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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor

2016-2017

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1.1compressors

1.1.1 Definition of compressors

Compressor is a device used to deliver the air at a pressure higher than that original pressure.

1.2Different types of compressors

Basically compressors are broadly classified into two types based upon their function

They are

1. positive displacement

Positive displacements compressors work by mechanically changing the volume of the


working fluid.

2. Dynamic displacement

Dynamic compressors work by mechanically changing the velocity of the working fluid.

Under dynamic displacement there are sub categories like

1 Centrifugal flow compressors

2 Axial flow compressors

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 1.1: Different types of compressors (adopted from internet)

1.2.1CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

A centrifugal compressor is a radial flow dynamic displacement machine that uses mostly air
as the working fluid and utilizes the mechanical energy imparted to the machine from outside
to increase the total internal energy of the fluid mainly in the form of increased static
pressure head.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

A centrifugal compressor essentially consists of three components.

1. Stationary casing
2. Rotating impeller
3. Diffuser

Figure 1.2: schematic diagram of a centrifugal compressor(adopted from nptel lecture)

1.2.2Working principle of centrifugal compressor

Air is sucked into the impeller eye and whirled outwards at high speed by the impeller disk.
At any point in the flow of air through the impeller the centripetal acceleration is obtained by
a pressure head so that the static pressure of the air increases from the eye to the tip of the
impeller. The remainder of the static pressure rise is obtained in the diffuser, where the very

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

high velocity of air leaving the impeller tip is reduced to almost the velocity with which the
air enters the impeller eye.

Usually, about half of the total pressure rise occurs in the impeller and the other half in the
diffuser. Owing to the action of the vanes in carrying the air around with the impeller, there
is a slightly higher static pressure on the forward side of the vane than on the trailing face.
The air will thus tend to flow around the edge of the vanes in the clearing space between the
impeller and the casing. This results in a loss of efficiency and the clearance must be kept as
small as possible. Sometimes, a shroud attached to the blades may eliminate such a loss, but
it is avoided because of increased disc friction loss and of manufacturing difficulties.

The straight and radial blades are usually employed to avoid any undesirable bending stress
to be set up in the blades. The choice of radial blades also determines that the total pressure
rise is divided equally between impeller and diffuser.

Figure 1.3: Performance of dynamic machines(adopted from ) Aungier, Ronald H-Axial-


flow compressors _ a strategy for aerodynamic design and analysis-ASME Press (2003).pd

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1.2.3 ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

Low weight, easy to design and manufacture.


Suitable for continuous compressed air supply, such as cooling unit.
The oil free in nature.
They have fewer rubbing parts.
High-flow rate than the positive displacement compressors
Relatively energy efficient.
Wide range of rotational speed.
Centrifugal compressors are reliable, low maintenance.
Generating a higher pressure ratio per stage as compared to axial flow
compressor.
It does not require special foundation.

1.2.4 DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

Large frontal area for a given air flow rate compared to the axial flow
compressor.
Unsuitable for very high compression, limited pressure.
They are sensitive to changes in gas composition.
They work at high speed, sophisticated vibration mounting needed.
Problem of surging, stalling, choking

1.2.5 APPLICATION OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

Food and beverage industry - centrifugal compressor provides oil frees


compressed air for some sensitive application such as food processing.
Centrifugal compressor meets high demand of compressed air.
Gas turbines, in automobile turbochargers and supercharger.
Oil refineries, natural-gas processing.
Refrigeration, air-conditioning and HVAC.
Manufacturing process compressed air for pneumatic tools.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1.3AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS


Before world war-2 there is consistent use of axial flow compressors because of high
pressure ratio and higher efficiencies. There is a significant rise in pressure ratio in axial
compressor from past five decades in aviation industry.

The basic components of an axial flow compressor are

1. Rotor

2. Stator

Figure 1.4 :Axial compressor configuration(Aungier, Ronald H-Axial-flow compressors _ a


strategy for aerodynamic design and analysis-ASME Press (2003).pd

Axial flow compressor arrangement will start with set of inlet guides vanes This is an
additional stator row upstream of the first stage in the compressor and serves to direct the
axially approaching flow correctly into the first row of rotating blades and former carrying
moving blades and followed by stationary blades.

The stationary blades convert the kinetic energy of the fluid into pressure energy, and also
redirect the flow into an angle suitable for entry to the next row of moving blades. Each stage
will consist of one rotor row followed by a stator row. For a compressor, a row of rotor

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

blades followed by a row of stator blades is called a stage.

Figure 1.5 : Flow in stator blades and rotor blades (adopted from NPTEL lecture)

1.3.1Working principle of axial flow compressor

In axial flow compressors the air enters and leaves in the axial direction. So, the centrifugal
component in the energy equation does not come into play. Here the compression is fully
based on diffusing action of the passages. The diffusing action in stator converts absolute
kinetic head of the fluid into pressure rise. The relative kinetic head in the energy equation is
a term that exists only because of the rotation of the rotor. The rotor reduces the relative
kinetic head of the air and adds it to the absolute kinetic head of the fluid. Hence the rotor
increases the absolute velocity of the fluid and the stator converts this into pressure rise.
Designing the rotor passage with a diffusing capability can produce a pressure rise in
addition to its normal functioning. This produces greater pressure rise per stage in axial flow
compressors.

1.3.2APPLICATIONS OF AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

It will be used in aircraft engines to increase the pressure ratio.

Blast furnaces.

Air separation plants.

Jet engine test facilities.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1.4 ADVANTAGES OF AXIAL COMPRESSORS OVER


CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

For given mass flow rate, It requires less frontal area than centrifugal compressors
and thus reduction in drag.

It has higher isentropic efficiency.

It is suitable for multi-staging.

Pressure losses will be low compared to centrifugal compressors.

1.5 VORTEX GENERATORS

The vortex generator is an Passive flow control device consisting of a small vane or bump
that creates a vortex .Vortex generators delay flow separation and aerodynamic stalling; they
improve the effectiveness of control surfaces; they alleviate potential shock-stall. It is likely
to be found on the external surfaces of wings of an aircraft where flow separation is a
potential problem because vortex generators delay flow separation. On aircraft they are
installed on the front third of a wing in order to maintain steady airflow over the control
surfaces at the rear of the wing.

Figure 1.6: Flow with vortex generators and without vortex generators

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1.5.1Positioning of vortex generators


Proper location of vortex generators is very important. They should be positioned precisely in
the transition region of the boundary layer. Situation is somewhat complicated by the fact
that transition region, depending on the flow conditions and angle of attack, changes its
position. If Vortex generators will be too close to the leading edge will be in the laminar
boundary layer and cause excessive drag during cruise, but if they are too far from the
leading edge their effectiveness at high angles of attack and low flight speed may be affected.

1.5.2 DIFERENT TYPES OF VORTEX GENERATORS

There are so many different types of vortex generators are using in aircraft industry. Some of
the vortex generators are shown below

Rectangular shape VG

Parabolic shape VG

Triangular shape VG

Gothic shape VG

Ogive shape VG

Figure 1.7:Different types of vortex generators (adopted from flitetest.com)

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1.5.3EFFECTS OF VORTEX GENERATORS

Lower stall speed.


Lower approach speed.
Higher angle of attack.
Increased stability at low speeds.
Higher rate of climb.
More effective control.

1.6 Project outline

The project mainly concentrates on the preliminary design of the axial flow compressor
along with vortex generators on the suction surface of stator blades and how the vortex
generators on the suction surface of stator blades will affect the flow in the stator passage. To
design an axial flow compressor first setup the air foil nomenclature and further we need to
assume some of the parameters such as Air mass flow rate , Axial velocity , Pressure ratio ,
Blade speed,.. etc. we need to calculate some of the variables such as pressure ratio
,temperature across the each stage ,velocity triangles. Using MATLAB we generate
MATLAB code for further studies or any new design development in axial compressors. As
we stated earlier about the proper position of the vortex generators, we calculate the position
and proper size of vortex generators and how many pair of vortex generators to be placed on
the suction surface of the stator blade in axial flow compressors.

1.7 Overview

The literature review, which includes background of the design of axial flow compressor and
vortex generators, is given in chapter 2. It includes the background, theory and design of
axial flow compressors and vortex generators. The essential formulae employed in the design
of axial flow compressor and vortex generators are described in chapter 3 along with
description of axial flow compressors and vortex generators theory. The problem statement
of the project is described in chapter 4. The methodology used to carry out the design of axial

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

flow compressors and vortex generators is explained in Chapter 5.the modelling and pre-
processing explained in chapter 6. The results obtained are illustrated in Chapter 7 along with
the conclusions . Finally, recommendations for future work are given in Chapter 8

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

2.1 Introduction
In this chapter, From the research conducted, it was found that the design of a Axial flow
compressor and design of vortex generators and how it effect the flow in axial compressors
has been done and published in journal and reseach in some of the universities. The work
conducted by these engineers and institutions allowed for a better understanding on the
fundamentals design of axial flow compressors and vortex generators and effect of flow on
stator blade in axial compressors
2.2 papers and journals published on axial flow compressor

2.2.1 Design and Analysis of Stator, Rotor and Blades of the Axial flow
Compressor by Ujjawal A. Jaiswal Institute of Technology, Nirma University,Prof. S. J.
Joshi

In design of Axial flow compressor the work presented comprises of basic flow parameters
and dimensions of parts, this makes the further design process quite easier and the results will
be helpful to take further changes or improvement at the time of detailed design. The
objective of work presented is to design Axial flow compressor by using mean line method
for a given mass flow rate and required pressure ratio.

The fundamental components of a axial flow compressors includes rotor and stator. Suitable
design point under sea level static condition. Design of a axial flow compressor with

mass flow rate=20 kg/s,

pressure ratio = 4.15,

axial speed=170m/s,

blade speed=250m/s and by using blade profile NACA -65410

results:- The blade profile has been generated for both rotor and stator analytically.

-Theoretical results

Total pressure=1.45 bar

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

2.2.2 Design Methodology of Two Stage Axial flow Compressor,


Gaddam Srikanth, S.Srinivas Prasad , V. Mahesh Kumar, B. Mounica Reddy,
MLR Institute of Technology, February 2014.
Design of a two stage axial flow compressor of constant mean diameter type using blade
profile of NACA series.
As the hub diameter goes on decreasing ,the pitch decreases and the no. of blades increases.
The geometry created can be used as model either to carry fluid flow analysis.

2.2.3Effect of Vortex Generators on the flow over the stator blade surface
of an axial flow compressor, Mr. Shrinidhi sudhakar Gulvadi,ASI, 2016

The employment of ramp shaped vortex generators to get favorable pressure ratio
across each stage of axial flow compressor

The vortex generators are placed in suction side of the blade.

There are three methods to increase pressure ratio.

I. vortex generators array on blade.

II. Employment of suction holes on the suction surface.

III. Employment of vortex generator jet hole system

2.2.4 V. GANESAN, Gas Turbines, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill , New
Delhi

Calculation of velocity triangles ,(air angles , blade angles)

static and stagnation temperatures and pressures

2.2.5 Saravanamutto, HIH, Rogers, GFC, och Cohen. H Gas Turbine


Theory,5thedition, Pearson Prentice Hall ,2001

Calculation of Annulus dimensions,Blade height , chord length ,blade twist.


Stagger angle ,number of stages , number of blades on each stage.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

2.2.5.1 Axial Flow Compressor Design Flowchart

start

Consider mass flow rate, Pressure ratio, Axial velocity

Calculate Annulus dimensions using continuity equation

Select appropriate adiabatic efficiency

Calculate stagnation pressure and temperature at inlet and outlet

Estimate number of stages

Calculate inlet and outlet stagnation pressure and temperature for every stages

Calculate radius at hub ,Tip and Mean for each stage

Determine variation of Air angles from root to tip

Calculate number of blades for each stages

Generate blade coordinates for stator and rotor for all stages

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Calculate Blade height, Pitch, chord and Stagger angle

Study its compressibility effects

Check weather all requirements are satisfied

End

2.2.6 Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-


W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV by Clara Marika Velte Martin Otto Lavr
Hansen Knud Erik Meyer Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of
Denmark Kgs. Lyngby, 2800,DENMARK

From these paper we are considering the height and length of the vortex generators.
Placing of vortex generators on the suction surface of the blade.
Spanwise distance between the blades.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure2.1: Dimensions of vortex generators (adopted from Evaluation of the Performance of


Vortex Generators)

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

CHAPTER 3
THEORY OF AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR AND VORTEX
GENERATORS

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

3.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the significance of the axial flow compressor i.e., how it works, what
are the parameters governing of the axial flow compressor and how the pressure is increased.

Early axial flow units had pressure ratios of around 5:1 and required about 10stages. Over the
years the overall pressure ratios available have risen dramatically, and some turbofan engines
have pressure ratios exceeding 30: 1. Continued aerodynamic development has resulted in a
steady increase in stage pressure ratio, with the result that the number of stages for a given
overall pressure ratio has been greatly reduced

3.2 Basic operation


The axial flow compressor consists of a series of stages comprising of a rotor and stator.
Rotor is connected to hub of increasing diameter which consists the shaft that connects the
turbine and the compressor. Stator is the stationary part that is attached the casing. The
process consists of a series of diffusions, both in the rotor and stator blade passages. The
turbine rotates the rotor through shaft and the rotor energizes the air increasing its kinetic
energy of air at the entry of the rotor tip. As the air passes the passage become divergent
which converts the kinetic energy into pressure energy by an amount dictated by the degree
of reaction. Now the air enters the stator passage where no work transfer will be taken place
but the remaining kinetic energy of the flow is converted into pressure energy.

It is assumed that the flow will have the same axial velocity as before and after passing
through the stage. The work done by the compressor and the rise of the temperature across.
Each stage and the velocity of air inside the passage can be calculated from the velocity
triangles. The passage between the compressor blades is shown below

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure: 3.1 16 stage axial flow compressor (adopted from Cohen and Rogers)

Figure: 3.2 passage between blades (adopted from Cohen and Rogers)

3.3 Elementary theory


The working fluid in an axial flow compressor is normally air. The work done by the
compressor is equal to the work absorbed by the compressor from the turbine.

From Eulers theory of turbo machinery,

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Work done, W=U (Vw1-Vw2)

Stage velocity triangles

Figure 3.3: Velocity triangles ( adopted from internet)

From velocity triangles, Vw1=Vf tan (2)

Vw2=Vf tan (1)

Therefore, W=U Vf (tan (2) - tan (1)) -------------->1

Applying the steady flow energy equation to the rotor,

W = h03-h01 = h02-h01

W=Cp (t03-t01) = Cpt0s-------------->2

Equation 1&2 are equal

Cpt0s = U Vf (tan (2) - tan (1))

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

U Vf
t0s = (U Vf (tan (2) - tan (1)) -------->3

The above equation represents the temperature change across each stage.

Stagnation properties across the stator remains constant, but in practice, there will be some
decrease in stagnation pressure in the stator due to fluid friction. Losses will also occur in the
rotor and the stagnation pressure rise will be less than would be obtained with an isentropic
compression and. the same power input. A T-s diagram for the stage, showing the effect of
losses in both rotor and stator, is also shown in figure below,

Figure 3.4: compressor stage and T-S diagram

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

This diagram indicates the deviation of the process from ideal to real case, where the ( )
properties indicate the ideal process whose entropy is constant but in practice the process will
have losses. Using this difference the isentropic efficiency of compressor is determined,

It is denoted by i

02 01
i = , isentropic efficiency of compressor
0201

The total pressure rise is not occurred in the rotor passage alone, only a part of pressure is
increased in rotor and the remaining pressure is increased in stator.

The amount of pressure rise in rotor alone is defined by the term known as degree of
reaction. Denoted by R.

It tells about how effectively the rotor is working than stator, a good compressor should have,
R=0.5.

It is the ratio of enthalpy rise across rotor to the enthalpy rise across the stage.

21
R= 31


R=2 (tan(1) +tan (2))

3.4 Theory of vortex generators


These are the small aerodynamic devices usually attached to the lifting surface like airfoil ,
aircraft wings, rotor blade of wind turbine etc. where ever boundary layer gets separated due
to low energy of the flow.

In the compressor as the pressure increases it is hard for the flow to pass over
the airfoil or blade due this is known as adverse pressure gradient. The flow loses its energy
to move forward as a result due to its low energy the flow gets separated from the surface this
is known as boundary layer separation.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 3.5: Boundary layer motion alternation by a rectangular VG (U. FERNANDEZ)

The vortex generators produce vortices which increases the kinetic energy of the flow and
decrease the boundary layer separation.

The dimensions of the vortex generators depend on the size of the boundary layer,
smoothness of the surface etc. and usually positioned in the transition region after which the
flow requires energy to get stick with the surface.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

CHAPTER-4

PROBLEM STATEMENT

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

4.1Mean line design of axial compressor


The project aim to design axial flow compressor by using mean line method is a very quick
and reliable method for compressor preliminary design. For a given mass flow rate and
required pressure ratio. The parameters also include thermodynamic properties of the
working fluid, stage efficiency, number of rotor and stator blades, tip and hub diameters,
blade dimensions like chord, length and space for both rotor and stator, Mach number, flow
and blade angles (blade twist) for all stages. The twist of the blades can be calculated along
the blade length at any required number of sections to obtain smooth blade twist profile.
NACA 65410 profiles is used to generate coordinates of the blade. Further, in the process the
first stage of axial flow compressor is developed using CATIAV5 software. Development of
MATLAB code using MATLAB for further studies. The performance of the compressor
blade is considerably influenced by secondary flow effects like the cross flow on the end wall
as well as corner flow separation between the wall and the blade. It is necessary to
investigate the unsteady flow field inside the blade passages. The performance of an Axial
Flow Compressor stage can be improved by minimizing the effects of secondary flow and by
reducing flow separation. At higher blade loading, interaction of tip secondary flow and
separated flow on blade surface is more near the tip of the stator. This results in stall and
hence decreases compressor performance. Here, the flow is mainly disturbed by unsteadiness
due to stator tip and hub interaction.

4.2 Effect of vortex generators on stator blades

When a vortex generator deployed at proper positions delays the boundary layer separation
over the blade surface and improves the aerodynamics of the flow over the blade surface. The
ability of vortex generators is to reduce the cross-passage secondary flow in a stator passage.
The vortex generators which are placed apart equally over the span of the blade on the
suction side of a stator, yields a good performance in terms of developing a favorable
pressure ratio of the stage. The separation of the flow is delayed due to the formation of tip
vortices over the vortex generators.

Vortex generators are designed in CATIAv5 and Study of flow on stator blade with vortex
generators and without vortex generation using ANSYS SOFTWARE

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

CHAPTER 5

METHODOLOGY

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

5.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the detailed steps in the development and procedure for designing of
the axial flow compressor and vortex generators.

5.2 Axial Flow Compressor Design Flowchart


start

Consider mass flow rate, Pressure ratio, Axial velocity

Calculate Annulus dimensions using continuity equation

Select appropriate adiabatic efficiency

Calculate stagnation pressure and temperature at inlet and outlet

Estimate number of stages

Calculate inlet and outlet stagnation pressure and temperature for every stages

Calculate radius at hub, Tip and Mean for each stage

Determine variation of Air angles from root to tip

Calculate number of blades for each stages

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Generate blade coordinates for stator and rotor for all stages

Calculate Blade height, Pitch, chord and Stagger angle

Study its compressibility effects

Check weather all requirements are satisfied

End

Consider mass flow rate, Pressure ratio and axial velocity

The steps involved in the design of axial flow compressor is shown in the flow chart.
Suitable design point under the sea level static conditions

Pressure ratio is 4.15


Air mass flow rate is 20 kg/sec.
Axial velocity Ca= 170 m/s
Blade speed is 250m/s.
From these data it has to investigate the aerodynamic design of the compressor of the engine.
We are assumed that the compressor has no inlet guide vanes because of weight reduction
and noise and also for easy to do calculations.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

5.3 Calculate Annulus dimensions using continuity equation


There is no equation enables for selection of suitable value
of rotational speed. This can be obtained by assuming the blade speed ,axial velocity ,and the
hub-tip ratio at the inlet of the compressor.
Without inlet guide vanes there will be no whirl component of velocity at the inlet, and this
will increase the Mach number relative to the blade.
The hub-tip ratio at the entry is taken as 0.5 ,and for the annulus area the tip radius will be
will be function of hub-tip ratio. If the hub-tip ratio is lower , this would merely increase the
mismatch between the compressor and turbine diameters, and also complicate both the
mechanical and aerodynamic design of the first stage and also increase the weight of the
compressor.
The required annulus area can be obtain from the specific mass flow by using the continuity
equation.
From continuity equation,

m=1ACa = 1rt2[1-( )2] Ca


=
[ ( )]

At sea-level static conditions, T01 = Ta = 288 K. Assuming no loss in the intake,


P01=pa= 101 bar. With
C1 = Ca = 170 m/s
then the static conditions at inlet of compressor is
from energy equation
1 = 273.82
1 = 0.847
1 = 1.077 /3

then = 0.2153
from the hub- tip ratio
= 0.1076

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

The blade height (h) is the difference of radius of tip( ) and radius of hub ( )
h=0.1076 m
The mean radius of the rotor is
+
=
2
= 0.16145
The mean speed, Um, is related to rm by Um = 2 , and hence if Um is chosen to be 250
m/s,

N=14786.77 rpm
The blade speed at the tip of the rotor Ut =333.37 m/s .
At this stage it is appropriate to check the Mach number relative to the rotor tip
at inlet to the compressor. Assuming the axial velocity to be constant across the
annulus, which will be the case where there are no inlet guide vanes,
Velocity of air at blade tip " V1t "
V1t2 = Ut2+ Ca2
V1t = 374.219 m/s .
the speed of sound is obtained from
= 1
a=331.69 m/s .
mach number is the ratio of flow velocity to the local speed of sound.
V1t
=

M= 1.12
Thus the mach number relative to the rotor tip is 1.12 and the first stage is
transonic.
To estimate the annulus dimensions at exit from the compressor, and for these preliminary
calculations it will be assumed that the mean radius is kept constant for all stages. The
compressor delivery pressure, at the exit is
P0L =415 x 101 =419 bar.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

To estimate the compressor delivery temperature it will be assumed that the polytropic
efficiency of the compressor is 090.
1
=
1

= 3.15
1
temperature at the exit of compressor
1
0
= 01 [ ]
01

= 452.5
Assuming that the air leaving the stator of the last stage has an axial velocity of
170 m/s and no swirl, the static temperature, pressure and density at exit can be calculated as
follows
from the energy equations
2
0 = +
2
the static temperature at the outlet of compressor is
= 438.12
from the isentropic relations we obtain the static pressure

1
= 0 [ ]
0
= 3.754
from the ideal gas equation

= 2.985
3
The mass flow rate is constant across the compressor
The exit annulus area is thus given by
=
= 0.0394 2
Blade height at the exit

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017


=
2
= 0.0388
The radii at exit from the last stator are then
radius at the tip

= +
2
= 0.18085
radius at the root

=
2
= 0.14205
At this point we have established the rotational speed and the annulus dimensions
at inlet and outlet, on the basis of a constant mean diameter. To summarize:
= 246.66
Ut =333.37 m/s .
= 170 /.
= 0.16145
at inlet = 0.2153
= 0.1076
at exit = 0.18085
= 0.14205

5.4 Estimation of number of stages


With the assumed polytropic efficiency of 090, the overall stagnation temperature
rise through the compressor is 452.5 - 288.3 = 164.296 K. The temperature rise across the
each stage is constant because the work transfer is constant in every stage.
to estimate a suitable Tos based on the mean blade speed
U=250 m/s

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 5.1: velocity triangle of axial flow compressor (adopted from internet)
The temperature rise across the stage is

0 = [1 2 ]

With a purely axial velocity at entry to the first stage, in the absence of IGV's,

1 =

1 = 55.78

1 = .
1


1 = 302.33

In order to estimate the maximum possible deflection in the rotor, we will apply
2
the de Haller criterion. 0.72
1

then the relative velocity is 2 = 217.68 /


and the corresponding rotor blade outlet angle is given by

2 =
2
2 = 38.65
the temperature rise across the stage is
0 = 28.36

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017


Number of stages = 0
0

164.296
A temperature rise of 28.36 K per stage implies = 579 stages. It is likely,
28.36

then, that the compressor will require five or six stages and, in view of the
influence of the work-done factor, five stages is consider. An attempt will therefore be made
to design a five-stage compressor.
With stages and an overall temperature rise of 164.296 K the average temperature rise is
32.8 K per stage. A good starting point would be to assume for temperature rise across the
stage is constant.
5.5 Stage-by-stage design
Having determined the rotational speed and annulus dimensions, and estimated the number
of stages required, the next step is to evaluate the air angles for each stage at the mean radius.
It will then be possible to check that the estimated number of stages is likely to result in an
acceptable design.
From the velocity diagram, it is seen that
1 = 0, because of no inlet guide vanes
the whirl velocity at the inlet is 1 = 0;
then 2 = 2 2 =2 2

2 =
2
2 = 38.65
from the velocity diagram
2
2 =
2

2 = 135.95

= 2 + 2
2 = 114.045 /
2
2 =

2 = 33.85

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

2
2 =
2
2 = 204.71 /
STAGE 1 :
The pressure rise across the first stage is

02 0 1
( ) = (1 + )
01 1 01

The work-done factors will vary through the compressor and reasonable values for the five
stages would be 094.
(02 )1 = 1.443
The temperature rise across the each stage is constant
(02 )1=321 k
STAGE 2 :
(02 )2 = 1.985
(02 )2=353.5 k
STAGE 3 :
(02 )3 = 2.655
(02 )3=386.16 k
STAGE 4 :
(02 )4 = 3.4686
(02 )4=418.76 k
STAGE 5 :
(02 )5 = 4.19
(02 )5= 452.5 k
At the stage 1 degree of reaction is
1 + 2
=1
2
= 0.771

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

5.6 Variation of air angles from root to tip


5.6.1 Rotor
The blade angles for the rotor at the first stage is

1 =

The tip, mean and root velocities are calculated, substitute the above equation blade angles at
the tip, mean and root are
(1 ) = 44.42
(1) = 55.78
(1 ) = 62.98
5.6.2 Stator
To calculate the air angles 2 and 2 it is necessary to determine the radial variation of Vw2 .
For the free vortex condition Vw2r =constant, and the value of Vw2m was previously
determined . Because of the reduction of annulus area through the compressor, the blade
height at exit from the rotor will be slightly less than at inlet, and it is necessary to calculate
the tip and root radii at exit from the rotor blades to find the relevant variation of Vw2 .
Recalling that a stator exit angle of 1.419 degrees was established,
170
3 =
(1.419)
3 = 170.052 /
32
2 = 02
2
2 = 1.22

2 = 1.392
3
2 = 0.0845 2
h=0.0833 m
=0.2031 m
=0.1198 m

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

These radii refer to conditions at the stator exit. With negligible error it can be assumed that
the radii at exit from the rotor blades are the mean of those at rotor inlet and stator exit. Thus
at exit from the rotor,
= 0.2092 m
= 0.1137
= 2
= 323.931 /
= 1760.56 /

From the free vortex condition,


2 = 161.939 /
2 = 88.014 m/s
The stator inlet angle is given by
2
2 =

2 = 43.6
2 = 33.85
2 = 27.37
2
2 =

2 = 4.74
2 = 38.65
2 = 54.22
5.7 Calculate Blade height, Pitch, chord and Stagger angle

Cofficient of pressure

2 2
= 1 ( )
1

= 0.4816

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Determination of the chord length will now depend on the pitch, which itself is clearly
dependent on the number of blades in the row. When making a choice for this number, the
aspect ratio of the blade, i.e. the ratio of length to chord, has to be considered because of its
effect on secondary losses. This will be discussed in greater detail in the next section on stage
performance.
5.7.1 Pitch to chord ratio
Pitch to chord ratio is given by

= 9(0.567 )


= 0.7686

Assuming the number of blades as 45
2
=

= 0.02254
substitute the pitch value in pitch to chord ratio
= 0.03
Aspect ratio of the blade is the ratio of span to chord

=

AR=3.5
One further item of information is necessary before the design of the blade forms at this
radius can be completed. Whereas the blade inlet angle 1 will be known from the air inlet
angle and chosen incidence, the blade outlet angle 2 cannot be determined from the air
outlet angle.
The deviation angle is given by

=

2 2
where = [0.23 ( ) ] + (0.1) 502

a is the distance of the point of maximum camber from the leading edge of the
blade, and 2 is in degrees. Frequently a circular arc camber-line is chosen so that 2a/c = 1,
= 0.2977

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

then = 0.2282
With this information it is now possible to fix the main geometrical parameters of
the rotor blade row . The procedure is as follows,
= 1 2 +
= 28.41
the deviation angle = 4.657.
The position of the blade chord can be fixed relative to the axial direction by
the stagger angle given by

= 1
2
=41.575

Figure 5.2: cascade notation (adopted from cohen and rogers)

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

5.8 Compressibility effects


Over a long period of time, the development of high-performance gas turbines has led to the
use of much higher flow rates per unit frontal area and blade tip speeds, resulting in higher
velocities and Mach numbers in compressors. While early units had to be designed with
subsonic velocities throughout, Mach number exceeding unity are now found in the
compressors of industrial gas turbines and Mach numbers as high as 15 are used in the
design of fans for turbofans of high bypass ratio. It is not within the scope of transonic
design in detail, it should be realized that much of the relevant High-speed cascade testing is
required to provide experimental data on compressibility effects, and in particular to
determine the values of the Mach numbers, corresponding to entry velocities relative to the
blades, which bring about poor cascade performance. The first high velocity of interest is that
corresponding to what is called the 'critical' Mach number Me; at entry velocities lower than
this, the performance of the cascade differs very little from that at low speeds. Above this
velocity, the losses begin to show a marked increase until a point is reached where the losses
completely cancel the pressure rise and the blade ceases to be any use as a diffuser. The
corresponding Mach number is then referred to as the 'maximum' value Mm. For a typical
subsonic compressor cascade at zero incidence, the values of these Mach numbers are in the
region of 0 7 and 085 respectively.

Figure 5.3 effect of mach no on losses (adopted from cohen and rogers)

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

As the Mach number increases, two important effects take place first, the overall level of
losses increase substantially, and second, the range of
incidence for which losses are acceptable is drastically reduced.
Compressibility effects will be most important at the front of the compressor where the inlet
temperature, and hence the acoustic velocity, are lowest. The Mach number corresponding to
the velocity relative to the tip of the rotor is the highest encountered and is important both
from the viewpoint of shock losses and noise. The stator Mach number is generally highest at
the hub radius because of the increased whirl velocity normally required to give constant
work input at all radii in the rotor. It was deduced that this increase in loss must be due to
shock losses, but it was also found that the spacing of the blades had a considerable effect; a
reduction in solidity (i.e. an increase in pitch/chord ratio) caused a rapid increase
in loss.
A pair of double circular arc (DCA) blades , with a supersonic velocity entering in a direction
aligned with the leading edge. The supersonic expansion along the uncovered portion of the
suction side can be analysed by means of the Prandtl-Meyer relations, and the Mach number
will increase as the flow progresses along the suction surface. A shock structure is assumed
in which the shock stands near the entrance to the blade passage, striking the suction surface ,
extending in front of the blade then bending back similar to a bow wave. It is then assumed
that the loss across the shock can be approximated by the normal shock loss taken for the
average of
the Mach number. At A the Mach number is taken to be the inlet relative Mach number. The
value can be calculated from the inlet Mach number and the angle of supersonic turning ,
where the flow is tangential to the surface, using the Prandtl -Meyer relations.

5.9 Design of vortex generators


5.9.1 Determine the Reynolds Number

Reynolds number is determine the type flow flow over the blade.

It is given by =

=
By using Sutherland formula

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1.5 0 + 110.4
= 0 ( ) ( )
0 + 110.4
= 1.719 105 kg/m-s.
usually the transition region start at = 2 105
therefore the transition region starting on the blade is 18.77 mm at 62.33% of chord.
The vortex generators is placing at 20 mm percentage of chord is 66.66%
At 66.66% of chord the reynolds number is 2.13*105 .

5.9.2 Height of the vortex generators

Height of the vortex generators is approximately equal to boundary layer thickness.


5
=

= 0.21
5.9.3 Length of the vortex generators

length of the vortex generators are twice the boundary layer


= 2
L=0.443 mm
5.9.4 Span wise spacing of vortex generators

The next step is determine the spacing of vortex generators along the span of the
blade. The formula is taken from the equations governing vortex flow.
10
=
2
= 27.3
Number of vortex generators is 3 pairs

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

CHAPTER 6
MODELING, MESHING AND PREPROCESSING

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

6.1 Modelling in CATIA V5


CATIA, abbreviation Computer Aided Three dimensional Interactive application is multi-
platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software developed by Dassault systems written in
C++ programming language. CATIA offers a solution to shape design, styling, surfacing
workflow and visualization to create, modify, and validate complex innovative shapes from
industrial design to Class-A surfacing with the ICEM surfacing technologies. CATIA
supports multiple stages of product design whether started from scratch or from 2D sketches.
CATIA is able to read and produce STEP format files for reverse engineering and surface
reuse.

6.1.1 Geometry Design

The 3-D model of the rotor, stator, rotor-stator assembly models are designed
according to the prescribed dimensions as shown in the figures below. All the
dimensions are in mm. the dimensions of each component of the rotor, stator can be
seen in the figures. The CATIA mode is based on these drafts. IMPORT THE
AIRFOIL CO-ORDINATES:

Download the airfoil co ordinates(65410)


Import the co ordinates from MS EXEL to CATIA using a command
MACROS
Open the part design before importing the co ordinates
After MACROS, we select the type of entities to create (1 for points,2 for
points and splines,3 for points , splines ,loft)
Design procedure:

After import the co ordinates in CATIA, select the mechanical design then
choose WIREFRAME AND SURFACE DESIGN.
Join the co ordinates using SPLAIN command.
Create axis system, to provide angles go to insert- operations ,and then to
select rotate command all these in wireframe and surface design.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

After joining the co ordinates the blade design is obtained to fill upper and
lower surface use a MULTI-SECTION command.
After filling the both upper and lower surface, using FILL command to close
both the sides of the blade.
Join all the individual parts into a single using JOIN command.
To make solid surface we used CLOSE SURFACE command.
After completion of solid blade, go to CIRCULER PATTERN in
GENERATIVE SHAPE DESIGN .
After obtaining circular pattern create a solid casing for stator and hub for
rotor.
Assemble both stator and rotor in ASSEMBLY DESIGN.

Figure 6.1 Draft sketch of rotor

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 6.2 Draft sketch sketched of stator

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 6.3: Draft sketchof assembly

Figure 6.4 3d model of rotor in axial compressor

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 6.5: 3d model of stator with casing in axial compressor

Figure 6.6: 3D-modelof axial single stage compressor

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 6.7: 3D model of stator blade with vortex generators

6.2 ANSYS ICEM CFD

ANSYS is a popular proprietary software package used for CAD and mesh generation. Some
open source software includes OpenFoam, Fear Flow, and OpenFVM. Present discussion is
applicable to ANSYS ICEM CFD software. It can create structured, unstructured, multi-
block and hybrid grids with different cell geometries.

6.2.1 Meshing

ANSYS ICEM CFD is meant to mesh a geometry already created using other dedicated CAD
packages. Therefore, the geometry modeling features are primarily meant to 'clean-up' an
imported CAD model. Nevertheless, there are some very powerful geometry creation, editing
and repair (manual and automated) tools available in ANSYS ICEM CFD which assist in
arriving at the meshing stage quickly. Unlike the concept of volume in tools like GAMBIT,
ICEM CFD rather treats a collection of surfaces which encompass a closed region as BODY.

Therefore, the typical topological issues encountered in GAMBIT (e.g. face cannot be
deleted since it is referenced by higher topology) don't show up here. The emphasis in ICEM

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

CFD to create a mesh is to have a 'water-tight' geometry. It means if there is a source of


water inside a region, the water should be contained and not leak out of the BODY.

Apart from the regular points, curves, surface creation and editing tools, ANSYS ICEM CFD
especially has the capability to do BUILD TOPOLOGY which removes unwanted surfaces
and then you can view if there are any 'holes' in the region of interest for meshing. Existence
of holes would mean that the algorithm which generates the mesh would cause the mesh to
'leak out' of the domain. Holes are typically identified through the color of the curves. The
following is the color coding in ANSYS ICEM CFD, after the BUILD TOPOLOGY option
has been implemented:

YELLOW: curve attached to a single surface - possibly a hole exists. In some cases this
might be desirable for e.g., thin internal walls require at least one curve with single surface
attached to it.

RED: curve shared by two surfaces - the usual case.


BLUE: curve shared by more than two surfaces.
Green: Unattached Curves - not attached to any surface

6.2.2 Meshing approach and mesh

There are often misunderstandings regarding structured/unstructured mesh, meshing


algorithm and solver. A mesh may look like a structured mesh but may/may not have been
created using a structured algorithm based tool. For e.g. GAMBIT is an unstructured meshing
tool. Therefore, even if it creates a mesh that looks like a structured (single or multi-block)
mesh through pain-staking efforts in geometry decomposition, the algorithm employed was
still an unstructured one. On top of it, most of the popular CFD tools like, ANSYS FLUENT,
ANSYS CFX, Star CCM+, OpenFOAM, etc. are unstructured solvers which can only work
on an unstructured mesh even if we provide it with a structured looking mesh created using
structured/unstructured algorithm based meshing tools. ANSYS ICEM CFD can generate

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

both structured and unstructured meshes using structured or unstructured algorithms which
can be given as inputs to structured as well as unstructured solvers, respectively.

6.2.3 Structured meshing strategy


While simple ducts can be modeled using a single block, majority of the geometries
encountered in real life have to be modeled using multi-block strategies if at all it is possible.
The following are the different multi-block strategies available which can be implemented
using ANSYS ICEM CFD.

O-grid
C-grid
Quarter O-grid
H-grid
6.2.4 Unstructured meshing strategy
Unlike the structured approach for meshing, the unstructured meshing algorithm is more or
less an optimization problem, wherein, it is required to fill-in a given space (with curvilinear
boundaries) with standard shapes (e.g., triangle, quadrilaterals - 2D; tetrahedral, hexahedral,
polyhedral, prisms and pyramids - 3D) which have constraints on their size. The basic
algorithms employed for doing unstructured meshing are:

Octree (easiest from the user's perspective; robust but least control over the final cell
count which is usually the highest)
Delaunay (better control over the final cell count but may have sudden jumps in the size
of the elements)
Advancing front (performs very smooth transition of the element sizes and may result in
quite accurate but high cell count)

6.2.5 ANSYS ICEM CFD best practices


If using Octree -

Perform volume meshing


Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options
Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls
Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

If using Delaunay or Advancing Front -

Perform surface meshing


Improve the quality of the surface mesh using Edit Mesh options
Perform volume meshing
Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options
Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls
Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options

Figure 6.8: Fluid body mesh

Element type

Tetrahedral cells 157038

Nodes - 28216

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Chapter 7

Results and Discussions

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

7 .1 Computational results

From the computational results, vortex generators on the stator blades can be described by
the following steps:
The static pressure has been increased over the suction surface of stator blade.
The kinetic energy of the flow over the suction surface has been increased.
Boundary layer separation has been delayed.
The shear force in the flow direction has increased.

7.2 Fluid flow results


Fluid flow analysis was done with the boundary conditions as explained . The
convergence plot for the fluid flow analysis is given by

Figure 7.1 : Flow analysis of converged plot

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

The results converged after 43 iterations for 204.71ms-1 a duration of 10 minutes on a


system configuration of Intel I5 processor,8GB RAM on ANSYS 15.0

Air flow rate of 204.71 m/s were used to obtain the results as follows:

7.2.1 Contours of pressure


Results of for pressure variations for the model are as follows:

Figure 7.2 : pressure contour without vortex generators on suction surface of stator blade

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 7.3 : pressure contour without vortex generators on suction surface of stator
blade

7.2.2 Contours of velocity magnitude


Results of for velocity magnitude variations for the model are as follows:

Figure 7.4 : contour of velocity magnitude without vortex generators

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 7.5 : contour of velocity magnitude with vortex generators

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

7.2.3 Contour of wall shear in flow direction

Results of for wall shear in flow direction variations for the models are as follows:

Figure 7.6 : Contour of wall shear in flow direction without VG'S

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Figure 7.7 : Contour of wall shear in flow direction with VG'S

7.3 Conclusion

In this study, the employment of vortex generators on the blade surface conveniently builds
the following conclusions.
With regards to the employment of array of vortex generators, the flow stabilizes in the area
where the array of vortex generators have been placed and also the stable pressure rise along
the axial length of the compressor is observed.
The stabilization of the flow is achieved and also the flow is attached throughout thus
delaying separation, as well as a favorable pressure rise is observed along the length of the
domain.
The pressure rise on the blade trailing edge without vortex generators is 1.01*103
pascal.
The pressure rise on the blade trailing edge with vortex generators is
1.85*103 pascal.

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

Chapter 8
FUTURE WORK

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

8. Future work
In order to further improve on the Vortex generators research, several things done during the
test phase would enhance results. After the numerical analysis was successfully conducted,
we have jolted down some suggestions for the improvement of Vortex generators as follows.
Future projects on vortex generators should consider the possibility of using different
shapes.
With successful completion of these project we concluded the better position of the
vortex generators.
Further development into a better theoretical understanding of vortex generator's,
building on the achievements of this project is another area that requires additional
development. This would enable better performance of turbojet engines.
Placement of vortex generators along the chord and span wise distance can vary it
gives the better performance and pressurization of the engine.
Change the length, height and angle between the vortex generator .

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

CHAPTER 9
REFERENCES

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Design and effect of vortex generators on stator blade in axial flow compressor
2016-2017

1. Design and Analysis of Stator, Rotor and Blades of the Axial compressor .
2. Design Methodology of two Stage Axial flow CompressoR
3. Effect of Vortex Generators on the flow over the stator blade surface of an axial flow
compressor
4 V. GANESAN, Gas Turbines.
5 Saravanamutto, HIH, Rogers, GFC, och Cohen. H Gas Turbine Theory.
6 Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using
Stereoscopic PIV

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