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Jun 16, 2017

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2016-2017

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

2016-2017

1.1compressors

Compressor is a device used to deliver the air at a pressure higher than that original pressure.

Basically compressors are broadly classified into two types based upon their function

They are

1. positive displacement

working fluid.

2. Dynamic displacement

Dynamic compressors work by mechanically changing the velocity of the working fluid.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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1.2.1CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

A centrifugal compressor is a radial flow dynamic displacement machine that uses mostly air

as the working fluid and utilizes the mechanical energy imparted to the machine from outside

to increase the total internal energy of the fluid mainly in the form of increased static

pressure head.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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1. Stationary casing

2. Rotating impeller

3. Diffuser

Air is sucked into the impeller eye and whirled outwards at high speed by the impeller disk.

At any point in the flow of air through the impeller the centripetal acceleration is obtained by

a pressure head so that the static pressure of the air increases from the eye to the tip of the

impeller. The remainder of the static pressure rise is obtained in the diffuser, where the very

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

2016-2017

high velocity of air leaving the impeller tip is reduced to almost the velocity with which the

air enters the impeller eye.

Usually, about half of the total pressure rise occurs in the impeller and the other half in the

diffuser. Owing to the action of the vanes in carrying the air around with the impeller, there

is a slightly higher static pressure on the forward side of the vane than on the trailing face.

The air will thus tend to flow around the edge of the vanes in the clearing space between the

impeller and the casing. This results in a loss of efficiency and the clearance must be kept as

small as possible. Sometimes, a shroud attached to the blades may eliminate such a loss, but

it is avoided because of increased disc friction loss and of manufacturing difficulties.

The straight and radial blades are usually employed to avoid any undesirable bending stress

to be set up in the blades. The choice of radial blades also determines that the total pressure

rise is divided equally between impeller and diffuser.

flow compressors _ a strategy for aerodynamic design and analysis-ASME Press (2003).pd

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Suitable for continuous compressed air supply, such as cooling unit.

The oil free in nature.

They have fewer rubbing parts.

High-flow rate than the positive displacement compressors

Relatively energy efficient.

Wide range of rotational speed.

Centrifugal compressors are reliable, low maintenance.

Generating a higher pressure ratio per stage as compared to axial flow

compressor.

It does not require special foundation.

Large frontal area for a given air flow rate compared to the axial flow

compressor.

Unsuitable for very high compression, limited pressure.

They are sensitive to changes in gas composition.

They work at high speed, sophisticated vibration mounting needed.

Problem of surging, stalling, choking

compressed air for some sensitive application such as food processing.

Centrifugal compressor meets high demand of compressed air.

Gas turbines, in automobile turbochargers and supercharger.

Oil refineries, natural-gas processing.

Refrigeration, air-conditioning and HVAC.

Manufacturing process compressed air for pneumatic tools.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

2016-2017

Before world war-2 there is consistent use of axial flow compressors because of high

pressure ratio and higher efficiencies. There is a significant rise in pressure ratio in axial

compressor from past five decades in aviation industry.

1. Rotor

2. Stator

strategy for aerodynamic design and analysis-ASME Press (2003).pd

Axial flow compressor arrangement will start with set of inlet guides vanes This is an

additional stator row upstream of the first stage in the compressor and serves to direct the

axially approaching flow correctly into the first row of rotating blades and former carrying

moving blades and followed by stationary blades.

The stationary blades convert the kinetic energy of the fluid into pressure energy, and also

redirect the flow into an angle suitable for entry to the next row of moving blades. Each stage

will consist of one rotor row followed by a stator row. For a compressor, a row of rotor

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Figure 1.5 : Flow in stator blades and rotor blades (adopted from NPTEL lecture)

In axial flow compressors the air enters and leaves in the axial direction. So, the centrifugal

component in the energy equation does not come into play. Here the compression is fully

based on diffusing action of the passages. The diffusing action in stator converts absolute

kinetic head of the fluid into pressure rise. The relative kinetic head in the energy equation is

a term that exists only because of the rotation of the rotor. The rotor reduces the relative

kinetic head of the air and adds it to the absolute kinetic head of the fluid. Hence the rotor

increases the absolute velocity of the fluid and the stator converts this into pressure rise.

Designing the rotor passage with a diffusing capability can produce a pressure rise in

addition to its normal functioning. This produces greater pressure rise per stage in axial flow

compressors.

Blast furnaces.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

For given mass flow rate, It requires less frontal area than centrifugal compressors

and thus reduction in drag.

The vortex generator is an Passive flow control device consisting of a small vane or bump

that creates a vortex .Vortex generators delay flow separation and aerodynamic stalling; they

improve the effectiveness of control surfaces; they alleviate potential shock-stall. It is likely

to be found on the external surfaces of wings of an aircraft where flow separation is a

potential problem because vortex generators delay flow separation. On aircraft they are

installed on the front third of a wing in order to maintain steady airflow over the control

surfaces at the rear of the wing.

Figure 1.6: Flow with vortex generators and without vortex generators

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Proper location of vortex generators is very important. They should be positioned precisely in

the transition region of the boundary layer. Situation is somewhat complicated by the fact

that transition region, depending on the flow conditions and angle of attack, changes its

position. If Vortex generators will be too close to the leading edge will be in the laminar

boundary layer and cause excessive drag during cruise, but if they are too far from the

leading edge their effectiveness at high angles of attack and low flight speed may be affected.

There are so many different types of vortex generators are using in aircraft industry. Some of

the vortex generators are shown below

Rectangular shape VG

Parabolic shape VG

Triangular shape VG

Gothic shape VG

Ogive shape VG

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Lower approach speed.

Higher angle of attack.

Increased stability at low speeds.

Higher rate of climb.

More effective control.

The project mainly concentrates on the preliminary design of the axial flow compressor

along with vortex generators on the suction surface of stator blades and how the vortex

generators on the suction surface of stator blades will affect the flow in the stator passage. To

design an axial flow compressor first setup the air foil nomenclature and further we need to

assume some of the parameters such as Air mass flow rate , Axial velocity , Pressure ratio ,

Blade speed,.. etc. we need to calculate some of the variables such as pressure ratio

,temperature across the each stage ,velocity triangles. Using MATLAB we generate

MATLAB code for further studies or any new design development in axial compressors. As

we stated earlier about the proper position of the vortex generators, we calculate the position

and proper size of vortex generators and how many pair of vortex generators to be placed on

the suction surface of the stator blade in axial flow compressors.

1.7 Overview

The literature review, which includes background of the design of axial flow compressor and

vortex generators, is given in chapter 2. It includes the background, theory and design of

axial flow compressors and vortex generators. The essential formulae employed in the design

of axial flow compressor and vortex generators are described in chapter 3 along with

description of axial flow compressors and vortex generators theory. The problem statement

of the project is described in chapter 4. The methodology used to carry out the design of axial

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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flow compressors and vortex generators is explained in Chapter 5.the modelling and pre-

processing explained in chapter 6. The results obtained are illustrated in Chapter 7 along with

the conclusions . Finally, recommendations for future work are given in Chapter 8

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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2.1 Introduction

In this chapter, From the research conducted, it was found that the design of a Axial flow

compressor and design of vortex generators and how it effect the flow in axial compressors

has been done and published in journal and reseach in some of the universities. The work

conducted by these engineers and institutions allowed for a better understanding on the

fundamentals design of axial flow compressors and vortex generators and effect of flow on

stator blade in axial compressors

2.2 papers and journals published on axial flow compressor

2.2.1 Design and Analysis of Stator, Rotor and Blades of the Axial flow

Compressor by Ujjawal A. Jaiswal Institute of Technology, Nirma University,Prof. S. J.

Joshi

In design of Axial flow compressor the work presented comprises of basic flow parameters

and dimensions of parts, this makes the further design process quite easier and the results will

be helpful to take further changes or improvement at the time of detailed design. The

objective of work presented is to design Axial flow compressor by using mean line method

for a given mass flow rate and required pressure ratio.

The fundamental components of a axial flow compressors includes rotor and stator. Suitable

design point under sea level static condition. Design of a axial flow compressor with

axial speed=170m/s,

results:- The blade profile has been generated for both rotor and stator analytically.

-Theoretical results

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

2016-2017

Gaddam Srikanth, S.Srinivas Prasad , V. Mahesh Kumar, B. Mounica Reddy,

MLR Institute of Technology, February 2014.

Design of a two stage axial flow compressor of constant mean diameter type using blade

profile of NACA series.

As the hub diameter goes on decreasing ,the pitch decreases and the no. of blades increases.

The geometry created can be used as model either to carry fluid flow analysis.

2.2.3Effect of Vortex Generators on the flow over the stator blade surface

of an axial flow compressor, Mr. Shrinidhi sudhakar Gulvadi,ASI, 2016

The employment of ramp shaped vortex generators to get favorable pressure ratio

across each stage of axial flow compressor

2.2.4 V. GANESAN, Gas Turbines, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill , New

Delhi

Theory,5thedition, Pearson Prentice Hall ,2001

Stagger angle ,number of stages , number of blades on each stage.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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start

Calculate inlet and outlet stagnation pressure and temperature for every stages

Generate blade coordinates for stator and rotor for all stages

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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End

W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV by Clara Marika Velte Martin Otto Lavr

Hansen Knud Erik Meyer Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of

Denmark Kgs. Lyngby, 2800,DENMARK

From these paper we are considering the height and length of the vortex generators.

Placing of vortex generators on the suction surface of the blade.

Spanwise distance between the blades.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Vortex Generators)

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

2016-2017

CHAPTER 3

THEORY OF AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR AND VORTEX

GENERATORS

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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3.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the significance of the axial flow compressor i.e., how it works, what

are the parameters governing of the axial flow compressor and how the pressure is increased.

Early axial flow units had pressure ratios of around 5:1 and required about 10stages. Over the

years the overall pressure ratios available have risen dramatically, and some turbofan engines

have pressure ratios exceeding 30: 1. Continued aerodynamic development has resulted in a

steady increase in stage pressure ratio, with the result that the number of stages for a given

overall pressure ratio has been greatly reduced

The axial flow compressor consists of a series of stages comprising of a rotor and stator.

Rotor is connected to hub of increasing diameter which consists the shaft that connects the

turbine and the compressor. Stator is the stationary part that is attached the casing. The

process consists of a series of diffusions, both in the rotor and stator blade passages. The

turbine rotates the rotor through shaft and the rotor energizes the air increasing its kinetic

energy of air at the entry of the rotor tip. As the air passes the passage become divergent

which converts the kinetic energy into pressure energy by an amount dictated by the degree

of reaction. Now the air enters the stator passage where no work transfer will be taken place

but the remaining kinetic energy of the flow is converted into pressure energy.

It is assumed that the flow will have the same axial velocity as before and after passing

through the stage. The work done by the compressor and the rise of the temperature across.

Each stage and the velocity of air inside the passage can be calculated from the velocity

triangles. The passage between the compressor blades is shown below

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Figure: 3.1 16 stage axial flow compressor (adopted from Cohen and Rogers)

Figure: 3.2 passage between blades (adopted from Cohen and Rogers)

The working fluid in an axial flow compressor is normally air. The work done by the

compressor is equal to the work absorbed by the compressor from the turbine.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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W = h03-h01 = h02-h01

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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U Vf

t0s = (U Vf (tan (2) - tan (1)) -------->3

The above equation represents the temperature change across each stage.

Stagnation properties across the stator remains constant, but in practice, there will be some

decrease in stagnation pressure in the stator due to fluid friction. Losses will also occur in the

rotor and the stagnation pressure rise will be less than would be obtained with an isentropic

compression and. the same power input. A T-s diagram for the stage, showing the effect of

losses in both rotor and stator, is also shown in figure below,

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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This diagram indicates the deviation of the process from ideal to real case, where the ( )

properties indicate the ideal process whose entropy is constant but in practice the process will

have losses. Using this difference the isentropic efficiency of compressor is determined,

It is denoted by i

02 01

i = , isentropic efficiency of compressor

0201

The total pressure rise is not occurred in the rotor passage alone, only a part of pressure is

increased in rotor and the remaining pressure is increased in stator.

The amount of pressure rise in rotor alone is defined by the term known as degree of

reaction. Denoted by R.

It tells about how effectively the rotor is working than stator, a good compressor should have,

R=0.5.

It is the ratio of enthalpy rise across rotor to the enthalpy rise across the stage.

21

R= 31

R=2 (tan(1) +tan (2))

These are the small aerodynamic devices usually attached to the lifting surface like airfoil ,

aircraft wings, rotor blade of wind turbine etc. where ever boundary layer gets separated due

to low energy of the flow.

In the compressor as the pressure increases it is hard for the flow to pass over

the airfoil or blade due this is known as adverse pressure gradient. The flow loses its energy

to move forward as a result due to its low energy the flow gets separated from the surface this

is known as boundary layer separation.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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The vortex generators produce vortices which increases the kinetic energy of the flow and

decrease the boundary layer separation.

The dimensions of the vortex generators depend on the size of the boundary layer,

smoothness of the surface etc. and usually positioned in the transition region after which the

flow requires energy to get stick with the surface.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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CHAPTER-4

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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The project aim to design axial flow compressor by using mean line method is a very quick

and reliable method for compressor preliminary design. For a given mass flow rate and

required pressure ratio. The parameters also include thermodynamic properties of the

working fluid, stage efficiency, number of rotor and stator blades, tip and hub diameters,

blade dimensions like chord, length and space for both rotor and stator, Mach number, flow

and blade angles (blade twist) for all stages. The twist of the blades can be calculated along

the blade length at any required number of sections to obtain smooth blade twist profile.

NACA 65410 profiles is used to generate coordinates of the blade. Further, in the process the

first stage of axial flow compressor is developed using CATIAV5 software. Development of

MATLAB code using MATLAB for further studies. The performance of the compressor

blade is considerably influenced by secondary flow effects like the cross flow on the end wall

as well as corner flow separation between the wall and the blade. It is necessary to

investigate the unsteady flow field inside the blade passages. The performance of an Axial

Flow Compressor stage can be improved by minimizing the effects of secondary flow and by

reducing flow separation. At higher blade loading, interaction of tip secondary flow and

separated flow on blade surface is more near the tip of the stator. This results in stall and

hence decreases compressor performance. Here, the flow is mainly disturbed by unsteadiness

due to stator tip and hub interaction.

When a vortex generator deployed at proper positions delays the boundary layer separation

over the blade surface and improves the aerodynamics of the flow over the blade surface. The

ability of vortex generators is to reduce the cross-passage secondary flow in a stator passage.

The vortex generators which are placed apart equally over the span of the blade on the

suction side of a stator, yields a good performance in terms of developing a favorable

pressure ratio of the stage. The separation of the flow is delayed due to the formation of tip

vortices over the vortex generators.

Vortex generators are designed in CATIAv5 and Study of flow on stator blade with vortex

generators and without vortex generation using ANSYS SOFTWARE

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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CHAPTER 5

METHODOLOGY

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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5.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the detailed steps in the development and procedure for designing of

the axial flow compressor and vortex generators.

start

Calculate inlet and outlet stagnation pressure and temperature for every stages

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Generate blade coordinates for stator and rotor for all stages

End

The steps involved in the design of axial flow compressor is shown in the flow chart.

Suitable design point under the sea level static conditions

Air mass flow rate is 20 kg/sec.

Axial velocity Ca= 170 m/s

Blade speed is 250m/s.

From these data it has to investigate the aerodynamic design of the compressor of the engine.

We are assumed that the compressor has no inlet guide vanes because of weight reduction

and noise and also for easy to do calculations.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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There is no equation enables for selection of suitable value

of rotational speed. This can be obtained by assuming the blade speed ,axial velocity ,and the

hub-tip ratio at the inlet of the compressor.

Without inlet guide vanes there will be no whirl component of velocity at the inlet, and this

will increase the Mach number relative to the blade.

The hub-tip ratio at the entry is taken as 0.5 ,and for the annulus area the tip radius will be

will be function of hub-tip ratio. If the hub-tip ratio is lower , this would merely increase the

mismatch between the compressor and turbine diameters, and also complicate both the

mechanical and aerodynamic design of the first stage and also increase the weight of the

compressor.

The required annulus area can be obtain from the specific mass flow by using the continuity

equation.

From continuity equation,

m=1ACa = 1rt2[1-( )2] Ca

=

[ ( )]

P01=pa= 101 bar. With

C1 = Ca = 170 m/s

then the static conditions at inlet of compressor is

from energy equation

1 = 273.82

1 = 0.847

1 = 1.077 /3

then = 0.2153

from the hub- tip ratio

= 0.1076

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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The blade height (h) is the difference of radius of tip( ) and radius of hub ( )

h=0.1076 m

The mean radius of the rotor is

+

=

2

= 0.16145

The mean speed, Um, is related to rm by Um = 2 , and hence if Um is chosen to be 250

m/s,

N=14786.77 rpm

The blade speed at the tip of the rotor Ut =333.37 m/s .

At this stage it is appropriate to check the Mach number relative to the rotor tip

at inlet to the compressor. Assuming the axial velocity to be constant across the

annulus, which will be the case where there are no inlet guide vanes,

Velocity of air at blade tip " V1t "

V1t2 = Ut2+ Ca2

V1t = 374.219 m/s .

the speed of sound is obtained from

= 1

a=331.69 m/s .

mach number is the ratio of flow velocity to the local speed of sound.

V1t

=

M= 1.12

Thus the mach number relative to the rotor tip is 1.12 and the first stage is

transonic.

To estimate the annulus dimensions at exit from the compressor, and for these preliminary

calculations it will be assumed that the mean radius is kept constant for all stages. The

compressor delivery pressure, at the exit is

P0L =415 x 101 =419 bar.

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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To estimate the compressor delivery temperature it will be assumed that the polytropic

efficiency of the compressor is 090.

1

=

1

= 3.15

1

temperature at the exit of compressor

1

0

= 01 [ ]

01

= 452.5

Assuming that the air leaving the stator of the last stage has an axial velocity of

170 m/s and no swirl, the static temperature, pressure and density at exit can be calculated as

follows

from the energy equations

2

0 = +

2

the static temperature at the outlet of compressor is

= 438.12

from the isentropic relations we obtain the static pressure

1

= 0 [ ]

0

= 3.754

from the ideal gas equation

= 2.985

3

The mass flow rate is constant across the compressor

The exit annulus area is thus given by

=

= 0.0394 2

Blade height at the exit

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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=

2

= 0.0388

The radii at exit from the last stator are then

radius at the tip

= +

2

= 0.18085

radius at the root

=

2

= 0.14205

At this point we have established the rotational speed and the annulus dimensions

at inlet and outlet, on the basis of a constant mean diameter. To summarize:

= 246.66

Ut =333.37 m/s .

= 170 /.

= 0.16145

at inlet = 0.2153

= 0.1076

at exit = 0.18085

= 0.14205

With the assumed polytropic efficiency of 090, the overall stagnation temperature

rise through the compressor is 452.5 - 288.3 = 164.296 K. The temperature rise across the

each stage is constant because the work transfer is constant in every stage.

to estimate a suitable Tos based on the mean blade speed

U=250 m/s

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Figure 5.1: velocity triangle of axial flow compressor (adopted from internet)

The temperature rise across the stage is

0 = [1 2 ]

With a purely axial velocity at entry to the first stage, in the absence of IGV's,

1 =

1 = 55.78

1 = .

1

1 = 302.33

In order to estimate the maximum possible deflection in the rotor, we will apply

2

the de Haller criterion. 0.72

1

and the corresponding rotor blade outlet angle is given by

2 =

2

2 = 38.65

the temperature rise across the stage is

0 = 28.36

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Number of stages = 0

0

164.296

A temperature rise of 28.36 K per stage implies = 579 stages. It is likely,

28.36

then, that the compressor will require five or six stages and, in view of the

influence of the work-done factor, five stages is consider. An attempt will therefore be made

to design a five-stage compressor.

With stages and an overall temperature rise of 164.296 K the average temperature rise is

32.8 K per stage. A good starting point would be to assume for temperature rise across the

stage is constant.

5.5 Stage-by-stage design

Having determined the rotational speed and annulus dimensions, and estimated the number

of stages required, the next step is to evaluate the air angles for each stage at the mean radius.

It will then be possible to check that the estimated number of stages is likely to result in an

acceptable design.

From the velocity diagram, it is seen that

1 = 0, because of no inlet guide vanes

the whirl velocity at the inlet is 1 = 0;

then 2 = 2 2 =2 2

2 =

2

2 = 38.65

from the velocity diagram

2

2 =

2

2 = 135.95

= 2 + 2

2 = 114.045 /

2

2 =

2 = 33.85

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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2

2 =

2

2 = 204.71 /

STAGE 1 :

The pressure rise across the first stage is

02 0 1

( ) = (1 + )

01 1 01

The work-done factors will vary through the compressor and reasonable values for the five

stages would be 094.

(02 )1 = 1.443

The temperature rise across the each stage is constant

(02 )1=321 k

STAGE 2 :

(02 )2 = 1.985

(02 )2=353.5 k

STAGE 3 :

(02 )3 = 2.655

(02 )3=386.16 k

STAGE 4 :

(02 )4 = 3.4686

(02 )4=418.76 k

STAGE 5 :

(02 )5 = 4.19

(02 )5= 452.5 k

At the stage 1 degree of reaction is

1 + 2

=1

2

= 0.771

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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5.6.1 Rotor

The blade angles for the rotor at the first stage is

1 =

The tip, mean and root velocities are calculated, substitute the above equation blade angles at

the tip, mean and root are

(1 ) = 44.42

(1) = 55.78

(1 ) = 62.98

5.6.2 Stator

To calculate the air angles 2 and 2 it is necessary to determine the radial variation of Vw2 .

For the free vortex condition Vw2r =constant, and the value of Vw2m was previously

determined . Because of the reduction of annulus area through the compressor, the blade

height at exit from the rotor will be slightly less than at inlet, and it is necessary to calculate

the tip and root radii at exit from the rotor blades to find the relevant variation of Vw2 .

Recalling that a stator exit angle of 1.419 degrees was established,

170

3 =

(1.419)

3 = 170.052 /

32

2 = 02

2

2 = 1.22

2 = 1.392

3

2 = 0.0845 2

h=0.0833 m

=0.2031 m

=0.1198 m

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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These radii refer to conditions at the stator exit. With negligible error it can be assumed that

the radii at exit from the rotor blades are the mean of those at rotor inlet and stator exit. Thus

at exit from the rotor,

= 0.2092 m

= 0.1137

= 2

= 323.931 /

= 1760.56 /

2 = 161.939 /

2 = 88.014 m/s

The stator inlet angle is given by

2

2 =

2 = 43.6

2 = 33.85

2 = 27.37

2

2 =

2 = 4.74

2 = 38.65

2 = 54.22

5.7 Calculate Blade height, Pitch, chord and Stagger angle

Cofficient of pressure

2 2

= 1 ( )

1

= 0.4816

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Determination of the chord length will now depend on the pitch, which itself is clearly

dependent on the number of blades in the row. When making a choice for this number, the

aspect ratio of the blade, i.e. the ratio of length to chord, has to be considered because of its

effect on secondary losses. This will be discussed in greater detail in the next section on stage

performance.

5.7.1 Pitch to chord ratio

Pitch to chord ratio is given by

= 9(0.567 )

= 0.7686

Assuming the number of blades as 45

2

=

= 0.02254

substitute the pitch value in pitch to chord ratio

= 0.03

Aspect ratio of the blade is the ratio of span to chord

=

AR=3.5

One further item of information is necessary before the design of the blade forms at this

radius can be completed. Whereas the blade inlet angle 1 will be known from the air inlet

angle and chosen incidence, the blade outlet angle 2 cannot be determined from the air

outlet angle.

The deviation angle is given by

=

2 2

where = [0.23 ( ) ] + (0.1) 502

a is the distance of the point of maximum camber from the leading edge of the

blade, and 2 is in degrees. Frequently a circular arc camber-line is chosen so that 2a/c = 1,

= 0.2977

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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then = 0.2282

With this information it is now possible to fix the main geometrical parameters of

the rotor blade row . The procedure is as follows,

= 1 2 +

= 28.41

the deviation angle = 4.657.

The position of the blade chord can be fixed relative to the axial direction by

the stagger angle given by

= 1

2

=41.575

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Over a long period of time, the development of high-performance gas turbines has led to the

use of much higher flow rates per unit frontal area and blade tip speeds, resulting in higher

velocities and Mach numbers in compressors. While early units had to be designed with

subsonic velocities throughout, Mach number exceeding unity are now found in the

compressors of industrial gas turbines and Mach numbers as high as 15 are used in the

design of fans for turbofans of high bypass ratio. It is not within the scope of transonic

design in detail, it should be realized that much of the relevant High-speed cascade testing is

required to provide experimental data on compressibility effects, and in particular to

determine the values of the Mach numbers, corresponding to entry velocities relative to the

blades, which bring about poor cascade performance. The first high velocity of interest is that

corresponding to what is called the 'critical' Mach number Me; at entry velocities lower than

this, the performance of the cascade differs very little from that at low speeds. Above this

velocity, the losses begin to show a marked increase until a point is reached where the losses

completely cancel the pressure rise and the blade ceases to be any use as a diffuser. The

corresponding Mach number is then referred to as the 'maximum' value Mm. For a typical

subsonic compressor cascade at zero incidence, the values of these Mach numbers are in the

region of 0 7 and 085 respectively.

Figure 5.3 effect of mach no on losses (adopted from cohen and rogers)

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As the Mach number increases, two important effects take place first, the overall level of

losses increase substantially, and second, the range of

incidence for which losses are acceptable is drastically reduced.

Compressibility effects will be most important at the front of the compressor where the inlet

temperature, and hence the acoustic velocity, are lowest. The Mach number corresponding to

the velocity relative to the tip of the rotor is the highest encountered and is important both

from the viewpoint of shock losses and noise. The stator Mach number is generally highest at

the hub radius because of the increased whirl velocity normally required to give constant

work input at all radii in the rotor. It was deduced that this increase in loss must be due to

shock losses, but it was also found that the spacing of the blades had a considerable effect; a

reduction in solidity (i.e. an increase in pitch/chord ratio) caused a rapid increase

in loss.

A pair of double circular arc (DCA) blades , with a supersonic velocity entering in a direction

aligned with the leading edge. The supersonic expansion along the uncovered portion of the

suction side can be analysed by means of the Prandtl-Meyer relations, and the Mach number

will increase as the flow progresses along the suction surface. A shock structure is assumed

in which the shock stands near the entrance to the blade passage, striking the suction surface ,

extending in front of the blade then bending back similar to a bow wave. It is then assumed

that the loss across the shock can be approximated by the normal shock loss taken for the

average of

the Mach number. At A the Mach number is taken to be the inlet relative Mach number. The

value can be calculated from the inlet Mach number and the angle of supersonic turning ,

where the flow is tangential to the surface, using the Prandtl -Meyer relations.

5.9.1 Determine the Reynolds Number

Reynolds number is determine the type flow flow over the blade.

It is given by =

=

By using Sutherland formula

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1.5 0 + 110.4

= 0 ( ) ( )

0 + 110.4

= 1.719 105 kg/m-s.

usually the transition region start at = 2 105

therefore the transition region starting on the blade is 18.77 mm at 62.33% of chord.

The vortex generators is placing at 20 mm percentage of chord is 66.66%

At 66.66% of chord the reynolds number is 2.13*105 .

5

=

= 0.21

5.9.3 Length of the vortex generators

= 2

L=0.443 mm

5.9.4 Span wise spacing of vortex generators

The next step is determine the spacing of vortex generators along the span of the

blade. The formula is taken from the equations governing vortex flow.

10

=

2

= 27.3

Number of vortex generators is 3 pairs

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CHAPTER 6

MODELING, MESHING AND PREPROCESSING

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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CATIA, abbreviation Computer Aided Three dimensional Interactive application is multi-

platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software developed by Dassault systems written in

C++ programming language. CATIA offers a solution to shape design, styling, surfacing

workflow and visualization to create, modify, and validate complex innovative shapes from

industrial design to Class-A surfacing with the ICEM surfacing technologies. CATIA

supports multiple stages of product design whether started from scratch or from 2D sketches.

CATIA is able to read and produce STEP format files for reverse engineering and surface

reuse.

The 3-D model of the rotor, stator, rotor-stator assembly models are designed

according to the prescribed dimensions as shown in the figures below. All the

dimensions are in mm. the dimensions of each component of the rotor, stator can be

seen in the figures. The CATIA mode is based on these drafts. IMPORT THE

AIRFOIL CO-ORDINATES:

Import the co ordinates from MS EXEL to CATIA using a command

MACROS

Open the part design before importing the co ordinates

After MACROS, we select the type of entities to create (1 for points,2 for

points and splines,3 for points , splines ,loft)

Design procedure:

After import the co ordinates in CATIA, select the mechanical design then

choose WIREFRAME AND SURFACE DESIGN.

Join the co ordinates using SPLAIN command.

Create axis system, to provide angles go to insert- operations ,and then to

select rotate command all these in wireframe and surface design.

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After joining the co ordinates the blade design is obtained to fill upper and

lower surface use a MULTI-SECTION command.

After filling the both upper and lower surface, using FILL command to close

both the sides of the blade.

Join all the individual parts into a single using JOIN command.

To make solid surface we used CLOSE SURFACE command.

After completion of solid blade, go to CIRCULER PATTERN in

GENERATIVE SHAPE DESIGN .

After obtaining circular pattern create a solid casing for stator and hub for

rotor.

Assemble both stator and rotor in ASSEMBLY DESIGN.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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ANSYS is a popular proprietary software package used for CAD and mesh generation. Some

open source software includes OpenFoam, Fear Flow, and OpenFVM. Present discussion is

applicable to ANSYS ICEM CFD software. It can create structured, unstructured, multi-

block and hybrid grids with different cell geometries.

6.2.1 Meshing

ANSYS ICEM CFD is meant to mesh a geometry already created using other dedicated CAD

packages. Therefore, the geometry modeling features are primarily meant to 'clean-up' an

imported CAD model. Nevertheless, there are some very powerful geometry creation, editing

and repair (manual and automated) tools available in ANSYS ICEM CFD which assist in

arriving at the meshing stage quickly. Unlike the concept of volume in tools like GAMBIT,

ICEM CFD rather treats a collection of surfaces which encompass a closed region as BODY.

Therefore, the typical topological issues encountered in GAMBIT (e.g. face cannot be

deleted since it is referenced by higher topology) don't show up here. The emphasis in ICEM

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water inside a region, the water should be contained and not leak out of the BODY.

Apart from the regular points, curves, surface creation and editing tools, ANSYS ICEM CFD

especially has the capability to do BUILD TOPOLOGY which removes unwanted surfaces

and then you can view if there are any 'holes' in the region of interest for meshing. Existence

of holes would mean that the algorithm which generates the mesh would cause the mesh to

'leak out' of the domain. Holes are typically identified through the color of the curves. The

following is the color coding in ANSYS ICEM CFD, after the BUILD TOPOLOGY option

has been implemented:

YELLOW: curve attached to a single surface - possibly a hole exists. In some cases this

might be desirable for e.g., thin internal walls require at least one curve with single surface

attached to it.

BLUE: curve shared by more than two surfaces.

Green: Unattached Curves - not attached to any surface

algorithm and solver. A mesh may look like a structured mesh but may/may not have been

created using a structured algorithm based tool. For e.g. GAMBIT is an unstructured meshing

tool. Therefore, even if it creates a mesh that looks like a structured (single or multi-block)

mesh through pain-staking efforts in geometry decomposition, the algorithm employed was

still an unstructured one. On top of it, most of the popular CFD tools like, ANSYS FLUENT,

ANSYS CFX, Star CCM+, OpenFOAM, etc. are unstructured solvers which can only work

on an unstructured mesh even if we provide it with a structured looking mesh created using

structured/unstructured algorithm based meshing tools. ANSYS ICEM CFD can generate

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both structured and unstructured meshes using structured or unstructured algorithms which

can be given as inputs to structured as well as unstructured solvers, respectively.

While simple ducts can be modeled using a single block, majority of the geometries

encountered in real life have to be modeled using multi-block strategies if at all it is possible.

The following are the different multi-block strategies available which can be implemented

using ANSYS ICEM CFD.

O-grid

C-grid

Quarter O-grid

H-grid

6.2.4 Unstructured meshing strategy

Unlike the structured approach for meshing, the unstructured meshing algorithm is more or

less an optimization problem, wherein, it is required to fill-in a given space (with curvilinear

boundaries) with standard shapes (e.g., triangle, quadrilaterals - 2D; tetrahedral, hexahedral,

polyhedral, prisms and pyramids - 3D) which have constraints on their size. The basic

algorithms employed for doing unstructured meshing are:

Octree (easiest from the user's perspective; robust but least control over the final cell

count which is usually the highest)

Delaunay (better control over the final cell count but may have sudden jumps in the size

of the elements)

Advancing front (performs very smooth transition of the element sizes and may result in

quite accurate but high cell count)

If using Octree -

Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options

Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls

Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options

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Improve the quality of the surface mesh using Edit Mesh options

Perform volume meshing

Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options

Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls

Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options

Element type

Nodes - 28216

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Chapter 7

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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7 .1 Computational results

From the computational results, vortex generators on the stator blades can be described by

the following steps:

The static pressure has been increased over the suction surface of stator blade.

The kinetic energy of the flow over the suction surface has been increased.

Boundary layer separation has been delayed.

The shear force in the flow direction has increased.

Fluid flow analysis was done with the boundary conditions as explained . The

convergence plot for the fluid flow analysis is given by

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system configuration of Intel I5 processor,8GB RAM on ANSYS 15.0

Air flow rate of 204.71 m/s were used to obtain the results as follows:

Results of for pressure variations for the model are as follows:

Figure 7.2 : pressure contour without vortex generators on suction surface of stator blade

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Figure 7.3 : pressure contour without vortex generators on suction surface of stator

blade

Results of for velocity magnitude variations for the model are as follows:

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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Results of for wall shear in flow direction variations for the models are as follows:

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7.3 Conclusion

In this study, the employment of vortex generators on the blade surface conveniently builds

the following conclusions.

With regards to the employment of array of vortex generators, the flow stabilizes in the area

where the array of vortex generators have been placed and also the stable pressure rise along

the axial length of the compressor is observed.

The stabilization of the flow is achieved and also the flow is attached throughout thus

delaying separation, as well as a favorable pressure rise is observed along the length of the

domain.

The pressure rise on the blade trailing edge without vortex generators is 1.01*103

pascal.

The pressure rise on the blade trailing edge with vortex generators is

1.85*103 pascal.

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Chapter 8

FUTURE WORK

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8. Future work

In order to further improve on the Vortex generators research, several things done during the

test phase would enhance results. After the numerical analysis was successfully conducted,

we have jolted down some suggestions for the improvement of Vortex generators as follows.

Future projects on vortex generators should consider the possibility of using different

shapes.

With successful completion of these project we concluded the better position of the

vortex generators.

Further development into a better theoretical understanding of vortex generator's,

building on the achievements of this project is another area that requires additional

development. This would enable better performance of turbojet engines.

Placement of vortex generators along the chord and span wise distance can vary it

gives the better performance and pressurization of the engine.

Change the length, height and angle between the vortex generator .

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CHAPTER 9

REFERENCES

Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

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1. Design and Analysis of Stator, Rotor and Blades of the Axial compressor .

2. Design Methodology of two Stage Axial flow CompressoR

3. Effect of Vortex Generators on the flow over the stator blade surface of an axial flow

compressor

4 V. GANESAN, Gas Turbines.

5 Saravanamutto, HIH, Rogers, GFC, och Cohen. H Gas Turbine Theory.

6 Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using

Stereoscopic PIV

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