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Industrial Training Report 2014

INTRODUCTION
We have been assigned the construction site of a commercial building
owned by Mr Abid Ali for study by the company.The site is located near the
Mankav Bridge, off the Mini Bypass road in Kozhikode.

The building has been designed by NAZAR ASSOCIATES, CALICUT


and the structural consultants are STREAMLINE CONSORTIUM, Chalapuram,
Calicut.

SITE PLAN

CHAPTER 2

DETAILS OF STRUCTURE

The height of the structure is 13.75m.


The total area of the building is 2583 m2.
The structure consists of four floors.
The structures has a lift well and two staircases.
The basement floor is designed as parking space.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 1 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

CHAPTER 3

REPORT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINIG DAY 1 13/12/2013

We reached the site by 10 am. We collected all the drawings (structural


and architectural) from the supervisor. Then we studied the plan with the
existing site conditions.

1. PILE AND PILE CAP

We compared the location and orientation of the pile caps in the


basement floor with the key plan. There were both 2 headed and 3 headed pile
caps. As there was a well in the site, the orientation of one of the pile cap was
made different from other caps. Architect Mr. Basil explained about the piling
process. Following were the observations, new information and findings.

Direct Mud Circulation (DMC) piles were used.


From the drawings we compared the size of the piles, detailing of
reinforcement etc.
Piling procedure.
Pile chipping.

2. STAIRCASE DETAILING

Detailing of reinforcement of one of the front staircases was studied. We


found the reinforcement main rings are of 10 mm diameter and distributor of 8
mm diameter. Then we observed the position of beams. One of the two beams of
each flight was under the first step and the second one at the end of the landing.
We observed a difference in the drawing and the provision I the site. As per
drawing the beam was to be provided just below the first step of the flight. But
in the site it was at a distance from the first step. The site supervisor Mr. Jithu
explained the detailing of that beam.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 2 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

3. CONCEALED BEAM

The structural plan introduced us a new type of beam called concealed


beam. It is the beam provided with the same thickness of the slab. In the
building it was provided for the sunshade. Sunshade was 160 cm wide and not
supported by cantilever beams. Therefore the concealed beam was provided to
support the sunshade as the normal detailing could not work effectively.

4. BAR BENDING SCHEDULE

The first task that was given to us was to prepare the bar bending
schedule of the entire building for the next week. As we were unaware about the
bar bending schedule the supervisors explained what it is. We understood it is
actually the estimation of the quantity of steel to be bought for providing the
reinforcement to the structural elements in the structures. It is calculated by
finding the total length of bar for each beam and slab from the detailing and
d2
then converting it into weight in kg by multiplying by a factor (x 7850 ).
4
We were provided with a sample bar bending schedule. We also estimated the
steel for a single beam.

We also enquired about the duties of a site engineer, the challenges that
would to be faced, the general details of the ongoing construction etc and left
the site by 4 pm. The day 1 of the training in short was really informative.

DAY 2 14/12/2013
The days training started at 10.30 am. The first task assigned was to
calculate the quantity of concrete for the columns of ground floor. We were
provided with the key plan. From the dimensions of different columns we
calculated the volume of columns and thereby the quantity of concrete
required.The volume obtained was 13.636 m3.
Then we were asked to calculate the quantity of concrete for the rear stair for
one floor. We found the width of thread and rise using a tape. Calculated the
volume of concrete for thread, rise and landing seperately.The 0.522m 3,
obtained values are thread = 0.54 m 3, rise =0.27m3,and landing 1-landing 2-
0.256m3.

One batch of students joined us. For them we explained the procedure for
preparing bar bending schedule.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 3 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

In the afternoon session we divided ourselves into different groups to prepare


the bar bending schedule for the beams of ground floor. We calculated the
quantity of steel till evening.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 4 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

A sample of the work done in bar bending schedule

DAY 3 - 17/12/2013

1. EARTHFILL CALCULATION

We started the day's work with the calculation of the quantity of earth fill
required for the basement floor. For this measured the length and width of the
area to be filled. Measured the dimensions of pile cap and subtracted that area
from the area calculated from the first measured dimensions. Levels at various
locations were found out and took their average to obtain the height. The height
multiplied by the area gives the quantity of earth to be filled in cubic meters.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 5 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

2. CONCRETE ESTIMATION

After the calculation of quantity of earthfill we calculated the quantity of


concrete required for beams of half of the span of the ground floor. For this we
calculated the volume of the beam from the dimensions of the area and
multiplied it by the density of concrete.

Sample calculation (Slab concrete)

1 . 6.1 3.25 0.12=2.379 m3

2 . 5.8 3.2 0.12=2.227 m 3

3. 5.7 3.3 0.12=2.257 m3

4. 3.9 3.7 0.12=1.731m 3

5. 3.75 2.85 0.12=1.282m 3

6. 5.75 3 0.12=2.07 m3

7. 5.75 3 0.12=2.07 m3

8 . 5.75 3 0.12=2.07 m 3

9 . 2.75 3.65 0.12=1.2045 m3

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 6 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

10. 3.5 2.8 0.12=1.176 m3

11 . 5.7 2.7 0.12=1.932m 3

12. 2.8 5.75 0.12=1.932m 3

13. 2.8 5.75 0.12=1.932m 3

14. 2.75 3.45 0.12=1.138m 3

15. 5.7 3.2 0.12=2.188 m3

16. 2.5 5.7 0.12=1.71m 3

17. 5.65 2.55 0.12=1.728 m 3

18. 5.65 2.55 0.12=1.728 m 3

19 . 1.6038m 3

Total=34.2723 m3

Concrete for beam

A0.3 0.6 13.8=2.484 m3

Z 83.9 0.2 0.4=0.312 m3

C0.3 0.6 11.85=2.1330.3 0.2

Z 73.65 0.2 0.4=0.292

D0.3 0.6 11.8=2.124 3.5 0.3 0.2

DAY 4 18/12/2013

Today we visited the construction site at Pattambi. It is a five story building for
a shopping complex. Presently the reinforcement work for the basement roof
slab is going on. Hence we were able to see the provision of reinforcement for
columns, beams, staircase etc. We cleared our doubts from the site supervisor.
The capsule lift was a new knowledge for us from the site. We watched the

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 7 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

laying of reinforcement for slabs from the site. We compared all the detailing
with drawings. Also checked the detailing of the reinforcement of the retaining
wall.

DAY - 5 19/12/2013

For the first time we were able to see the reinforcement of the mezzanine roof of
the Mankav site. The site engineer Mr.C.Umesh was doing the reinforcement
check. We joined him. We collected the detailing and measured the provided
reinforcement and checked with the drawings. Cleared our doubts with the
engineer and supervisors.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 8 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

CONCLUSION

It was a wonderful learning experience at the various worksites of


streamline consortium for 5 days. We gained a lot of insight regarding every
aspect of sites. The friendly welcome from the employees is appreciating,
sharing their experience and their peace of wisdom, which they have gained in
long journey of work. We hope this experience will surely help us in our future
and also in shaping our career.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 9 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

SITE VISIT
DEVADHAR RAILWAY OVER BRIDGE, TANUR

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 10 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

INTRODUCTION

Cherian Varkey construction company is an IS / ISO 9001:2008


certified company established in 1975, engaged in the field of construction of
Bridges, Roads, Residential Commercial and Industrial buildings and
infrastrucutral works. Ever since it's inception the company has been able to
address the issue of quality in the works it has undertaken with consistency till
date. This has been possible mainly due to the efficient and able Board of
Directors and key Personals involved.

They have over the years shown their capability in construction of


bridges on pile foundations/well foundations and open foundations. The bridges
included both roads & railway bridges and for most of these bridges the
superstructure comprised of prestressed concrete box girders and of spans
ranging more than 15 metres. Besides bridges, they have also carried out
general civil engineering works including industrial buildings such as
workshop, dry dock complexes, Shopping Malls.

They have all the required infrastructure and man power to carry out
civil work on any scale. For the past 3 decades they have been executing various
types of prestigious projects for private as well as government sector. To
execute these projects in schedule, they utilize our vast infra structural resources
that is at hand. They have a highly efficient team at all levels to operate,
maintain, repair and overhaul these resources.

Roads and Bridges Development corporation (RBDC) has got the


construction empowerment of DROB. After detailed examination of tenders by
Kitko, the consulting agency of RBDC, CheriyanVarkey Construction Company
(CVCC) Pvt Ltd has got the responsibility of construction.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 11 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

SITE DESCRIPTION

The site is near Devadhar Government Higher Secondary school, Tanur. The
structure consists of 21 spans of each having 20m with a total length of 689 m.
There are 20 piers and 2 abutments out of which the construction of four piers
and three spans are undertaken by railway. 11 piers constructed by CVCC, 2
railway piers and an abutment are at Calicut side. On the tirur side there are 5
piers constructed by CVCC, 2 railway piers and an abutment. There are
retaining walls beyond the abutments towards the approach road. Retaining wall
in Calicut side rests on paddy field and there is a culvert also, while the
retaining wall in tirur side rests on good soil. Red sand is filled against the
retaining wall and compacted well. Against the retaining wall and compacted
well.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 12 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

The railway piers are circular in cross section and there is a group of 3 piers
resting on each pile cap. The reinforcement of railway section was epoxy
coated to prevent corrosion. All the 16 piers constructed by CVCC are of
rectangular cross section and are rests on pile foundation. The foundation
consists of pile group of 4 circular piles. Over that square pile cap is constructed
above which a single rectangular pier rests. Pier cap is constructed above the
rectangular piers. Above the pier cap, 3 pedestals are provided above which the
prestressed I girders rests. There is a neoprene bearing in between the pedestal
and the girder. The girder rests on the pedestal by its own weight through
bearing. Neoprene bearing is a steel bar reinforced rubber pad which provides a
perfect joint between the pedestal and the girder and also acts as a shock
absorber. There is a transverse girder at the centre of the span. The girders are
prestressed concrete I girders.

Prestessed concrete is basically concrete in which internal stresses of a suitable


magnitude and distribution are introduced so that the stresses resulting from
external loads are counteracted to a desired degree. Prestressing is a method for
overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. It can be used to produce

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 13 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

beams, floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary
reinforced concrete. Prestressing tendons (generally of high tensilesteelcable or
rods) are used to provide a clamping load which produces a compressive stress
that balances the tensile stress that the concrete compression member would
otherwise experience due to a bending load. The prestressing of concrete has
several advantages as compared to traditional reinforced concrete (RC) without
prestressing. A fully prestressed concrete member is usually subjected to
compression during service life. This rectifies several deficiencies of concrete.
Prestessed concrete is hence generally used for the construction of bridges. It
also allows high span to depth ratios for bridges. The depth of a prestressed
concrete (PSC) beam will be very less compared to the depth of an ordinary
reinforced concrete beam of the same span. Hence the self weight of the beam
will be less and it provides a more aesthetic appeal due to slender sections.
Overall, the presressed concrete will provide economic sections.

Based on the sequence of casting the concrete and applying tension to the
tendons, the prestressing may be either pretensioning or post tensioning. Pre-
tensioning is a method of prestressing concrete in which the tendons are
tensioned before concreting. Post-tensioning is a method of prestressing
concrete in which prestessing steel is tensioned against the hardened concrete.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 14 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

Here the girders constructed by CVCC are cast in situ post tensioned girders and
the girders constructed by railway are precast post tensioned girders. The use of
precast girders will results into rapid construction, better quality control and
reduced maintenance of the structure.

WORK PROGRESS AT SITE

The construction of all 16 piers and 2 abutments of CVCC and 2 railway piers
has been completed. All spans of CVCC except 2 spans were casted. The
stressing of all spans except 4 spans was completed. There is a gap left between
each span to allow the expansion due to temperature changes.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 15 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

The post tensioning of the span-P2-P3 was observed. The profiling of the span-
P10-P11 was completed and formworks are placed at suitable cover distance.
The parabolic profiling of the tendons was achieved by providing Galvanized
Iron (GI) sheathing pipe whose ends were fixed at both ends of the girder at
each duct. There are 6 ducts out of which the topmost one is dummy. A set of
tendons are fished through the duct and the concrete is poured. The side shutters
were removed after 24 hours. Once the concrete has hardened, the stressing can
be done. A circular bearing plate of some specification is fixed at the end of the
girder. The bearing plate consists of 7 holes through which the tendons were
taken out. The holes in the bearing plate are tapered towards the inside portion
of the bearing plate so as to provide the provision for holding the tapered wedge
with tendon in position. After fixing the wedges in position, tendons are
tensioned by hydraulic jack that react against the concrete member itself. The
pressure was applied as per the design specification and the corresponding
elongation of the tendon was measured. When the tendons have stretched
sufficiently according to the design specifications, the tendons were wedged in
position and maintain tension after the jack is removed. This tension in the
tendons will be transferred to the concrete as compression. The extended ends

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 16 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

of the tendon were then cut and removed.The duct is then grouted to protect the
tendons from corrosion.

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 17 GEC


Kozhikode
Industrial Training Report 2014

Dept. Of Civil Engineering 18 GEC


Kozhikode