest carrier rockets ever sent into space

R OCKETS are currently the only way for all spacecraft to go into space. A spacecraft is either perched on top of the rocket, as in the case of the

Soyuz or Apollo, or mounted on the side of the rocket, as in the case of the Space Shuttle. It is sometimes confus-

ing when discussing Soviet rockets and spacecraft as they often used the same name for both, for example the Vosk- hod and Soyuz are the names of both spacecraft and rockets. Here we look at only the rockets.

HOW DO ROCKETS WORK?

To blast into spacearocket has to travel nearly 40 times faster than a Boeing 747 and needs to reachaspeed of at least 7,9 kilometres per second – this corresponds to more than 20 times the speed of sound! If it goes any slow- er gravity will pull it back to Earth so the rockets need powerful engines. The engines burn fuel, turning the fuel into hot gases. The gases are pushed out the back of the rocket, causing the rocket to be propelled upwards (see how it works on page 18).

WHAT ELSE ARE ROCKETS USED FOR?

Not only spacecraft are launched by rockets. Rockets also launch space sta- tions, space telescopes and satellites into space. And rockets are also not only used as launch vehicles. They can be devastating weapons called missiles that can travel thousands of kilometres to strike cities and other targets. One such missile was the V-2 rocket, designed by the German-born rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, during World War 2. In 1944 the V-2 was the first artificial object ever to launch into space. Although the V-2 has a terrible his- tory (read more on page 4), it is in a strange way the father of modern rock- ets and Von Braun went on to develop

the SaturnVrocket for America that sent the first humans to the moon.

14 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

110 m MERCURY- REDSTONE TITAN II USA USA Used PICTURES: ESA–D. DUCROS, 2014 100 m
110 m
MERCURY-
REDSTONE
TITAN II
USA
USA
Used
PICTURES: ESA–D. DUCROS, 2014
100 m
Used
1960–1961
1959–2005
Height
25,4 m
Mass
90
m
30 000 kg
Height (GLV)
33,2 m
Mass
154 200 kg
DIAMANT
KOSMOS
80
m
France
USSR
Used
Used
1965–1975
1967–2010
Height
23,5 m
70
m
Mass
18 400 kg
Height (3M)
32,4 m
Mass
109 000 kg
60
m
SHAVIT
SPUTNIK
Israel
USSR
Used
Used
50
m
1988–present
1957–1958
Height
Height
18 m
30 m
Mass
Mass
30 000 kg
267 000 kg
40
m
30
m
20
m
Africa
a duce Until Shavit
FAST and 1994 helped rocket FACT test missile. South pro- the as
ballistic
SA rocket was
10
m
The
s
Human
called RSA-3.
to scale
0m

Note: Rocket data may vary between sources and models within a rocket family.

USSR/Russia* USA Europe Japan China Israel France LIFTOFF! India * The Union of Soviet Socialist

USSR/Russia*

USSR/Russia* USA Europe Japan China Israel France LIFTOFF! India * The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

USA

USSR/Russia* USA Europe Japan China Israel France LIFTOFF! India * The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Europe

USSR/Russia* USA Europe Japan China Israel France LIFTOFF! India * The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Japan

USSR/Russia* USA Europe Japan China Israel France LIFTOFF! India * The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

China

USSR/Russia* USA Europe Japan China Israel France LIFTOFF! India * The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Israel

FranceUSSR/Russia* USA Europe Japan China Israel LIFTOFF! India * The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR

LIFTOFF! India
LIFTOFF!
India

* The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union) was one large nation from 1922 to 1991. In 1991 it dissolved into several separate countries. Its space programme is now driven by the Russian Federation (Russia), the largest of these states.

The first launched SOYUZ FAST the in Soyuz FACT 1967. only was It way is
The first
launched
SOYUZ
FAST the in Soyuz FACT 1967. only was It way is
currently
Russia
for astronauts to travel
Used
to
1967–present
Height
50 m
Mass
300 000 kg
the Space International
Station
(read more on
page 26).
FACT Vostok human the Yuri the into FAST In Gagarin. first space, 1961 launched
FACT
Vostok
human
the Yuri
the into FAST In Gagarin. first space, 1961 launched
VOSTOK USSR Used 1960–1991 Height 38,4 m Mass 287 000 kg ATLAS USA Used 1957–present
VOSTOK
USSR
Used
1960–1991
Height
38,4 m
Mass
287 000 kg
ATLAS
USA
Used
1957–present
Height (Agena)
36 m
Mass
155 000 kg
DELTA II USA Used 1989–2011 Height 39 m Mass 231 870 kg
DELTA II
USA
Used
1989–2011
Height
39 m
Mass
231 870 kg
II USA Used 1989–2011 Height 39 m Mass 231 870 kg GSLV India Used 2001–present Height
GSLV India Used 2001–present Height (III) 43,4 m Mass 640 000 kg
GSLV
India
Used
2001–present
Height (III)
43,4 m
Mass
640 000 kg
ARIANE Europe Used 1988–present Height 50,5 m Mass 780 000 kg
ARIANE
Europe
Used
1988–present
Height
50,5 m
Mass
780 000 kg
VOSKHOD USSR Used 1963–1976 Height (11A57) 44,4 m Mass 298 400 kg g
VOSKHOD
USSR
Used
1963–1976
Height (11A57)
44,4 m
Mass
298 400 kg
g
Height 50,5 m Mass 780 000 kg VOSKHOD USSR Used 1963–1976 Height (11A57) 44,4 m Mass
Height 50,5 m Mass 780 000 kg VOSKHOD USSR Used 1963–1976 Height (11A57) 44,4 m Mass
Height 50,5 m Mass 780 000 kg VOSKHOD USSR Used 1963–1976 Height (11A57) 44,4 m Mass

(Turn over)

CURRENT MANNED SPACEFLIGHT LAUNCH SITES

1 3 2 Cape Canaveral/Kennedy Space Center, Florida 5 2 Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan 120 m
1
3
2
Cape Canaveral/Kennedy Space Center,
Florida
5
2
Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan
120
m
1
3
Vostochny Cosmodrome, Russia
4
Guiana Space Centre, Kourou, French Guiana
4
5
Jiuquan, China
110
m
ENERGIA
USSR
100
m
Used
1987–1988
STS
Soviet
(SHUTTLE)
Height
58,8 m
Mass
2 400 000 kg
Space
USA
Shuttle.
90
m
Used
stopped
after was
ANGARA
Union
1981–2011
The the version the was Buran, Energia FAST Soviet The in dissolved of in 1991. the FACT the 1993 project launched
Russia
Height
LONG MARCH
Used
56,1 m
China
2014–present
80
m
Mass
PROTON
Used
2 030 000 kg
USSR/Russia
1970–present
H-IIA
Used
Japan
1965–present
70
m
Used
2001–present
Height
58 m
Mass
712 800 kg
Height (2F)
62 m
Mass
464 000 kg
Height
64 m
Mass
790 000 kg
Height
53 m
Mass
60
m
was only on
455 000 kg
operational
the ble The Read FAST page world’s spacecraft. STS-1 more FACT 42. reusa-
50
m
40
m
30
m
20
m
10
m
Human
to scale
0m

16 | GATEWAY TO SPACE you.co.za

LIFTOFF!

SATURN V FAST FACT The SLS will be the USA rocket most powerful N1 Used
SATURN V
FAST FACT
The
SLS will be the
USA
rocket
most powerful
N1
Used
in the
world, taking
USSR
1967–1973
astronauts further into
Used
space than ever before
– and
eventually to
1969–1972
Height
110,6 m
Mass
2 970 000 kg
Mars.
Height
105 m
Mass
2 750 000 kg
on page 70.
SLS
USA
In development
First flight
planned for 2018
Height
110,9 m
Mass
2 567 000 kg
Read more
FALCON 9
USA (private)
Used
2010–present
Height
70 m
Mass
541 000 kg
FAST
FACT
The
launches
Dragon
capsule,
the
private
space
the cargo first capsule Falcon
caps
deliver
carg
to
9 to as the
ISS.
is
is c
currently
being
tested
tes
a
man- It
ned
n
spacecraft
launcher.
PICTURES: NASA; L3 BY EBS08/ CC BY-SA 3.0; GRAPHIC NEWS; NASA
Big Ben 96 m
Big Ben
96 m

Statue of

Liberty

93 m

Rugby posts
Rugby
posts

PICTURES: NASA/BILL INGALLS; NASA/MIKE DORFFLER

5, 4, 3, 2, 1, LIFTOFF!

Here’s how a rocket launches a capsule into space

SOYUZ AT A GLANCE

50

50

m

SPEED MASS CREW 305
SPEED
MASS
CREW
305

1 931 km/h in one min

tons

three

40

40

m

S PACECRAFT are not powerful enough to travel beyond Earth’s atmosphere on their own, so a rocket blasts them into space. Rockets are power-

ful machines that can break free from Earth’s gravity to reach outer space. There are two kinds of spacecraft able to carry humans: capsules and space- planes. Capsules are launched on top of a rocket, while planes can be launched in oth- er ways. For example, the Space Shuttle planes were attached to the side of rockets (see page 42) and SpaceShip Two, a plane that will soon start taking tourists into space (read more on page 72) is launched by a second plane, White Knight. Right now the only way astronauts can

get to the International Space Station, (ISS) is with a Russian Soyuz (saw-yooz) capsule which launches on top of a Soyuz rocket. It takes about nine minutes to reach space and six hours to get to the ISS. Take a look at the Soyuz rocket.

30

20

10

m

m

m

0 m

the ISS. Take a look at the Soyuz rocket. 30 20 10 m m m 0

Rockets launch spacecraft in several stages.

FIRST STAGE F ll f l b
FIRST STAGE
F
ll
f
l b

Four smaller, very powerful booster

rockets and a central rocket are all ignited at the same time. They burn the propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene in the combustion chambers at high velocity which forces the rocket to launch in the opposite direction – skyward. Once the four booster rockets have used up all their fuel, they are no longer necessary. They are discarded and fall back to Earth in an isolated and uninhabited area.

SOYUZ ROCKET

AND CAPSULE

an isolated and uninhabited area. SOYUZ ROCKET AND CA PSULE The Soyuz is the hard- est

The Soyuz is the hard- est working rocket of all- time with 984 successful launches to date.

DURATION

2 minutes ALTITUDE 40 km
2 minutes
ALTITUDE
40 km
Human to scale
Human
to scale
launches to date. DURATION 2 minutes ALTITUDE 40 km Human to scale 1 8 | GATEWAY

18 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

LIFTOFF!

GRID FINS SECOND STAGE The central rocket contin- Th l k i ESCAPE ues to
GRID FINS
SECOND STAGE
The central rocket contin-
Th
l
k
i
ESCAPE
ues to fire and sends the
craft into space. Once it has
used up all its fuel, it is also
discarded and burns up in
Earth’s atmosphere.
Part of the launch escape
system (see box below).
When the system activates
the grid flaps open and help
steer the capsule to safety.
TOWER
Discarded
at 40 km
Fins
Fins
closed
open
DURATION
3 minutes
ALTITUDE
170 km
CAPSULE
At launch the capsule is
covered by protective
fairing (type of shield)
which is cast off in the
second stage.
RETURN TO EARTH
1
THIRD STAGE
Two seconds before the second-
stage parts are discarded, the
engines of the third stage of the
rocket are ignited. At 220 km the
spacecraft separates from the
third stage. It deploys antennas
and solar panels and sets off for
the ISS.
DURATION
4 minutes
ALTITUDE
220 km
WHAT HAPPENS IN AN EMERGENCY?
After leaving the
space station
the Soyuz cap-
sule takes three
and a half hours
to land back on
Earth (capsules
such as Apollo
used to splash
into the sea). A
landing capsule
– in water or on
the ground –
always deploys
parachutes to
help it descend
more slowly. The
Soyuz also fires
jets immediately
before landing
(image 1) to help
reduce the force
of the impact
(image 2).
2
An emergency on board may be
either a fire or an explosion.
The Apollo pro-
gramme launch
escape system
at work
B If it happens at liftoff, the crew can
escape in a small rocket called an
escape tower which “grabs” the crew
section and descends to the ground.
This is called the launch escape
system. It only works up to an altitude
of 40 km. If not used it drops off and
lands in an isolated area.
B If an emergency happens in the
second stage, the spacecraft can
separate from the rocket, deploy
parachutes and land on the ground.
yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SPAC E | 19

American astronaut Harrison Schmitt and a rover next to a lunar boulder during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. Apollo missions brought back 382 kg of lunar samples that are still being studied today.

20 |

PICTURE: NASA/EUGENE CERNAN

PICTURE: NASA/EUGENE CERNAN JOURNEY TO THE MOON yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SP AC E |
PICTURE: NASA/EUGENE CERNAN JOURNEY TO THE MOON yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SP AC E |

JOURNEY TO THE MOON

PICTURE: NASA/EUGENE CERNAN JOURNEY TO THE MOON yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SP AC E |

POOR LITTLE LAIKA

POOR LITTLE LAIKA Meet the mutt who was the first animal to travel into orbit Laika

Meet the mutt who was the first animal to travel into orbit

the mutt who was the first animal to travel into orbit Laika Date of birth Unknown

Laika

Date of birth

Unknown

Breed

Mongrel

Age during mission

About three

Gender

Female

Date of launch

3

November 1957

Owner

She wasastray

Death

3

November 1957

Panic and overheating

S HE was justascruffy little

mongrel who lived on the

streets of Moscow, capital

of the then Soviet Union, but

she captured hearts all over

the world and became so famous that today she has her own monument. But she had to payavery, very high price for her fame It was 1957 and the Soviet Union was ahead in the Space Race (the competi- tion between the Soviet Union and the United States for supremacy in space- flight capability). The Soviet Union had just successfully launched Sputnik 1, the world’s first satellite (an object that orbitsaplanet or star). Next they want- ed to send a person into space but they had no idea how safe it would be – couldahuman survive the incredible force and shuddering launch of a space- craft? And what would the effect of weightlessness be on the human body?

So they decided to first send animals into space to test flight safety. Laika was not the first dog in space,

but she was the first dog to orbit (circle) Earth. She was found on the streets aboutaweek before she was due to lift- off and trained quickly – for instance, she had to learn to eat her gel-like food in space. On 3 November 1957 Laika, who weighed about 6 kg, was transported into space in her own sealed cabin attached to the spacecraft Sputnik 2. She was secured with a harness which allowed her some movement,

SPUTNIK 2

Meaning

of name Satellite Country USSR Length 4 m Diameter 2 m Period Per 1957-1958 Mann
of name
Satellite
Country
USSR
Length
4
m
Diameter
2
m
Period
Per
1957-1958
Mann
ned missions
0
Lau
Launch rocket
Sputn
Sputnik rocket

MASS

508

kg

DOG HOUSE

The enclosure in which Laika travelled. The sphere on top is the satellite.

Did you know?

d you know?

Soviet scientists chose to

scientists cho

use Moscow stray dogs as

they assumed such animals

had already learnt to endure conditions of extreme cold and hunger.

ow stra

ed

conditions of ex treme cold and hunger. ow stra ed she had access to food and

she had access to food and water and nd a a

bag was attached to her to collect lect her her

waste. Electrodes were attached ched to to her her

body which transmitted d information information

about her heart rate, te, blood blood pressure pressure

and breathing back back to to Earth. Earth.

What happened pened next next is is not not quite quite

clear. Everyone ne knew knew Laika Laika would would die die

during the flight–it ht – it was was all all arranged arranged

so quickly engineers eers didn’t didn’t have have time time

to designasystem that that could could bring bring her her

back safely. Across the he world world people people

were furious with the Soviets oviets for for sacri- sacri-

ficing the little dog, who in in America America had had been nicknamed Muttnik.

At the time the Soviet Union on claimed claimed

that after four days, just before her her oxy- oxy-

gen would run out, Laika was put t to to

sleep and passed away peacefully. But But

in 2002 the true story came out: she died within hours of launch from panic and overheating in temperatures of about 40 °C. In 2008 a monument for Laika was erected in Moscow where she stands proudly on a rocket.

LEFT: The Laika monu- ment in Moscow was unveiled in 2008.
LEFT: The Laika monu-
ment in Moscow was
unveiled in 2008.

22 | GATEWAY TO SPACE you.co.za

JOURNEYTOTHE MOON

FIRST MAN IN SPACE

JOURNEYTOTHE MOON FIRST MAN IN SPACE Russia picked Yuri Gagarin for the first spaceflight P OYEKHALI!
Russia picked Yuri Gagarin for the first spaceflight P OYEKHALI! Off we go! With these
Russia picked Yuri Gagarin
for the first spaceflight
P OYEKHALI! Off we go! With
these words Soviet cosmonaut
Yuri Gagarin shot into the sky
in his Vostok and became the
first person ever to fly into
space and orbit Earth.
He was very calm, but back on the
ground the Vostok developer Sergei
Korolev was so nervous he had to be
given tranquillisers. It was a highly dan-
gerous mission – so dangerous Gagarin
left a letter for his wife Valentina saying
it was unlikely he would return.
Fortunately she never received the
Yuri Gagarin
Date of birth
9 March 1934
Age during mission
27
Height
1,57 m
Date of launch
12 April 1961
Occupation
Pilot
Death
27 March 1967
Aircraft crash
letter because the mission turned out to
be a huge success, turning Gagarin into
an overnight celebrity. After the flight
he toured the world and even had lunch
with Queen Elizabeth.
“I see Earth – it is so beautiful,” Gaga-
rin radioed as he sped over Siberia and
Japan. And 108 minutes later the orbit
was complete, the capsule started to
descend and seven kilometres above
Earth, Gagarin ejected from the space-
craft and parachuted down while the
capsule crashed to the ground.
Gagarin, an air force pilot, was
known to be incredibly focused. This
and his quick reactions were two quali-
ties that secured him the opportunity
to take the first spaceflight. His short
stature also helped – at 1,57 m tall, he
was one of few who could actually fit
into the tiny Vostok capsule.
Yelena Gagarina, one of his two
daughters, described her father as out-
going and a keen sportsman. He was
also modest and a brilliant mathemati-
cian – and he had a smile that “lit up the
Cold War”, said Korolev, who was lead
Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft
designer in the Space Race.
Gagarin began military flight training
in 1955 at age 21 and in 1960 he was se-
lected for the Soviet space programme.
Officially, America congratulated the
Soviet Union on the historic milestone.
Unofficially, they were annoyed that the
Russians were first to put a human in
space. They were also concerned that
the Soviets could now launch nuclear
weapons from space.
Gagarin never made another space-
flight–authorities decided he was too
valuable to be exposed to such danger.
Ironically, he died while on a routine
training flight on 27 March 1968 when
his MiG-15 fighter plane crashed in the
Russian town of Kirzhach. He was just
34 years old.
When Americans Neil Armstrong
and Buzz Aldrin became the first
people on the moon in 1969, they left
behindasatchel with medals com-
memorating, among others, Gagarin.
(Turn over)
VOSTOK 1
ANTENNA
SERVICE MODULE
Used for communication.
Meaning of name East
Country
USSR
Contained equipment and
burned up in the atmos-
phere during descent
after detaching from the
descent module.
Length
6,7 m
Yuri Gagarin
Diameter
2,3 m
inside the
WHIP
Period
1961-1963
Vostok 1
ANTENNAS
spacecraft.
Used for
Manned missions
6
communication.
Launch rocket
Vostok rocket
MASS
7,1
DESCENT MODULE
This round ball
detached from the
main spacecraft when
it re-entered the
Earth’s atmosphere.
tons
AIR
Oxygen and nitrogen
tanks used for life
support.
RETRO
ENGINE
Used to get
out of orbit.
PICTURES: COLLECT; AAI/FOTO-
STOCK; NASA; GRAPHIC NEWS

THE MERCURY MEN

THE MERCURY MEN The United States’ first man- in-space programme turned its astronauts into stars Alan

The United States’ first man- in-space programme turned its astronauts into stars

man- in-space programme turned its astronauts into stars Alan Shepard Date of birth 18 No ve

Alan Shepard

Date of birth

18 November 1923

Age during mission

37

Height

1,57 m

Date of launch

5 May 1961

Occupation

Naval aviator

Death

21 July 1998 Leukaemia

O N A fresh spring day in April 1958 seven unknown men were introduced to the American public atamedia conference – and became

overnight stars. Theey were known as the Mercury Seven and they had just been chosen as the astronauts who would take Ameri- ca into the age of human space travel. The media loved them and they quickly became celebrities. No wonder – Project Mercury was America’s first man-in-space pro- gramme and lasted from 1961 to 1963. The project’s aim was to orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth, to investigate how humans function in space and to get both astronaut and spacecraft back to Earth safely.

ALAN SHEPARD

Of the seven, World War2veteran Alan Shepard eventually became the first American in space. Like all the Mercury astronauts he had to follow a specific

24 | GATEWAY TO SPACE you.co.za

diet for three days before the launch to minimise his need for the toilet while in space. Attached to his body during the flight were chest electrodes to re- cord his heart rhythm, a cuff to take his blood pressure andarectal thermome- ter to record his temperature. He had water to drink and food pellets to eat. But the ground crew took so long be- fore liftoff he had to urinate in his space- suit. The crew switched off power to his suit to prevent the urine short-circuiting the sensors. No wonder the Mercury as- tronauts reported hygiene as one of the main problems they had to deal with! At last Shepard took off on his histor- ic 15-minute suborbital (above 100 km) flight. The date was5May 1961 – 23 days after Russia’s Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space. After the trip Shepard was grounded for years because of an inner ear disor- der called Ménière’s disease that causes dizziness and nausea. This probably saved his life as he was hoping to be commander of the first Apollo flight in

MERCURY Country USA Length 3,3 m Diameter 1,9 m Period 1958-1963 Manned missions 6 Launch
MERCURY
Country
USA
Length
3,3 m
Diameter
1,9 m
Period
1958-1963
Manned missions
6
Launch rocket
Mercury-Redstone Mercury-Redstone
later later Mercury-Atlas Mercury-Atlas
PORTHOLE
The only view
the astronauts
had was through
this tiny window.
d
71
Ameri-
MASS
t
on 20
1,4
t
once
tons
window. d 71 Ameri- MASS t on 20 1,4 t once tons 1967, in which all

1967, in which all three astronauts died

in an accident during a test run (see page 56). Mercury Seven member Gus s Grissom was not so lucky and died in the Apollo1disaster. Eventually Shepard’s ear disorder

was cured by an operation and in 1971

he became the only Mercury astronaut aut

to ever walk on the moon–where he he

even managed to hit two golf balls! !

JOHN GLENN

Shepard may have been the first Ameri-

can in space, but the greatest Mercury rcury

celebrity turned out to be John Glenn, lenn,

a military pilot.

turned out to be John Glenn, lenn , a military pilot. He undertook the third Mercury

He undertook the third Mercury ry

mission but first US orbital flight on 20

February 1962 and circled Earth h three three

times in less than five hours. But once

again the Americans’ thunder had been stolen by the Soviets – just six months earlier cosmonaut Gherman Titov spent a full day in orbit. Glenn later swopped astronautics

for politics and served several terms as

a US senator. In 1998, at the age of 77,

he made another space trip – this time aboard the Space Shuttle. He persuaded NASA to allow him on board so tests could be conducted on the effects of weightlessness on older people.

Last Mercury man

As of April 2016, 94-year-old John Glenn was the only Mer- cury Seven member still alive. And, at 37 in 1958, he was also the oldest in the programme. He’s still married to his high- school sweetheart Annie.

PICTURES: NASA; ADRIAN MANN; (FAI)

TIME FORAWALK

At last humans could travel to space – now it was time to takeafew steps

Alexei Leonov

Date of birth

it was t ime to tak eafew steps Alexei L eonov Date of birth 30 May

30 May 1934

Age during mission

30

Date of launch 18 March 1965

Occupation

Fighter pilot

Status

Retired

1965 Occupation Fighter pilot Status Retired Alexei Leonov photographed while performing the first

Alexei Leonov photographed while performing the first spacewalk in history

T HE Mercury and Vostok missions proved humans could go to space. But scientists still had a lot to learn before they could confidently send anyone

to the moon. There were so many ques- tions still be answered. What would happen when astronauts spent a few days in space? How could

they safely exit the space- craft while up there? How could two spacecraft dock (connect)? Both the Soviet Union and America developed programmes to refine these techniques. The

Soviets used the Voskhod spacecraft which had space for two to three people, while the Americans launched Project Gemini, where two astronauts could travel at a time. Project Gemini achieved much more than the Voskhod programme and put the Americans ahead in the Space Race.

But first they had to suffer the humil- iation of missing the opportunity to do the first spacewalk in history. The Soviets had heard the Americans were planningaspacewalk and decided to beat them to it. So when Voskhod 2 reached orbit on 18 March 1965, cos- monaut Alexei Leonov opened the hatch of the tiny capsule

and floated into emptiness, with only an 1,8 m cable connecting him to the craft. “It was so quiet I could hear my heart beat,” he told the UK’s Guardian newspa- per last year during the 50th anniversary of his walk.

“I was surrounded by stars and was floating without much control. I will never forget the moment.Ialso felt an incredible sense of responsibility. Of course, I did not know thatIwas about to experience the most difficult moments of my life–getting back into ”

the capsule

‘I’m coming back in, and it’s the saddest moment of my life’

– Astronaut Ed White as he ended his spacewalk

JOURNEYTOTHE MOON

Ed White as he ended his spacewa lk JOURNEYTOTHE MOON VOSKHOD Meaning of name Dawn Country

VOSKHOD

Meaning of name Dawn Country USSR Crew 2-3 Length 5m Diameter 3,4 m Period 1964-1965
Meaning of name Dawn
Country
USSR
Crew
2-3
Length
5m
Diameter
3,4 m
Period
1964-1965
Manned missions
2
Launch rocket
Voskhod rocket

GEMINI

Country USA Crew 2 Length 5,61 m Diameter 3m Period 1965-1966 Manned missions 10 Launch
Country
USA
Crew
2
Length
5,61 m
Diameter
3m
Period
1965-1966
Manned missions
10
Launch rocket
Titan II

While he was completing his 20- minute EVA (extra-vehicular activity, as spacewalks are called in astronautic terms) his spacesuit had expanded be- cause of the pressure of the air inside it, and he could not fit back through the capsule hatch! He eventually managed to release air from inside his suit and could get back into the Voskhod. On 3 June of the same year, it was America’s turn–Gemini 4 astronaut Ed White walked in space for 21 minutes. He enjoyed it so much he had to be ordered back into the spacecraft! Sadly White died 18 months later in the Apollo1disaster (see page 56). The Gemini project also accom- plished other important firsts: spending 14 days in space, two spacecraft flying past each other in space and practising docking techniques in orbit – Gemini 8 linked up with the unmanned Agena vehicle. The homework was done. Next stop – the moon!

(Turn over)

THE SOYUZ CAPSULE

The Soyuz capsule has been ferrying astronauts and cosmonauts into space for 49 years

rrying astronauts and cosmonauts into space for 49 y ears Mark Shuttlewo rth Date of birth

Mark Shuttleworth

Date of birth

18 September 1973

Age during mission Date of launch Occupation

29

25 April 2002 Entrepreneur

H AVE you ever been to the

Cape Town Science Centre

in Observatory? If you have

you would have seen the

replica ofaSoyuz capsule

donated by Mark Shuttleworth, our own “afronaut” – the first South

African and African to travel to space. Shuttleworth –abillionaire entre- preneur who currently lives on the Isle of Man–donated the replica to the science centre after

his historic 2002 trip in a Soyuz to the International Space Station (ISS) where he spent eight days. The Soyuz is sometimes called the workhorse of

space because it has un- dertaken more than 100 space voyages over close to 50 years. Considered the world’s safest and most cost-effective human spacecraft, it is currently the only way cosmonauts and astronauts can travel to the ISS. A Soyuz trip to the space station can take between six hours and two days, depending on the mission plan, but it takes the craft just three hours to return to Earth. At least one Soyuz is docked at

the ISS at all times for use as an escape spacecraft for the crew in the event of an emergency. But back in the 1960s the Soyuz had only one main goal: to eventually land a human on the moon. While the famous engineer Wernher von Braun was per- fecting the powerful Saturn V rocket in the United States, on the other side of the world his Soviet counterpart Sergei Korolev was developing the N1 rocket, meant to send the Soyuz to the moon. Unfortunately Korolev died in 1966 while the N1 was still in development, with disastrous results for the pro- gramme. From 1969 to 1972 the rocket was launched four times on test flights and all four times it blew up. The worst of these disasters occurred in 1969 during the second test flight when an explosion destroyed not only the N1, butafew surrounding buildings as well. Development of the Soyuz mooncraft was also plagued with technical set- backs and not moving very quickly. In the end, when it became clear the Americans had won the race to the moon, the Soviets abandoned their moon programme. However it was notacomplete fail- ure–another Soviet project called Luna consisted ofaseries of unmanned spacecraft missions that, among other firsts, accomplished the first unmanned moon landing in 1959 and a month later took the first pictures of the far side of the moon (the side

invisible from Earth). After the N1 disasters Soviet engineers turned their attention to develop- ingaspace laboratory and in 1971 they launched

‘A n experience like that changes your perspective on life and on the world’

– Mark Shuttleworth

Salyut 1, the world’s first space station. In 1986 Salyut 7 was replaced by the space station Mir. In 1998 Mir was replaced by the International Space Station. And who ferried the cosmonauts and astronauts to the floating bases in the sky? You’ve guessed it – our old friend Soyuz. Through the decades it has been upgraded often and made far more so- phisticated, but it remains one of the most hard-working vehicles in space.

26 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

SOYUZ Meaning of name Union Country USSR/Russia Length 7,2 m Diameter 2,2 m Period 1966-present
SOYUZ
Meaning of name
Union
Country
USSR/Russia
Length
7,2 m
Diameter
2,2 m
Period
1966-present
Manned missions
129
Launch rocket
Soyuz rocket
DOCKING
Docking mechanism
used to attach the
Soyuz to other space-
craft and the space
station.
CREW
3
Soyuz can carry up to
three crew members and
provide life support for
about 30 person days
(10 days for three crew
members or 15 days for
two members).
If things go wrong
“If we had a really bad day
up there, we’d have had
depressurisation and had to
come back home asap. The
suits are designed to keep
us alive for about two hours,
which would hopefully be
enough to get back into the
atmosphere. There’s enough
oxygen to last a bit longer
– Mark Shuttleworth 2002

PICTURES: NASA

PICTURES: NASA JOURNEYTOTHE MOON PACKED IN TIGHT It’s pretty cramped inside the descent module where the

JOURNEYTOTHE MOON

PACKED IN TIGHT It’s pretty cramped inside the descent module where the crew sit during
PACKED IN TIGHT
It’s pretty cramped inside the descent
module where the crew sit during launch
and the journey back to Earth. The maxi-
mum height and weight of each occupant
is 1,92 m and 94 kg.
PORTHOLE
MASS
of each occupant is 1,92 m and 94 kg. PORTHOLE MASS ORBITAL MODULE This module is

ORBITAL MODULE

This module is the crew’s living area during their mission and only used while in orbit.

area during their mission and only used while in orbit. DESCENT MODULE This is the only

DESCENT MODULE

This is the only part that lands on Earth. Every- thing else is jettisoned (abandoned) and burns up in the atmosphere.

A small window allowing the astronauts and cosmonauts a view of space.

7,1
7,1

tons

PERISCOPE

and cosmonauts a view of space. 7,1 tons PERISCOPE Used during critical moments in space flight

Used during critical moments in space flight such as lining up the capsule with the ISS before docking.

such as lining up the capsule with the ISS before docking. SOLAR PA NELS These unfold

SOLAR PANELS

up the capsule with the ISS before docking. SOLAR PA NELS These unfold as soon as

These unfold as soon as the spacecraft is in orbit. They pro- vide power to all the electrical systems on the Soyuz.

KURS ANTENNA

Several of these antennae are used to automatically dock with the ISS.

t hese antennae are used to automatically dock with the ISS. INSTRUMENT ATION AND SERVICE MODULE

INSTRUMENTATION AND SERVICE MODULE

Solar panels are attached to this module. It contains instruments and engines.

HELLO, MOON!

THE MOON AT A GLANCE

ORBIT SPEED ORBIT

TEMP

E
E

3 680

27,3

-110 o C

km/h

days

to 130 o C

S CIENTISTS believe the moon was once part of Earth – they theorise that a large object collided with Earth about 4 bil- lion years ago and broke off

large rocks that eventually melted to- gether to form the moon. Gravity on the moon is about a fifth of Earth’s soastronauts have towear special gear to prevent them floating away into space. That’s why you’ll weigh about six times less on the moon than on Earth! Over 100 spacecraft have been to the moon, which is Earth’s only natural satellite, and brought back rocks which are still being studied. But we won’t be setting up home on the moon anytime soon – its weak atmosphere and lack of water cannot support human, animal and plant life.

MOON VS EARTH

Some comparisons: MOON EARTH ONE YEAR ONE DAY Moon 27,3 days Moon 655,7 hours Earth
Some comparisons:
MOON
EARTH
ONE YEAR
ONE DAY
Moon
27,3 days
Moon 655,7 hours
Earth
365 days
Earth
24 hours

WEIGHT EXAMPLE HIGHEST POINT

Moon

7,5 kg

Moon

10 786 m

Earth

45 kg

Earth

8 848 m

28 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

8 8 48 m 2 8 | GATEWAY TO SP AC E yo u.co.z a SEA
8 8 48 m 2 8 | GATEWAY TO SP AC E yo u.co.z a SEA

SEA OF

SHOWERS

ARISTARCHUS CRATER OCEAN OF KEPLER STORMS CRATER SEA OF
ARISTARCHUS
CRATER
OCEAN OF
KEPLER
STORMS
CRATER
SEA OF

GRIMALDI

CRATER

BYRGIUS

CRATER

MOISTURE

SEA OF

CLOUDS

COPERNICUS

CRATER

The moon fits neatly into Africa!
The moon
fits neatly
into
Africa!
MOST FAMOUS MOON CRATER When the moon is full, the mighty Tycho crater is one
MOST FAMOUS
MOON CRATER
When the moon is full,
the mighty Tycho crater
is one of its most eye-
catching features.
It’s 85 km wide.

PICTURES: NASA, WIKIPEDIA; GREGORY H. REVERA/ CC BY-SA 3.0

JOURNEY TO THE MOON

SEAS AND CRATERS LARGEST MOONS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM From Earth we always see the
SEAS AND CRATERS
LARGEST MOONS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM
From Earth we always see the same
side of the moon. Notice the dark
patches and craters? The patches,
called seas, are expanses of smooth
ancient lava. The craters were formed
by meteors crashing into the moon,
which has no atmosphere to protect it.
GANYMEDE
TITAN
CALLISTO
IO
MOON
EUROPA
TRITON
Jupiter
Saturn
Jupiter
Jupiter
Earth
Jupiter Neptune
384 472,28 km
Of the 146 known
natural satellites in our
solar system, the moon
is the fifth largest.
COOL COLOURS
The moon’s normal colour is
grey (left) but sometimes
it can look quite different.
SEA OF

SERENITY

SEA OF TRANQUILITY SEA OF
SEA OF
TRANQUILITY
SEA OF

CRISES

BLOOD MOON

When Earth passes between the moon and the sun, a lunar eclipse occurs. But Earth’s atmosphere extends around the planet so some sunlight still shines through, turning the moon red.

BLUE MOON

Sometimes dust and smoke

in our air after huge fires or

a volcanic eruption can make the moon appear blue. And

if there are four full moons

instead of the normal three

within a period of three months, the fourth full moon is called

a blue moon – it happens on average every 2,7 years.

a b lue moon – it h appens on average every 2,7 ye ars. ONE GIANT
a b lue moon – it h appens on average every 2,7 ye ars. ONE GIANT
ONE GIANT STEP The spot where US astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the
ONE GIANT STEP
The spot where
US astronauts
Neil Armstrong
and Buzz Aldrin
became the first
humans to walk on
the moon in 1969.
Their footprints can
remain for thousands
of years because
there’s no erosion
on the moon.
SEA OF
FERTILITY
MOON MAKE-UP
MOON
MAKE-UP
SEA TIDES
SEA TIDES

The moon’s gravity pulls the ocean water up on the side of the Earth closest to the moon. Because it’s also pulling the Earth “closer” the ocean water on the opposite side of the planet is also higher.

MOON

ter on the opposite side of the planet is also higher. MOON HIGH TIDE LOW TIDE
ter on the opposite side of the planet is also higher. MOON HIGH TIDE LOW TIDE

HIGH

TIDE

LOW

TIDE

yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SPAC E | 29

CRUST

Silicate

rocks

RIGID MANTLE

Rocks containing

iron and

magnesium

NON-RIGID

MANTLE

Partially melted

OUTER CORE

Melted iron

INNER CORE

Iron and nickel

PICTURES: NASA; NASA/R. BRUNEAU

PICTURES: NASA; NASA/R. BRUNEAU MAN ON THE MOON! The Apollo space programme started off with an

MAN ON THE MOON!

The Apollo space programme started off with an unthinkable tragedy, but ended in triumph for the whole planet

tragedy, but ended in triumph for the whole planet I N THE early 1960s the Americans

I N THE early 1960s the Americans were becom- ing pretty concerned. The Cold War had been raging for more than a decade, spearheadedby the two superpowers: theUnited States of America in the west and the Soviet Union in the east. And in the Space Race the Sovietswere in the lead. By 1961 they had already put a satellite into space and sent a dog andaperson into orbit. This meant they could also launch amilitary attackfrom space. They were also at least two years ahead of the US in the race to reach the moon

two years ahead of the US in the race to reach the moon ThenJohnFKennedy be- came

ThenJohnFKennedy be- came US president and gave his support to the plan to reach the moon. “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and return- ing him safely to Earth,” he told Con- gress (the American parliament) on 25 May 1961. Soon the whole country had moon fever. Cape Canaveral inFlorida,where rocket launches took place, became a popular tourist destination. Space became thegreatest showonEarth and the astronauts became overnight celebrities. At NASA engineers, pilots and man- agers worked non-stop to achieve the goal Kennedy had promised the American people. They called it Pro- ject Apollo: the third American hu- man spaceflight programme and the one that was destined to take Ameri- cans to the moon.

President John F Kennedy promised Americans the moon in 1961.
President John F Kennedy promised
Americans the moon in 1961.

30 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

moon in 1961. 3 0 | GATEWAY TO SP AC E yo u.co.z a APOLLO 1

APOLLO 1

Then the unthinka- ble happened . In January 1967 the first three Apollo astronauts were doing tests in the Apollo 1 cabin when a fire broke out. Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee and Ed White all died without leaving Earth (read the full story on page 56). An inquiry showed that because of the tremendous pressure to get to the moon before 1970, NASA had become lax about safety features. And the moon landing schedule was set back by almostayear as engi- neers started redesigning Apollo to make it safer.

engi- neers star te d redesigning Apollo to make it safer. APOLLO 7 A few unmanned

APOLLO 7

A few unmanned Apollo flights fol- lowed, but it was 21 months before a manned Apollo eventually left Earth on 11 October 1968. During the 11-day flight there were arguments between the crew and ground staff about the amount of work the astro- nauts had. All three crew members also developed head colds which is difficult to deal with in space as the lack of gravity prevents fluid from draining out of the sinuses. Still, the orbital flight wasatechnical suc- cess, proving Apollo was ready for the next step.

suc- cess, proving Apollo was ready for the next s te p. APOLLO 8 Then came

APOLLO 8

Then came news from America’s spies that the Soviets were planning to orbit the moon before the end of 1968 – it was decided the next Apol- lo mission would head straight to the moon. Apollo 8 was a triumph. It flew off propelled by the monster rocket Saturn V, then the most pow- erful launch vehicle on Earth. The three crew members, Frank Borman, James Lovell and William Anders, returned safely after becom- ing the first people to see Earth as a whole planet, first to see the far side of the moon (part that cannot be seen from Earth), and first to wit- ness an Earthrise (the Earth rising over the moon’s horizon).

LEFT: Apollo 11 lifts off. ABOVE: A picture of Buzz Aldrin on the moon taken
LEFT: Apollo 11 lifts off. ABOVE:
A picture of Buzz Aldrin on the
moon taken by Neil Armstrong.
APOLLO 11
Buzz Aldrin on the moon taken by Neil Armstrong. APOLLO 11 Astronauts were as- signed to

Astronauts were as- signed to specific mis- sions months ahead, so when it was decided Apollo 11 would land on the moon, the flight crew ear- marked for the mission could hardly believe their luck. Commander Neil Armstrong was supported by flight crew Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins (see box right). Liftoff was set for 16 July 1969 and more than a million people arrived at Cape Canaveral to watch; people even slept in the streets. All over the world people were glued to their TV sets. In South Africa there was no TV yet so those who had them were glued to their radios. Everyone wanted to be part of history in the making. When NASA public relations officer Jack King had finished the countdown and announced, “Liftoff! We havealift- off!” the enormous tower took off into the sky, with fire and smoke billowing from its base. Such was its power that the windows of Mission Control at the Cape Canaveral Kennedy Space Center rattled. The moment the world had been waiting for had arrived. First the space- craft flew one and a half times around Earth. Then the engine ignited to break free of Earth’s gravity and set Apollo on course for the moon. On 19 July it was time to fire up the service propulsion system to slow the spacecraft so it could be captured by the moon’s gravity. That’s when

the journey into the real unknown began “Go for undocking,” flight director Gene Krantz ordered from Mission Con- trol in Houston on 20 July. The Eagle, as the lunar module was called, separated from Columbia, the mother ship. Inside were Armstrong and Aldrin. Collins re- mained behind on Columbia. “Go for landing,” Krantz said. Around him it was dead quiet in Mission Control as everyone held their breath. Then they heard Armstrong’s voice, “The Eagle has landed!” In Mission Control the engineers could breathe again. Aldrin leaned over and gave Armstrong a pat on the back. People cheered all over the world. Armstrong climbed down the Eagle’s step ladder and uttered the now fa- mous words, “One small step foraman, one giant leap for mankind.” Then the two men planted an Ameri- can flag on the moon and answered a phone call from US president Richard Nixon. They took a number of now fa- mous photographs, including one of the first human footprint on the moon (see the boot print picture on page 10). After spending just under 22 hours on the moon surface, collecting rocks and soil and leaving behind a commem- orative plaque and other mementos, the two astronauts prepared to leave. Again the world held its breath would the Eagle be able to lift off suc- cessfully? Or would Collins be forced to return to Earth alone? But everything went according to plan, the Eagle took off, latched onto

APOLLO 11 CREW NEIL ARMSTRONG (left) (1930-2012) wasafighter pilot in the Korean War in the
APOLLO 11 CREW
NEIL ARMSTRONG (left) (1930-2012)
wasafighter pilot in the Korean War in
the 1950s and later became a test pilot
(a pilot who flies an aircraft to test its
performance). After Apollo 11 he retired
from NASA and became a university
professor and later a businessman.
MICHAEL COLLINS (middle) (85), the
command module pilot, left NASA in
1970 and became undersecretary of
the Smithsonian Institute in Washing-
ton, the world’s largest museum and
research complex. In 1985 he started
an aerospace consulting firm, Michael
Collins Associates, but is now retired.
BUZZ ALDRIN (86), the lunar module
pilot, was the only astronaut with a
doctorate (in astronautics). After leav-
ing NASA in 1971 he became command-
er of the US Air Force’s test pilot
school. Since his retirement he has
been working hard to keep America at
the forefront of space exploration.
Apollo’s last flight was in July 1975 when an Apollo and a Soyuz capsule docked
Apollo’s last flight was in July
1975 when an Apollo and a Soyuz
capsule docked (connected) in
space. BELOW: Astronaut Deke
Slayton (left) and cosmonaut
Alexei Leonov visited each other’s
spacecraft. BOTTOM: An artist’s
imprimpressioession of the docking.
w members 24 24 July July to to es in history
w
members
24 24 July July to to
es
in history
docking. w members 24 24 July July to to es in history Columbia, and all three
docking. w members 24 24 July July to to es in history Columbia, and all three
docking. w members 24 24 July July to to es in history Columbia, and all three
docking. w members 24 24 July July to to es in history Columbia, and all three
docking. w members 24 24 July July to to es in history Columbia, and all three

Columbia, and all three crew members

returned home safely on

heroes’ welcomes and places in history

books.

THE MOON MACHINE

Take a look at the famous Apollo spacecraft and its super powerful Saturn rocket

APOLLO AT A GLANCE

COMMAND MODULE

The only part of the Apollo craft that returned to Earth. It was covered with a protective heat shield material which helped it withstand the heat of re-entering Earth’s atmosphere.

it withstand the heat of re-entering Earth’s atmosphere. ENGINE NOZZLE HEIGHT CREW MASS 45,2 16,6 m

ENGINE

NOZZLE

HEIGHT

CREW

MASS

45,2 16,6 m three tons
45,2
16,6 m
three
tons

O NLY 24 astronauts have flown the 400 000 km to the moon and of those only 12 walked on its sur- face. They all travelled in

the Apollo spacecraft, which had three parts: the command and ser- vice modules (CSM) and the lunar module. Once in moon orbit, the lu- nar module took two astronauts to the moon surface while the third crew member circled the moon in the CSM. The top half of the lunar module (ascent stage) later re- turned the two astronauts to the CSM. On the way back to Earth the lunar module and service module were discarded and the command module with the three astronauts

splashed down into the sea.

module with the three astronauts splashed down into the sea. The cre w s tayed in

The crew stayed in the com- mand module for most of their journey to and from the moon.

The nozzle for the capsule’s main engine, which propelled it through space. SERVICE MODULE Provided
The nozzle for
the capsule’s
main engine,
which propelled
it through space.
SERVICE MODULE
Provided life support systems and
power for the crew and housed the
craft’s main engine.
FUEL TANKS
ASTRONAUTS

Supplied fuel to the main engine.

SATURN V ROCKET

SA TURN V ROCKET

The Apollo astronauts were blasted into space inside the nose cone of the largest rocket to date to ever fly into space: Saturn V. Nearly 111 m high, the Saturn V was as tall as a 30-storey building. This giant launch vehicle consisted of three rockets in one. The first two stages (parts) lifted the Apollo craft into space. The third stage set the craft on course for the moon.

FIRST STAGE

Contained a tank of kerosene fuel and a tank of liquid oxygen. The five engines burned 15 tons of fuel per second during launch.

engines burned 15 tons of fuel per second during launch. INTERSTAGE SECOND ADAPTOR STAGE Linked the
engines burned 15 tons of fuel per second during launch. INTERSTAGE SECOND ADAPTOR STAGE Linked the
INTERSTAGE SECOND ADAPTOR STAGE Linked the rocket’s first two stages.
INTERSTAGE
SECOND
ADAPTOR
STAGE
Linked the
rocket’s first
two stages.

THIRD STAGE

Reached low-Earth orbit and then set Apollo on course for the moon.

low-Earth orbit and then set Apollo on course for the moon. LUNAR MODULE Housed in an

LUNAR

MODULE

and then set Apollo on course for the moon. LUNAR MODULE Housed in an aluminium cone,

Housed in an aluminium cone, it was used for the moon landing.

PICTURES: JASON HARDING/DORLING KINDERSLEY; NASA SERVICE COMMAND MODULE MODULE This module Astronauts powered the
PICTURES: JASON HARDING/DORLING KINDERSLEY; NASA
SERVICE
COMMAND
MODULE
MODULE
This module
Astronauts
powered the stayed
Apollo craft.
here during
launch.

JOURNEY TO THE MOON

THERE AND BACK 11 The six Apollo missions that Th i A ll i i
THERE AND BACK
11
The six Apollo missions that
Th
i
A
ll
i
i
tha t
10
1 1
The trip from Earth
to the moon took
about three days.
The Apollo landing
sites were on the
side of the moon
landed men on the moon
took the same route: liftoff
from Florida in the US, to
the moon then splashdown n
in the Pacific Ocean.
1
5
that faces Earth.
12
2
7
9
8
3
4
1 Saturn V rocket carrying Apollo blasts off
g
Apollo blasts off
and positions the craft in Earth’s orbit.
n
Earth’s orbit.
6
2 The rocket’s third stage and and the the Apollo Apollo craft craft
The The third third crew crew member member continues continues
7 7
leave Earth’s orbit and head ead towards towards the the moon. moon.
to to orbit orbit the the moon moon in in the the CSM. CSM.
3 The combined command and service
d
and service
The The lunar lunar module module leaves leaves the the moon moon and and takes takes the the
8 8
module (CSM) throws off the rocket.
the rocket.
astronauts astronauts back back to to the the CSM. CSM. It It is is then then discarded. discarded.
4 The CSM separates from the lunar module,
m
the lunar module,
9 9
The The CSM CSM adjusts adjusts its its course course and and heads heads back back to to Earth. Earth.
turns around and then reattaches. eattaches.
10 10
Th The service i module d l i is th thrown off. ff
5 The Apollo craft adjusts its course to go
into lunar orbit.
11 The command module enters Earth’s atmosphere.
6 The lunar module carries two astronauts to
the moon surface.
12 The command module makes a parachute landing in the sea.
THRUSTERS Small thrusters made fine adjustments to the Apollo space- craft’s movements.
THRUSTERS
Small thrusters made
fine adjustments to
the Apollo space-
craft’s movements.

ASCENT STAGE

This part of the lunar module housed the astro- nauts while they explored the moon and it took them back to the CSM.

they e xplored the moon and it took them back to the CSM. LEGS AND PADS

LEGS AND PADS

Flexible legs with wide pads on the bottom made the moon landing softer and kept the craft stable on the surface.

landing softer and kept the craft stable on the surface. DESCENT STAGE The ascent stage (top

DESCENT STAGE

The ascent stage (top half) of the lunar module launched from this stage (bottom half) to get back to the Apollo. The descent stage remained on the moon.

DESCENT ENGINE This engine was used to slow down the lunar module’s descent during landing.
DESCENT
ENGINE
This engine was used
to slow down the lunar
module’s descent during
landing.
SENSING PROBE
Probes on the legs
touched the ground
first during landing
and sent signals to
shut down the engine.
LEG LADDER
FUEL TANK
Astronauts used
the ladder on a leg
to climb down to
the moon surface.
This tank contained
fuel for the lunar
module’s descent
engine.
contained fuel for the lunar module’s descent engine. MAN ON THE MOON The lunar module was

MAN ON

THE MOON

The lunar module was the only part of the Apollo craft to reach the moon’s surface. Preprogrammed controls manoeuvred it into position above the landing site, then an astronaut steered the craft to touchdown. Scientific equipment, a TV camera, tools and storage boxes for rock collecting were all stored in the bottom half of the module.

THE MOON BUGGY
THE MOON
BUGGY

The Lunar Roving Vehicle is one of the many vehicles to have explored the moon

Astronaut Eugene Cernan takes the Apollo 17 lunar rover for a spin. In 1972 he was the last man on the moon.

f or a s pin. In 1972 he was the last man on the moon. THE

THE ROVER AT A GLANCE

SPEED

EARTH

MOON

Top speed 14 km/h

Top speed

14 km/h

WEIGHT

WEIGHT

210 35
210
35

kg

kg

CREW 2
CREW
2

HE moon may be a desolate

place, but it has no shortage of vehicles Currently there are three American moon buggies on the

surface, as well as two Russian ones and one from China. A Japanese one is expect-

ed to arrive in 2017 and one from India in

2018.

The US Lunar Roving Vehicles (LRVs) were transported by the last three manned Apollo moon flights in 1971 and 1972 and were unpacked on the moon from the Apollo lunar module.The Russian Lunokhods (translates to Moonwalker) were transported by the unmanned Luna craft in 1970 and 1973. The LRVs, which are no longer opera- tional, were small electric cars with four wheels and powered by batteries. They could carry one or two astronauts, plus their equipment and any samples they gathered. Theywere built forNASA by the well-known aircraft company Boeing. Astronauts could visit sites up to 8 km away and take rock samples in a much wider area so scientists could get a better understanding of the moon’s surface.

T

SIZE COMPARISON The Apollo lunar rovers were infor- mally called moon buggies because they resembled
SIZE COMPARISON
The Apollo lunar
rovers were infor-
mally called moon
buggies because
they resembled
beach buggies in
shape and size.
Isuzu 4x4
3,1 m
1,9 m
1,1 m
mally called moon buggies because they resembled beach buggies in shape and size. Isuzu 4x4 3,1

PICTURES: NASA; NASA/DAVE SCOTT; TYROL5 – OWN WORK, CC BY-SA 3.0

JOURNEY TO THE MOON

SIMPLE TO CONTROL Reverse button The rover was controlled by a T-shaped joystick that astronauts
SIMPLE TO CONTROL
Reverse button
The rover was
controlled by
a T-shaped
joystick that
astronauts
could operate
with one
hand.
High-gain antenna
(pictures & data)
16 mm movie
camera
S-band antenna
Left
Fwd
(tracking &
communication)
SCOOP
Brake
Right
Used to
collect soil
samples
Map
holder
TV CAMERA
Commander’s
Remotely
seat
controlled by
Mission Control
on Earth.
COMMUNICATIONS
The drivers could use
this communications
device to keep in
touch with Mission
Control on Earth.
Seatbelts
Computers,
Seat storage
electronics, radiators
bags
and batteries
THE ROAD LESS TRAVELLED Below are the distances covered by various vehicles that roamed the
THE ROAD LESS TRAVELLED
Below are the distances covered by various
vehicles that roamed the moon.
LUNOKHOD 2, USSR
39 km
APOLLO 17 ROVER, USA
35,7 km
APOLLO 15 ROVER, USA
27,8 km
APOLLO 16 ROVER, USA
27,1 km
10,5 km
LUNOKHOD 1, USSR
TOUGH TYRES WIRE MESH BUMP STOP
TOUGH TYRES
WIRE MESH
BUMP STOP

The 23 cm wide tyre is made up of zinc-coated woven steel strands. Titanium chevron (v-shaped pat- tern) treads cover 50 % of the contact area, providing traction. They are designed to drive up to 180 km.

CROSS-

SECTION

OF WHEEL
OF WHEEL
a re designed to drive up to 180 km. CROSS- SECTION OF WHEEL Stops the mesh

Stops the

mesh from

damaging

the rim

ELECTRIC MOTOR TITANIUM CHEVRON TREADS yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SPAC E | 35
ELECTRIC
MOTOR
TITANIUM
CHEVRON
TREADS
yo u.co.z a GATEWAY TO SPAC E | 35

SUIT UP!

A spacesuit is likeatiny spaceship for one – it provides air to breathe, air conditioning, water to drink and even a built-in loo!

S PACE is an unfriendly place with lots of dangers in an en- vironment vastly different from ours on Earth. Space- suits are designed very care-

fully to protect crew members who have to venture out of a spacecraft on

spacewalks.

WHATWILL HAPPEN TO YOUR BODY IN SPACEWITHOUT A SPACESUIT?

Lack of oxygen will cause you to pass

out within 15 seconds. Even worse:

your blood and other body fluids will bubble because of lack of air pressure. Your skin, heart and other internal organs will expand because of the bub- bling blood and you’ll swell to twice your size! Temperatures var y vastly from 120 ºC in the sun to minus 120 ºC in the shade. You could also be killed by tiny flying dust particles that can strike at a speed of 27 000 km per hour. Then there’s the danger of damaging ultra- violet and cosmic rays

HOW THE SPACESUIT PROTECTS

It has an undergarment with special tubes that circulate water throughout the suit to help cool the body and prevent overheating. The suit has many different layers made from different materials to help regulate temperature and protect against space dust and debris and shield the body from radiation.

Enough oxygen for more than seven hours (as well as half an hour backup) is contained in a special life-support backpack.

The visor on the helmet is coated with thin gold foil that helps to protect the eyes from radiation and the sun’s rays. The white col- our of the suit also helps to reflect heat from the sun’s rays.

IS IT POSSIBLE TO EAT, DRINK AND SPEAK ON A SPACEWALK?

WHAT IF THE ASTRONAUT NEEDS TO GO TO THE LOO?

CEWALK? WHA T IF T HE ASTRONAUT NEEDS TO GO TO THE LO O? Yes, it
CEWALK? WHA T IF T HE ASTRONAUT NEEDS TO GO TO THE LO O? Yes, it

Yes, it is. A water bag is built into the front of the suit from which water can be sipped through a tube. There is also a pocket foracereal bar which the astronaut can pull up into his or her mouth. The whole bar has to be eaten at once to prevent crumbs floating inside the helmet. A microphone and earphones are attached to a cap under the helmet.

Spacewalks can last up to seven hours, and if astronauts want to go to the toilet they can’t simply rush back to the ISS. So the first garment he or she puts on when dressing for the spacewalk, is a Maximum Absorbent Garment (MAG). That is just a fancy word for a nappy! The MAG can absorb both urine and poop and is pulled on like pants.

36 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a

The MA G c an absorb both urine and poop and is pulled on lik e

GATEWAY TO SPACE

JOURNEYTOTHEMOON

TOP SUITS ESCAPE SUITS EVA SUITS Worn in the spacecraft during liftoff and landing Worn
TOP SUITS
ESCAPE SUITS
EVA SUITS
Worn in the
spacecraft during
liftoff and
landing
Worn during
spacewalks
(EVAs)
This suit has been discontinued
since the end of the Space
Shuttle programme.
ACES
EMU
(Space Shuttle’s
(American Extra-
Advanced Crew
vehicular Mobility
Escape Suit)
Unit)
SOKOL-KV-2
ORLAN-MK
spacesuit
Worn inside Soyuz
(Russian)
(Russian space-
costs about
R180
walk suit)
One MILLION
SHENZHOU IVA
FEITIAN
Inside Shenzhou
(Chinese space-
craft (Chinese)
walk suit)
PICTURES: NASA; JOHNSON SPACE CENTER;PIXELSQUID

THE SUPER SPACESUIT

Let’s takealook at the EMU, NASA’s clothing system designed for spacewalks

Camera VISOR Gold-foiled visor for sun protection
Camera
VISOR
Gold-foiled visor
for sun protection
Camera VISOR Gold-foiled visor for sun protection IN-SUIT DRINK BA G ( IDB) A t ube

IN-SUIT DRINK BAG (IDB)

visor for sun protection IN-SUIT DRINK BA G ( IDB) A t ube leads from the

A tube leads from the plastic water-filled pouch inside the HUT to keep astronauts hydrated.

OVER AND OUT

Communication system with microphone

THE EMU SPACESUIT The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has been used since 1981 and is
THE EMU SPACESUIT
The Extravehicular Mobility Unit
(EMU) has been used since 1981 and
is still worn by astronauts on the ISS.
The EMU components include
1
Undergarments
2
Hard Upper Torso (HUT) Assembly
3
Arm sections
4
Gloves
5
Soft Lower Torso Assembly (LTA)
6
Extravehicular Visor Assembly
7
Primary Life Support System
6
6
1
2
3
4
5
7

The EMU’S 13 layers of material consist of

B

Inner cooling garment with two layers containing water tubes to keep the body cool.

B

Pressure garment with two layers that keep the suit filled with air.

B

Thermal micrometeoroid garment that contains eight layers to protect against space dust and other objects.

B

One waterproof and fire-resistant outer layer.

DISPLAY AND CONTROL MODULE

The astronaut can control oxygen, cooling, radio and other systems. Labels are written in reverse so they can read them with a mirror placed on their wrist.

the y c an read them with a m irror placed on their wrist. Push to
Push to talk Display intensity control Volume
Push
to talk
Display
intensity
control
Volume
controls GLOVES The gloves have miniature heaters in every finger. They are coated to allow
controls
GLOVES
The gloves have
miniature heaters
in every finger.
They are coated to
allow for better grip.
It contains special
material to keep
MASS
hands warm.
QUESTIONS ANSWERED
178
Why are the suits white?
kg on
White helps to reflect the sun’s heat.
Earth

Temperatures in direct sunlight in space can be more than 135 ºC. Why does the suit haveared stripe? Some have red stripes, others have candy cane stripes and some have no stripes at all – this helps the other astronauts and Mission Control on Earth to distinguish the spacewalkers from one another. What is the Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG)? This is the astronaut’s nappy. It’s worn during liftoff, landing and spacewalks.

38 | GATEWAY TO SPAC E yo u.co.z a