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Grade 10

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Learners Material

GOVERNMENT PROPERTY
NOT FOR SALE
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District/ School: _________________________________________
Division _________________________________________________
First Year of Use: _________________________________________
Source of Fund (Year included):__________________________

Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines

1
Technology & Livelihood Education Grade 10
Learners Material
First Edition, 2013
ISBN: ___________

Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the
Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein
the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office
may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties.

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks,
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exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners.
The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.

Published by the Department of Education


Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC
Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, Ph.D.
Assistant Secretary: Lorna Dig-Dino, Ph.D.

Development Team of the Learners Material

Consultant:Alfredo L. Alcala Jr., Lorenzo A. Ladia and Famy L. Pepito


Authors: ROBERTO S. DAQUIL FERNANDO N.MAGALANG
HT VI, Manila High School HT III, C.M. Recto High School
DepEd Manila DepEd Manila

Editors: Lando T. Guzman, Lynette T. Guzman, Eugenio Masilungan


Reviewers: Arnel C. Anonical, Joel G. Castillo, Arnold M. Mendoza,
Marvin A. Mendoza, Lino A. Olit, Atanacio D. Pagkaliwangan, Benjie R.
San Juan, and Rainbee Priol

Illustrators:

Subject Specialists: Albert Erni, James Julius M. Liquigan, Owen S.


Milambiling

Management Team: Lolita M. Andrada, Jocelyn DR Andaya, Bella O.


Marias, and Jose D. Tuguinayo Jr.

Printed in the Philippines by ____________

Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS)


nd
Office Address: 2 Floor Dorm G, Philsports Complex, Meralco Avenue,
Pasig City, Philippines 1600
Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072
E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com

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Table of Content Page
Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) 8
Environment and Market (E&M) 22
Process and Delivery 45
QUARTER 1
INTRODUCTION 45
Pre/Diagnostic 46
LO1 Explain the Principles of Auto-Electricity
Information Sheet 1.1
Principles of auto-electricity 48
Activity Sheet 1.1
Connecting parts of a circuit 52
Self-Check 1.1
Connecting parts of a circuit 54
Information Sheet 1.2
Automotive electrical terms and symbols 55
Self-Check 1.2
Automotive electrical terms and symbols 61
LO2 Explain Automotive Lighting System
Pre/Diagnostic 63
Information Sheet 2
Automotive lighting system and components 65
Activity Sheet 2.1
Identify, cite the function or uses and terminals of
each part of lighting system 75
Self-Check 2.1
Identify, cite the function or uses and terminals of
each part of lighting system 77
LO3 Install Wiring/Lighting System
Pre/Diagnostic 78
Information Sheet 3.1
Interpreting lighting and warning circuit diagram 79
Activity Sheet 3.1
Connecting back-up light circuit 85
Self-Check 3.1
Connecting back-up light circuit 87
Activity Sheet 3.2
Connecting turn signal light and hazard light circuit 88
Self-Check 3.2
Connecting turn signal light and hazard light circuit 90
Activity Sheet 3.3
Connecting horn circuit 91
Self-Check 3.3
Connecting horn circuit 93
Summative Assessment 94

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QUARTER II
INTRODUCTION 99
LO3 Install Wiring/Lighting System
Information Sheet No. 3.2
Checking continuity and condition of a combination switch 100
Activity Sheet 3.4
Tracing wires of tail light, high beam, and low beam of combination
switch using multi-tester 104
Self-Check 3.4
Tracing wires of tail light, high beam, and low beam of combination
switch using multi-tester 106
Activity Sheet 3.5
Connecting the wires of circuit diagram of combination switch, in
head light, park, tail, and plate light 107
Self-Check 3.5
Connecting the wires of circuit diagram of combination switch, in
head light, park, tail, and plate light 109
Information Sheet 3.3
Install wires leading to different lights and other relevant devices
causing improper grounding 110
Activity Sheet 3.6
Crimping and soldering lead terminals of wires 111
Self-Check 3.6
Crimping and soldering lead terminals of wires 114
LO4 Test Electrical System and Determine Preferred Action
Pre/Diagnostic 115
Information Sheet 4.1
Repair, replacement of head light and techniques in determining the
faults/defects of electrical system 117
Activity Sheet 4.1
Head light repair and replacement 118
Self-Check 4.1
Head light repair and replacement 121
LO5: Carry out Necessary Repair in the Electrical System 123
Pre/Diagnostic Assessment
Information Sheet 5.1
Troubleshooting electrical system 125
Activity Sheet 5.1
Checking for open, shorted to voltage and shorted to ground circuit
by using test lamp or multi-tester 129
Self-Check 5.1
Checking for open, shorted to voltage and shorted to ground circuit
by using test lamp or multi-tester 131
Summative Assessment 132

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QUARTER 3
INTRODUCTION 137
LO 1.1 Check clutch and brake fluid
LO 1.2 Inspect/Bleed brake and clutch system
Pre/Diagnostic Assessment LO 1.1 and LO 1.2 138
Information Sheet 1.1.1 141
Construction and operation of clutch
Self-Check 1.1.1 150
Construction and operation of clutch
Information Sheet 1.1.2 152
Check clutch brake fluid
Activity Sheet 1.1.2 154
Check level and refill clutch with brake fluid
Self-Check 1.1.2 157
Check clutch brake fluid level
Information Sheet 1.1.3 159
Check clutch/ brake fluid lines/cables for cracks, twists/bends,
looseness, restrictions and leakage
Activity Sheet 1.1.3 161
Check clutch/ brake fluid lines/cables for cracks, twists/bends,
looseness, restrictions and leakage
Self-Check 1.1.3 162
Check clutch/ brake fluid lines/cables for cracks, twists/bends,
looseness, restrictions and leakage
Information Sheet 1.1.4 163
Replace defective clutch/brake system components
Activity Sheet 1.1.4 165
Replace defective clutch slave cylinder bleeder valve
Self-Check 1.1.4 167
Replace defective clutch/brake system components
LO 1.2: Inspect/Bleed brake and clutch system 169
Information Sheet 1.2.1
Inspect brake system
Activity Sheet 1.2.1 186
Inspect brake system
Self-Check 1.2.1 187
Inspect brake system
Activity Sheet 1.2.2 188
Check and adjust brake pedal height, free-play and pedal reserve distance
Activity Sheet 1.2.3 191
Bleed the brake system
Activity Sheet 1.2.4 193
Refill master cylinder with brake fluid
Self Check 1.2.2 1.2.4 195
1.1.2 Check and adjust brake pedal height, free-play and reserve distance
1.2.3 Bleed the brake system
1.2.4 Refill master cylinder with brake fluid

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Activity Sheet 1.2.5 196
Check leaks in the brake system
Self-Check 1.2.5 198
Check leaks in the brake system
Summative Assessment LO 1.1 L.O. 1.2 199
LO2 Inspect and Change Transmission/Differential Gear Oil 204
Pre/Diagnostic Assessment
Information Sheet 2.1 206
Check transmission/differential for leakage
Activity Sheet 2.1 208
Check transmission/differential for leakage
Self-Check 2.1 209
Check transmission/differential for leakage
Information Sheet 2.2 210
Check transmission/differential gear oil level
Activity Sheet 2.2 212
Check level and refill transmission/differential gear oil
Self-Check 2.2 215
Check level and refill transmission/differential gear oil
Activity Sheet 2.3 216
Change transmission /differential gear oil
Self-Check 2.3 221
Change transmission /differential gear oil
Summative Assessment LO 2 223
QUARTER 4
INTRODUCTION 229
LO 3 Inspect/Replace Power Steering Fluid
Pre/Diagnostic Assessment 230
Information Sheet 3.1 228
Power steering system
Activity Sheet 3.1 232
Check power steering fluid
Self-Check 3.1 241
Check power steering fluid
Activity Sheet 3.2 242
Check power steering for leakage
Activity Sheet 3.3 244
Replace Power Steering Fluid
Self-Check 3.2 3.3 245
3.2 - Inspect power steering for leakage
3.3 Replace power steering fluid
Summative Assessment LO 3 246
LO 4 Check/Refill Automatic Transmission Fluid 250
Pre/Diagnostic Assessment
Information Sheet 4.1 252
Automatic transmission fluid
Activity Sheet 4.1 255

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Check, drain and refill automatic transmission fluid
Summative Assessment LO 4 261
LO 5 Check Tire and Tire Pressure 265
Pre/Diagnostic Assessment
Information Sheet 5.1 267
Check tire and tire pressure
Activity Sheet 5.1 277
Inspect/Check wheels and tires
Activity Sheet 5.2 268
Check tire pressure and inflate tire
Summative Assessment LO 5 280
TECHNICAL TERMS 284
REFERENCES 289
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 278

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PERSONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES (PECs)

Content Standards Performance Standards

The learner demonstrates The learner independently creates a


understanding of ones PECs in plan of action that strengthens/
Automotive Servicing. further develops his/her PECs in
Automotive Servicing.

TIME ALLOTMENT: 4 hours

PERSONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES

INTRODUCTION

In this module you will learn more about entrepreneurship and the
entrepreneurial competencies related to Automotive. You will have a first-
hand experience in educational activities leading to personal assessment of
your entrepreneurial competencies and assessment of entrepreneurial
competencies of a successful Automotive Mechanic within your
town/municipality. You will also have some activities to align your
competencies with the competencies of successful practitioners. Moreover,
this module is designed to stimulate your mind to think about
entrepreneurship, its role in the business community in particular and to
the economic and social development in general.

Now, to start with this module, let us first understand entrepreneurs


and entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurs are people with skills and capabilities to see and


evaluate business opportunities. They are individuals that can strategically
identify products or services needed by the community and they deliver these
at the right time and the right place.

Entrepreneurs are agent of economic change; they organize, manage


and assume risks of a business. Some of the good qualities of an
entrepreneur are opportunity seeker, risk taker, goal setter, excellent
planner, a confident problem solver, hardworking, persistent and a
committed worker.

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Entrepreneurship on the other hand is not just a simple business
activity. It is a strategic process of innovation and new venture creation.
Basically, entrepreneurship is both an art and science of converting business
ideas into marketable products or services to improve the quality of living.

Now that you have a little background knowledge about entrepreneur


and entrepreneurship, can you now walk through in assessing your Personal
Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs)? Always remember that Successful
entrepreneurs continuously develop and improve their PECs.

To begin with, let us first try to find out the competencies you will
master after finishing this module.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this module, you are expected to:

Identify areas for improvement, development and growth;


Align your PECs according to your business/career choice; and
Create a plan of action that ensures success in your business/career
choice

Now that you have an idea about the enabling knowledge and skill that
you will develop/achieve and master, try to take the first challenge in this
module -- the pre assessment.

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PRE-ASSESSMENT

As part of your initial activity, you will be challenged to dig deeper your
knowledge and previous experiences on the topic. Try to diagnose/assess
what you already know about personal entrepreneurial competencies by
answering the Task 1.

Task 1: Matching Type

Directions: Match the entrepreneurial competencies in column A with


their meaning in column B. Write the letter of the correct
answer on the space provided before the number.

A B
____1. Creative A. make a wise decision towards the set
objectives
____2. Profit Oriented B. strategic thinking and setting of goals
____3. Discipline C. trust in ones ability
____4. Decision Making D. adoptable to change
____5. People Skill E. innovative to have edge over other
competitors
____6. Planner F. solid dedication
____7. Self-confidence G. skillful in record keeping
____8. Hardworking H. always stick to the plan
____9. Ability to accept change I. working diligently
____10. Committed J. effective and efficient communication
and relation to people
K. always looking for income each number.
Task 2: Guide Questions

Directions: The following are guide questions which encapsulate the entire
module. Write your answers on your assignment notebook, then
share these to class.

A. Explain why entrepreneurial activities are important to social


development and progress of the economy.
B. What entrepreneurial activities do you know and capable of doing which
are related to Automotive?
C. Given the opportunity to own a business that relates with Automotive,
are you confident to manage it? Explain your answer.

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D. What do you think are the most important competencies you must
possess in order to be successful in running your chosen business?
E. Name successful entrepreneurs from your town/municipality whose
business is related to Automotive. Be able to share to the class their
PECs that made them successful.

After all the guide questions have been answered to the best of your
knowledge and skills, share these with your classmates. You too, may
compare your insights, personal knowledge of, and relevant experiences
on the topic to make it more exciting and engaging.

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGET

After reading and understanding the objectives of this module and


having gone through pre-assessment and answering the guide questions,
you will be asked to set your own personal goals. These goals will trigger
you to further achieve the ultimate objective of this module. In the end,
these goals would motivate you to learn more about PECs.

Goals and Learning Ultimate


Targets Activities Goal

Figure 1: Strategic process to achieve the objectives of this module

READING RESOURCES AND INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

After setting your own personal goals and targets to achieve the
objectives of this module, check first your inherent knowledge of PECs. Try
to answer the following guide questions with the help of your classmates.

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Task 3: Group Activity

Directions: Answer the following guide questions on a separate sheet of


paper. Share your answer to the class.

1. Explain the importance of assessing ones PECs before engaging in a


particular entrepreneurial activity.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.

2. Are there other strategies or approaches where you can assess your PECs?
Explain how those strategies would become more useful in selecting a
viable business venture.
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.

3. What are the desirable personal characteristics, attributes, lifestyles, skills


and traits of a prospective entrepreneur? Why do you think these are
important?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________.

4. Why is there a need to assess ones PECs in terms of characteristics,


attributes, lifestyles, skills and traits before starting a particular business?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.

5. What is the significance of evaluating PECs of a successful entrepreneur?


What helpful insights can you draw from this activity?
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________.

How was your experience in answering the guide questions with your
classmates? Were you able to benefit from them? What were the insights you
have realized?

Now, this time youre going to study the different topics that will enrich
your knowledge of PECs. Read carefully all the important details about the
succeeding topic.

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Know

Assessment of Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) and


skills vis--vis a practicing entrepreneur/employee in a
town/municipality.

The entrepreneurial competencies refer to the important


characteristics that should be possessed by an individual in order to perform
entrepreneurial functions effectively. In this module, you will learn some of
the most important characteristics, attributes, lifestyle, skills and traits of a
successful entrepreneur in order to be successful in a chosen career.

Below are few important characteristics/traits/attributes of a


good entrepreneur:

Hardworking: One of the important characteristics of a good


entrepreneur is hardworking. This means habitually working
diligently for a long period of hours. Hardworking people keep on
improving their performance to produce good products and or
provide good services.

Confident: Entrepreneurs have confidence in ones ability and


own judgment. They exhibit self-confidence in order to cope with
all the risks of operating their own business.

Disciplined: Successful entrepreneurs always stick on the plan


and fight the temptation to do what is unimportant.

Committed: A good entrepreneur accepts full responsibility of


everything in his/her business. He/she gives full commitment and
solid dedication to make the business successful.

Ability to accept change: Nothing is permanent but change.


Change occurs frequently. When you own a business, you should
cope-up and thrive on changes. Capitalize on positive changes to
make your business grow.

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Creative: An entrepreneur should be creative and innovative to
stay in the business and in order to have an edge over the other
competitors.

Has the Initiative: An entrepreneur takes the initiative. You


must put yourself in a position where you personally are
responsible for the failure or success of your business.

Profit-Oriented: You enter into the world of business to generate


profit or additional income. This shall become your bread and
butter and for your family as well. Therefore, you must see to it
that the business can generate income.

Listed below are the important skills of a successful entrepreneur.

Excellent Planner. Planning is a strategic thinking and setting of


goals to achieve objectives by carefully maximizing on all the
available resources. A good entrepreneur develops and applies
step-by-step plans to realize goals. A good entrepreneur knows that
planning is an effective skill only when combined with action.

Possesses People Skill. Is a skill which is very important in order


to be successful in any kind of business. People skill refers to an
effective and efficient communication and relation to people
working in and out of your business. In day-to-day business
transactions, you need to deal with people. A well- developed
people skill can spell out the difference between success and
failure of the business.

Sound Decision Maker. Successful entrepreneurs have the ability


to think quickly and make a wise decision towards the pre-
determined set objectives. No one can deny that the ability to make
decision is an important skill that an entrepreneur should possess.
Sound decision should spring out from given facts/information
and should be towards the pre-determined objectives.

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Process

In order to firm up what you have learned and to have a better


appreciation of the different entrepreneurial competencies, read the PECs
checklist presented below, and then answer the same.

Task 4: PECs Checklist

Directions: Using the PECs Checklist, assess yourself by indicating a check


(/) mark in either strengths or development areas column.
Interpret the results by counting the total number of check
marks in each of the columns. After accomplishing the checklist,
form a group and share your insights and experiences why you
come up with that personal assessment.

Table 1: PECs Checklist

Personal Assessment in
Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies terms of:
of an Entrepreneur Strength Development
Areas
Hardworking
- Working diligently
Confident
- Confidence in ones ability
Disciplined
- Always stick to the plan
Committed
- Solid dedication
Ability to accept change
- Adoptable to change
Creative
- Innovative to have edge over other
competitors
Profit-oriented
- Always looking for income

Excellent Planner

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- Strategic thinking and setting of goals

Possess People Skill


- effective and efficient communication
and relation to people
Sound Decision Maker
- make a wise decision towards the set
objectives
TOTAL

Interpretation/Insights:

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________.

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Reflect and Understand

How was your experience in discovering your strengths and the areas
to be developed? Did you gain valuable experience in exchanging insights
with your classmates? To learn more and deepen your understanding of
PECs, do the Task 5 below.

Task 5: Interview

Interview a successful Automotive Mechanic or entrepreneurs in your


town/municipality whose type of business is related with Automotive.
Focus your interview on PECs and other business-related attributes that
help them become successful. Analyze the result of the interview and reflect
on the similarities and/or differences. Write your answer on a separate
sheet of paper.

Sample Interview Guide

Name of Proprietor/Practitioner: __________________________________________


Age: ____________________ Number of Years in Business: ___________________
Business Name: __________________________________________________________
Business Address: ________________________________________________________

1. What are your preparations before you engaged in this type business/
job?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.
2. What are your special skills/characteristics that are related with your
business/job?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.
3. How did you solve business-related problems during the early years of
your business operation?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________.
4. Did you follow the tips from a successful businessman/practitioner
before you engaged in your business?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________.
5. What are your best business practices that you can share with
aspiring students?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________.
6. What are the salient characteristics, attributes, lifestyle, skills and
traits that made you successful in your business/job?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________.

Note: Take the needed information from the interview to supply


answer/s to Row 1 in the table below. Meanwhile, fill out the second
row with your PECs.

Personal
Entrepreneurial Characteristic Attribute Lifestyle Skill Trait
Competencies s s s s s
Successful
Entrepreneur in
the
town/municipalit
y
My PECs

Using the information on the table above, analyze, and reflect on the
similarities and differences in your answers. Put your reflection on the
table below. Write your conclusion on the space provided.

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Personal
Entrepreneurial Similarities Differences
Competencies

Characteristics

Attributes

Lifestyles

Skills

Traits

Conclusion:

_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________.

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Transfer

After performing the activities on the importance of PECs, lets


determine how much you have learned. Perform Task 6 to determine how
well you have understood the lesson.

Task 6: Preparation of a Plan of Action


Directions: Using the table below and the information generated from Task
5 (Interview), prepare an action plan that indicates how you
would align your PECs to the PECs of the successful
Automotive Technician in your town/municipality.

Time Expected
Objective Area Activities Strategies
Frame Outcome

To align my Characteristics
PECs with
the PECs of
a successful
entrepreneur
in
Automotive Skills
Services.

Attribute

Traits

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Task 7: Essential Questions
Directions: Read and study the following questions below. You may use a
separate sheet of paper or your notebook to write your answers.

1. Why is there a need to compare and align your PECs with the PECs of
a successful entrepreneur?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.

2. How does your action plan help sustain your strong PECs and/or
address your development areas?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.

3. What plan of action would you do to address your development areas?


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.

FEEDBACK

Pre/Post Assessment

1. E
2. K
3. H
4. A
5. J
6. B
7. C
8. I
9. D
10. F

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ENVIRONMENT AND MARKET (EM)

Content Standards Performance Standards

The learner demonstrates The learner independently creates a


understanding of environment and business vicinity map reflective of
market in Automotive Servicing in potential market in Automotive
ones town/municipality. Servicing in a town/municipality.

Time Allotment: 4 hours

ENVIRONMENT AND MARKET

INTRODUCTION

People who aspire to start a business need to explore the economic,


cultural and social conditions prevailing in the area. Needs and wants of the
people in a certain area that are not met may be considered as business
opportunities. Identifying the needs of the community, its resources,
available raw materials, skills, and appropriate technology can help a new
entrepreneur in seizing a business opportunity.

To be successful in any kind of business venture, potential


entrepreneurs should always look closely at the environment and market.
They should always be watchful on the existing opportunities and
constraints. The opportunities in the business environment are those factors
that provide possibilities for a business to expand and make more profits.
Constraints, on the other hand are those factors that limit the ability to
grow, hence reduces the chance of generating profit. One of the best ways to
evaluate the opportunities and constraints is to conduct (Strengths,
Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) SWOT Analysis.

SWOT analysis is a managerial tool to assess the environment. This


gathers important information, which in turn is used in strategic planning.
Strengths and Weaknesses are internal in an organization. Basically they
relate to resources owned by organization, things that you have control over,
and as well as the extent of its marketing.

Opportunities and Threats exist in the external environment.


Opportunities relate to the market, to the development of new technologies,
and external factors such as government policies, climate, and trends.

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Threats relate to what the competition is doing as well as legal and other
constraints.

Now that you have read some of the important considerations to look
into to be successful in any business, you are now ready to explore more
about the environment and market.

To begin with, lets first try to find out the competencies that you will
master after finishing this module.

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this module, you are expected to:


Identify what is of Value to the customer;
Identify the customer to sell to;
Explain what makes a product unique and competitive;
Apply creativity and innovative techniques to develop marketable product;
and
Employ a Unique Selling Proposition (USP) to the product/service.

Now that you have an idea about the things you will learn, try to take
the first challenge in this module-- the pre-assessment.

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PRE-ASSESSMENT

Task I: Multiple Choice

Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on a
separate sheet of paper.

1. This is generated by examining what goods and services are sold outside
by the community.
A. Business Creation C. Business Concept
B. Business Pricing D. Business Idea
2. A process of making a new product to be sold to the customers.
A. Product Analysis C. Product Development
B. Product Conceptualization D. Product Implementation
3. These are luxuries, advantages and desires that every individual
considers beyond necessary.
A. Wants C. Requirements
B. Desires D. Needs
4. This is the factor or consideration presented by a seller as the reason that
one product or service is different from and better than that of the
competition.
A. Unique Selling Plan C. Unique Pricing Policy
B. Unique Selling Proposition D. Finding Value-Added
5. In this stage, the needs of the target market are identified, reviewed and
evaluated.
A. Concept Development C. Project Development
B. Economic Analysis D. Refine Specification
6. This is the introduction of new idea to make the product and services
more attractive and saleable to the target customers.
A. New Idea C. Product Development
B. Creativity D. Innovation
7. A managerial tool used to assess the environment to gather important
information used for strategic planning.
A. Environmental Scanning C. WOTS Analysis
B. SWOT Analysis D. Survey Analysis
8. A marketing practice of creating name, symbol or designs that identifies
and differentiate a product from the other products.
A. Product Naming C. Branding
B. Unique Selling Proposition D. Tagline

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9. This is a meaningful and unforgettable statement that captures the
essence of your brand.
A. Product Naming C. Branding
B. Unique Selling Proposition D. Tagline

10. These are the things that people cannot live without.
A. Wants C. Requirements
B. Desires D. Needs

Task 2: Guide Questions:

Directions: Read and study the guide questions below. You may use a
separate sheet of paper to write your responses to the guide
questions.

1. How does one determine the products or services to be produced and/or


to be offered or delivered to the target customers?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

2. How does one select an entrepreneurial activity?


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

3. When can one say that a certain product has a value?


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

4. Is innovation and creativity to your products/services important?


Explain.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

5. How can one effectively respond to the needs of the target customer?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

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6. Express from the viewpoint of business owner the importance of
scanning the environment and market in generating business idea.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

7. Using self-assessment, explain your level of confidence in formulating a


business idea.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

After all the guide questions have been answered and skills have been
mastered, share those with your classmates. Discuss your insights, personal
knowledge of, and relevant experiences on the topic to make it more exciting
and engaging.

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGET

After reading and understanding the objectives of this module and


having gone through pre-assessment and answering the guide questions,
you will be asked to set your own personal goals. These goals will trigger
you to further achieve the ultimate objective of this module. In the end,
these goals would motivate you to learn more about Environment and
Market.

Goals and Learning Ultimate


Targets Activities Goal

Figure 2: Strategic process to reach the objectives of this module

READING RESOURCES AND INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

After setting your own personal goals and targets to achieve the
objectives of this module, you will have the opportunity to read and learn

27
more about environment and market. You too, will also be given a chance to
do practical exercises and activities to deepen your understanding of the
topic.

Know

Product Development

When we talk of product development, we are referring to a process of


making a new product to be sold by a business or enterprise to its
customers. The product development may involve modification of an existing
product or its presentation, or formulation of an entirely new product that
satisfies a newly defined customers needs and/or want and/or a market
place.

The term development in this module refers collectively to the entire


process of identifying a market opportunity, creating a product to appeal to
the identified market, and finally, testing, modifying and refining the product
until this will be ready for production. This product can be any item to be
sold to the consumers.

There are basic, yet vital questions that you can ask yourself about.
When you shall find acceptable answers to these, you may now say that you
are ready to develop a product and/or render service.

1. For whom are the products/services aimed at?


2. What benefit will the customers expect from it?
3. How will the product differ from the existing brand? Or from their
competitor?

Likewise, needs and wants of the people within the area should also be
taken into big consideration. Everyone has his or her own needs and wants.
However, people have different concepts of needs and wants. Needs in
business are important things that every individual cannot do without in a
society. These include:
1. Basic commodities for consumption
2. Clothing and other personal belongings,
3. Shelter, sanitation and health
4. Education

28
Basic needs are essential to every individual so he/she may be able to
live with dignity and pride in the community of people. These needs can
obviously help you generate business ideas and subsequently to product
development.
Wants are desires, luxury and extravagance that signify wealth and an
expensive way of living. Wants or desires are considered above all the basic
necessities of life. Some examples are the eagerness or the passion of every
individual which are non- basic needs like; fashion accessories, shoes,
clothes, travelling around the world, eating in an exclusive restaurant;
watching movies, concerts, plays, having luxurious cars, wearing expensive
jewelry, perfume, living in impressive homes, and others.
Needs and wants of people are the basic indicators of the kind of
business that you may engage into because it can serve as the measure of
your success. Some other good points that you might consider in business
undertakings are the kind of people, their needs, wants, lifestyle, culture and
tradition, and social orientation that they belong.
To summarize, product development entirely depends to the needs and
wants of the customers. Another important issue to deal with is the key
concepts of developing a product. The succeeding topic shall enlighten you
about the procedure in coming up with a product.

Concepts of Developing a Product

Concept development is very critical phase in the development of a


product. From this stage, the needs of the target market are identified and
competitive products are reviewed before the product specifications are
defined. The product concept is selected along with an economic analysis to
come up with an outline of how a product is being developed. Below is a
figure that shows the stages of concept development of a product.

29
Identify Establish Generate Select a
Refine
Customer Target Product Product
Specifications
Needs Specifications Concepts Concept

Plan
Analyze Remaining
Perform
Competitive Development
Economic
Project
Products Analysis

Concept Development

Figure 3: Concept Development

The process of product development follows the following steps:

1. Identify Customer Needs - Using a survey form, interviews, researches,


focus group discussions, and observations an entrepreneur can easily
identify customers needs and wants. In this stage, the information that
can be possibly gathered here are product specifications (performance,
taste, size, color, shape, life span of the product, etc.). This stage is very
important because this would determine the product to be produced or
provided.

2. Establish Target Specifications - Based on customers' needs and


reviews of competitive products, you may now establish target
specifications of the prospective new product and/or services. Target
specifications are essentially a wish-list.

3. Analyze Competitive Products - It is imperative to analyze existing


competitive products to provide important information in establishing
product/services specifications. Other products may exhibit successful
design attributes that should be emulated or improved upon in the new
product/service.

4. Generate Product Concepts - After having gone through with the


previous processes, you may now develop a number of product concepts
to illustrate what types of product/service are both technically feasible
and would best meets the requirements of the target specifications.

5. Select a Product Concept - Through the process of evaluation between


attributes, a final concept is selected. After the final selection, additional

30
market research can be applied to obtain feedback from certain key
customers.

6. Refine Product Specifications - In this stage, product/service


specifications are refined on the basis of input from the foregoing
activities. Final specifications are the result of extensive study, expected
service life, projected selling price and among others are being considered
in this stage.

7. Perform Economic Analysis - Throughout the process of product


development, it is very important to always review and estimate the
economic implications regarding development expenses, manufacturing
costs, and selling price of the product/services to be offered/provided.

8. Plan the Remaining Development Project - In this final stage of


concept development, you may prepare a detailed development plan
which includes a list of activities, the necessary resources and expenses,
and a development schedule with milestones for tracking progress.

Finding Value
People buy for a reason, there should be something in your
product/services that would give consumers a good reason to go back and
buy for more. There must be something that has to make you the best option
for your target customers; otherwise they have no reason to buy what youre
selling. This implies further, that you offer something to your customers that
they will make them value or treasure your products/services.

The value that you incorporate to your product is called value


proposition. Value proposition is a believable collection of the most
persuasive reasons people should notice you and take the action youre
asking for. Value is created by fulfilling deep desires and solving deep
problems. This is what gets the people moving, what gets spending for your
product/service.

Innovation
Innovation is the introduction of something new in your
products/services. This may be a new idea, a new method or a device. If you
want to increase your sales and profit you must innovate. Some of the
possible innovations in your products are change of packaging, improve
taste, color, size, shape and perhaps price. Some of the possible innovations

31
in providing services are application of new improved methods, additional
featured services and possibly freebees.
Unique Selling Proposition (USP)

Unique Selling Proposition is the factor or consideration presented by a


seller as the reason that one product or service is different from and better
than that of the competition. Before you can begin to sell your product or
service to your target customers, you have to sell yourself on it. This is
especially important when your product or service is similar to those around
you.
USP would require careful analysis of other businesses' ads and
marketing messages. If you analyze what they say or what they sell, not just
their product or service characteristics, you can learn a great deal about how
companies distinguish themselves from competitors.

Here's how to discover your USP and use it to increase your sales and
profit:

Use empathy: Put yourself in the shoes of your customers. Always


focus on the needs of the target customers and forget falling in love
with your own products or services. Always remember, you are making
this product or providing for the target customers eventually increase
sales and earn profit and not making this product or services for
yourself. Essential question such as what could make them come back
again and again and ignore competition? Most possible answers will be
focused on the quality, availability, convenience, cleanliness,
reliability, and friendliness.

Identify what motivates your customers. It is very important for you


to understand and find out what drives and motivates your customers
to buy your products/services. Make some efforts to find out, analyze
and utilize the information what motivates the customers in their
decisions to purchase the product/services.

Discover the actual and genuine reasons why customers buy your
product instead of a competitor's. Information is very important in
decision making. A competitive entrepreneur always improve their
products/services to provide satisfaction and of course retention of
customers. As your business grows, you should always consider the

32
process of asking your customers important information and question
that you can use to improve your product/services.

Process

In order to firm-up your understanding of the topic previously


presented, you will be tasked to form a group and conduct an interview with
a successful entrepreneur/practitioner. You have to document this interview
and present this to the whole class for reflection and appreciation.

Task 3: Interview
Directions: Select a successful entrepreneur/practitioner. Conduct an
interview by utilizing the sets of questions below. Document
the interview and present this to the class.

1.How did you identify your customers?

2.What were your considerations in selecting your customers?

3.Explain how your products/services become unique to other product/s.

4.Did you consult somebody before you engaged in this business? Cite
sample insights that you gained from the consultation.

5.What were your preparations before you started the actual business?

6.What creative and innovative techniques did you adopt to your


product/services? What was the effect of the innovative techniques to the
sales and profits of your business?

7. What strategy did you consider to have a unique selling proposition to


your products/services?

33
Reflect and Understand

Task 4: Video Viewing

In order to deepen your understanding of the lesson, perform the


following tasks:

1. Browse the internet on topics related to:


a. Customers needs and wants;
b. Techniques in identifying customers needs and wants;
c. Creativity/innovations in products and services;
d. Unique selling proposition; and
e. Product development.
2. Prepare a short narrative report about the aforementioned topics. You
may highlight the aspect that intensifies your knowledge of product
development.

34
Transfer

Task 5: Product Conceptualization

Directions: Using the figures below develop your own concept for your
products/services.

1. Identify
Customers Need
7. Prepare a 2. Target
Development - Specifications
Plan
- -
-
- -
- 3.- Analyze a
6. Refine Product
-
Specification
- Competitive
-Product
- -
- -
- -
5. Select a 4. Generate - -
- -
product Concept Product Concept - -
- -
- - - -
- -
- - -
-
- -
___________________________________________________________________________
-
___________________________________________________________________________
- - -
___________________________________________________________________________
- -
__________________________________________________________________________.
- -

- -

35
Know

Generating Ideas for Business

The process of developing/generating business idea is not a simple


process. Some people just come to a bunch of business ideas, but some
really are without ideas. There are two problems that arise; first is the
excessive generation of ideas and that can make forever to remain dreaming
stage and second is when they dont have ideas and want to become
entrepreneurs.

The most optimal way is to have a systematic approach in generating


and selecting business idea that will be transferred in real business. Here are
some basic yet very important considerations you may use to generate
possible ideas for business:

1. Examine the existing goods and services. Are you satisfied with the
product? What do other people who use the product say about it? How
can it be improved? There are many ways of improving a product from the
way it is made to the way it is packed and sold? You can also improve the
materials used in crafting the product. In addition, you introduce new
ways of using the product, making it more useful and adaptable to the
customers many needs. When you are improving the product or
enhancing it, you are doing an innovation. You can also do an invention
by introducing an entirely new product to replace the old one.
Business ideas may also be generated by examining what goods
and services are sold outside by the community. Very often, these
products are sold in a form that can still be enhanced or improved.

2. Examine the present and future needs. Look and listen to what the
customers, institution, and communities are missing in terms of goods
and services. Sometimes, these needs are already obvious and felt at the
moment. Other needs are not that obvious because they can only be felt
in the future, in the event of certain developments in the community. For
example, a town/municipality will have its electrification facility in the
next six months. Only by that time will the entrepreneur could think of

36
electrically-powered or generated business such as photo copier,
computer service, digital printing, etc.
3. Examine how the needs are being satisfied. Needs for the products
and services are referred to as market demand. To satisfy these needs is
to supply the products and services that meet the demands of the market.
The term market refers to whoever will use or buy the products or
services, and these may be people or institutions such as other
businesses, establishments, organizations, or government agencies. There
is a very good business opportunity when there is absolutely no supply to
a pressing market demand.
Businesses or industries in the locality also have needs for goods
and services. Their needs for raw materials, maintenance, and other
services such as selling and distribution are good sources of ideas for
business.

4. Examine the available resources around you. Observe what materials


or skills are available in abundance in your area. A business can be
started out of available raw materials by selling them in raw form and by
processing and manufacturing them into finished products. For example,
in a copra-producing town, there will be many coconut husks and shells
available as waste products. These can be collected and made into coco
rags/doormat and charcoal bricks and sold profitably outside the
community.

A group of people in your neighborhood may have some special


skills that can be harnessed for business. For example, women in the
Mountain Town/municipality possess loom weaving skills that have been
passed on from one generation to the next generation. Some
communities there set up weaving businesses to produce blankets, as
well as decorative items and various souvenir items for sale to tourists
and lowland communities.

Business ideas can come from your own skills. The work and
experience you may have in agricultural arts, industrial arts, home
economics, and ICT classes will provide you with business opportunities
to acquire the needed skills which will earn for you extra income, should
you decide to engage in income-generating activities. With your skills,
you may also tinker around with various things in your spare time. Many
products were invented this way.

37
5. Read magazines, news articles, and other publications on new
products and techniques or advances in technology. You can pick up
new business ideas from Newsweek, Readers Digest, Business
Magazines, Go Negosyo, KAB materials, Small-Industry Journal. The
Internet serves as a library where you may browse and surf on possible
businesses. It will also guide you on how to put the right product in the
right place, at the right price, at the right time.

Listing of possible businesses to set up in an area may also be


available from banks or local non-government organizations.

Key concepts of selecting a Business Idea

Once you have embarked on identifying the business opportunities,


you will eventually see that there are many possibilities that are available for
you. It is very unlikely that you will have enough resources to pursue all of
them at once. Which one will you choose?

You have to select the most promising one from among hundreds and
one ideas. It will be good to do this in stages. In the first stage, you screen
your ideas to narrow them down to about five choices. In the next stage,
trim down the five choices to two options. In the final stage, choose between
the two and decide which business idea worth pursuing.

In screening your ideas, examine each one in terms of the following


factors:

1. How much capital is needed to put up the business?


2. How big is the demand for the product? Do many people need this
product and will continue to need it for a long time?
3. How is the demand met? Who are processing the products to meet the
need (competition or demand)? How much of the need is now being met
(supply)?
4. Do you have the background and experience needed to run this
particular business?
5. Will the business be legal, not going against any existing or foreseeable
government regulation?
6. Is the business in line with your interest and expertise?

38
Your answers to these questions will be helpful in screening which
ones from among your many ideas are worth examining further and worth
pursuing.

Branding

Branding is a marketing practice of creating name, symbol or designs


that identifies and differentiates products/services from other
products/services. It is also a promise to your customers. It tells them what
they can expect from your product/ services and it differentiate your
offerings from other competitors. Your brand is derived from who you are,
who you want to be and who people perceive you to be.

Branding is one of the most important aspects of any business. An


effective brand strategy gives you a major edge in increasingly competitive
markets

The features of a good product brand are as follows:


- Delivers the message clearly
- Confirms your credibility
- Connects your target prospects emotionally
- Motivates the buyer
- Concretizes user loyalty

Here are some simple tips to publicize your brand.


.
Develop a tagline. Write a meaningful unforgettable, and easy to
remember statement that captures the essence of your brand.

Get a great logo. Create a logo suitable to your business and


consistent with your tagline and place it everywhere.

Write down your brand messaging. Select key messages you


want to communicate about your brand.

Be true to your brand. Deliver your brand promise.

Be consistent. Be reliable and consistent every time.

39
Process

In generating business idea, you should first identify what type of


business is suited to your business idea. You should analyze and scan the
potential environment, study the marketing practices and strategies of your
competitors, analyze the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and the
Threats in your environment to ensure that the products/goods and services
you are planning to offer will be patronized within the easy reach by your
target markets/consumers.

Bear in mind these simple rules for successful SWOT analysis.

Be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses of your business


when conducting SWOT analysis.
SWOT analysis should distinguish between where your business is
today, and where it could be in the future.
SWOT should always be specific. Avoid any grey areas.
Always apply SWOT in relation to your competition i.e. better than or
worse than your competition.
Keep your SWOT short and simple. Avoid complexity and over analysis

SWOT is subjective.

40
Task 6: SWOT Analysis

Direction: In generating a business idea, environmental scanning is very


important. Utilize the SWOT analysis table below to list up all your
observations.
Consider the strategies below to select the best business idea.

Strength (S) Weaknesses (W)

- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -

Opportunities (O) Threats (T)

- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -

Strategize:

SW - Utilize the strengths to overcome the weakness


OS - Capitalize on the opportunities to eliminate the weakness
ST - Maximize on your strengths to eliminate the external threats
OT - Take advantage of the available opportunities to eliminate the
external threats.

Strategies/Activities:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________.

41
Analysis:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________..

My Best Business Idea:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________.

42
Reflect and Understand

In order to deepen your understanding of the topics previously


discussed, you will be asked to perform the following activities:

Task 7: Extra Readings and Video Viewing

Reading books and watching videos have been considered as one of the
most effective educational activities that help learners deepen their
understanding of certain topic. In this particular circumstance, you will be
asked to conduct an extra readings and video viewings on the following
topics.

A. Steps in selecting business idea


B. Criteria of a viable business idea
C. Benefits of a good brand
D. Ways on developing a brand

After successfully performing the assigned task, make a narrative


report about this and share it to the class.

Transfer

Task 9: Making my own Logo

Direction: Generate a clear appealing product brand with logo and tagline.
Logo

Logo

________________________

Tagline

43
Feedback

1. D
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. B
8. C
9. D
10. D

Auto LM Grade 10 relc Jul 14-18, 2014


Refined Aug. 18-22, 2014, RELC
Reviewed and Fionalized Oct.14-17/ 27-31,2014
11/12/14 BSP 10:00 AM

Finalized Q3Q4 RELC Nov.17-21, 2014

44
PROCESS AND DELIVERY

Content Standard Performance Standard


The learner demonstrates The learner independently performs
understanding of the principles in Testing and Repairing Wiring /Lighting
Testing and Repairing Wiring /Lighting System
System

QUARTER I TIME ALLOTMENT: 40 Hours

LESSON: TESTING AND REPAIRING WIRING /LIGHTING SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

This module contains information and suggested learning activities on


Testing and Repairing Wiring/Lighting System. It includes and explain the
principles of auto electricity, explain automotive lighting system and its functions,
install wiring/lighting system, test electrical system and determine preferred action,
and carry out necessary repair in the electrical system.

Completion of this module will help you understand the succeeding module
on Test and Repair Wiring and Lighting System.

This module consists four learning outcomes. Each learning outcome


contains learning activities with instruction sheets. Before you follow the
instruction, read the information sheets and answer the self-check and activities
provided to assess your competence by your teacher. He/she will check if you have
acquired the knowledge necessary to perform the skill portion of the particular
learning outcome.

Upon completing this module, report to your teacher for assessment to check
your achievement of knowledge, skills requirement of this module. If you pass the
assessment, you will be given a certificate of completion.

LO1: EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLES OF AUTO-ELECTRICITY

Explain Ohms law


Explain the law of magnetism
Draw the schematic diagram of an electrical circuit
Interpret signs and symbols
Identify size of wires according to job requirements
Determine polarity, conductor, and insulator

45
PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

A. Written Assessment

Multiple Choice. Directions: To determine prior learning, select the correct


answer by writing the letter of the best answer.

_______1.Like charges.

A. attract C. repel
B. neutralize each other D. add

_______2. The ____ is a unit of electrical pressure.

A. coulomb C. volt.
B. ampere D. ohm

_______3.Which unit of electricity does the work in a circuit?

A. Volt C. Ampere
B. Ohm D. Coulomb

_______4.If 12V is applied to a resistance of 3 ohms, ___ amperes will flow.

A. 12 C. 3
B. 4 D. 36

_______5.Ohms law is

A. E= IR C. R = AI
B. V = IR D. A = RC

_______6.Electrical current used in vehicle electrical system is:

A. ac C. dc
B. both ac and dc D. neither ac nor dc

_______7.Discovered the ohms law.

A. Benjamin Franklin C. Alexander Volta


B. Andrie Marie Ampere D. Georg Simon Ohm

_______8.Measures the flow of current.

A. ammeter C. hydrometer
B. tachometer D. speedometer

46
_______ 9.Converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

A. alternator C. capacitor
B. diode D. transistor

_______10.It will not allow electrons or electric current to flow through it.

A. conductor C. insulator
B. both conductor and insulator D. motor

47
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1

PRINCIPLES OF AUTO-ELECTRICITY

The word electricity comes from the Greek word elektron, meaning amber (a
fossil resin). The ancients produced electric charges by rubbing amber with wool.
This produced static electricity, which was the first known type of electricity. It is
called static (motionless) because the charge is at rest and not moving through a
wire.

Atom is the smallest particle of a matter.

There are three particles of an atom:

1. Proton is positively charged.


2. Neutron has no charge or neutral particles.
3. Electron is negatively charged particles.

Two types of electric current:

1. Direct Current (DC) when the free electrons are moving in a constant
direction.
2. Alternating Current (AC) when the direction and motion and the size of
the current vary periodically with time.

Three types of circuit:

1. Series circuit circuit in which the devices are connected end to end,
positive terminal to negative terminal. The same current flows through all
the devices in the circuit.
2. Parallel circuit circuit wherein the load or devices are connected across
each other. The current flows in different directions.
3. Series/Parallel circuit a combination of series and parallel circuit.

OHMS LAW

A German physicist, Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854), established that electric


pressure (EMF) in volts, electrical resistance in ohms, and the amount of current in
amperes flowing through any circuit are all related.

As the electric pressure goes up, more electrons flow. Increasing the voltage
increases the ampere of current. However, increasing the resistance decreases the
amount of current that flows. These relationships can be summed up in a
statement known as Ohms law.

48
Ohms law can also be stated as a simple formula that can be used to
calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known:

EE
I
I R
R

Fig.1. Formula used in Ohms Law

Voltage is equal to current times resistance:

E = IR

Where:
I = current in amperes (A)
E = electromotive force (EMF) in volts (V)
R = resistance in ohms ( )

LAW OF MAGNETISM

Magnetism is the ability either natural or produced by a flow of electric


current, to attract iron. Two forms of Magnetism are natural and electromagnet.

Two important facts about magnetism:

1. Magnetism can produce electricity.


2. Electricity can produce magnetism and magnetism produced by a flow of
electric current is called electromagnet.

ELECTROMAGNET a coil of wire (usually around an iron core) that produce


magnetism as an electric current passes through it.

Two kinds of Magnetic Poles:

1. North polethe pole from which the magnetic line of force leave a magnet.
2. South pole the pole at which the magnetic lines of force enter a magnet.

49
It was also discovered that like charged objects (both positive or both
negative) repelled or moved away from each other. Unlike charged objects (one
positive and one negative) attracted or moved toward each other.

Fig. 2. Unlike charges attract while like charges repel.

AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

CIRCUIT is the complete path of an electric current including the current source.
When the path is continuous, the circuit is closed and current flows. When the path
is broken, the circuit is open and no current flows.

In an automotive electrical circuit, one of the wires from each load returning
to battery is connected to the vehicle body or frame. Therefore, the vehicle body or
frame itself functions as a conductor, allowing current to flow through the body or
frame and back to battery. The body or frame is then referred to as the ground or
earth of the circuit (meaning that part of the circuit that returns the current to the
battery). Therefore, the two wiring diagrams below have the same meaning, but in
this manual, they be presented as shown in the wiring diagram below.

50
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

PATH CURRENT
CONSUMING
CONTROL
DEVICE

SOURCE

Fig.3. Complete Parts of a Circuit.

PARTS OF A COMPLETE CIRCUIT

Every complete circuit contains the following parts:

1. A power source, such as a cars battery.

2. Controller is used to open and close the flow of current and protection from
harmful overloads (excessive current flow). Fuses, circuit breakers, and
fusible links are examples of electrical circuit protection devices.

3. A path for the current to flow through from the power source to the
resistance (a light bulb in this example) is usually an insulated copper wire.

4. The electrical load or resistance is an opposition to the flow of electric


current. Anything that consumes electricity is a resistance.

51
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.1

CONNECTING PARTS OF A CIRCUIT

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Automotive wires
Lamp (12V)
Fuse
Ignition switch
Fuse box

TOOLS

Electrical pliers
Long nose pliers
Test light
Screw drivers

EQUIPMENT

Battery 12 volts

Plan/Working Drawing:

PROTECTION CURRENT
CONTROL CONSUMING

DEVICE

SOURCE

Fig. 4. Sample plan used in the parts of a circuit.

52
PROCEDURE:

1. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment.

2. Connect a wire from the positive terminal of the lamp to the ACC terminal of
the ignition switch.

3. Connect a wire from the AM/BATT terminal of the ignition switch to the
positive terminal of the battery.

4. Connect the negative terminal of the battery to the ground of a lamp.

NOTE:

Check for the looseness of connection of wires, it can cause an open circuit
or high resistance.

Always check the work of students before operating the circuit.

A major cause of electrical troubles is excessive resistance in circuits, which


can be due to poor connections, defective wires, or bad switch contacts.

53
SELF-CHECK 1.1

CONNECTING PARTS OF A CIRCUIT

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
connecting parts of a circuit. Accomplish the following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST


IN CONNECTING PARTS OF A CIRCUIT

I can do
I cannot I am this but I I can do
do this learning need to this very
yet. how to do learn more well.
COMPETENCY this. and
improve.
Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Identifies and cites
the function of
different parts of a
circuit on a board.
Connects the wire on
its parts.
Operates the circuit if
done successfully.
Uses the
tools/materials and
equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in
connecting parts of a
circuit.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

54
INFORMATION SHEET 1.2

AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL TERMS AND SYMBOLS

To simplify wiring circuits, symbols are used for the various


components in electrical circuits.

1. Ammeter measures the flow of current.

2. Battery stores chemical energy and converts it into electrical energy.

3. Wire connected - crossed wires with a block dot at the junction are
joined.

4. Connector with plug and socket the connection maybe temporary, or


serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices.

5. Light current flow through a filament causes the filament to heat up


and emit light.

55
6. Transistor a solid state device typically used as an electronic relay, it
stops or passes current depending on this applied voltage to its base.

7. Capacitor (Condenser) a small holding unit for temporary storage of


electrical charge.

8. Wire not connected crossed wires without a block dot at the junction
are not joined.

9. Diode a semiconductor which allows current flow in only one direction.

10. Fuse a thin metal strip which burns through when too much current
flows through it.

11. Ground the point at which wiring attaches to the chassis, thereby
providing a return path for an electrical circuit, without a ground for other
return path, current cannot flow.

56
12. Horn an electric device which sounds a loud audible signal.

13. Relay an electrically operated switch where the current flow through
a small coil creates a magnetic field which either opens or closes an
attached switch.

14. Switch which continuously passes current through one set of


contacts or the other.

15. Motor a power unit which converts electrical energy into mechanical
energy, especially rotary motion.

Fig.5. Show various Automotive Electrical Symbols and Functions.

DIFFERENT SIZES OF WIRE ACCORDING TO JOB REQUIREMENT

The electrical units in the automobile are connected by wires of different


sizes. The size of each wire depends on the amount of current the wire must carry.
The heavier the current, the larger the wire must be. The wires are gathered
together to form wiring harnesses.

57
Each wire is identified by the color of its insulation. For example, wires are
light green, dark green, blue, red, black with a white tracer, and so on. The car
manufacturers shop manuals have illustrations that show the various wires and
their colors. If you ever have to trace a particular wire, refer to the shop manual to
determine its color.

Fig. 6.Sizes of copper wire conductors.

Fig. 7.Sizes of wires with corresponding Amperes.

POLARITY, CONDUCTOR, AND INSULATOR

POLARITY

When connecting battery in the vehicle the correct polarity is important to


observe. It must be done properly, if not, it may cause damage of the diode and the
IC regulator in alternator. A battery has two poles or posts. The positive battery post

58
is usually marked POS, or (+) and is larger than the negative post which is usually
marked NEG, or (-). It has also rings in both terminals, the color is red in positive
terminal and either blue or green in the negative terminal. The polarity of the
battery must always match to avoid damage of the electrical wirings.

Fig.8. A battery with the polarity according to signs,


color of rings, and sizes.

NOTE: Some devices are controlled by microcomputers have memories (RAMS)


whose contents will be erased. Therefore, if it becomes necessary to
disconnect the battery cable, the data stored in each memory should first
be written down so that it will not be lost.

59
CONDUCTORS

Conductor is any material or substance that allows current or heat to flow


easily. The purpose is for conduction of electrical current.

Copper is an example of an excellent conductor because the price is


reasonable compared to the relative cost of other conductors with similar properties.
Conductors are also classified as metals. Iron, steel, copper, aluminum, silver, and
gold are examples of metal conductors. Metals can be further defined as containing
iron (ferrous metals), such as cast iron, or steel, and those metals not containing
iron (nonferrous metals). Copper, silver, mercury, gold, and aluminum are examples
of nonferrous metals.

INSULATORS

Wires that carry electric current are covered with insulation. Examples of
insulators include plastics, wood, glass, rubber, ceramics (spark plugs), and varnish
for covering (insulating) copper wires in alternator and starters. The higher the
voltage, the stronger the insulation must be. Insulation is a nonconductor. It will
not let electrons or electric current flow through it. An insulator has a high
resistance to the movement of electrons through it.

60
SELF CHECK 1.2

AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL TERMS AND SYMBOLS

Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write only the letter of the correct
answer on separate sheet of paper.

Column A Column B

1. A thin metal strip which burns through A.


when too much current flows through it.

2. A semiconductor which allows current B.


flow in only one direction.

C.
3. A small holding unit for temporary storage
of electrical charge.

D.

4. A power unit which converts electrical energy


into mechanical energy, especially rotary motion.

E.
5. Current flow through a filament causes the
filament to heat up and emit light.

6. Include plastics, wood, glass,


rubber, and ceramics. F. 20Ampere

7. According to signs, color of rings,


and sizes. G. Conductor

8. Metals. iron, steel, copper, aluminum,


silver, and gold are examples. H. 10Ampere

61
9. Amount of current the wire must carry
in size no. 12. I. Insulator

10. Amount of current the wire must carry


in size no. 16. J. Polarity

K.

62
LO2: EXPLAIN AUTOMOTIVE LIGHTING SYSTEM

Identify component parts of the lighting system


Explain functions of lighting system parts
Observe occupational health and safety practices

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Multiple Choice. Directions: Write the letter of the correct answer.

1. The exterior lights consist of several components except one.

A. signal light C. parking light


B. stop light D. dome light

2. The type of switch that controls the high and low headlamp beam
function.

A. signal switch C. dimmer switch


B. hazard switch D. stop light switch

3. The exterior light that function when the brake pedal is applied_____.
A. back-up light C. emergency light
B. stoplight D. signal light

4. The back-up light switch is mounted on the side of the _____.

A. transmission C. differential
B. engine D. brake pedal

5. Type of lighting system that permits the driver to turn the vehicle to the left or to
the right.

A. stop light system C. back-up light system


B. signal light system D. head lamp system

6. Lights that are found on ___, are the dome light, instrument light, in the dash
board, and trunk light.

A. interior lights C. side marker lights


B. exterior lights D. turn signal lights

63
7. Connect a wire to the lamp specified as the backup light to the backup switch
found on the ____.

A. engine C. brake pedal


B. transmission D. differential

8. Which of the following continuously passes current through one set of contacts
or the other.

A. fuse C. ammeter
B. switch D. light

9. Part of a circuit that consumes electrical current.

A. power source C. control


B. load D. path

10. Part of a circuit that connects the power source to the load so that there is a
complete circuit.

A. power source C. control


B. load D. path

64
INFORMATION SHEET 2

AUTOMOTIVE LIGHTING SYSTEM AND COMPONENTS

The lighting system of an automobile comprises of various lighting and


signaling devices or components fixed in the front, sides, and rear of the vehicle.
Automobile lighting system has multiple functions as follows:

It provides illumination for the driver of a vehicle to drive safely in the dark.
Automobile lights enhance the visibility of an automobile.
Automobile lights act as the warning signals. With lights the cars presence,
position, size, speed, and direction are detected by other motorists.

Fig. 9.Components of the lighting system.

EXTERIOR LIGHTS

Typically these include the headlights, signal lights, hazard warning


lights, stoplights, parking lights, tail lights, license plate lights, back up lights, and
side marker lights.

65
INTERIOR LIGHTS

The interior lights include instrument panel lights, various warning and
indicator lights, and courtesy lights that turn on when a car door is opened.

HEADLIGHTS

These lighting devices are affixed in front of an automobile, main function of


which is to light the road ahead. These lights are really powerful and have reflectors
as well. Its use is not only restricted during night time but can also be used during
foggy conditions.

Fig. 10. Construction of a sealed-beam headlamp (courtesy of Toyota Corp.)

66
HEAD LAMP SWITCH is an on/off switch and rheostat in the dash panel or on the
steering column.

Fig. 11.Exploded view of headlight switch.

DIMMER SWITCH controls the high and low head lamp beam function. This switch
may be mounted on the steering column or flow board.

High______

Battery ______

Low_______

Dimmer Switch

Fig. 12.Dimmer switch with connecting terminals.

67
DIRECTIONAL LIGHT SWITCH

The turn signal light is used by the driver to indicate his/her intention of
driving either to the right or to the left. A directional signal light switch is used by
the driver to operate the right signal lights if his/her intention is to drive to the
right, or the left signal lights if he is proceeding to the left.

Fig. 13. Turn signal light lever on the steering column


(courtesy of Chrysler Corporation).

EMERGENCY OR HAZARD LIGHTS

Designed to signal following cars that a car has stopped or stalled or has
pulled up to the side of the road. The switch of this light system is normally
mounted on the steering column. It is usually a push-pull switch.

FLASHER RELAY

An automatic-reset circuit breaker used in directional signal and hazard-


warning circuits.

68
Fig. 14.Flasher relay used in signal light and hazard light circuit.

PUSH-PULL SWITCH

A device used to indicate a vehicular hazard by flashing all signal lights


together.

SIDE-MARKER LIGHTS

Used to mark that there is a presence of vehicle and located on the front side
and rear side of the vehicle.

PARK LIGHTS

Park lights are used for warning or signaling the driver about the presence of
another vehicle. These are especially useful during foggy, rainy or dark weather.
These lights are also used as brake lights.

TAIL LIGHTS

Tail lights are the lamps, usually covered by a red or translucent body, which
are installed at the rear end of an automobile. Taillights are mounted at the
backside of a vehicle and usually come in pairs.

69
LICENSE PLATE LIGHT

It is used to illuminate the license plate on the rear of vehicle.

STOP LIGHTS OR BRAKE LIGHTS

Located at the rear of vehicle which indicate that the brakes are applied.

BACK-UP LIGHTS

Illuminate the back of the car when the transmission is shifted into reverse.

SIGNAL LIGHT

TAIL LIGHT
AND STOP
LIGHT

LICENSE PLATE LIGHT


BACK-UP LIGHT

Fig. 15.Back-up light, license plate light, tail light, stop light, and signal light.

STOP/BRAKE LIGHT SWITCH

The brake light switch is normally mounted on the brake pedal.

70
Fig. 16. (a) Off position (b) On position of stoplight switch.

BACK-UP LIGHT SWITCH

The back-up light switch closes the light circuit when the transmission is
shifted into reverse, to illuminate the area behind the car.

TRANSMISSION

BACK-UP LIGHT SWITCH

Fig. 17. Back-up light switch located in the transmission.

71
DOME LIGHT

It is found inside the vehicle so that the passengers or driver could easily get
in or out in the vehicle.

Fig. 18. Dome light usually found in the passenger utility vehicle.

HORN

The horn is an electromechanical device consisting of a switch, wiring, and a


buzzer which produces noise when activated. It is used to warn or communicate to
other drivers. Large trucks often use air horns which sound louder.

Fig.19.Horn used in a vehicle.

72
RELAY

An electromechanical device that when operated opens/closes another


electric circuit; acts as a remote power switch. Relays are used to engage many
accessories from remote switches. The main advantage is eliminating the need to
route high current wires throughout a vehicle to each switch.

PUSH BUTTON SWITCH

A device used to allow the current to pass through the relay and energizes
the relay.

COMBINATION SWITCHES

Late model vehicles combine switch controls into a single column mounted
switch assembly so that the driver has ready access to systems such as windshield
wipers and washer, turn signals, and headlights. These are all designed within a
single multi-function switch so that the driver is able to keep his hands on the
steering wheel during adverse weather or driving condition that would require the
use of this system.

Fig.20.Combination Switches.

73
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICES

Safety Measures in Repairing Electrical Circuit:

Safety is a basic requirement for the teacher and the students. Most
accidents can be prevented if all students cooperate in eliminating unsafe
conditions and acts. To this end, each individual is responsible for understanding
and applying safety rules, standards, and regulations. In all activities, safety
consciousness will help prevent personal injury and damage to property.

1. Ensure all students have safe working tools, equipment, and materials.
2. Provide students with adequate and proper training for any and all
aspects of the workplace.
3. Report any workplace accident, injury, or even death.
4. Wear body and eye protective covering when needed.
5. Make sure appropriate ventilation is available at the workplace.
6. Send home sick students or infected with diseases and illnesses.
7. Take notice of violence and stress-related incidents at the workplace.

The lighting system of the vehicle should be checked whenever the vehicle is
brought to the shop for repairs. Often a costumer may not be aware of a light
failure. If a lighting circuit is not operating properly, there is a potential danger to
the driver and other people.

The electrical circuit of the vehicle is becoming very complex. There may be
over 50 light bulbs and hundreds of feet of wiring in the lighting circuits. The
circuits include protectors, switches, lamps, and connectors.

Any failure requires a systematic approach to diagnose, locate, and repair or


correct the fault immediately. When performing repairs on the lighting or electrical
circuits/systems, the repairs must assure vehicle safety and should meet all the
applicable laws. Be sure to use the correct lamp type and size for the application.

Before performing any lighting systems test or repair, check the battery
connections. Also be sure that all cable connections are removed. Visually check the
wires for damage and insulation, loose connections, and improper routing.

74
ACTIVITY SHEET 2.1

IDENTIFY, CITE THE FUNCTION OR USES, AND


TERMINALS OF EACH PART OF LIGHTING SYSTEM

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Flasher relay Tail lights Dome light


Fuse box with fuse Park lights Horn
Ignition Switch Stop lights Push button switch
Brake light switch Plate light Main light switch
Ammeter Headlight Toggle switch
Back-up light switch Signal light Dimmer switch

TOOLS

Electrical pliers
Long nose pliers
Test light
Screw drivers

EQUIPMENT

Battery 12 volts
Electrical mock-up

Plan/Working Drawing:

Fig.21.Sample plan used in the lighting system.

75
PROCEDURE:

1. Prepare the necessary materials and equipment.

2. Familiarize the parts of lighting system.

3. Cite the function of each part of the lighting system.

4. Pin-point where the parts of lighting system in the vehicle will be found.

5. Familiarize the terminals found in each parts of lighting system.

a. Terminal of head light.


b. Terminal of dimmer switch.
c. Terminal of main light switch.
d. Terminal of horn relay.
e. Terminal of park light.
f. Terminal of tail light.
g. Terminal of signal light.
h. Terminal of plate light.
i. Terminal of back-up light.
j. Terminal of horn.
k. Terminal of flasher relay.
l. Terminal of toggle switch.
m. Terminal of hazard switch.
n. Terminal of push-pull switch.
o. Terminal of push button switch.
p. Terminal of brake light switch.
q. Terminal of backup light switch.
r. Terminal of battery.
s. Terminal of ammeter.
t. Terminal of ignition switch.
u. Terminal of fuse box with fuse.

Note: This terminal of body electrical is found in conventional switches.

76
SELF- CHECK 2.2

IDENTIFY, CITE THE FUNCTIONS OR USES, AND


TERMINALS OF EACH PART OF LIGHTING SYSTEM

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
different parts and terminals of a lighting system. Accomplish the
following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST


IN IDENTIFYING AND CITING THE TERMINALS OF
EACH PART OF LIGHTING SYSTEM

I cannot I am I can do this I can do


do this learning but I need to this very
COMPETENCY yet. how to do learn more well.
this. and improve.
Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Identifies and cite the
function of different
parts of a lighting
system.
Pinpoints the parts of
lighting system in the
vehicle or mock-up.
Cites the terminals
partsof lighting
system.
Uses the materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in
identifying the parts
of a circuit.
LEGEND:

20 - Advance
17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

77
LO3: INSTALL WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM

Interpret lighting system circuit diagram


Install electrical devices such as switches, lights and fuse boxes

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Multiple Choice. Directions: This checklist determines your initial level of


knowledge and mastery about to perform correct procedure for
testing and interpreting schematic diagram of lighting system.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST IN PERFORMING CORRECT


PROCEDURE FOR TESTING AND INTERPRETING SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF
LIGHTING SYSTEM

I can do
I cannot I am this but I I can do
do this learning need to this very
yet. how to learn more well.
COMPETENCY
do this. and
improve.
Pre (1) Pre (2) Pre (3) Pre (4)
Uses and interprets the
schematic diagram.
Tests the faults/defects
using appropriate tools.
Ensures the quality of
works.
Uses the tools/ materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in testing and
interpreting schematic
diagram.
LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

78
INFORMATION SHEET 3.1
INTERPRETING LIGHTING AND WARNING CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

HEADLIGHT CIRCUIT

The headlight circuit is composed of the headlights, dimmer switch, fuse,


light switch, and storage battery. Although the ammeter properly belongs to the
charging system, it may also be considered as part of the lighting system if the
current used in this system passes through the ammeter. Note that the headlights
have two filaments, one for the bright and the other for dim lights. Both filaments
are connected to a common ground terminal. However, only one of these filaments
lights at a time.

Switching the headlights from bright to dim or vice versa is done using the
dimmer switch. The fuse, which may be found in a fuse box, protects the headlights
from damage or burning due to grounded live wire. The fuse burns to cut off the
flow of excessive current.

The light switch is the main switch of the lighting system. It controls the flow
of current to the headlight circuit, taillights, and instrument panel lights.

Dimmer Switch Light Switch

H B L H P B

B
ST IG
ACC
Fuse

Ignition Switch (+) (-)

BATTERY
IG
ACC

Fig. 22. Headlight Circuit Without Relay

79
86 87 Dimmer Switch Ligfht Switch

85 30 H B L H P B

85 30

ST B

IG
ACC

Fuse Ignition Switch (+) (-)

IG BATTERY
ACC

Fig. 23. Headlight Circuit with Single Relay

TAIL, PARK, ANDLICENSE PLATE LIGHT CIRCUIT

Those lights circuit are composed of the tail lights, park lights license plate
light , fuse, light switch, ignition switch, and storage battery.

80
PARK AND TAIL LIGHT
PARK AND TAIL LIGHT CIRCUIT WITH OUT RELAY

FRONT FRONT

HEAD LIGHT
SWITCH IGNITION SWITCH

ST
H P B IG B
ACC
PLATE LAMP

FUSE

BATTERY

REAR REAR

Fig. 24.Schematic diagram of park and taillights circuit without relay.

PARK AND TAIL LIGHT


PARK AND TAIL LIGHT CIRCUIT WITH RELAY
HEAD LIGHT
FRONT FRONT SWITCH
86 87 RELAY

H P B

PLATE LAMP
85 30
ACC
IGNITION
B IG SWITCH
ST

Battery
REAR REAR FUSE
BATTERY

Fig. 25.Schematic diagram of park and taillights circuit with relay.

81
TURN SIGNAL LIGHTS CIRCUIT

The turn signal light system basically consists of a fuse, switch, flasher relay,
toggle switch, turn light bulbs, indicator bulbs, ignition switch, battery, and related
wiring.

EMERGENCY LIGHTS OR HAZARD WARNING CIRCUIT

The emergency light is known more as hazard warning system. It is designed


to give signal to following cars that a car has stopped or stalled or has pulled up to
the side of the road. The switch of this light system is normally mounted on the
steering column. It is composed of flasher relay, push-pull switch, signal lights,
fuse, ignition switch, and battery.

LEFT RIGHT RELAY HAZARD SWITCH E

FLASHER
W W
86 87
L B
85 30
TURN SIGNAL SW.

85 30
Acc B+

St Ign
86 87
Ign
M M 85 30

RELAY
85 30

LEFT RIGHT FUSE


BATTERY

Fig. 26.Schematic diagram of signal and hazard light circuit with relay.

82
STOPLIGHT CIRCUIT

The stoplight system is commonly made up of a fuse, brake light switch, two
rear lamps, and wiring.

Fig. 27.A typical schematic diagram of stoplight circuit.

BACKUP LIGHT CIRCUIT

A back-up light circuit typically has a fuse, transmission mounted switch,


two back-up lamps, and wiring connections.

Fig. 28. A typical schematic diagram of backup light and backing


horn circuit with relay.

83
HORN CIRCUIT is composed of battery, relay, fuse, horn, push button switch,
wiring, ignition switch, and battery.

Fig. 29.A schematic diagram of horn circuit.

84
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.1

CONNECTING BACK-UP LIGHT CIRCUIT

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Automotive wires

TOOLS

Electrical pliers
Long nose pliers
Test light
Screw drivers

EQUIPMENT

Battery 12 volts
Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

Plan/Working Drawing:

Back-up light

Back-up light switch

IG
Acc St
B
Transmission Fuse Ignition
Switch

Battery Back-up light

Fig. 30.Circuit diagram of back-up light.

85
PROCEDURE:

1. Prepare the necessary tools and materials needed.

2. Connect a wire of the back-up lights to the back-up light switch located at
the side of transmission. Connect the other terminals of the back-up light
to the vehicle body or ground.

3. Connect the other terminal of the back-up light switch to the fuse load
side.

4. Connect terminal of the fuse source terminal to the ACC terminal of the
ignition switch.
.

5. Connect a wire from B terminal of the ignition switch to the positive


terminal of the battery through the ammeter (if available).

6. Connect the negative terminal of the battery to the vehicle body /ground.

86
SELF- CHECK 3.1

CONNECTING BACK-UP LIGHT CIRCUIT

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
connecting back-up light circuit. Accomplish the following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST IN

CONNECTING BACK-UP LIGHT CIRCUIT

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do
this yet. how to do learn more this very
this. and improve. well.
COMPETENCY
Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Identifies the parts of
back-up light circuit.
Connects the back-up
light circuit correctly.
Operates the back-up
lights successfuly.
Uses the tools/materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in connecting
back-up light circuit.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

87
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.2

CONNECTING TURN SIGNAL LIGHT AND HAZARD LIGHT CIRCUIT

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Automotive wires

TOOLS

Electrical pliers
Long nose pliers
Test light
Screw driver

EQUIPMENT

Battery 12 volts
Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

Plan/Working Drawing:

Fig. 31.Schematic diagram of signal and hazard light circuit using


electronics flasher relay.

88
PROCEDURE:

A. For Turn-signal lights

1. Prepare the necessary tools and materials needed.

2. Connect wires to the lamp specified as turn signal lights/left and right
terminals of signal light switch. Connect the ground side of the signal
lights to the vehicle body.

3. Connect the center terminal of signal light switch to the (L) terminal of
electronics flasher relay.

4. Connect the B terminal of flasher relay to the fuse box.

5. Connect a wire from the fuse box to the ACC terminal of the ignition
switch.
.

6. Connect a wire from B terminal of the ignition switch to the positive


terminal of the battery through the ammeter (if available).

7. Connect the negative terminal of the battery to the vehicle body that serve
as ground.

B. For Hazard lights

Note: For safety purposes, negative cable of the battery must be removed to
avoid short-circuit of electrical connections. Check electrical
connections before reconnection of the battery negative cable.

8. Connect wires of the left and right terminals of the hazard light switch to
the left and right terminals of the signal light/ switch.

9. Connect the wire of the hazard light switch center terminal to the (L)
terminal of flasher relay.

10. Connect the left terminal of hazard switch to left signal light and right
signal to the right terminal of hazard switch.

11. Reconnect negative battery cable.

89
SELF- CHECK 3.2

CONNECTING TURN SIGNAL LIGHT AND HAZARD LIGHT CIRCUIT

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
connecting turn signal light and hazard light circuit. Accomplish the
following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST IN CONNECTING TURN SIGNAL


LIGHT AND HAZARD LIGHT CIRCUIT

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do
this yet. how to do learn more this very
this. and improve. well.
COMPETENCY Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Identifies the parts of
turn signal light and
hazard circuit.
Connects the turn
signal light and hazard
light circuit correctly.
Operates the turn signal
lights and hazard light
successfuly.
Uses the tools/materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in connecting
turn signal light and
hazard circuit.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

90
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.3

CONNECTING HORN CIRCUIT

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Automotive wires

TOOLS

Electrical pliers
Long nose pliers
Test light
Screw drivers

EQUIPMENT

Battery 12 volts
Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

Plan/Working Drawing:

Fig. 32.Pictorial diagram of horn circuit.(Courtesy of


http://www.secondchancegarage.com/public/133.cfm)

91
PROCEDURE:

1. Prepare the necessary tools and materials needed.

2. Connect a wire to the terminal of horn and other end of wire to the 87
terminal of horn relay. The other terminal of horn is connected to the vehicle
body that serve as ground.

3. Connect the 86 terminal of horn relay to the push button switch. The other
terminal of the push button switch is connected to the ground.

4. Splice the wires of 30 and 85 terminals of horn relay and connect them to
the fuse load terminal. Connect the other end of the fuse source terminal to
the IG or ACC terminal of the ignition switch.

5. From the B terminal of the ignition switch, connect a wire to the terminal of
the ammeter. The other terminal wire of the ammeter is connected to the
positive (B+) terminal of the battery.

6. Connect the negative terminal of the battery to the vehicle body that serve as
ground.

Reminder:

The connection can be made in a reverse manner from step 5 to step 2 except
step 6 which is usually done after checking the wiring connections.

92
SELF- CHECK 3.3

CONNECTING HORN CIRCUIT

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
connecting horn circuit. Accomplish the following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST IN


CONNECTING HORN CIRCUIT

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do
this yet. how to do learn more this very
this. and improve. well.
COMPETENCY
Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Identifies the parts of
horn circuit.
Connects the horn
circuit correctly.
Operates the horn
successfuly.
Uses the tools/materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in connecting
horn circuit.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

93
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

A. Written Test
Multiple Choice. Directions: Answer the following questions by writing the
letter of the best answer.

1. These lighting devices are affixed in front of an automobile, main function of


which is to light the road ahead especially at night.

A. headlights C. directional lights


B. back-up lights D. park lights

2. Lights that are used for warning or signaling the driver about the presence of
another vehicle.

A. headlights C. directional lights


B. back-up lights D. park lights

3. Switch that controls the high and low head lamp beam function. This switch
may be mounted on the steering column or flow board.

A. brake light switch C. dimmer switch


B. back-up light switch D. main light switch

4. Switch that closes the light circuit when the transmission is shifted into
reverse, to illuminate the area behind the car.

A. brake light switch C. dimmer switch


B. back -up light switch D. main light switch

5. Current flow through a filament causes the filament to heat up and emit light.

A. fuse C. ammeter
B. battery D. light

6. Before repairing or testing any lighting system, check the following except one.

A. battery C. tire
B. cable connection D. wires for damage

94
7. The circuits in the vehicle include all, except---

A. diode C. switches
B. lamps D. battery

8. The lighting systems of a vehicle should be checked to avoid---

A. danger to the driver and other people


B. improper functioning of the lighting circuits
C. prevent injury and damage to property
D. all of the above.

9. In repairing the lighting system of a vehicle, the following must be


observed.

A. be sure to use the correct lamp types


B. size of the wire to be used
C. assure safety at all times
D. all of the above

10. The number of light bulbs and length of wiring in the lighting circuits is _______.

A. 10 bulbs and 2 feet of wire


B. 15 bulbs and 3 feet of wire
C. 50 bulbs and hundreds of feet of wiring
D. 20 bulbs and 5 feet of wires

B. Activity Test

Directions: Do the following : (2 pts. each).

1. Explain Ohms law.


2. Difference between AC and DC
3. Draw the schematic diagram of horn circuit
4. Draw the schematic diagram of parts of a circuit.
5. Give at least 10 parts of lighting system.

C. Performance Test

Directions: Perform the wiring connection of the following circuits using


the previous diagram (5 pts. each).

1. Head light circuit using conventional switches.

95
2. Park, tail, and plate light circuits using conventional switches.
3. Signal light, hazard light circuits using conventional switches.
4. Back-up light and stop/brake light circuits.
5. Horn circuit.

D. Performance Assessment

Directions: Below is the performance assessment that serves as your guide in


assessing the following skills you need to perform. Please be guided
with the tasks with the corresponding score and the performance
level.

Name : ____________________________ Year & Section: ______________

Course: ____________________________ Time Allotment: ______________

Module Title: _______________________ Grading Period _______________

Unit of
Competency Time Performance
Tasks Date Score
TESTING AND Begun Finished Level
REPAIRING
WIRING/LIGH
TING SYSTEM
LO1 1.1 Explain
Explain the Ohms law
principle of 1.2 Explain
auto the Law of
electricity magnetism
1.3 Draw
schematic
diagram of an
electrical
circuit
1.4 Interpret
signs and
symbols
1.5 Identify
size of wire
according to
job
requirement.

96
1.6 Determine
polarity,
conductor,
and insulator.

LO2 2.1 Identify


Explain component
automotive parts of the
lighting lighting
system and system
its functions. 2.2 Explain
functions of
lighting
system parts
2.3 Observe
occupational
health and
safety
practices

LO3 3.1 Interprest


Install lighting
Wiring/lightin system circuit
g system diagram
3.2 Install
electrical
devices such
as switches,
lights, and
fuse boxes

Average: _____ ________

97
LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

21 25 91 - 100 Outstanding

16 20 86 - 90 Very Good

11 15 81 - 85 Good

06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair

01 - 05 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE? ______

98
Content Standard Performance Standard
The learner demonstrates The learner independently performs testing
understanding of the principles in and repairing wiring/lighting system
testing and repairing wiring/
lighting system

QUARTER II TIME ALLOTMENT: 40 Hours

LESSON: TESTING AND REPAIRING WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

LIGHTING CIRCUIT REPAIR AND DIAGNOSIS

The lighting system of a vehicle is becoming very complex. There may be over
50 light bulbs and hundreds of feet of wiring in the lighting circuits. The circuits
include circuit protectors, switches, lamps, and connectors. Any failure requires a
systematic approach to diagnose, locate, and correct the fault in a short time.

The importance of a lighting system cannot be overemphasized. The lighting


system should be checked whenever the vehicle is brought to the shop for repairs.
Often a customer may not be aware of a light failure. If a lighting circuit is not
operating properly, there is a potential danger to the driver and other people.
Repairing lighting systems, vehicle safety and meet all applicable laws must be
assured. It is also important to use the correct lamp type and size for the
application.

Before performing any lighting system tests:

a. Check first the battery on its state of charge.


b. Be sure that all cable connections are clean and tight.
c. Visually check the wires for damaged insulation, loose connections,
and improper routing.

LO3: INSTALL WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM

Install wires leading to different lights and other relevant devices.


Solder and crimp lead terminals of wires.

99
INFORMATION SHEET 3.2

CHECKING CONTINUITY AND CONDITION OF A COMBINATION SWITCH


(TOYOTA)

TERMINAL
COLOR T H EL ED HU HL HF
CODE (Y/W) (R) (W) (WB) (RY) (RG) (RW)
SWITCH
CONDITION
OFF
ONE STEP
TWO STEP
HEADLIGHT HI
HEADLIGHT LO
HEADLIGHT PASS

Table 1. LIGHT CONTROL AND DIMMER SWITCH CONTINUITY

LEGEND--------------------------------------------------------------------------------COLOR CODE

LIGHT CONTROL AND DIMMER SWITCH

EL GROUND FOR LIGHT CONTROL SWITCH----------------------------------WHITE

H HEADLIGHT TERMINAL----------------------------------------------------------RED

T PARK, TAIL TERMINAL--------------------------------------------YELLOW/WHITE

ED GROUND FOR DIMMER SWITCH----------------------------------WHITE/BLACK

HF PASS BEAM TERMINAL-------------------------------------------------RED/WHITE

HU HIGH BEAM TERMINAL----------------------------------------------RED/YELLOW

HL LOW BEAM TERMINAL------------------------------------------------RED/GREEN

100
TO
FUSE
TO
FUSE 86
86 0
HEAD
TAIL & LIGHT
87
PARK RELAY
87 30 0
LIGHT
30 0 0
RELAY
0

85
85
0
0
HF

T H LIGHT
CONTROL HL
SWITCH
DIMMER
SWITCH

EW HU

EL
0 HEAD
LIGHT
TAIL
LIGHT

PARK LIGHT
PLATE
LIGHT
PARK LIGHT
HEAD
LIGHT
TAIL
LIGHT

Fig. 33.Circuit Diagram of Headlight, Park, Plate, and Tail lights.

101
TERMINAL
COLOR TL TB TR B1 F B2
SWITCH CODE (GB) (GW) (GY) (GB) (G) (GO)
CONDITION

RIGHT

NEUTRAL

LEFT

HAZARD

Table 2. TURN SIGNAL AND HAZARD SWITCH CONTINUITY

LEGEND--------------------------------------------------------------------------------COLOR CODE

TURN SIGNAL AND HAZARD SWITCH

TB COMMON TURN SIGNAL SWITCH---------------------------------GREEN WHITE

TR TURN RIGHT TERMINAL------------------------------------------GREEN YELLOW

TL TURN LEFT TERMINAL----------------------------------------------GREEN BLACK

F BATTERY OF FLASHER RELAY----------------------------------------GREEN RED

B1 BATTERY OF HAZARD SWITCH-------------------------------------GREEN BLUE

B2 FLASHER RELAY FUSE-------------------------------------------GREEN ORANGE

102
Fig. 29 A schematic diagram of horn circuit with relay.
(http://www.google.com.ph)

Fig. 34.A schematic diagram of lighting system.


(http://www.google.com.ph)

103
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.4

TRACING WIRES OF TAIL LIGHT, HIGH BEAM,


AND LOW BEAM OF COMBINATION SWITCH USING MULTI-TESTER

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Automotive wires
Combination switch

TOOLS

Electrical pliers
Long nose pliers
Test light
Screw drivers

EQUIPMENT

Battery 12 volts
Multi-tester
Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

PROCEDURE:

1. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment.

2. Set the multi-tester to Rx1, and short the negative test prod to positive test
prod and adjust to zero. There must be a reading of continuity in the screen.

104
3. Rotate the combination switch into first position and place the test prod into
(EL) or white and the other test prod to (T) or yellow or white. There must be
a reading of continuity while operating in second position.

4. Rotate the combination switch into 2nd position and place the test prod to
(EL) or white and the other test prod to (H) or red. There must have a reading
of continuity.

5. Then place the test prod into (ED) or white with black tracer and the other
end of test prod to (HU) or red with yellow tracer. There must be a reading of
continuity, when operating into high position (push-down) or pass position
(pull-up).

6. Stay the test prod to (ED) or white with black tracer and the other test prod
place into (HL) or red with green tracer. When it is back to normal position,
there must have a reading continuity in the pointer.

7. Stay again the prod to (ED) or white with black tracer and the other end of
test prod will be placed on (HF) or red with white tracer. There must be a
reading of continuity in the screen, when operating in pass position (pull-up).

105
SELF- CHECK 3.4

TRACING WIRES OF TAIL LIGHT,HIGH BEAM, AND LOW BEAM OF


COMBINATION SWITCH USING MULTI-TESTER

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
tracing wires of tail light, high beam, and low beam of combination
switch using multi-tester. Accomplish the following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST


TRACING WIRES OF TAIL LIGHT, HIGH BEAM, AND LOW BEAM OF
COMBINATION SWITCH USING MULTI-TESTER

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do this
this yet. how to do learn more and very well.
this. improve.
COMPETENCY Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Traces the wires using
multi-tester correctly.
Follows the procedure
properly.
Checks the quality of
works.
Uses the tools/materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in tracing
wires using multi-tester.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

106
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.5

CONNECTING THE WIRES OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF COMBINATION SWITCH


IN HEADLIGHT, PARK, TAIL, AND PLATE LIGHT

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Automotive wires
Combination switch

TOOLS

Electrical pliers
Long nose pliers
Test light
Screw drivers

EQUIPMENT

Battery 12 volts
Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

PROCEDURE:

1. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment.

2. Connect the ground terminal of light control switch (EL) into ground of
vehicle.

3. The headlight terminal (H) is connected to the pass beam terminal (HF) and
connected to the headlight relay.

107
4. Connect the ground terminal of the dimmer switch (ED) into the ground of
vehicle.
.

5. The high beam terminal (HU) into the high beam of headlight.

6. The low beam terminal (HL) into the low beam of headlight.

7. Connect the common of headlight into the headlight relay (87).

8. Jump the wire of headlight relay (86) and (30) and connect to the fuse
terminal.

9. Connect terminal (T) of light control switch into terminal 85 of tail, and park
light relay.

10. The 87 terminal of tail, and park light relay into park light, plate light, and
tail light.

11. Jump the wire of tail, and park light relay (86) and (30) and connect to the
fuse terminal.

12. Test the circuit with battery.

108
SELF- CHECK 3.5

CONNECTING THE WIRES OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF COMBINATION SWITCH


IN HEADLIGHT, PARK, TAIL, AND PLATE LIGHT

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
connecting wires of circuit diagram of combination switch in headlight,
park, tail, and plate light. Accomplish the following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST


IN CONNECTING WIRES OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF COMBINATION SWITCH IN
HEADLIGHT, PARK, TAIL AND PLATE LIGHT

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do this
this yet. how to do learn more and very well.
this. improve.
COMPETENCY Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Uses the two relays in
connecting headlights,
park, tail, and plate lights
circuit.
Reads the circuit diagram
of headlights, park, tail,
and plate lights circuit
correctly.
Connects the wires of
headlights, park, tail, and
plate lights correctly.
Uses the tools/materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety measures
in connecting wires in
combination switches.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

109
INFORMATION SHEET 3.3

INSTALL WIRES LEADING TO DIFFERENT LIGHTS AND OTHER RELEVANT


DEVICES CAUSING IMPROPER GROUNDING

All the current has to flow through the vehicles metal frame and/or body to
return to the negative (-) side of the battery, there are many locations and
connections that can cause high resistance for the entire circuit.

Most cars have ground wires connecting the negative (-) side of the battery to
the cars body. Remember, all current flowing to any part of the body will ground to
the body, and since the negative (-) battery cable connects to the engine, there must
be an electrical connection between the engine block and the body. The body is
usually electrically insulated from the engine because of the following rubber
insulators.

1. The engine is mounted in rubber motor mounts.


2. The exhaust system is insulated from the body with rubber hangers.
3. The drive train and suspension are insulated from the body by rubber
spring insulators and bushing.

Lights, horns or other electrical accessories may not operate correctly (or not
at all) if body ground wires are loose or corroded. Transmission and other drive line
problems can also be caused by loose or missing engine to body ground wires. If
these wires are not properly connected, current could flow through dirt and
moisture under the car then through the transmission as it tries to return to the
negative (-) side of the battery.

This current (up to 35A) flows through the drive shaft and transmission. This
current can arc or spark across the transmission bearings and U-joints. Always
check the condition and tightness of all ground wires and do not fail to reconnect
the wires attached to the valve covers and other engine and body locations.

Troubleshooting the lighting system, if one bulb is malfunctioning it is


usually faster to replace with a known good unit first. Check the connector for signs
of corrosion. When testing the circuit with a voltmeter, or test light, check first
those components that can be easily accessed. Apply the next activity to be sure
that your work is done successfully.

110
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.6

CRIMPING AND SOLDERING LEAD TERMINALS OF WIRES

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Soldering lead
Safety glasses
Soldering iron
Electrical tapes
Wire terminal
Wires

TOOLS

Philip screw drivers


Standard screw drivers
Electrical pliers
Wrenches(socket and ratchet)
Soldering gun

EQUIPMENT

Battery (12 volts)


Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

PROCEDURE:

Automotive wiring could be damaged and will need repair during the lifetime
of a vehicle. You can repair wiring in multiple ways; though it is important to follow
industry standards on the proper way of repairing damaged wiring. Under this
standard, the way of doing it is to solder the broken pieces together to create a
strong bond that is equal to the strength of new wiring.

1. Put on the safety glasses. Disconnect the positive and negative battery cables
from the vehicle's battery using the socket and ratchet.

2. Place a piece of heat-shrink tubing over either side of the broken wire and
slide as far away from the break as possible.

111
Figure 1. Preparing wires for soldering

3. Trim back the remaining protective coating with the wire trimmers and
provide about an inch of bare wire on each end of the break, then overlap
and twist the wire together, creating a strong connection.

Figure 2.Stripping wires.

4. Heat up the soldering iron and solder over the twisted wire. When done
correctly the heat will cause the solder to wick into the wiring, creating a
strong joint. Allow to cool and provide a gentle tug to the wire to ensure a
good solder.

112
Figure 3.Soldering wires.

5. Slide the heat-shrink tubing up and over the bare wire joint and use the heat
gun to shrink the tubing, effectively creating an air-tight seal.

113
SELF- CHECK 3.6

CRIMPING AND SOLDERING LEAD TERMINALS OF WIRES

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
crimping and soldering lead terminals of wires. Accomplish the
following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST


CRIMPING AND SOLDERING LEAD TERMINALS OF WIRES

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do this
this yet. how to do learn more and very well.
COMPETENCY this. improve.
Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Crimps the wires
correctly.
Solders the wires
properly.
Checks the quality of
works.
Uses the tools/materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in crimping
and soldering lead
terminals of wires.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

114
LO4: TEST ELECTRICAL SYSTEM AND DETERMINE PREFERRED
ACTION

Test electrical system without causing damage to workplace or vehicle.


Perform correct procedure for testing and interpreting schematic diagram
in accordance with the manufacturers specification.
Determine the faults/defects using appropriate tools and techniques.
Execute remedies based on the identified faults/defects.

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Directions: This checklist determines your initial level of knowledge and mastery
about to perform correct procedure for testing and determine the
faults/defects using appropriate tools and techniques.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST IN PERFORMING CORRECT


PROCEDURE FOR TESTING AND DETERMINING THE FAULTS/DEFECTS USING
APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES.

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do this
this yet how to do learn more very well
this. and
COMPETENCY
improve.
Pre (1) Pre (2) Pre (3) Pre (4)
Uses correct procedure
for testing the lighting
system.
Tests the faults/defects
using appropriate
tools.
Checks the quality of
works.
Uses the
tools/materials and
equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in testing
and determining the
faults/defects using
appropriate tools and
techniques.

LEGEND:

115
20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

116
INFORMATION SHEET 4.1

REPAIR, REPLACEMENT OF HEADLIGHT AND TECHNIQUES IN DETERMINING


THE FAULTS/DEFECTS OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Headlights are considered as the most important set of lamps for the driver.
When switched on, they provide light ahead of the vehicle. The next activity,
headlight repair and replacement is needed to perform by students with safety
precautions.

Headlights are intrinsic parts of a vehicle, which are affixed to the header
panel assembly in front of an automobile. These lights have three basic
components: reflectors, filament, and special lenses that are combined in an airtight
unit. Headlights come in variety of shapes, designs, colors, materials, and sizes.
Circular is the common shape as it is easy to manufacture. Headlights are mostly
made of plastic and usually come in pairs and are operated electronically.

DETERMINE THE FAULTS/DEFECTS USING APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND


TECHNIQUES BY THE FOLLOWING:

1. With your eyes, look for:


a. Dislocated or broken connections.
b. Corroded connectors.
c. Parts interfering with other parts.
d. Faded or burnt colors of parts.
e. Reading of meters and gauges.
2. With your hands:
a. Check the temperature of the parts (they feel hot when an unusually large
current flows in or on them).
b. Shake the parts to discover defective connections.
c. Sound the parts.
d. Check vibration and determine whether or not the parts are in their normal
condition.
3. With your nose:
a. Try to detect the smell of anything burning (wire, paint, or odor of sulfuric
acid).
b. Locate the offensive smell.
4. With your ears:
a. Unusual noise

117
ACTIVITY SHEET 4.1

HEAD LIGHT REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Headlamp
Test lamp
Soldering iron
Electrical tapes
Wire terminal
Fender apron cover

TOOLS

Philip screw drivers


Standard screw drivers
Electrical pliers
Wrenches (Box and Open)

EQUIPMENT

Battery (12 volts)


Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

PROCEDURE:

1. Place fender covers around the vehicle fender work area.

2. Remove the bezel.

Note: This type of replacement usually requires the removal of the bezel. The
bezel is the retaining trim around a component.

3. Remove the retaining ring screws and the retaining trim. Do not turn the two
headlight aiming adjustment screw.

118
Fig. 4. Remove the light bezel.

4. Remove the headlight from the shell assembly.

5. Disconnect the wire connector from the back of the headlight

6. Check the wire connector for corrosion or other foreign materials. Clean as
needed.

Fig. 5.Exploded view of headlight assembly.

119
7. Coat the connector terminals and the prongs of the new headlight with the
dielectric grease to prevent corrosion.

8. Install the wire connector to the headlight prongs and place the headlight
into the shell assembly. When positioning the headlight, be sure that the
embossed number is at the top.

9. Install the retainer trim and fasteners.

10. Check the operation of the headlight.

11. Check headlight aiming as described.

12. Install the headlight bezel.

120
SELF-CHECK 4.1

ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE

HEAD LIGHT REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT

Directions: This performance assessment determines your level of knowledge and


mastery about head light repair and replacement. Accomplish the checklist.

Workmanship/Performance Points

A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures

35 Exemplary

25 Adequate

10 Needs improvement

B. Accuracy of Performance under a Specified Time

30 All work is complete and correct

20 Minor mistake or error

10 Some of the work maybe incomplete/misdirected

C. Proper use of Tools/Equipment with Safety Measures

35 Select/use properly of tools/equipment

25 Wrong handling of tools

10 Tools are not suitable for the job

TOTAL SCORE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

29 35 91 - 100 Best

22 28 86 - 90 Better

121
15 - 21 81 - 85 Good

08 - 14 76 - 80 Fair

01 - 07 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

YOUR SCORE? ______ PERFORMANCE LEVEL _______

122
LO5: CARRY OUT NECESSARY REPAIR IN THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Identify procedure in repairing electrical system.


Interpret information based on assessment.
Use appropriate tools, technique, and materials in repairing electrical
system.
Repair electrical system without causing damage to workplace and
property of vehicle.

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Directions: This checklist determines your initial level of knowledge and mastery
about performing correct procedure for repairing electrical system
without causing damage to workplace and property of vehicle.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST IN REPAIRING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


WITHOUT CAUSING DAMAGE TO WORKPLACE AND PROPERTY OF VEHICLE

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do this
this yet how to do learn more very well
this. and
COMPETENCY
improve.
Pre (1) Pre (2) Pre (3) Pre (4)
Uses and follow the
procedure in repairing
electrical system.
Tests the faults/defects
using appropriate
tools.
Checks the quality of
works.
Uses the
tools/materials and
equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in repairing
electrical system.

123
LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

124
INFORMATION SHEET 5.1

TROUBLESHOOTING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Troubleshooting is the process of locating and eliminating troubles and once


it is located should be corrected.

There are various causes of trouble in the body electrical system, such as an
open circuit or short circuit in a wiring harness depending on the cause. The
trouble can be manifested in various ways. In order to find the causes of these
troubles as rapidly as possible, it is necessary to conduct troubleshooting using a
rational method and procedure.

STEPS IN TROUBLESHOOTING

1. CONFIRM THE SYMPTOMS

If the customer complain that the lights are not working, operate the lights and
switches, making sure which switch position the light will not operate in.

2. UNDERSTAND THE SYSTEM

Get a thorough understanding of the operation of the lights (the flow of


electricity through the system).

3. AVOID UNNECESSARY WORK

Various procedures can be used in troubleshooting, but to save time, do not


perform unnecessary checks.

4. UNDERSTAND WHY

Get a good understanding of the meaning of each checking performed in


troubleshooting by confirming what part of the circuit range is normal and in
what part the problem remains.

125
OPEN CIRCUIT

An open circuit is any circuit that is not complete and lacks continuity. No
current at all will flow through an incomplete circuit. An open circuit may be
created by a break in the circuit or a switch that opens (turn off) the circuit and
prevents the flow of current. A light switch in a home or the headlight switch in a
car are examples of devices that open a circuit to control its operation.

Fig.6.Exremely high resistance will appear in an open circuit.

SHORT TO VOLTAGE

If a wire or component is shorted to voltage, it is commonly called shorted.

1. A complete circuit where the current bypasses some or all of the resistances
in the circuit.
2. Involves the power side of the circuit.
3. Involves a copper to copper connection (therefore, includes the removal of
insulation from more than one wire). This usually is caused by heat or
movement.
4. Also called a short to voltage.
5. Usually affect more than one circuit.
6. May or may not blow a fuse.

126
Fig.7. The diagram shows circuit shorted to voltage.

SHORT TO GROUND

A short to ground is a type of short circuit wherein the current bypasses part
of the normal circuit and flows directly to ground (the lowest voltage potential in the
circuit). Since the ground return circuit is metal (car frame, engine, or body), this
type of circuit is identified as having current flowing from copper to steel. A
defective component or circuit that is shorted to ground is commonly called
grounded.

AUTO LIGHTING TROUBLE DIAGNOSIS CHART

PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE REMEDY

One light bulb Burned bulb Check, repair or


doesnt light up replace
Faulty or grounded socket

Headlight did not Blown fuse Repair, check, repair


light on or replace
Faulty relay

Faulty headlight switch

Faulty dimmer switch

Faulty wiring

High beam of Faulty headlight switch Repair, check, repair


headlights or replace

127
flasher did not Faulty dimmer switch
light on
Faulty wiring

Tail light and Blown fuse Repair, check, repair


parking light did or replace
not turn on Faulty relay

Faulty switch

Faulty wiring

Stop light did not Blown fuse Repair, check, repair


turn on or replace
Faulty relay

Faulty switch

Faulty wiring

Stop light did not Faulty switch Repair, check, repair


turn off or replace

Signal light did Faulty switch Repair, check, repair


not flash or replace
Faulty wiring

Blown fuse Repair, check, repair


or replace
Signal light did Faulty flasher
not turn on
Faulty switch

Faulty wiring

Table 3. Lighting system trouble diagnosis chart.

128
ACTIVITY SHEET 5.1

CHECKING FOR OPEN, SHORTED TO VOLTAGE AND SHORTED TO GROUND


CIRCUIT BY USING TEST LAMP OR MULTI-TESTER

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Multi-tester
Test lamp
Electrical tapes
Auto-wire

TOOLS

Philip screw drivers


Standard screw drivers
Electrical pliers
Wrenches(Box and Open)

EQUIPMENT

Battery (12 volts)


Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

PROCEDURE:

1. Prepare the necessary tools, materials, and equipment.

2. Turn-on the ignition switch and place the test lamp or multi-tester on the
source terminal fuse, then to the load terminal fuse.

3. Next, turn-on the switch that you are going to check, then place the test
lamp or multi-tester on the source terminal switch and then the load
terminal switch. Proceed to the lamp, start with the source terminal of lamp,
then the ground terminal lamp or the body of vehicle.

129
Fig.8. Checking an open circuit using test lamp.

PRECAUTIONS IN MEASURING DC VOLTAGE

1. Turn-on the circuit before making in-circuit voltage measurements.


2. Set the selector switch of the voltmeter to the highest voltage range when
measuring unknown voltages.
3. For measuring a known voltage, set the voltage range switch a little higher
than the expected voltage to have accurate and clear voltage reading.
4. Avoid touching the metallic part of the test leads to avoid electric shock when
measuring high voltage.
5. Connect the voltmeter test leads across the voltage source.
a. For DC voltage, observe proper polarity. The black test lead must be
connected to the negative terminal of the voltage source and the red test
lead to the positive terminal.

130
SELF- CHECK 5.1

CHECKING FOR OPEN, SHORTED TO VOLTAGE, AND SHORTED TO GROUND


CIRCUIT BY USING TEST LAMP OR MULTI-TESTER

Directions: This checklist determines your level of knowledge and mastery about
checking for open, shorted to voltage, and shorted to ground circuit by using test
lamp or multi-tester in the electrical system. Accomplish the following checklist.

SELF-RATING COMPETENCIES IN CHECKING FOR OPEN. SHORTED TO


VOLTAGE, AND SHORTED TO GROUND CIRCUIT BY USING TEST LAMP OR
MULTI-TESTER IN THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

I can do this
I cannot do I am learning but I need to I can do this
this yet how to do learn more very well
this. and improve.
COMPETENCY Post (1) Post (2) Post (3) Post (4)
Uses test lamp or multi-
tester.
Places the test lamp or
multi-tester on the parts
that being tested.
Indicates whether there
is a problem in the
lighting system.
Uses the tools/materials
and equipment
appropriately.
Observes safety
measures in usiing the
test lamp or multi-tester.

LEGEND:

20 - Advance

17 - 19 - Proficient

13 - 16 - Approaching Proficiency

8 - 12 - Developing

1 - 7 - Beginning

131
IV SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

A. Written test

Multiple Choice. Directions: Answer the following questions by writing the


letter of the best answer.

1. It is a circuit that is not complete and lacks continuity.

A. close C. grounded
B. shorted D. open

2. Involves a copper to copper connection (therefore, includes the removal of


insulation from more than one wire). This usually is caused by heat or
movement.

A. close C. grounded
B. shorted D. open

3. This type of circuit is identified as having current flowing from copper to


steel.

A. close C. grounded
B. shorted D. open

4. The headlamp beam dimmer has ________.

A. one position C. three positions


B. two positions D. four positions

5. Lights that are designed to signal following cars that a car has stopped or
stalled or has pulled up to the side of the road.

A. signal lights C. head lights


B. hazard lights D. stop lights

6. When the insulation fails on wiring in the automotive electrical system, the result
could be.

A. a short circuit C. no current


B. a long circuit D. high voltage

132
7. The horn has ______.

A. vibrating contact points C. an electromagnet


B. a vibrating diaphragm D. all of these

8. If an insulated rubbed through a part of the insulation and the wire conductor
touched the steel body of a car, the type of failure is called _______.

A. a short to voltage C. an open


B. a short to ground D. a floating ground

9. If two insulated wires were to melt together where the copper conductor of
each touched the other, the type of failure is called _______.

A. a short to voltage C. an open


B. a short to ground D. a floating ground

10. The latest model of vehicle when disconnecting the battery cable, the data
stored in each memory should first be _______ so that it will not be lost.

A. memorize C. written
B. neglect D. tag

B. Activity Test

Directions: Answer / Do the following: (5 pts. each)

1. Explain on how to check the open fuse in lighting circuit.


2. Write down the procedure in checking open circuit in stop/brake light.
3. Draw on how to test the terminal of headlight by using test light or multi-
tester.
4. Draw on how to test the open circuit in dome light circuit.
5. Write at least 5 safety precautions.

133
C. Performance Test

Directions: Perform the following tests (5 pts. each)

1. Checking the shorted to voltage in horn system.


2. Checking the shorted to ground in park, tail and plate light circuit.
3. Perform on how to crimp and solder the wires
4. Checking the continuity in headlight, park, and taillight system using
combination switch.
5. Checking the continuity in signal and hazard system using combination
switch.

D. Performance Assessment

Directions: Below is the performance assessment that serves as your guide in


assessing the following skills you need to perform. Please be guided
with the tasks with the corresponding score and the performance
level.

Name : ____________________________Year & Section: ______________

Course: ____________________________Time Allotment: ______________

Module Title: _______________________Grading Period _______________

Unit of
Competency Time Performance
TESTING AND Tasks Date Begun Finished Score Level
REPAIRING
WIRING/LIGH
TING SYSTEM
LO3 3.1 Install
Install wires
Wiring/Lighti leading to
ng system. different
lights and
other
relevant
devices.
3.2 Solder
and crimp
lead
terminals of

134
wires.
LO4 4.1 Test
Test Electrical electrical
System and system
Determine without
Preferred Action. causing
damage to
workplace
or vehicle.
4.2 Perform
correct
procedure
for testing
and
interpreting
schematic
diagram in
accordance
with the
manufactu-
rers
specificat-
ion.
4.3Determi
ne
faults/defec
ts using
appropriate
tools and
techniques.
4.4 Execute
remedies
based on
the
identified
faults/
defects.

LO5 5,1 Identify


Carry out procedure
necessary in repairing
repair in the electrical
electrical system.
system. 5.2
Interpret
information
based on
assesment.

135
5.3 Use
appropriate
tools,
techniques
and
materials in
repairing
electrcial
system.
5.4 Repair
electrcial
system
without
causing
damage to
workplace,
property or
vehicle.

Average: _____ ________

LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

21 25 91 - 100 Outstanding

16 20 86 - 90 Very Good

11 15 81 - 85 Good

06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair

01 - 05 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE? ______

Auto LM Grade 10 relc Jul 14-18, 2014


Refined Aug. 18-22, 2014, RELC
Reviewed and Fionalized Oct.14-17/ 27-31,2014
11/12/14 BSP Makiling - 1.47 PM
Finalized Q3Q4 RELC Nov.17-21, 2014

136
Content Standard Performance Standard
The learner demonstrates understanding The learner independently performs
of the principles in performing the the underchassis preventive
underchassis preventive maintenance. maintenance
PROCESS & DELIVERY

QUARTER III TIME ALLOTMENT: 40 Hours

LESSON: PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

INTRODUCTION:

This module contains information and practices in performing Under-


chassis Preventive Maintenance. It includes instructions on how to check clutch,
brake fluid and lines, inspect and change transmission and differential gear oil,
inspect and replace power steering fluid, check and refill automatic transmission
fluid, inspect fluid air tank, check tire and tire pressure, and check under chassis
body bolts and nuts. This module also consists of learning outcomes which
contains learning activities for both knowledge and skills, supported with
information sheets, self-check, and job and operation sheets, gathered from
different sources.

LO 1.1: CHECK CLUTCH BRAKE FLUID AND LINES


Check clutch brake fluid level and lines for leakage.

Check clutch brake fluid lines for cracks, twists, bends, looseness
and restrictions.

Refill clutch brake master cylinder with brake fluid to the specified
level.

Replace defective clutch system components in accordance with


manufacturers specification.

LO 1.2 : INSPECT/BLEED BRAKE AND CLUTCH SYSTEM

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT LO 1.1 AND L0 1.2

137
A. WRITTEN ASSESSMENT

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statement/question by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. Automotive clutch consists of 3 major parts except _______.

A. Clutch disc C. Pressure plate


B. Flywheel D. Release bearing

2. It is used to engage and disengage the flow of power from the engine to the
transmission.

A. Clutch C. Flywheel
B. Engine D. Pressure plate

3. It is a heavy metal wheel attached to the rear of engine crankshaft which


rotates with the clutch.

A. Clutch C. Flywheel
B. Engine D. Release bearing

4. It consists of the facing, which is a friction material usually made of


asbestos.

A. Clutch C. Clutch fork


B. Clutch disc D. Clutch pedal

5. It is connected to the engine flywheel and rotates integrally with it. It must
be well-balanced for good rotation.

A. Pressure disc C. Pressure plate/cover assembly


B. Pressure finger D. Pressure spring

6. The movement of the clutch pedal of this type is transmitted to the clutch
components directly by a cable.

A. Electronic clutch C. Mechanical clutch


B. Hydraulic clutch D. Pneumatic clutch

7. The movement of the clutch pedal is converted by the master cylinder into
a hydraulic pressure.

A. Electronic clutch C. Mechanical clutch


B. Hydraulic clutch D. Pneumatic clutch

138
8. Disengaging the clutch (pushing down the clutch pedal) moves the pressure
plate away from the _______.

A. Clutch cover C. Friction disc


B. Flywheel D. Pressure plate cover

9. Releasing the clutch pedal engages the _______.

A. Clutch C. Clutch finger


B. Pressure cover D. Clutch fork

10. When the clutch pedal is pushed down, the clutch disengages so no power
flows through to the _______.

A. Clutch C. Pressure plate assembly


B. Engine D. Transmission output

11. This type of brake is operated by a foot pedal which slows or stops the
moving vehicle.

A. Mechanical brake C. Pedal brake


B. Parking brake D. Service brake

12. When the brake is applied by pushing down the brake pedal, a fluid flows
through tubes or _______.

A. Brake drum C. Brake pad


B. Brake lines D. Brake shoe

13. The _______ converts the motion of the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure.

A. Brake cylinder C. Slave cylinder


B. Master cylinder D. Wheel cylinder

14. When the brake pedal is pushed down, brake fluid pressure from the
master cylinder is forced in the fluid lines to the ______.

A. Brake booster C. Brake lines


B. Brake lights D. Wheel brakes

15. The ____________ multiplies the drivers pedal effort so that a large braking
force is created.

A. Brake booster C. Brake pad


B. Brake lining D. Brake shoe

16. It automatically reduces the hydraulic pressure to the rear wheel cylinders
so that it is less than that of the front, so less braking force is applied to
the rear wheels.

A. A valve C. P valve

139
B. B valve D. S valve

17. It is a pressed steel plate bolted to the rear axle housing/rear axle carrier. It
is where braking force acts on it.

A. Backing plate C. Pressure plate


B. Clutch plate D. Rear plate

18. It must have high resistance against heat and wear and have a high friction
coefficient that contacts the surface of the brake drum when brake is
applied.

A. Brake band C. Brake lines


B. Brake booster D. Brake lining

19. _______ bleeding is recommended for all hydraulic clutch/brake systems.

A. Air C. Fluid
B. Bubble D. Water

20. When bleeding the clutch/brake systems, unscrew and screw the
__________.

A. Bleeder valve C. Nut


B. Bolt D. Pin

140
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1.1

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF CLUTCH

The construction of clutch comes in variety of ways depending on how it is


constructed by the manufacturers. Automotive manufacturers has made ways and
means to upgrade clutch designs just to give car owners the best they can offer.
They make sure that each part will have its contribution for a good functioning
clutch. Different types of clutch designs paved the way for easy and smooth
transition when shifting transmission gears. Its operation affects how well the
gears in the transmission can be shifted with less effort and without noise. The
following are the construction and operation of clutch.

I. CONSTRUCTION

A. AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCH

The clutch is located between the engine and the transmission. It is used to
engage and disengage the flow of power from the engine to the transmission by
pedal operation during gear shifting. The clutch gradually transmit power from the
engine to the drive wheels in order to start moving the automobile smoothly. It also
changes the transmission gears easily under the condition in which the vehicle is
traveling.

B. PURPOSE OF THE CLUTCH

1. It must engage the engine and the transmission smoothly.


2. It must transmit engine power to transmission entirely without slipping.
3. It must disengage the transmission accurately and quickly.

C. PARTS OF THE CLUTCH

The automotive clutch consists of 3 major parts. These are the flywheel,
clutch disc and pressure plate assembly.

1. FLYWHEEL

In a vehicle with manual transmission, it is a heavy metal wheel attached to


the rear of engine crankshaft which rotates with it. It helps smooth out the power
surges from the power stroke and serves as part of the clutch. The flywheel and
pressure plate are the drive or driving members. They are attached to and rotate
with the engine crankshaft.

141
Face

Ring
gear

Fig. 1 Parts of engine flywheel (chicaneculture.com)

2. CLUTCH DISC

It is necessary that the clutch disc transmit power smoothly. Once it is


engaged, it must transmit power continuously without slipping. The clutch disc
must be built in such a way that, when the power is disconnected, it can be done
accurately and quickly.

The clutch disc consists of the facing, which is a friction material usually
made of asbestos riveted on both sides of the disc circumference and a hub in the
center with internal teeth, which receives the input shaft of the transmission.

Hub

Facing
g
Rivet/Stud

Retainer plate
Damper
spring

Fig. 2 The friction disc (vickauto.com)

142
3. CLUTCH COVER ASSEMBLY OR PRESSURE PLATE ASSEMBLY

The clutch cover assembly is fitted to the engine flywheel and rotates
integrally with it. Its rotational feature must be well-balanced to prevent humming
and wobbling sound during operation. In addition, it must have good capacity to
radiate heat from the engaged clutch.

Clutch covers are divided in two types depending on the type of springs used
for pushing the pressure plates against the clutch disc.

The diaphragm spring type clutch is used frequently today from light to
medium type vehicles. Whereas, the coil spring type clutch is used in some heavy
duty commercial vehicles.

Pressure plate cover

Release lever

Diaphragm type Coil-spring type

Fig. 3 Diaphragm and Coil Spring type pressure plate assembly (renaultforums.com.uk)

143
D. TYPES OF CLUTCH

There are two types of clutch. They can be distinguished the way they are
operated: the mechanically operated clutch and hydraulically operated clutch.

1. MECHANICAL TYPE CLUTCH

The movement of the clutch pedal of this type is transmitted to the clutch
components directly by a cable and linkages.

Fig. 4. The mechanical clucth cable and linkages

144
Fig. 5 The mechanical type clutch (cable type) (tpub.com)

2. HYDRAULIC TYPE CLUTCH

In this type of clutch, the movement of the clutch pedal is converted by the
master cylinder into a hydraulic pressure which is then transmitted to the clutch
release fork via the slave cylinder. In this type of clutch, the driver is bothered less
by noise vibration from the engine and the clutch itself is easier to operate.

145
Fig. 6 The hydraulic type clutch (2carpros.com)

II. OPERATION OF CLUTCH

A. CLUTCH OPERATION

Disengaging the clutch (pushing down the clutch pedal) moves the pressure
plate away from the friction disc. When the driver depresses the clutch pedal, the
clutch fork or release lever pushes the release bearing against the clutch release
fingers. The forward movement of the release bearing to the release fingers causes
the outward movement of the pressure plate. This condition frees the friction disc
from being gripped in between the flywheel and pressure plate.

Engaging the clutch (releasing the clutch pedal from being pushed down)
connects the friction disc to the flywheel and pressure plate. Spring pressure in the
pressure plate pushes to grip the friction disc to the flywheel. With this condition,
the friction disc and transmission input shaft turns with the flywheel.

146
1. PEDAL DOWN, CLUTCH DISENGAGED

When the clutch pedal is pushed down, the clutch disengages so no power
flows through the transmission.

Fig. 7 The clutch is disengaged (motoIQ.com)

2. PEDAL UP, CLUTCH ENGAGED


When the clutch pedal is released, the clutch engages, transmitting power
from the crankshaft flywheel to the transmission.

147
Engaged

Fig. 8 The clutch is engaged (thecartech.com)

B. MASTER CYLINDER

This liquid filled cylinder is the hydraulic clutch/brake system where


hydraulic pressure is developed when the driver depresses a foot pedal.

148
Fig. 9 The master cylinder assembly and its cutaway view (justjap)

149
SELF-CHECK 1.1.1
CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF CLUTCH

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statement/question by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. Automotive clutch consists of 3 major parts except _______.

A. Clutch disc C. Pressure plate


B. Flywheel D. Release bearing

2. It is used to engage and disengage the flow of power from the engine to the
transmission.

A. Clutch C. Flywheel
B. Engine D. Pressure plate

3. It is a heavy metal wheel attached to the rear of engine crankshaft which rotates
with the clutch.

A. Clutch C. Flywheel
B. Engine D. Release bearing

4. It consists of the facing, which is a friction material usually made of asbestos.

A. Clutch C. Clutch fork


B. Clutch disc D. Clutch pedal

5. It is fitted to the engine flywheel and rotates integrally with it. It must be well-
balanced for good rotation.

A. Pressure disc C. Pressure plate/cover assembly


B. Pressure finger D. Pressure spring

6. The movement of the clutch pedal of this type is transmitted to the clutch
components directly by a cable.

A. Electronic clutch C. Mechanical clutch


B. Hydraulic clutch D. Pneumatic clutch

7. A type of clutch where the movement of the clutch pedal is converted into
hydraulic pressure by the master cylinder.

A. Electronic clutch C. Mechanical clutch


B. Hydraulic clutch D. Pneumatic clutch

150
8. Disengaging the clutch (pushing down the clutch pedal) moves the pressure
plate away from the _______.

A. Clutch cover C. Friction disc


B. Flywheel D. Pressure plate cover

9. Releasing the clutch pedal engages the _______.

A. Clutch C. Clutch finger


B. Pressure cover D. Clutch fork

10. When the clutch pedal is pushed down, the clutch disengages so no power
flows through the _______.

A. Clutch C. Pressure plate assembly


B. Engine D. Transmission

151
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1.2
CHECK CLUTCH BRAKE FLUID LEVEL

Checking the brake fluid in the clutch is a good practice. It must be checked
regularly to avoid any inconvenience when driving. This also determines the
condition of the fluid whether it is still on the minimum level or not. Visual check
of fluid level can be done by looking at the white plastic reservoir. A marked
minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) at the side surface of the reservoir can
indicate the level of the fluid. A fluid level way below the minimum can greatly
affect the operation of clutch hydraulic systems. This indicates that a presence of
leak in the hydraulic system may be the cause why the fluid level is decreasing in a
short period of time. For a safe and worry-free condition, the trouble must be
repaired and the fluid level must always be at the MAX (maximum) or between the
minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) mark of the reservoir.

Fig. 10. The level of fluid (photo courtesy of new.volvocars.com)

Refilling the clutch fluid in a reservoir is the best way and easy to do.
Remember that the brake fluid used in the brake system of a vehicle is the same
fluid used in the hydraulic clutch. That is why appropriate type of brake fluid such
as DOT 3 used in light to heavy duty application must be utilized in order that
working rubber parts of the hydraulic system will not be damaged.

152
Fig.11. Clutch brake fluid with proper DOT 3 specification

153
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.1.2

CHECK LEVEL AND REFILL CLUTCH WITH BRAKE FLUID

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS


Brake fluid, DOT 3
Utility rags

EQUIPMENT

Automobile trainer/Live vehicle

PROCEDURE:

A. CHECK LEVEL AND REFILL CLUTCH WITH BRAKE FLUID

1. Turn the engine off and open the hood.

2. Determine the location of the clutch master cylinder.

Locate the white plastic container at the rear part of the engine compartment,
usually near the brake fluid reservoir. The clutch master cylinder reservoir
looks like the brake fluid reservoir but it is smaller in size. Imagine that the
clutch pedal went straight through into the engine compartment. This is
where you will find the clutch master cylinder and fluid reservoir. The brake
fluid reservoir is bigger than the clutch fluid reservoir.

Brake master
cylinder and
reservoir

Clutch brake
fluid reservoir

Fig.12. The location of clutch/brake fluid reservoir

3. Check the fluid level. The fluid reservoir of clutch is usually made of plastic
clear enough to determine the amount of fluid level. It is covered with a round

154
rubber/plastic cap on the top. Clean the outside part of the reservoir with
utility rag and check the fluid level. It should be at or between the minimum
and maximum level.

4. Refill clutch reservoir with brake fluid. Remove the cover cap of the reservoir
and pour brake fluid until it reaches the maximum levels.

Fig.13 Refilling of clutch/brake fluid

5. Replace the cover cap of the clutch fluid reservoir.

CAUTION:

Care must be observe when pouring clutch brake fluid. It is highly corrosive
and can affect the body paint of the vehicle. It also produce discomfort to the
skin when handled carelessly. Immediately wash your hands and wipe any
spills with a utility rag.

Cars with a clutch cable (mechanical type) do not use clutch fluid.

155
A leak can often be seen at the clutch reservoir, ends of the clutch hydraulic
lines and fittings, at the clutch slave cylinder, or at the rear portion of the
master cylinder behind the clutch pedal.

If after refilling, and the clutch reservoir showed a low fluid level in a short
period of time, it probably has a leak. The clutch fluid reservoir is small so
even a slight leak can empty it out quickly. Without the fluid, the clutch
pedal is useless. It cannot shift the transmission gears easily therefore, no
shifting or hard shifting will result. See your mechanic if you suspect a leak.

156
SELF-CHECK 1.1.2
CHECK CLUTCH BRAKE FLUID LEVEL

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statement/question by writing the letter of the best option.

1. In a hydraulic operated clutch, the clutch reservoir is located at the clutch


________________.

A. air cylinder C. hydraulic cylinder


B. brake cylinder D. master cylinder

2. When the clutch pedal is pushed down, a fluid flows through tubes or _______.

A. brake lines C. master cylinder


B. fluid lines D. tube connector

3. Checking the brake fluid of the clutch is a good _______.

A. observation C. ritual
B. practice D. tradition

4. The clutch brake fluid level must be checked _______.

A. daily C. frequently
B. eventually D. regularly

5. Visual check can be done by looking at the white _______.

A. plastic reservoir C. silicon reservoir


B. rubber reservoir D. titanium reservoir

6. A mark of MIN and MAX on the fluid reservoir determines the fluid _______.

A. container C. level
B. height D. width

7. Clutch fluid is at the very safe level if it is on a _________ level.

A. maximum C. near empty


B. minimum D. over maximum

8. The fluid used in brake system is the same fluid used in ___________ clutch.

A. air C. colloid
B. booster D. hydraulic

157
9. If after refilling fluid, the clutch reservoir showed a low fluid level in a short
period of time , probably it has _______.

A. leak C. particle of dusts


B. multiple holes D. water

10. Cars with a clutch cable does not use any _______.

A. fluid C. nut
B. gas D. pin

158
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1.3
CHECK CLUTCH/ BRAKE FLUID LINES/CABLES FOR CRACKS, TWISTS/BENDS,
LOOSENESS, RESTRICTIONS AND LEAKAGE

Fluid lines of clutch hydraulic system must be checked regularly once a year
or as the case may be whenever there is a continuous decrease of clutch/brake
fluid level in the system. The inability of the clutch/brake system to work properly
maybe due to a twisted/ bent, loose or restricted and leaking fluid lines.

A lot of money, time and effort will be spent if these conditions were left
unnoticed. Below are the technical terms that aids as a frame of reference for clear
understanding of the fluid lines condition.

Twist fluid lines/tube is bent curved and out of shape due to accidental or
sudden impact of the vehicle. This may result in restriction of fluid to flow.

Loose it is a lack of tightness in the fluid line fittings and hold-down bracket. This
condition may result in a continuous disturbance of the fluid lines and may cause
fluid leakage. In a cable type clutch, loose cables increases clearance or play
resulting in delayed movement of parts. It also increases mechanical effort, thereby
putting strains on the legs of the driver when pressing the clutch pedal. Therefore,
hard shifting of the transmission gears may occur.

Restriction it is the abnormal flow of fluid due to obstruction. A bent or dirt in


the fluid lines may cause restriction. This restriction increases resistance in the
hydraulic system resulting in decrease effectiveness of clutch operation.

Leakage a condition in the fluid lines where crack or hole is present and allows
the fluid to escape. This decreases fluid effectiveness. Hard shifting of the
transmission may result. When fully neglected, shifting of transmission gears will be
impossible and refilling of fluid in the reservoir is useless. Leakage can often be
traced in the tube fittings, cracked fluid lines, and at the back of master /slave
cylinder due to worn out rubber caps.

159
Twisted Loosed

Restricted Leak

Fig. 14 The different fluid lines condition

160
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.1.3
CHECK CLUTCH/BRAKE FLUID LINES/CABLES FOR CRACKS,
TWISTS/BENDS, LOOSENESS, RESTRICTIONS AND LEAKAGE

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Record notebook

Utility rags

TOOLS

Open/Box wrench appropriate mm. size

PROCEDURE:

Directions: Below is a checklist of a hydraulic clutch/brake for inspection. Put a


check ( ) mark in the column provided with the corresponding
recommendation.

(Disassemble)
(Replace)

(Tighten)

Remarks
(Repair)
(Adjust)

(Clean)

Checklist OK
R

R
C
A

1. Clutch/Brake lines
for leakage
2. Clutch/Brake lines
for cracks
3. Clutch/Brake lines
for twists/bends
4. Clutch/Brake lines
for loose
connections
5. Clutch/Brake lines
for restriction

161
SELF-CHECK 1.1.3

CHECK CLUTCH/BRAKE FLUID LINES/CABLES FOR CRACKS,


TWISTS/BENDS, LOOSENESS, RESTRICTIONS AND LEAKAGE

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Direction: Answer the statement/question by writing the letter of the best option.

1. Fluid lines of clutch hydraulic system must be checked ____________.

A. Regularly C. Every hour


B. Everyday D. Every minute

2. The fluid lines/cable is bent or out of shape due to accidental or sudden impact
of the vehicle. What condition will result in the restriction of fluid to flow?

A. Leaked C. Restricted
B. Loosed D. Twisted

3. It is a lack of tightness in the fluid lines, fittings and hold-down bracket. It may
result in a continuous disturbance of the fluid lines and cause fluid leakage.

A. Leaked C. Restricted
B. Loosed D. Twisted

4. It is a blockage in the fluid lines that hinders the smooth flow of fluid.

A. Leaked C. Restricted
B. Loosed D. Twisted

5. A condition in the fluid lines where crack or hole is present and allows the fluid
to escape. This decreases the effectiveness fluid pressure.

A. Leaked C. Restricted
B. Loosed D. Twisted

162
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1.4

REPLACE DEFECTIVE CLUTCH/BRAKE SYSTEM COMPONENTS

When the parts of clutch/brake system are malfunctioning, after having


performed the different testing procedure and identified its trouble, it is now time to
decide for parts replacement. Proper selection of parts must be considered as
recommended by the manufacturers. Many automotive stores sells different makes
and models of vehicle parts. They may even sell the right part but with different
manufacturer and totally out of specifications. Even though it may seem visually
the same, many imitation are at large even in the so called original parts surplus
shops and equivalent replacement parts.

For these reasons, it is important to know some guidelines when replacing


vehicle parts or materials specially one used in clutch and brake system.

1. REPLACE PARTS WITH THE SAME PART NUMBER. Every original part
released by the vehicle manufacturer have part number for easy
identification and correct specifications for replacement. It means that the
part number is the identification as to the integrity of the part size, shape,
color, and material used.

2. USE REPLACEMENT PART WHEN NECESSARY. Corresponding part


number produced by other manufacturer can also be used provided that
the same size, shape , color and material used are there. Replacement
part produce by other manufacturer cannot be dependable as to its
integrity, reliability and durability compared with the original part
produced by the original manufacturer. It is a must that genuine part be
used for a longer, efficient and effective used.

3. USE CLUTCH/BRAKE FLUID WITH CORRECT DOT SPECIFICATIONS.


Brake fluid as use in clutch and brake systems must have correct DOT
specifications. Refilling a high DOT fluid rating may reduce life of rubber
parts.

4. REPLACE WITH THE RIGHT FLUID LINES AND FITTINGS. Fluid lines
and fittings must be strong enough to withstand fluid pressure under
extreme condition. When clutch/brake pedal is pressed, high pressure in
the hydraulic system is exerted within the walls and the surrounding
surface of the tubing/lines and fittings. Hardened steel tube and fittings
are commonly used in a manufactured vehicle. Replacement tube and
fittings such as bronze and copper must be used carefully because of its
fragile metal characteristics.

163
5. USE QUALITY CLUTCH DISC AND BRAKE SHOES/PADS. Good, quality
asbestos in disc and pads must be used. Whether the disc and pads are
bonded or riveted, the material itself should be given emphasis so that it
will not turn easily into powder when used. The material (usually
asbestos) itself and the way it is joined (bonding or riveted) to the
substrate must be long lasting and will not easily detached from it when
pressure is applied. Low quality clutch disc and brakes shoes /pads
easily produced noise, slips and breaks when pressure is applied.

164
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.1.4

REPLACE DEFECTIVE CLUTCH SLAVE CYLINDER BLEEDER VALVE

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Plastic/Rubber tube
Glass container
Utility rags
Bleeder valve

TOOLS
Box wrench appropriate mm. size

EQUIPMENT

Vehicle trainer

PROCEDURE:

A. REPLACE BLEEDER VALVE OF CLUTCH SLAVE CYLINDER

1. Place one end of plastic/rubber tube in a bleeder valve and the other end of
the plastic/rubber tube to a clean glass container. (This is to avoid spill out
of brake fluid on the floor and also a good habit when working with fluids).

2. Slightly loosen bleeder valve until brake fluid flows out from the clutch slave
cylinder.

Note : Clean with rag any spill of brake fluid to avoid accident.

3. Remove the plastic/rubber tube on both ends of glass container and bleeder
valve.

4. Totally loosen and remove the bleeder valve.

5. Inspect the bleeder valve on the following specifications:

5.1 Part number or any alphanumeric markings.

5.2 Size and shape.

5.3 Restricted/rusty bleeder body and hole opening.

165
5.4 Loose screw thread and head.

Flat Seat Bleeder valve

Fluid line/tube and fittings

Flare Seat

Fig. 15. The bleeder valve and fluid line/tube and fittings

6. Replace with new bleeder valve (if found to be defective).

NOTE: After replacing the bleeder valve /screw. Refill master cylinder with
brake fluid and perform bleeding the clutch/brake system.

166
SELF-CHECK 1.1.4

REPLACE DEFECTIVE CLUTCH/BRAKE SYSTEM COMPONENTS

A. Direction: List down at least 5 guidelines when replacing defective clutch /


brake system components.

1._________________________________

2._________________________________

3._________________________________

4._________________________________

5._________________________________

B. Direction: This checklist determines your level of competency about replacing


defective clutch/brake system components. Put a check ( ) mark on
the column provided.

I can do
this but I
COMPETENCY I cannot do I am still need to I can do
this yet learning learn more this very
how to do and well
this improve

1. Checks/Replaces
the following:

master cylinder

slave cylinder

lines and fittings

bleeder valve

fluid level

2. Reads

167
specifications

3. Uses tools and


materials
appropriately

4. Observes safety
measures in
replacing defective
clutch/brake
system
components

168
LO 1.2: INSPECT/BLEED BRAKE AND CLUTCH SYSTEM

INFORMATION SHEET 1.2.1

INSPECT BRAKE SYSTEM

A. TYPES OF AUTOMOTIVE BRAKES

In automobile it has two types of brakes. The service brakes and the parking
brakes.

Fig. 16 Parts of brake system in a vehicle (diffata.com)

169
B. SERVICE BRAKES

The service brakes are operated by a foot pedal, which slow or stop the
moving vehicle. Most automotive service brakes are hydraulically brakes. They
operate hydraulically by pressure applied through a liquid. The service or
foundation brakes on many medium and heavy-duty trucks and buses are
operated by air pressure. These are called air brakes.

Fig.17. The service brake pedal (the-automovers.com)

C. FRICTION IN VEHICLE BRAKES

When the brakes are applied by pushing down on the brake pedal, a fluid
flows through tubes or brake lines to the brake mechanisms at the wheels. The
brake mechanisms apply force on rotating parts so the wheels are slowed or
stopped.

There are two types of wheel-brake mechanisms, the drum and disc. In the
drum brake, the fluid pressure pushes lined brake shoes against a rotating drum.
In disc brake, the fluid pushes line brake pads against a rotating disc.

Friction between the stationary shoes or pads and the rotating drum or disc
produces the braking action that slows or stops the wheels. Then friction between
the tires and road slows or stops the vehicle.

170
D. BRAKE ACTION

The service braking system includes two basic parts. These are the master
cylinder and the drum and disc wheel-brake mechanisms. The master cylinder is a
reciprocating-piston pump. It pressurizes the hydraulic system when the driver
depresses the brake pedal. This converts the mechanical force from the brake
pedal into hydraulic force that applies the brakes on the wheels.

Braking begins at the brake pedal, when the pedal is pushed down, brake
fluid is forced from the master cylinder into the lines to the wheel brakes. As
hydraulic pressure increases, brake shoes or pads are forced against the rotating
drums or discs. The resulting friction slows or stop the wheels and the vehicle.

Fig.18. The action of hydraulic brake (autorepair.about.com)

NOTE: Flow of brake fluid to the calipers at the front and to the wheel
cylinder at the rear when the brakes are applied.

171
E. OPERATING MECHANISM

1. Master Cylinder
The master cylinder converts the motion of the brake pedal into hydraulic
pressure. It consists of the reservoir tank, which contains the brake fluid, as
well as the piston and cylinder, which generate the hydraulic pressure.

Fig. 19 Shows the parts of master cylinder (autorepair.about.com)

172
2. Brake booster

The force with which the driver steps on the brake pedal would not be
enough to cause the brakes to operate to stop the vehicle quickly. The
brake booster multiplies the drivers pedal effort so that a large braking
force is created.

The brake booster may be an integral part of the master cylinder of fitted
separately from it. The integrated type is used with passenger cars and
light-duty trucks.

The brake booster consists mainly of the booster body, booster piston,
diaphragm, reaction mechanism and control valve mechanism.

The booster body is divided into the front (constant pressure chamber)
rear (variable pressure chamber) sections, separated from each other by a
diaphragm and booster piston.

Fig.20. The brake master cylinder and booster (g37-tech.com)

173
3. Proportioning valve (P valve)

The vehicle is slowed down by friction between the tire and the road. The
friction increases in proportion to the load.

Since the engine is usually in the front part of the vehicle, the front side
is heavier than the rear. When the vehicle hits a hard object, the center of
gravity shifts forward due to inertia, and even a greater load is applied to the
front.

For this reason, a device is needed that will cause more braking force to
the front wheels than to the rear wheels.

This device is called a proportioning valve or simply a P valve. It


automatically reduces the hydraulic pressure to the rear wheel cylinders so
that it is less than that of the front, so less braking force is applied to the
rear wheels.

Fig.21. Shows the car in braking action (drivefurious.com)

174
4. Backing plate

The backing plate is pressed steel plate, bolted to the rear axle housing
or rear axle carrier. Since the brake shoes are fitted to the backing plate, all
of the braking force acts on the backing plate. If the friction surface of the
brake shoe wears excessively, the brakes will drag. Brake shoes must be
checked carefully every time the brakes are disassembled to prevent this
problem.

Fig. 22. Shows the brake backing plate (oreillyauto.com and hunghd.com)

5. Wheel cylinder

When the driver depresses the brake pedal, brake fluid flows from a
pressure chamber in the master cylinder through brake lines to the wheel cylinder.
It converts the hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder into mechanical
movement. The wheel cylinder has two pistons, with seals or cups and a spring in
between. As the pressure increases, the pistons overcome the brake-shoe return
springs and push the shoe outward into contact with the drum.

175
A. RUBBER BOOTS E. WHEEL CYLINDER HOUSING
B. PISTONS F. RUBBER CAPS
C. WASHERS G. BLEEDER SCREW
D. WHEEL CYLINDER BOLTS H. RETURN SPRING
.
Fig. 23. The exploded view of wheel cylinder and its parts ( jeepart.co.uk)

6. Brake shoes and brake lining

Brake shoes are usually made of steel plates. The brake lining is attached to
the friction surface of the shoe by rivets (in large vehicles) or by adhesives (on small
vehicles).

Lining must be resistant against heat and wear and have a high friction
coefficient. This coefficient must be as unaffected as possible by fluctuations in
temperature and humidity.

Generally, brake linings are made from fiber metallic mixed with brass, lead,
plastic etc. and formed under heat.

176
Fig. 24. Brake shoe and lining ( zjchangdaautoparts.com)

7. Drum brakes

The drum brakes has a metal brake drum that encloses the brake assembly
at each wheel. Two curved brake shoes made of metal with non-asbestos lining on
it are placed by means of hold-down cup and pin, springs and positioned closely to
the drum. The brake shoes expand outward against the drum to slow or stop the
drum which rotates with the wheel. The brake assembly is attached to a steering
knuckle, axle housing or strut-spindle assembly.

As the lining is pushed against the inner surface of the rotating drum when
the brake is applied, friction heat can reach as high as 200 0C (3920F) to 3000
(5720F).

177
A facing of friction material called brake lining is riveted or cemented or bonded to
the shoes. The linings are usually made of non-asbestos materials like a fiber glass
or a semi-metallic material that can withstand the heat producing braking action.
Asbestos lining has been used, but is being phased out now because of its danger
to human health.

Fig. 25. The drum brakes type and its assembly parts. (chirco.com)

178
The construction and operation of front drum brakes are the same as rear
drum brakes. Most vehicles have rear wheel parking brakes.

Fig. 26. Shows brake drum cross section (en.wikipedia.org)

8. Disc brakes

A disc brakes basically consists of a cast-iron disc (disc rotor) that rotates
with the wheel and fixed friction materials (disc pads) that are pushed against the
rotating disc or rotor. Braking force is generated by friction between the disc and
the disc pads.

Fig. 27.Shows the disc brake and its parts (auto.howstuffwork.com)

179
A. PARTS OF A DISC BRAKE

1. Disc rotor

Generally, the disc rotor is made of gray cast iron. The solid type disc rotor
consists of a pair of hollow discs to ensure good cooling, both to prevent fading
and to ensure longer pad life.

Fig. 28. Shows the disc rotor (youfixcars.com)

2. Brake pad

A disc pad is usually a baked mixture of metallic fibers and resin. This type
is called the semi-metallic disc pad.

A slit provided on the rotor side of the pad indicate the pad thickness
(allowable limit) so that the pad wear can be checked easily.

In some disc pads, a metallic plate called an anti-squeal shim is fitted in the
piston slide of the pad to prevent the brakes from squeaking.

180
Fig. 29. The brake pad (lfncltee.ca/product.php)

B. TYPES OF DISC BRAKE CALIPER

Calipers are grouped into the following types by the way in which they are
installed; fixed caliper type (double piston) and floating caliper type (single piston).

The fixed caliper is provided with the pair of pistons. Braking force is
obtained when the pads are pushed hydraulically by the piston against both ends
of the disc rotor.

The floating caliper type has a piston that is located in one side of the
caliper only.

Fig. 30. Shows the fixed caliper (2carpros.com)

181
Fig. 31.Shows the floating caliper type (2carpros.com)

Fig. 32. Shows the full floating caliper (auto.howstuffwork.com)

182
SOLID TYPE WITH DRUM
VENTILATED TYPE

SOLID TYPE

Fig. 33. The different types of rotor(bargainscouponsforumsbosytw.info, Traded.com)

9. Parking brake and operating mechanism

Parking brake is a hand-operated brake mainly used for parking the vehicle.
This prevents the vehicle from unnecessary movement by locking the rear wheels.
Passenger cars and small commercial vehicles have rear wheel type parking brake
that shares the brake drums of the service brake or exclusive parking brake that is
connected to the rear wheels.

Large commercial vehicles use center type parking brake that is fitted
between the propeller shaft and the transmission.

183
Fig. 34. The hand-operated lever type parking brake (euro-importers.com)

Fig. 35. Shows the parts of the parking brake (tpub.com)

184
The operating mechanism is basically the same in both the rear wheel type
parking brake and the center brake type parking brake. The parking brake lever is
located near the drivers seat. Pulling the parking brake lever operates the brakes
via a cable connected to the lever.

The parking brake lever is provided with ratchet to maintain the lever at the
position to which it was set. Some parking levers have adjusting screw near the
brake lever so the range of brake lever travel can be easily adjusted.

The parking brake cable transmits the lever movement to the brake drum
sub-assembly. In the case of the rear wheel parking brake, there is an equalizer in
the middle of the cable to equally divide the lever operating force to both wheels.

185
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.2.1

INSPECT BRAKE SYSTEM

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Record notebook
Service manual

PROCEDURE:

Directions: Inspect the parts of the brake system. Record your observation
/findings, specify remarks and make your recommendations based
on the legend below. Please use service manual for specifications.

Condition/Findings

Component Parts Please check ( ) Remarks Recommendations


and Consumables
Good Bad
1. Brake booster
2. Brake caliper
3. Brake drum
4. Brake fittings
5. Brake fluid
6. Brake lining
7. Brake lines
8. Brake pad
9. Backing plate
10. Brake shoe
11. Master cylinder
12. Parking brake
13. Service brake
14. Wheel bearing

LEGEND:

Remarks : Recommendation:

1. Dirty 1. Add
2. Loose 2. Adjust
3. Misaligned 3. Clean
4. Noisy/Squeaky 4. Repair
5. Worn-out 5. Replace
6. Rusty 6. Tighten
7. Sliding 7. Others: ______________
8. Weak
9. Others: ___________

186
SELF- CHECK 1.2.1

INSPECT BRAKE SYSTEM

Directions: This checklist determines your level of competency about inspecting


the brake system components. Put a check ( ) mark on the column
provided.
Note: See Activity Sheet 1.2.1 as reference for brake system parts to be
inspected.

Criteria 5 3 1
Proficiency Performs the task performs the task Performs the
with competence with competence task with
and exceptional and with standard competence but
performance. performance. below standard
performance.
Accuracy Performs the task performs the task Performs the
with no error. with at least 1-2 task with at
errors. least 3-5 errors.
Completeness Performs all the performs the task Performs the
tasks. with at least 2-3 task with at
items not met. least 3-5 items
not met.
Time Management Performs the tasks performs the tasks Performs the
on or ahead of five (5) minutes task with at
allotted time. after the allotted least 6- 10
time. minutes after
the allotted
time.
Safety Follows all safety Follows safety Follows the
practices as set in practices with at safety practices
the directions. least 1-2 measures with at least 3-
not met. 5 measures not
met

TOTAL __________ ___________ __________

Rating Scale : Points Earned Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

21 - 25 91 - 100 Outstanding
16 - 20 86 - 90 Very Good
11 - 15 81 - 85 Good
06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair
01 - 05 71 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE ? __________

187
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.2.2

CHECK AND ADJUST BRAKE PEDAL HEIGHT, FREE-PLAY AND PEDAL


RESERVE DISTANCE

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Ruler or appropriate measuring tool

TOOLS

Open/Box wrench appropriate mm. size

PROCEDURE:

A. CHECK AND ADJUST BRAKE PEDAL HEIGHT

1. Check the brake pedal height by turning back the floor carpet under the brake
pedal. With appropriate measuring tool, measure the distance between the top
surface of the brake pedal and the top (floor) board (asphalt sheet).

2. Compare with the specifications.

3. If necessary, adjust pedal height with the following steps:

3.1 Disconnect the wiring connector of the stop light switch.

3.2 Loosen the lock nut of the stop light switch and remove the stop light
switch.

3.3 Loosen the lock nut of the push rod and adjust the pedal height by
turning the push rod.

Fig. 36. Brake pedal height adjustment

188
3.4 Screw-in the stop light switch until its pedal stopper slightly contacts the
brake pedal arm surface. Tighten the lock nut of the stop light switch. Be
careful that the pedal stopper of the switch is not touching the pedal arm
surface too closely or the pedal height may be insufficient.

3.5 Connect the wiring connector for the stop light switch.

NOTE: After adjusting brake pedal height, check and adjust the pedal
free-play.

B. CHECK AND ADJUST BRAKE PEDAL AND FREE-PLAY

1. Check the brake pedal free-play.

1.1 After stopping the engine, release the vacuum stored in the brake
booster by pumping the brake pedal until the pedal reserve distance
does not change even with the pedal pressure. If vacuum remains in the
booster, the correct free-play cannot be checked.

1.2 Lightly push the brake pedal with your finger until it meets resistance
and measure the pedal stroke.

Fig. 37. Shows the pedal free-play (autorepair.about.com)

189
2. If necessary, adjust pedal free-play.

2.1 If pedal free-play is not within specification, loosen the lock nut of
master cylinder push rod at least 45 times. Then adjust by turning the
push rod.

2.2 Tighten the lock nut and measure the pedal free-play again.

2.3 After adjusting the pedal free-play, check the pedal height and stop light
operation.

C. CHECK OF PEDAL RESERVE DISTANCE

1. Check the pedal reserve distance.

1.1 Place chocks under the front and rear wheels, release the parking brake
and start the engine.

1.2 Press down the pedal with at least 50 kgs. of force and measure the
distance between the top surface of the brake pedal and the asphalt
sheet.

Fig. 38. Brake pedal reserve

1.3 If the reserve distance is less than specification, it may be caused by


excessive shoe clearance between brake shoes and brake drum.

1.4 Adjust the shoe clearance.

190
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.2.3

BLEED THE BRAKE SYSTEM

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Brake fluid DOT 3


Utility Rag
Plastic/Rubber tube
Glass container

TOOLS

Open/Box wrench appropriate mm. size

PROCEDURE:

A. BLEED THE BRAKE SYSTEM

Air bleeding is recommended for all hydraulic systems. However, if a


pressure bleeder is unavailable, use the following procedure. Some hydraulic
systems require vacuum bleeding. Check your vehicles service manual for the
procedure. It must be noted that brake fluid can damage painted surfaces.
Immediately clean any spilled fluid.

1. Remove the vacuum reserve by pumping the brakes several times with the
engine off.

2. Fill the master cylinder reservoir with clean brake fluid. Check the fluid level
often during bleeding procedure. Do not let the reservoir comes half empty.

3. Bleed the brake master cylinder as follows:

3.1 Disconnect the master cylinder front brake line connection until fluid
flows out from the reservoir. Reconnect and tighten the brake line.
3.2 Instruct an assistant to slowly depress the brake pedal one time and
hold.
3.3 Open the front brake line connection again to remove air from the
cylinder.
3.4 Retighten the connection and slowly release the brake pedal.
3.5 Wait for 15 seconds and then repeat steps 3.2-3.4 until all the air is
removed.
3.6 Bleed the rear brake line connection by repeating the preceding steps.

4. Bleed the four wheels as follows:

191
Fig. 39. Picture shows how to bleed the Brake System (autorepair.about.com)

Note: Follow the appropriate Wheel Bleed Sequence. If you are bleeding
the brakes manually, the sequence is right rear (RR), left rear (LR),
right front (RF), left front (LF). If you are performing pressure
bleeding, bleed the front brakes together and the rear brakes
together.

4.1 Place a transparent tube over the bleeder valve and then allow the tube to
hang down into a transparent container. Ensure the end of the tube is
submerged in clean brake fluid.
4.2 Set the transmission in NEUTRAL. Start the engine and instruct an
assistant to slowly depress the brake pedal one time and hold.
4.3 Loosen the bleeder valve to allow removal of air from brake system.
Retighten the bleeder valve and slowly the release pedal.
4.4 Wait for 15 seconds and then repeat the steps 4.2 4.3. Repeat until all
the air is bled from the system.

Note:
Replace any broken, stripped or frozen bleeder valve.
Always check the brake fluid reservoir. It must always be at full
level during and after bleeding operation.

192
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.2.4

REFILL MASTER CYLINDER WITH BRAKE FLUID

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Brake fluid
Rags

PROCEDURE:

A. REFILL MASTER CYLINDER WITH BRAKE FLUID

Note: It is utmost important to avoid spraying brake fluid. To protect


the face, never bend directly over the reservoir.

In some antilock brake systems, the manufacturer recommends


depressurizing the system before adding brake fluid. When depressurized, the
reservoir level may rise slightly, giving a more accurate level reading.

Note: Check that the vent hole in the reservoir cover is not
restricted.
Inspect the diaphragm for holes, and other signs of leak and
damage. Replace, if necessary.
Do not overfill reservoir with brake fluid.
Avoid spilling of brake fluid.
See to it that vehicle is on level ground when refilling brake
fluid.

1. Thoroughly clean the reservoir cover before removing it to prevent dirt from
entering the reservoir body.

2. Remove the reservoir cover and the diaphragm.

Fig.40. Picture of brake master cylinder reservoir (erniesautocenter.com.co)

193
3. Pour brake fluid according to manufacturers specification. See level markings
at the side of the reservoir.

Fig.41. Show how to refill brake master cylinder reservoir (autospeed.com)

4. Reinstall reservoir cover.


5. Start the engine and check brake operation.

194
SELF- CHECK 1.2.2 - 1.2.4

Directions: The Self-Rating Checklist determines your level of knowledge and


mastery about the following competencies:

1.2.2 - Check and adjust brake pedal height, free-play and pedal
reserve distance
1.2.3 - Bleed the brake system
1.2.4 - Refill master cylinder with brake fluid

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST

I can do
YES NO this but I
COMPETENCY need more
guidance
Checks and adjusts Brake
Pedal Height
Checks and adjust Brake
Pedal Free-Play
Checks pedal reserve
distance
Bleeds the brake system

Refill master cylinder with


brake fluid

195
ACTIVITY SHEET 1.2.5

CHECK LEAKS IN THE BRAKE SYSTEM

Hydraulic brake system leaks can exist internally or externally. Most


internal master cylinder leaks result when the rubber cups lose their ability to seal
the piston and cylinder. Brake fluid leaks in the cups internally. Sometimes, it also
appears as an external leak. Internal and external rubber parts wear with usage or
can deteriorate with age or fluid contamination. Moisture or dirt in the hydraulic
system can cause corrosion or deposits to form in the cylinder bore resulting in the
wear. Although internal leaks do not cause a loss of brake fluid, they can result in
a loss of brake performance.

When external leaks occur, the system loses brake fluid. External leaks are
caused by cracks or breaks in master cylinder reservoirs, loose system
connections, damaged seals, or leaking brake lines or hoses.

Fluid lines/tubing

Fig. 42. Brake system fluid lines/tubing (celicahobby.com)

Brake lines are made of steel. Since they are under the floor pan, they are
wrapped with wire armor to protect them from flying debris. The ends are flared
either in a double flare or an ISO flare. The flare provides maximum protection
against leakage. A short flexible brake hose or flex hose connects the steel brake
lines to the wheel cylinders or calipers.

196
Another type of end is the block or banjo fitting. It is used with soft metal
washers on each side. A hollow bolt allows fluid to flow from the hose into the
caliper.

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

1. Vehicle trainer

PROCEDURE:

1. Run the engine at idle with the transmission in neutral.

2. Depress the brake pedal and hold it down with a constant foot pressure. The
pedal should remain firm and the foot pad should be at least 2 inches from the
floor for manual brakes and 1 inch for power brakes.

3. Hold the pedal depressed for about 15 seconds to make sure that the pedal
does not drop under steady pressure. If the pedal drops under steady pressure,
the master cylinder may have internal leak or there may be external leak in the
wheel cylinder, brake line or hose or even at the master cylinder. Visually
inspect the brake system. External leak can be observed by frequent loss of
brake fluid in the reservoir.

197
SELF-CHECK 1.2.5

CHECK LEAKS IN THE BRAKE SYSTEM

Directions: Below is a checklist of a hydraulic brake leak for inspection. Put a


check ( ) mark in the column provided with the corresponding
recommendation.

(Disassemble)
(Replace)

(Tighten)

Remarks
(Repair)
(Adjust)

(Clean)

Re
R

D
C
A

T
Checklist OK

1. Brake fittings
2. Bleeder hose
3. Brake line
4. Bleeder valve
5. Master cylinder
6. Reservoir
7. Wheel cylinder

198
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT LO 1.1 LO 1.2
A. Written Assessment

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statement/question by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. Automotive clutch consists of 3 major parts except _______.

A. Clutch disc C. Pressure plate


B. Flywheel D. Release bearing

2. It is used to engage and disengage the flow of power from the engine to the
transmission.

A. Clutch C. Flywheel
B. Engine D. Pressure plate

3. It is a heavy metal wheel attached to the rear of engine crankshaft which


rotates with the clutch.

A. Clutch C. Flywheel
B. Engine D. Release bearing

4. It consists of the facing, which is a friction material (usually made of asbestos).

A. Clutch C. Clutch fork


B. Clutch disc D. Clutch pedal

5. It is connected to the engine flywheel and rotates integrally with it. It must be
well-balanced for good rotation.

A. Pressure disc C. Pressure plate/cover assembly


B. Pressure finger D. Pressure spring

6. The movement of the clutch pedal of this type is transmitted to the clutch
components directly by a cable.

A. Electronic clutch C. Mechanical clutch


B. Hydraulic clutch D. Pneumatic clutch

7. The movement of the clutch pedal is converted by the master cylinder into a
hydraulic pressure.

A. Electronic clutch C. Mechanical clutch


B. Hydraulic clutch D. Pneumatic clutch

8. Disengaging the clutch (pushing down the clutch pedal) moves the pressure
plate away from the _______.

199
A. Clutch cover C. Friction disc
B. Flywheel D. Pressure plate cover

9. Releasing the clutch pedal engages the _______.

A. Clutch C. Clutch finger


B. Pressure cover D. Clutch fork

10. When the clutch pedal is pushed down, the clutch disengages so no power
flows through the _______.

A. Clutch C. Pressure plate assembly


B. Engine D. Transmission output

11. This type of brake is operated by a foot pedal, which slows or stops the
moving vehicle.

A. Mechanical brake C. Pedal brake


B. Parking brake D. Service brake

12. When the brakes are applied by pushing down on the brake pedal, a fluid
flows through tubes or _______.

A. Brake drum C. Brake pad


B. Brake lines D. Brake shoe

13. The _______ converts the motion of the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure.

A. Brake cylinder C. Slave cylinder


B. Brake Master cylinder D. Wheel cylinder

14. When the brake pedal is pushed down, brake fluid is forced from the master
cylinder into the lines and to the _______.

A. Brake booster C. Brake lines


B. Brake lights D. Wheel brakes

15. The ____________ multiplies the drivers pedal effort so that a large braking
force is created.

A. Brake booster C. Brake pad


B. Brake lining D. Brake shoe

16. It automatically reduces the hydraulic pressure to the rear wheel cylinders so
that it is less than that of the front, so less braking force is applied to the rear
wheels.

A. A valve C. P valve
B. B valve D. S valve

200
17. It is a pressed steel plate, bolted to the rear axle housing/rear axle carrier. It
is where braking force acts on it.

A. Backing plate C. Pressure plate


B. Clutch plate D. Rear plate

18. It must have high resistance against heat and wear and have a high friction
coefficient that contacts the surface of the brake drum when brake is applied.

A. Brake band C. Brake lines


B. Brake booster D. Brake lining

19. _______ bleeding is recommended for all hydraulic clutch/brake systems.

A. Air C. Fluid
B. Bubble D. Water

20. When bleeding the clutch/brake systems, unscrew and screw the __________.

A. Bleeder valve C. Nut


B. Bolt D. Pin

B. Oral Assessment

Directions: Answer one of the following questions. You will be assessed based
on the following criteria:

1. Why is there a need to use transmission?

2. Which do you think is good to use and why?


2.1 Disc brake
2.2 Drum brake

3. In your own opinion, how often would you prefer replacing the brake fluid in
a vehicle? Explain.
3.1 every six months
3.2 every year
3.3 every two years
3.4 not at all

201
Criteria:

Criteria 3 ( Better ) 2 ( Good ) 1 ( Poor )


Mastery of the Manifested a Manifested some Manifested few
concept working knowledge working knowledge working knowledge
of the concept with of the concept with of the concept with
no error. few errors. many errors.
Level of Manifested Manifested Manifested
comprehension evidence of evidence of evidence of
comprehension comprehension comprehension
with critical with average with indefinite
analysis of the analysis of the analysis with
subject. subject. significant of the
subject.

Level of Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated


confidence communication communication communication
skills correctly and skills correctly but skills but made
easily with not easily some mistakes
confidence

202
C. Performance Assessment

Directions: Below is the performance assessment that serves as your guide in


assessing the following skills you need to perform. Please be guided
with the tasks with the corresponding score and the performance
level.
Name : ____________________________ Year & Section: ______________

Course: ____________________________ Time Allotment: ______________

Module Title: _______________________ Grading Period: _______________

Unit of
Competency Time Performance
UNDERCHASSIS Tasks Date Begun Finished Score Level
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
LO1.1 1.1Check
clutch/brake
Check clutch fluid level and
and brake lines for leakage
fluid lines 1.2 Check
clutch/brake lines
for cracks, twists,
bends, looseness
and restrictions.
1.3 Refill
clutch/brake master
cylinder with brake
fluid to the
specified level.
LO1.2Inspect/ 1.1 Inspect
bleed clutch clutch and
and brake brake system
system

Average: _____ _________


LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE
RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating
21 25 91 - 100 Outstanding
16 20 86 - 90 Very Good
11 15 81 - 85 Good
06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair
01 - 05 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE? _____

203
LO2. INSPECT AND CHANGE TRANSMISSION/DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
OIL

Check transmission / differential for leakage.


Check transmission /differential gear oil level.
Change transmission /differential gear oil in accordance with
manufacturers specification.
Refill transmission/differential gear oil to specified level.

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

1. Oil used in transmission and differential is called ________.

A. Engine oil C. Machine oil


B. Gear oil D. Penetrating oil

2. Gear oil is heavier than motor oil and has a very low _______.

A. Atrocity C. Velocity
B. Porosity D. Viscosity

3. Usually, gear oil leak comes from __________ gasket and oil seal.

A. Good C. Quality
B. Dilapidated D. Worn-out

4. Gears must be continuously separated by a thin film of lubricant to prevent


____________ wear.

A. Excessive C. Normal
B. Minimum D. Optimum

5. As gear teeth mesh, there is a sliding or swiping action between the contact
_______.

A. Edges C. Films
B. Faces D. Toes

6. Gearboxes must have lubricants or gear oil on them. Gear oil has different jobs
to do except _______.

A. To lubricate all moving parts and prevent wear


B. To reduce friction and power loss
C. To protect against rust and corrosion
D. To keep the interior shiny, clean and fragrant

204
8. An oil that has additive in it to increase the load-carrying capacity is called
________________ lubricant.

A. Extreme power C. Extreme quality


B. Extreme pressure D. Extreme reliability

9. Gear oil level should be checked at the intervals specified in the service _______.

A. Center C. Shop
B. Manual D. Station

10. Allow the lubricant to drain into a clean catch _______.

A. Ban C. Pan
B. Can D. Van

11. Test running the vehicle and checking for oil leak after repair is a good_______.

A. Analysis C. Practice
B. Credo D. Try

205
INFORMATION SHEET 2.1

CHECK TRANSMISSION/DIFFERENTIAL FOR LEAKAGE

Oil used in transmission and differential is called gear oil. It is totally


different from the one used in motor engine. Gear oil is heavier than motor oil and
has a very low viscosity. When gear oil leaks, it causes a very untidy appearance,
very slippery and fatal when accidentally stepped-on. That is why, gear oil should
be maintained safe without finding its way dripping under the floor.

Fig. 43. Phantom view of transmission assembly


(Auto Repair Illustrated Deluxe Ed.)

Transmission and differential gear oil must be checked regularly for leaks.
This can be done by visual inspection and recording the location where the leak
originates. The location of leak will give the idea where the leak originates. Usually,
gear oil leak comes from worn-out gasket and oil seal. This kind of leak openly
comes from natural tear and wear of frequent used. Other source of leak is due to
loosed drain plug or its shim gasket not squarely seated properly. If this condition
is observed, it must be brought immediately to the service station at once to avoid
further damage to the internal, working parts. Inadequate gear oil will tend the

206
gears to heat up and if totally neglected friction between two metals contacting
surfaces result thus giving a growling sound during operation.

The following are the parts that must be inspected when checking for leaks.

Differential/Axle housing

Differential axle
oil seal
(located inside)

Filler plug

Drain plug
Fig. 44.The differential axle housing

207
ACTIVITY SHEET 2.1
CHECK TRANSMISSION/DIFFERENTIAL FOR LEAKAGE

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Rags

TOOLS

Open/Box wrench appropriate mm. size

EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic jack

Jack stand

Live vehicle

PROCEDURE:

NOTE: Drive the vehicle before proceeding to the work station.

1. Jack up the front and rear (if necessary) of the vehicle and place jack stand
for safety.

2. Inspect and clean the transmission and differential unit area.

3. Run the engine from 1 to 3 minutes with transmission shifted in gear


position.

4. Bring transmission to NEUTRAL position and turn-off the engine.

NOTE: Wait for 3 to 5 minutes. (It will take a longer time for the gear oil to
flow because of its thick viscosity compared with engine oil which has a
thinner viscosity).

5. Check if there is leak in the transmission and differential unit.

6. If leak is observed near the bolt (drain plug, front, side , rear and underside)
area try to tighten it with the use of appropriate wrench.

7. Clean the unit and repeat steps 3 to 5.

NOTE: If leak still persists, pull down the unit for repair. Possible
trouble may come from worn-out gasket, drain plug shim, front and
rear oil seals.

208
SELF-CHECK 2.1
CHECK TRANSMISSION/DIFFERENTIAL FOR LEAKAGE

Directions: Below is the self-evaluation checklist. Please answer honestly to the


best of your knowledge if the following competencies were observed.

COMPETENCY YES NO Remarks

1. Did I jack-up the vehicle safely?

2. Did I place jack stand to avoid


underchassis accident?

3. Did I clean the transmission and


differential unit before and after
working with it?

4. Did I tighten bolts (drain plug,


front, side , rear and underside)
with the use of appropriate
wrench.

5. Did I repeat the steps when leak


persists in the unit?

6. Did I show patience when


checking transmission and
differential for leakage?

Submitted by: ________________________

Name of Student

Yr. & Sec : _____________

Date: __________________

209
INFORMATION SHEET 2.2

CHECK TRANSMISSSION/DIFFERENTIAL GEAR OIL LEVEL

GEAR OIL AND OIL VISCOSITY

A. GEAR OIL

Manual transmissions, transaxles, and transfer cases are all various types of
gearboxes. They are very similar in three ways:

1. Gears that transmit power


2. Splinted shafts that rotate while other parts are sliding down on them.
3. Bearings that support the shafts and transfer the load to the case or
housing.

In the gearbox, the moving metal parts must not touch each other. They must
be continuously separated by a thin film of lubricant to prevent excessive wear and
premature failure.

As gear teeth mesh, there is a sliding or wiping action between the contact
faces. This action produces friction and heat. Without lubrication, the gears would
wear quickly and fail. However, lubrication provides a fluid film between contact
faces. This prevents metal-to-metal contact. Therefore, all gearboxes must have
lubricants or gear oil on them. Gear oil has five jobs to do. These are:

1. To lubricate all moving parts and prevent wear


2. To reduce friction and power loss
3. To protect against rust and corrosion
4. To keep the interior clean
5. To cool the gearbox

In addition, the oil must have adequate load-carrying capacity to prevent


puncturing of the oil film. Chemical additives are mixed with gear oil to improve its
load-carrying capacity. An oil that has an additive in it to increase the load-
carrying capacity is called an extreme-pressure (EP) lubricant. Other additives are
also added to the oil to improve the viscosity (thickness), to prevent channeling
(solidify), to improve stability and oxidation resistance, to prevent foaming, to
prevent rust and corrosion, and to prevent damage to the seals.

The typical gear oil is a straight mineral oil (refined crude oil) with the required
additives in it. Today, some oils are made from synthetic oil. Regardless of type,
gear oils intended for most cars and light trucks have these classification, SAE
75W, 75W-80, 80W-90, 85W-90, 90, or 140.

210
Gear oil is not recommended for use in all gearboxes by the manufacturers.
Gears which are lightly loaded, like the planet-pinion gears in a planetary gear set
of the automatic transmission do not require high viscosity (thick) oil. Therefore,
some transfer cases are filled with SAE 10W engine oil. Other transfer cases use
automatic transmission fluid (ATF).

To prevent the lubricant from leaking out, the gearbox has an oil tight case.
Seals are used around each cover and shaft. In addition, seals are provided around
the input and the output shafts. The clutch shaft in many transmissions does not
have a separate seal. Instead, an oil slinger is used to throw back any oil that
reaches it. Other designs have a passage in the clutch-shaft-bearing retainer that
bring back to the case any oil passing through the bearing.

B. OIL VISCOSITY

Viscosity is a measure of an oil's resistance to flow. A low-viscosity oil is thin


and flows easily. A high-viscosity oil is thicker and flows more slowly. As engine oil
should have the proper viscosity so it flows easily to all moving parts, so as oil used
in transmission and differential gears as well. Gear oil must withstand heavy duty
operation in all driving range. Low viscosity reduces the ability of the oil to stay in
place between moving engine parts. If the oil is too thin (low viscosity), it is forced
out of the moving parts. Rapid wear results then.

In some modern light vehicle, oil used in transmission and differential is the
same as that of engine oil.

When properly operated and maintained, a manual transmission or


transaxle normally lasts the life of the vehicle without a major breakdown. All units
are designed so the internal parts operate in a bath of oil circulated by the motion
of the gears and shafts. Some units also use a pump to circulate oil to critical wear
areas that require more lubrication than the natural circulation provides.

Maintaining good internal lubrication is the key to the long life of


transmission or transaxle. If the amount of oil falls below minimum levels, or if the
oil becomes too dirty, problems result.

211
ACTIVITY SHEET 2.2
CHECK LEVEL AND REFILL TRANSMISSION/DIFFERENTIAL GEAR OIL

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Rags

TOOLS

Box/Socket wrench ( or special tool ) appropriate mm. size

EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic jack

Jack stand

Live vehicle

PROCEDURE:

A. CHECK GEAR OIL LEVEL

The transmission and transaxle gear oil level should be checked at the
intervals specified in the service manual. Normally, these ranges from every 7,500
to 30,000 miles (12,000 to 48,000 kilometers). For service convenience, many units
are now designed with a dipstick and filler tube accessible from beneath the hood.

Note:

Check the oil with the engine off and the vehicle resting on level grade.
If the engine has been running, wait 2 to 3 minutes before checking the
gear oil level. If the vehicles have no dipstick for easy determination
of gear oil level, do the following steps:

1. Place the vehicle on level ground. (Checking can be done if the vehicle lift is
high enough to go under the vehicle). If not;

2. Jack-up the vehicle and place jack stand for safety under the cross member.
(If hydraulic lifter is available, vehicle must be raised enough to have access
when checking gear oil level).

3. Locate the filler plug. (It is usually placed at the side of the
transmission/differential unit).

4. Clean the filler plug area and remove the plug with appropriate wrench.

212
5. Insert finger or bent rod through the filler opening and check the gear oil level.
(Lubricant should be level with, or not more than 1/2 inch below specified
level).

6. Refill gear oil if necessary.

Filler hole

FULL level
LOW
Level

Fig.45. Transmission gear oil level

7. hole
Filler

FULL level LOW


level

Fig.46. Differential/Axle housing oil level

NOTE: If the oil level is adequate, reinstall the filler plug and gasket.
Tighten with appropriate wrench. Raise the vehicle slightly to
remove the jack stand. Slowly drop down the hydraulic jack until
all four wheels have been safely dropped on the ground.

B. REFILL GEAR OIL

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Utility rags

Flexible plastic /rubber tube

Plastic funnel

213
TOOLS

Box/Socket wrench ( or special tool ) appropriate mm. size

Oil filler (if available)

EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic jack

Jack stand

Live vehicle

PROCEDURE:

After checking the oil level of transmission/differential and found needing


refill, follow the procedure:

1. With filler plug removed, place a flexible tube in the filler opening (long
enough with right diameter for it to insert in the filler opening).

Note: Oil filler pump is better to use if available.

2. Place a funnel on the other end of flexible tube.

3. Pour slowly a right amount of appropriate gear oil intended for


transmission/differential. Stop pouring gear oil when it overflows in the filler
plug.

Note: Some vehicles recommend a certain type and grade of gear oil.
Manual transmission or transaxle lubricants in use today include
single and multiple viscosity gear oils, engine oils, and automatic
transmission fluid. Always refer to the service manual to determine
the correct lubricant and viscosity range for the vehicle and its
operational conditions.

4. Check oil level, reinstall filler plug, tighten to specifications and test run for
oil leak.

5. Jack-down the vehicle by slightly jacking it up, removing the jack stand,
and slowly lifting down the vehicle.

6. Test run the vehicle for any unwanted noise and oil leak.

214
SELF-CHECK 2.2
CHECK LEVEL AND REFILL TRANSMISSSION/DIFFERENTIAL GEAR OIL

Directions: Below is the self-evaluation checklist. Please answer honestly to the


best of your knowledge if the following competencies were observed.

COMPETENCY YES NO Remarks

1. Did I jack-up the vehicle safely?

2. Did I place jack stand to avoid


underchassis accident?

3. Did I wipe clean the transmission


and differential unit before and
after working with it?

4. Did I check the oil level and refill


transmission and differential/
axle gear oil.?

5. Did I tighten the filler plugs with


the use of appropriate wrench?

6. Did I show patience when


checking the oil level of the
transmission and differential
/axle housing ?

7. Did I jack-down the vehicle


safely?

Submitted by:

Name of Student : _____________________

Year & Section : ____________

Date : _____________

215
ACTIVITY SHEET 2.3

CHANGE TRANSMISSION/DIFFERENTIAL GEAR OIL

GEAR OIL REPLACEMENT

Changing the gear oil is an important maintenance activity for a car.


According to some car owner's manual, it should be changed every two years or
5000 kilometers. The gear oil inside the transmission and differential coats the
gears while the vehicle is running. The gears and bearings rely on the gear oil to
reduce the metal stress and fatigue. Gear oil breaks down over time and usage. If
not changed, it will turn into a thick dark molasses-like dirt. Eventually, the gears
and bearings could seize resulting in a untimely deterioration. Changing the gear
oil is fairly simple and can be accomplished in an hour.

Proper gear oil viscosity grade must be followed when replacing


transmission/differential gear oil.

Fig. 47. Gear oil viscosity and temperature

216
SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Rags

Oil filler tool with flexible tube

Funnel

TOOLS

Box/Socket wrench ( or special tool ) appropriate mm. size

Oil filler (if available)

EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic jack

Jack stand

Live vehicle

PROCEDURE:

Drive the vehicle to warm the lubricant before placing the vehicle on the
lifter/hoist.

1. Place the vehicle on level ground. Jack-up the front and rear of the vehicle and
place jack stand under the cross member for safety.

(If hydraulic lifter is available, vehicle must be raised enough to have access
when checking gear oil level)

2. Remove and clean the drain plug (usually located underneath the
transmission/differential unit) with appropriate wrench.

Fig. 48. Removing drain plug using appropriate wrench

217
3. Allow the lubricant to drain into a clean catch pan. (Inspect the lubricant for
metal particles, which may appear as a shiny, metallic color in the lubricant.
Large amounts of metal particles indicate severe bearing, synchronizer, gear,
or housing wear).

Fig. 49. The metallic particles attached to the magnetic drain plug

4. If all lubricants are drained, replace the plug washer and apply a
recommended sealant to the threads on the drain plug.

5. Tighten the drain plug with the recommended torque.

218
Fig. 50.Replacing of drain plug before refilling gear oil.

6. Fill the transmission/differential with appropriate gear oil

a. Remove transmission/differential filler bolt/plug.

Fig. 51. Location of refill bolt/plug

219
b. Pour a right amount of gear oil.

Fig. 52.Refilling gear oil using oil filler tool.

c. Reinstall and tighten filler plug to specifications.

7. Test run the vehicle and check for oil leak.

220
SELF-CHECK 2.3
CHANGE TRANSMISSION/DIFFERENTIAL GEAR OIL

ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE

Directions: This performance assessment determines your level of knowledge and


mastery changing transmission/differential gear oil. Accomplish the
checklist.

Workmanship/Performance Points

A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures

35 Exemplary

25 Adequate

10 Needs improvement

B. Accuracy of Performance under a specified time

30 All work is complete and correct

20 Minor mistake or error

10 Some of the work maybe incomplete/misdirected

C. Proper use of tools/equipment with safety measures

35 Proper selection and use of tools/equipment

25 Wrong handling of tools

10 Tools are not suitable for the job

TOTAL SCORE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

29 35 91 - 100 Best

22 28 86 - 90 Better

15 - 21 81 - 85 Good

221
08 - 14 76 - 80 Fair

01 - 07 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

YOUR SCORE? ______ PERFORMANCE LEVEL ___________________________

222
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT LO 2

A. Written Assessment

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statements/questions by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. Oil used in transmission and differential is called _______.

A. Engine oil C. Machine oil


B. Gear oil D. Penetrating oil

2. Gear oil is heavier than motor oil and has a very low _______.

A. Ability C. Velocity
B. Porosity D. Viscosity

3. Usually, gear oil leak comes from __________ gasket and oil seal.

A. Good C. Quality
B. Dilapidated D. Worn-out

4. Gears must be continuously separated by a thin film of lubricant to prevent


____________ wear.

A. Excessive C. Normal
B. Minimum D. Optimum

5. As gear teeth mesh, there is a sliding or swiping action between the contact ___.

A. Edges C. Films
B. Faces D. Toes

6. Gearboxes must have lubricants or gear oil in them. Gear oil has different jobs
to do except _______.

A. To lubricate all moving parts and prevent wear


B. To reduce friction and power loss
C. To protect against rust and corrosion
D. To keep the interior parts shiny, clean and fragrant

7. Oil that has additives in it to increase the load-carrying capacity is called


________________ lubricant.

223
A. Extreme power C. Extreme quality
B. Extreme pressure D. Extreme reliability

8. Gear oil level should be checked as specified in the service _______.

A. Center C. Shop
B. Manual D. Station

9. Allow the lubricant to drain into a clean catch _______.

A. Ban C. Pan
B. Can D. Van

10. Test running the vehicle and checking for oil leak after repair is a good _______.

A. Analysis C. Practice
B. Credo D. Try

11. Changing the gear oil is an important maintenance activity for a car.

A. True C. Not at all


B. False D. Sometimes

12. The gear oil inside the transmission and differential _________ the gears while
the engine is running.

A. Butts C. Cuts
B. Coats D. Dots

13. The gear oil if not __________, will turn like a thick dark molasses.

A. Changed C. Refreshed
B. Converted D. Revived

14. Proper gear oil __________ grade must be followed when replacing
transmission/differential gear oil.

A. Color C. Viscosity
B. Mixture D. Weight

15. When lifting a vehicle, place _____________ under the cross member for safety.

A. Jack board C. Jack stone


B. Jack stand D. Jack tool

16. Drained _______ must be disposed properly to avoid chemical pollution of the
environment.

A. Lubricant C. Urine
B. Manure D. Water

224
17. Tighten the drain plug with the recommended torque.

A. Always C. Rarely
B. Not at all D. Sometimes

18. Right amount and grade of gear oil must be _______.

A. Disregarded C. Guesses
B. Followed D. Tried

19. When refilling gear oil, use _______.

A. Oiler C. Oil gun


B. Oil filler tool D. Oil pump

20. Metal particles in the transmission and differential gear can be traced in the
_______ due to wear.

A. Drain plug C. Filler plug


B. Expansion plug D. Spark plug

B. Oral Assessment

Directions: Answer the question. Your answer will be assessed based on the
following criteria:

1. As a car owner, how would you react when the automotive technician
deviates from the manufacturers instruction in changing the
transmission/differential gear oil ?

225
Criteria:

Criteria 3 ( Better ) 2 ( Good ) 1 ( Poor )


Mastery of the Manifested a Manifested some Manifested few
concept working knowledge working knowledge working knowledge
of the concept with of the concept with of the concepts
no error. few errors. with many errors.
Level of Manifested Manifested Manifested
comprehension evidence of evidence of evidence of
comprehension comprehension comprehension
with critical with average with indefinite
analysis of the analysis of the analysis with
subject. subject. significance of the
subject.

Level of Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated


confidence communication communication communication
skills correctly and skills correctly but skills but made
easily with not easily. some mistakes.
confidence.

226
C. Performance Assessment

Directions: Below is the performance assessment that serves as your guide in


assessing the following skills you need to perform. Please be guided
with the tasks with the corresponding score and the performance
level.

Name : _____________________________ Year & Section : _______________


Course: ____________________________ Time Allotment: _______________
Module Title: _______________________ Grading Period : _______________

Unit of
Competency Time Performance
Tasks Date Score Level
Begun Finished
LO2 Inspect 2.1 Check
and change transmission
transmission / differential
/differential for leakage.
2.2 Check
gear oil
transmission
/differential
gear oil level.
2.3 Change
transmission
/differential
gear oil in
accordance
with manu-
facturers
specification.

2.4 Refill
transmission/
differential
gear oil to
specified
level.

Average: _____ _________

LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

21 25 91 - 100 Outstanding

227
16 20 86 - 90 Very Good
11 15 81 - 85 Good
06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair
01 - 05 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE? ______ PERFORMANCE LEVEL _______________________

228
QUARTER IV TIME ALLOTMENT: 40 Hours

LESSON: PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

INTRODUCTION

This module contains information and practices in performing Under-


chassis Preventive Maintenance. It includes instructions on how to check clutch,
brake fluid and lines, inspect and change power transmission and differential gear
oil, inspect and replace power steering fluid, check and refill automatic
transmission fluid, inspect fluid air tank, check tire and tire pressure, and check
under chassis body bolts and nuts. This module also consists of learning outcomes
which contains learning activities for both knowledge and skills, supported with
information sheets, self-check, and job and operation sheets, gathered from
different sources.

LO 3: INSPECT/REPLACE POWER STEERING FLUID


Read technical data pertaining power steering.

Check power steering fluid level.

Inspect power steering for leakage.

Replace power steering fluid in accordance with manufacturers


specifications.

229
PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT LO 3
A. WRITTEN ASSESSMENT

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statements/questions by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. One of the two basic principles are used in all hydraulic power steering
systems that liquids can be compressed very _______.

A. Few C. Much
B. Little D. Seldom

2. In power steering, the pressure applied to a liquid makes it act equally in


_____ directions.

A. All C. Two
B. One D. Three

3. The primary purpose of a hydraulic power steering system is to provide


_______________ in driving.

A. Driving assistance C. Power assistance


B. Handling assistance D. Running assistance

4. The fluid at the pump reservoir is checked with a _____________ attached to


the reservoir cap.

A. Dipstick C. Metering stick


B. Metering rod D. Pointing stick

5. Fluid leakage will not only cause abnormal noises, but may result in
unequal and abnormal __________ efforts.

A. Cornering C. Maneuvering
B. Driving D. Steering

6. The primary purpose of power steering _______ is to transmit power (fluid


under pressure) from the pump to the steering gearbox,

A. Clamps C. Hoses
B. Fluids D. Screws

7. One of the parts of the power steering system is _______.

A. Bands C. Planetary gears


B. Impeller D. Rack and Pinion

230
8. The power steering pump is driven by a pulley and ______.

A. Belt C. Rope
B. Cord D. String

9. The power steering ______ is often marked with power steering.

A. Belt C. Cord
B. Cap D. Hose

10. The power steering fluid must use only the proper type of fluid.

A. True C. Not at all


B. False D. Sometimes

231
INFORMATION SHEET 3.1

POWER STEERING SYSTEM

Hydraulic Principles Used in Power Steering

Two basic principles are used in all hydraulic power steering systems:
1. Liquids can be compressed very little.
2. Pressure applied to a liquid makes it act equally in all directions, so
liquids can be used to transmit a force.
Pressure can be increased into a force. To illustrate, connect two cylinders,
one ten times as large in area as the other, by a tube or pipe, as shown in figure
52. Apply 100 kilos of pressure to the liquid in both cylinders and it will yield a
force ten times greater (1,000 kilos) in the piston with the larger area. The pressure
will be the same in both cylinders, but in the larger cylinder, as it has of greater
area, it produces a force greater than the pressure.
These basic hydraulic principles are applied to provide hydraulic power
steering. A pump is used to develop pressure and a cylinder to develop force. The
pressure at the pump and in the cylinder for all practical purposes, is the same
but in the cylinder; it is multiplied into a work force. The work force is reduced
when pressure is reduced. Oil is the liquid used in hydraulic power steering
systems.

Basic Power Steering Systems


The primary purpose of a hydraulic power steering system is to provide
power assistance in driving. All such systems consist of the same principal
components. It should be noticed that large cylinder has ten times more piston
area than a smaller.

Fig. 52. Principles of force and fluid pressure

232
Fig. 53.Principles of power steering system (wikipedia)

233
Fig. 54.Principal components of hydraulic power steering
system.(www.google.com.ph.)

Interconnecting hoses and a means of driving the pump are also needed. A
V-belt (or belts) is the usual pump drive, and all components are interconnected to
form an oil circuit. Circulation of the oil is continuous when the engine is running.

Fig. 55.Location the belt of power steering pump.(www.google.com.ph.)

234
Basically, the pump supplies hydraulic fluid under pressure to the control
valve, which directs the fluid to the right or left side of the power cylinder piston,
depending upon the direction of turn being made. The power cylinder, when
actuated by this applied pressure, reduces the amount of effort required at the
steering wheel. Arrangement of the principal components differs according to
installation requirements.

In the so-called linkage type, the second valve and power cylinder may be
separate parts and mounted separately in the linkage, or they may be in a single
unit known as an in-line unit. In the semi-integral type, the control valve is
assembled in the steering gear, and the power cylinder is mounted in the linkage.
In the integral type, the control valve and power cylinders are an integral part of
the steering-gear assembly.

Rack-and-pinion type

The oil pump's control valve structure and operation are basically the same
as the ballnut type, except that the steering gear and power cylinder coupling are
used as shown in figure 56.

Fig. 56. Parts of rack-and-pinion type (http://www.google.com.ph)

235
Fig. 57.Shows the typical power steering pump and related parts.
(www.google.com.ph.)

FLUID LEVEL - The fluid at the pump reservoir is checked with a dipstick
attached to the reservoir cap. However, it is not simply a matter of pulling the cap
and reading the dipstick, follow the manufacturer's procedure.

FLUID LEAKS - Clean the suspected area, then turn the wheel from lock to lock
several times. Fluid leakage will not only cause abnormal noises, but may result in
unequal and abnormal steering efforts. If no sign of leakage is obvious, repeat the
wheel turning process and inspection several more times. Consult the appropriate
section of the service manual for detailed information about the action necessary to
correct any leak.

236
POWER STEERING HOSES The primary purpose of power steering hoses is to
transmit power (fluid under pressure) from the pump to the steering gearbox, and
to return the fluid ultimately to the pump reservoir. The hoses, made of tough
material and construction, also function as additional reservoirs and act as sound
and vibration dampers.

Hoses are generally reinforced synthetic rubber material coupled to metal


tubing at the connecting points. The pressure side must be able to handle
pressures up to 1,500 psi. For that reason, wherever there is metal tubing to a
rubber connection, the connection is crimped. Pressure hoses are also subject to
surges in pressure and pulsations from the pump. The reinforced construction
permits the hose to expand slightly and absorb changes in pressure.

If two diameters of hose are used on the pressure side, the larger diameter
or pressure hose is at the pump end. It acts as a reservoir and as an accumulator
absorbing pulsations. The smaller diameter or return hose reduces the effects of
kickback from the gear itself. By restricting fluid flow, it also maintains constant
back pressure on the pump, which reduces pump noise. If the hose is of one
diameter, the gearbox is performing the damping functions internally.

Because of working fluid temperature and adjacent engine temperatures,


these hose must be able to withstand temperatures up to 300oF. Due to various
weather conditions, they must also tolerate sub-zero temperatures. Hose material
is specifically formulated to resist breakdown or deterioration due to oil or
temperature conditions.

Fig. 58. Types of hoses used in power steering. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

237
Fig.59. Parts of rack-and-pinion power steering system. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

238
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.1
CHECK POWER STEERING FLUID

Tips and Precautionary Measures

Check the fluid level and the power steering belt when squeal can be heard
on turns.

Keep in mind that although drifting or shuddering may signal problems with
the steering system, these symptoms may also relate to the car's tires,
suspension, brakes or other front-end problems.

Power steering fluid (PSF) has no expiration. Fill the reservoir to the proper
level and check frequently if its level becomes low. If it continues to be low,
check for leaks. An empty power steering pump can be damaged very
quickly and is costly to replace.

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

Vehicle trainer

PROCEDURE:

1. Find and pull the hood release. It is usually located beneath the dash.

2. Find the hood latch in front of the car. The hood latch is usually located at the
underside front edge of the hood. Depress the latch, then lift open the hood.

3. Locate the Power Steering Fluid (PSF) reservoir. The PSF reservoir is usually
made of clear plastic. The cover cap is often marked with power steering with
fluid level markings on its side.

4. Check the fluid level. Start the engine and turn the steering wheel left and right.
With steering wheel on a straight ahead position, turn-off the engine and check
power steering fluid level.

Note: Some reservoirs may have a small dipstick attached to the cap.
Typically, you have a choice of checking the fluid warm or cold. Refer to
the corresponding "Hot" and "Cold" levels.

239
ght.

Fig. 60.Checking the fluid level in the power steering pump.(www.mahalo.com)

5. Add fluid if necessary. Use only the proper type of power steering fluid. Check
the owner's manual and the bottle. Some cars require power steering fluid
specifically for a car model.

Fig. 61. Refilling of power steering fluid

240
SELF-CHECK 3.1
CHECK POWER STEERING FLUID

Directions. Write true if the statement is correct and false if the statement is
wrong.

1. Pressure applied on a liquid makes it act equally in all directions.

2. Hydraulic power steering system makes driving difficult.

3. Power steering system needs fluid in order to operate.

4. The hoses of the power steering fluid must withstand high temperatures.

5. The primary purpose of the power steering hose is to lubricate the pump.

241
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.2
INSPECT POWER STEERING FOR LEAKAGE

Any fluid leakage in automotive systems is not good. It will create a big
headache on the part of the car owners and drivers. Since steering a vehicle need
to respond as quickly as it can, the power steering fluid must be kept on its proper
level. Frequent refilling of power steering liquid must be given much attention. Any
leak in the power steering system will cost money, effort, and even life is at stake if
it is not steered the way it should be.

Therefore, inspection of fluid leak must be done periodically. The following


procedure can help a lot in locating power steering fluid leak.

PROCEDURE:

1. Inspect the fluid reservoir for any trace of moisture and droplets of fluid
though how small it is. Sometimes reservoir spilling is the cause of oil
droplets and moisture.

2. Inspect fluid hoses for cracks and metal tubing connections. High pressure
exerted during steering may cause leak on connection if it cannot hold the
fluid pressure due to natural tear and wear. Usually, leak is obvious when
the vehicle stopped. This will give time for the fluid to progressively form into
moisture or droplets of fluid flows. This case is a very serious one. Constant
refilling of steering fluid will be necessary to keep the steering operation
going.

Steering fluid
reservoir

Metal tubing
connection

Power steering
hose

Power steering
pump

242
Fig. 62.Power steering pump, hoses and metal tubing connections

3. Inspect for power steering pump. Fluid may leak in the connecting area of
fittings and in the pump itself.

4. Inspect the connecting tubing to rack and pinion. It may also be the origin
of leakage.

243
ACTIVITY SHEET 3.3
REPLACE POWER STEERING FLUID

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Power steering fluid (PSF)

Rag

Empty container

Rubber tube appropriate to the size of steering fluid reservoir outlet

TOOLS

Power steering hose remover or equivalent

PROCEDURE:

A. Replace power steering fluid with new fluid

1. Remove the hose from steering fluid reservoir going to the steering pump.

2. Connect one end of rubber tube to the outlet of the reservoir and the other end
to the empty container.

3. Start the engine and allow the steering fluid to flow out to the empty container
at the same time refilling the steering reservoir with steering fluid.

4. Slowly turn the steering wheel to the left and to the right until old steering
fluid flows out of the system.

5. Position the steering wheel to the center and stop engine.

6. Remove rubber tubing from the container.

7. Reconnect the fluid lines from the steering pump to the steering fluid
reservoir.

8. Fill the steering fluid reservoir to the full level.

9. Start the engine and slowly turn the steering wheel to the left and right.

10. Refill the steering fluid reservoir to the maximum level..

11. Test run the vehicle for steering operation.

244
SELF-CHECK 3.2 - 3.3
INSPECT POWER STEERING LEAKAGE & REPLACE POWER STEERING FLUID

SELF-RATING COMPETENCY CHECKLIST


5.1 Inspect power steering leakage
5.2 Replace power steering fluid

I can do
I cannot I am this but I I can do
do this learning need to this very
yet how to do learn more well
COMPETENCY this. and
improve.
A. Inspect power
steering for leakage

1. Hoses

2. Pump

3. Rubber tubing

4. Metal connection

5. Rack and pinion

B. Replace power steering


fluid
1. Use appropriate fluid

2. Observe safety
measure in inspecting
for leakage and
replacing power
steering fluid.

Name: _________________________

Yr. & Sec.: ____________________

Date: __________________________

245
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT LO 3
A. Written Assessment

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statements/questions by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. One of the two basic principles are used in all hydraulic power steering
systems that liquids can be compressed very _______.

A. less C. much
B. little D. seldom

2. In power steering, the pressure applied to a liquid makes it act equally in


_____ directions.

A. All C. Two
B. One D. Three

3. The primary purpose of a hydraulic power steering system is to provide


_______________ in driving.

A. Driving assistance C. Power assistance


B. Handling assistance D. Running assistance

4. The fluid at the pump reservoir is checked with a _____________ attached to


the reservoir cap.

A. Dipstick C. Metering stick


B. Metering rod D. Pointing stick

5. Fluid leakage will not only cause abnormal noises, but may result in
unequal and abnormal __________ efforts.

A. Cornering C. Maneuvering
B. Driving D. Steering

6. The primary purpose of power steering _______ is to transmit power (fluid


under pressure) from the pump to the steering gearbox,

C. Clamps C. Hoses
D. Fluids D. Screws

7. One of the parts of the power steering system is _______.

C. Bands C. Planetary gears


D. Impeller D. Rack and Pinion

246
8. The power steering pump is driven by a pulley and ______.

A. Belt C. Rope
B. Cord D. String

9. The power steering ______ is often marked with power steering.

A. Belt C. Cord
B. Cap D. Hose

10. The power steering fluid must use only the proper type of fluid.

A. True C. Not at all


B. False D. Sometimes

B. Oral Assessment
Directions: Explain your answer on the question about:

1. What would you prefer to use between the conventional steering and power
steering? Explain your answer. You will be assessed based on the following
criteria:

Criteria:

Criteria 3 ( Better ) 2 ( Good ) 1 ( Poor )


Mastery of the Manifested a Manifested some Manifested few
concept working knowledge working knowledge working knowledge
of the concept with of the concept with of the concept with
no error. few errors. many errors.
Level of Manifested Manifested Manifested
comprehension evidence of evidence of evidence of
comprehension comprehension comprehension
with critical with average with indefinite
analysis of the analysis of the analysis with
subject. subject. significant of the
subject.
Level of Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated
confidence communication communication communication
skills correctly and skills correctly but skills but made
easily with not easily some mistakes
confidence

247
C. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT LO3

Directions: Below is the performance assessment that serves as your guide in


assessing the following skills you need to perform. Please be guided
with the tasks with the corresponding score and the performance
level.

Name : ____________________________ Year & Section: ______________


Course: ____________________________ Time Allotment: ______________
Module Title: _______________________ Grading Period: _______________

Unit of
Competency Time Performance
Tasks Date Score Level
UNDERCHASSIS Begun Finished
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
LO3 Inspect/ 3.1 Read
replace power technical data
steering fluid pertaining to
. power steering.
. 3.2 Check power
steering fluid
level.
3.3 Inspect
power steering
for leakage.
3.4 Replace
power steering
fluid in
accordance with
manufacturers
specifications.

Average: _____ _____

LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

21 25 91 - 100 Outstanding
16 20 86 - 90 Very Good

11 15 81 - 85 Good

06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair

248
01 - 05 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE? _________ PERFORMANCE LEVEL ______________

249
LO 4 : CHECK/REFILL AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

Check automatic transmission for leakage.


Check automatic transmission fluid in accordance with service
manual.
Refill transmission fluid to specified level.

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT LO 4

A. WRITTEN ASSEMENT

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statements/questions by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. One of the several additives of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is _______.

A. Dexron C. Silicon
B. Lime D. Viscosity-index improvers

2. The color of the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is usually __________.

A. Amber C. Dye red


B. Black D. Brown

3. To prevent the fluid from overheating, automatic transmission has _______.

A. Brake Fluid cooler C. Silicon cooler


B. Fluid cooler or Oil cooler D. Water cooler

4. The hot transmission fluid flows through the tube, the engine coolant carries
away excess _______.

A. Air C. Moisture
B. Heat D. Oxidation

5. The automatic transmission comprises a set of _______.

A. Bolts and nuts C. Planetary gears


B. Hydraulic Valves D. Splines

6. When the dipstick shows a low fluid level, look for _______.

A. Bends C. Restrictions
B. Leaks D. Twists

250
7. Placing the vehicle on level ground when checking the fluid level is _____ a good
practice.

A. Always C. Seldom
B. Rarely D. Sometimes

8. When lifting a vehicle, placing jack stands for safety must be observed _______.
A. Always C. Some other time
B. Not at all D. Sometimes

9. Gum or varnish on the dipstick, discolored fluid, and particles or specks on the
paper towel indicate the condition of _______ in the pan.

A. Fluid C. Plasma
B. Gasoline D. Water

10. If leak is obvious, be it minor or major troubles, it must be immediately _______.

A. Refreshed C. Repaired
B. Renewed D. Replaced

251
INFORMATION SHEET 4.1

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

Automatic transmission fluid is a special lubricant with about the same


viscosity as an SAE 20 engine oil. It has several additives such as viscosity-index
improvers, oxidation and corrosion inhibitors, extreme-pressure and antifoam
agents, detergents, dispersants, friction modifiers, pour-point depressants, and
fluidity modifiers. Automatic transmission fluid is usually dyed red. The color
makes a leak easily identifiable.

A. TRANSMISSION FLUID COOLER

Overhead automatic-transmission fluid can damage the friction elements


(bands and multiple-disc clutches) in an automatic transmission or transaxle. The
heat develops in an unlocked torque converter and in other moving parts.

To prevent the fluid from overheating, automatic transmissions and


transaxles have transmission-fluid cooler or oil cooler. It is usually a tube on the
bottom or side of the engine radiator.

The engine coolant runs at a lower temperature than the automatic


transmission fluid. As the hot transmission fluid flows through the tube, the
engine coolant carries away excess heat. Cooler lines similar to steel fuel lines
carry the transmission fluid between the case and the radiator.

Fig. 63. Cutaway view of a typical 3-speed automatic transmission showing the
different parts. (www.google.com.ph.)

252
B. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Functions of the Hydraulic System

Figure 63 shows the complete hydraulic system of a 4-speed automatic


transmission. The hydraulic system provides the pressurized fluid to operate an
automatic transmission or transaxle.

Fig. 64. The Hydraulic system which uses a special transmission fluid.
(www.google.com.ph)

Planetary gear set with clutch engaged. One set of clutch plates is splined to the
sun-gear drum. The other set is fixed at the planet-pinion carrier. When fluid
pressure from the pump acts on the apply side of the clutch piston, the clutch
plates are forced together. This locks the sun gear to the planet carrier and the
planetary gear set rotates as a single unit. The functions of the system are as
follows:

1. Supplies fluid to the torque converter


2. Directs pressurized fluid to the band servos and multiple-disc clutches
3. Lubricates the internal parts
4. Removes heat generated by the torque converter and other moving parts

These four jobs are possible because the automatic transmission or transaxle is
fitted with automatic-transmission fluid (ATF). Without the proper amount of fluid,
the transmission may not shift and the vehicle may not move. Major components
in the hydraulic system include the oil pump, band servos, and multiple disc
clutches. Other major components are the valve body and governor.

253
C. NORMAL MAINTENANCE

Normal maintenance of an automatic transmission or transaxle includes:

1. Checking fluid level, color, and condition


2. Adding fluid, if necessary
3. Changing fluid and filter
4. Checking shift and throttle linkage
5. Adjusting neutral safety switch
6. Adjusting bands, if possible

The level of the automatic-transmission fluid (ATF) should be checked with


every change of engine oil. Many vehicle manufacturers recommend changing the
transmission fluid and filter at periodic intervals. The length of the intervals
depends on how the vehicle is used. For example, Chevrolet recommends changing
the fluid and filter every 100,000 miles [160,000 km] for normal service. In severe
situation, Chevrolet recommends changing the fluid and filter every 15,000 miles
[25,000 km]. Severe service includes using the vehicle as trailer, towing or as a
delivery vehicle, police car, and even taxi.

254
ACTIVITY SHEET 4.1

CHECK, DRAIN AND REFILL AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Automatic transmission fluid (ATF)


Rag
Empty container
Rubber tube appropriate to the size of steering fluid reservoir outlet

TOOLS

Jack stand
Special ATF tool drain plug wrench

EQUIPMENT

hydraulic lifter/Crocodile jack


Automatic Transmission - equipped vehicle

PROCEDURE:

A. CHECK FLUID LEVEL

Checking the fluid level, its color and conditions should be made every
change of engine oil. To check the fluid level, drive the vehicle for 15 minutes or
until the engine and transmission are at normal operating temperature. Park the
vehicle on level ground and firmly apply the parking brake. Let the engine idle.
Place the transmission selector lever in PARK (or NEUTRAL, if specified by the
manufacturer).

1. Clean any dirt found around the dipstick cap.


2. Pull out the ATF dipstick from the tube, wipe, and reinsert it,
3. Pull out again the dipstick and observe the oil level.

Note: The fluid level on the dipstick. Touch the fluid on the end of the
dipstick to get an indication of fluid temperature. If the fluid feels cool,
the fluid level should be on the low side of the dipstick. If the fluid level
feels warm or hot (too hot to hold), the dipstick level is on the high side.

Fluid level will vary under normal operating conditions as much as 19 mm


from cold to hot. For example, as the temperature of the fluid goes from 16C to
82C, the level of the fluid may rise to as much as 19 mm. Some dipsticks are
marked to show proper levels at different fluid temperatures.

255
Note that in some automatic transaxles, the fluid level goes down as
temperature increases. The COLD mark on the dipstick is above the FULL
mark. If the fluid level is low, add a sufficient amount of the specified fluid to
bring the level within the marks for the fluid temperature. Do not overfill an
automatic transmission or transaxle. Too much fluid will cause foaming.
Foaming fluid cannot operate bands and clutches properly. They will slip and
probably burn. This may need an overhaul of the transmission or transaxle.

B. CHECK FLUID CONDITION

Fluid color and odor can be checked to determine the condition of the fluid.
Look at the color and smell the fluid at the end of the dipstick. If the fluid is brown
or black and has a strong burnt odor, bands and clutch plates may have slipped,
overheated, and burned. Particles of friction materials from the bands and clutch
plates have probably circulated through the torque converter, transmission, and
fluid cooler.

These particles can cause valves in the valve body to stick. This may cause
noisy, rough or missed shifts. Slipping may occur because the servos and clutches
cannot work properly. A quick check of fluid condition can be made by placing one
or two drops of fluid on a paper towel. As the towel absorbs the fluid, examine the
stain for specks or particles. This indicates solid material in the fluid.

If the stain spreads and is red or light brown in color, the fluid probably is
good. If the stain is dark and remains small, the fluid is oxidized and should be
changed. Oxidized fluid has combined with oxygen in the air and no longer has its
original properties.

Fig. 65. Checking the fluid condition using dipstick. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

256
CHECKING FLUID COLOR

Automatic transmission fluid is normally red in color, however if


found out that the ATF changes its color, it indicates that a problem occurs
in the system.

1. PINK FLUID This indicates that the fluid cooler in the radiator is
leaking. Engine coolant has contaminated the fluid. Repair or replace the
fluid cooler and remove and overhaul the transmission or transaxle.
Replace the seals, bands, lined clutch plates, nylon washers, and
speedometer and governor gears. Coolant can affect these parts. Clean all
other parts and passages. Flush the cooler lines and flush or replace the
torque converter.

2. BROWN FLUID. ATF may turn dark in normal use. However,


contaminated fluid may also have a brown color. If the fluid appears
contaminated, drain it, then remove and inspect the pan. A small amount
of metal particles and friction material at the bottom of the pan is normal.
Replace the filter, and refill with new fluid. Large pieces of metal or other
materials indicate excessive wear or failure. The transmission or transaxle
should be removed and overhauled. Flush the cooler lines, and flush or
replace the torque converter.

Fig. 66. ATF color determine its internal condition. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

C. CHECK OIL PAN CONDITION

Gum or varnish on the dipstick, discolored fluid, and particles or specks on


the paper towel indicate the condition of the pan. It should be removed and
inspected. A small amount of materials in the pan is normal. Look for large pieces
of metal and large amounts of friction material. These indicate abnormal wear or
failure. The unit then requires rebuilding or overhaul.

257
D. CHECK FOR FLUID LEAKS

When the dipstick shows a low fluid level, look for a fluid leak. Some fluid
can be lost through the case vent if the fluid has foamed. To locate the source of a
leak, see if the automatic transmission fluid is dyed red. The dyed red helps in
detecting and identifying easily the leak. Another method of detecting a leak is to
use an ultraviolet leak detector. If a leak detector is not available, do the following
procedure:

Fig. 67.Checking the fluid leaks. (www.google.com.ph.)

1. Place the vehicle on level ground. (Lift the vehicle if necessary with the use of
appropriate hydraulic lifter. Place jack stand for safety).

2. Clean the suspected area with solvents to remove any traces of fluid.

3. Run the engine for 15 minutes with automatic transmission on DRIVE range
and observe for oil leak in the transmission area.

4. Turn off the engine. Place the transmission on PARK range and observe again
the area if there are leaks.

258
NOTE: If leak is obvious whether it be minor or major troubles such as leak in oil
pan gasket, drain plug and shim, and oil seal must be brought immediately to the
automatic transmission specialist for repair.

E. DRAIN AND REFILL AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

After the automatic transmission fluid had been checked or drained, it must
be refilled. Take note great care must be observed when refilling ATF (automatic
transmission fluid) because of its intricate construction and sensitive parts.
Manufacturers specifications must be consulted and performed when doing the
job.

PROCEDURE:

1. Apply hand brake, put the transmission in PARK position, place wood chock
on the rear wheels. Jack the vehicle (if necessary).

2. Place oil catch basin. Loosen and completely remove the automatic
transmission drain plug and washer with the use of appropriate drain plug
tool.

3. Allow the ATF to completely drain.

4. Reinstall the drain plug with washer and remove the oil catch basin.

5. Remove the ATF dipstick and install oil funnel to dipstick tube where the
ATF dipstick was removed .

6. Pour a right grade and amount of ATF. (See owners manual for specific
grade and amount of ATF).

7. Remove the oil funnel and reinstall the ATF dipstick.

8. Check the ATF level based on the dipstick markings (Cold check).

259
9. Jack up and place jack stand on the rear of the vehicle.

10. With handbrake applied and transmission in PARK position;

11. Start the engine and shift automatic transmission in different driving range.

12. Turn- off the engine.

13. Jack up the vehicle, remove jack stand and totally lift down the vehicle.

14. Remove the ATF dipstick and recheck the ATF level (Hot check).

15. Add ATF if necessary. Do not overfill the ATF because it easily expands and
may cause fire.

16. Recheck ATF level and reinstall dipstick.

260
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT LO 4

A. Written Assessment

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statement/question by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. One of the several additives of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is _______.

A. Dexron C. Silicon
B. Lime D. Viscosity-index improvers

2. The automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is usually colored __________.

A. Amber C. Dye red


B. Black D. Brown

3. To prevent the fluid from overheating, automatic transmission has _______.

A. Brake Fluid cooler C. Silicon cooler


B. Fluid cooler or Oil cooler D. Water cooler

4. The hot transmission fluid flows through the tube, the engine coolant carries
away excess _______.

A. Air C. Moisture
B. Heat D. Oxidation

5. The automatic transmission comprises set of _______.

A. Bolts and nuts C. Planetary gears


B. Hydraulic Valves D. Splines

6. When the dipstick shows a low fluid level, look for _______.

A. Bends C. Restrictions
B. Leaks D. Twists

7. Placing the vehicle on level ground when checking the fluid level is _____ a good
practice.

A. Always C. Seldom
B. Rarely D. Sometimes

8. When lifting a vehicle, placing jack stands for safety must be observed _______.
A. Always C. Some other time
B. Not at all D. Sometimes

261
9. Gum or varnish on the dipstick, discolored fluid, and particles or specks on the
paper towel indicate the condition of _______ in the pan.

A. Fluid C. Plasma
B. Gasoline D. Water

10. If leak is obvious, be it minor or major troubles, it must be immediately _______.

A. Refreshed C. Repaired
B. Renewed D. Replaced

B. Oral Assessment

Directions: Explain your answer on the question below.

1. You are driving in a remote place. You felt that you have difficulty in
handling your steering. You found out that your power steering fluid is way
below the minimum level. The only available power steering fluid does not
match the required fluid by the manufacturers specifications? What would
you do? Explain your answer. You will be assessed based on the following
criteria:

Criteria:

Criteria 3 ( Better ) 2 ( Good ) 1 ( Poor )


Mastery of the Manifested a Manifested some Manifested few
concept working knowledge working knowledge working knowledge
of the concept with of the concept with of the concept with
no error. few errors. many errors.
Level of Manifested Manifested Manifested
comprehension evidence of evidence of evidence of
comprehension comprehension comprehension
with critical with average with indefinite
analysis of the analysis of the analysis and
subject. subject. significance of the
subject.
Level of Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated
confidence communication communication communication
skills correctly and skills correctly but skills but made
easily with not easily. some mistakes.
confidence.

262
C. Performance Assessment

Directions: Below is the performance assessment that serves as your guide in


assessing the following skills you need to perform. Please be guided
with the tasks with the corresponding score and the performance level.

Name : ____________________________ Year & Section: ______________

Course: ____________________________ Time Allotment: ______________

Module Title: _______________________ Grading Period _______________

Unit of
Competency Time Performance
UNDERCHASSIS Tasks Date Begun Finished Score Level
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
LO 4 Check/ refill 4.1 Check
automatic automatic
transmission transmission
fluid for leakage.
4.2 Check
. automatic
transmission
fluid in
accordance
with service
manual.
4.3 Refill
transmission
fluid to
specified
level.

Average: _____ _______

LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

21 25 91 - 100 Outstanding

16 20 86 - 90 Very Good

11 15 81 - 85 Good

263
06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair

01 - 05 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE? ______ PERFORMANCE LEVEL ___________________

264
LO 5 : CHECK TIRE AND TIRE PRESSURE
Inspect tires for stuck solid objects

Inspect tires for wear and deformities

Determine causes of abnormal wear

Check tire pressure in accordance with manufacturers


specifications

PRE/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT LO 5

A. Written Assessment

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statements/questions by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. The chassis components that drives the vehicle and support its weight are the
_______.

A. Wheels and bearings C. Wheels and rim


B. Wheels and nuts D. Wheels and tires

2. Tires are air-filled rubber that cushions and absorbs most of the shocks
caused by road _______.

A. Humps C. Safety
B. Irregularities D. Surface

3. There are two types of tires, one is tube type and the other one is _______.

A. Air borne C. Tubeless


B. Airless D. Water-filled

4. To vulcanize means to heat the rubber under _______.

A. Burn C. Force
B. Fire D. Pressure

5. Three aspect of tire ratios are 80, 70, and 60. The lower the number, the
_______ the tire appears.

A. Narrower C. Slimmer
B. Shorter D. Wider

265
6. Tire plies can be applied in two ways: diagonally and _________.

A. Assymetrically C. Radically
B. Radially D. Symmetrically

7. The _______ tire provides better fuel economy than a bias-ply tire.

A. Assymetrical C. Radical
B. Radial D. Symmetrical

8. A part of the tire that meets the road.

A. Tire tube C. Tire valve


B. Tire tread D. Tire wheel

9. Air is put into the tire or tube through a spring-loaded ______________.

A. Tire tube C. Tire valve


B. Tire tread D. Tire wheel

10. To equalize tire wear, it is recommended that the tires be rotated _______.

A. Regularly C. Sometimes
B. Selectively D. Weekly

266
INFORMATION SHEET 5.1

CHECK TIRE PRESSURE AND INFLATE TIRE

A. PURPOSE OF TIRES

The automotive chassis includes the brake, steering, and suspension


systems. The chassis components that drive the vehicle and support its weight are
the wheels and tires. Only the vehicle tires have contact with the road surface.

Tires have two functions. First they are air-filled cushions that absorb most
of the shocks caused by road irregularities. The tires flex as they meet those
irregularities. This reduces the effect of road shocks on the vehicle, passengers,
and load. Second, the tires grip the road to provide good traction. This enables the
vehicle to accelerate, brake and make turns without skidding.

B. TYPES OF TIRES

There are two types of tires, the tube and tubeless. Tube tires have an inner
tube inside the tire. This tube is a round rubber container that holds the air which
supports the vehicle. Both the tube and tire are mounted on the wheel rim. The tire
valve is part of the tube and protrudes through the rim. Compressed air is forced
through the valve to inflate the tube. The air pressure in the tube causes the tire to
hold its shape. Tubes are used in some truck and motorcycle tires. Tubes are
seldom used in passenger and light-duty vehicles. Tubeless tires are mostly used
in automotive vehicles. The tire mounts on an airtight rim so air is retained
between the flange and the tire bead.

Fig. 68.Construction of the tubeless type tire.(www.google.com.ph.)

267
C. TIRE CONSTRUCTION

The tire casings for tube and tubeless tires are made in the same way.
Layers of cord or plies are shaped in a form and impregnated with rubber. The tire
sidewall and treads are then applied. They are vulcanized in place to form the tire.
To vulcanize means to heat the rubber under pressure. This molds the tire into
desired form.

The number of cord layers or plies varies. Passenger-car tires have 2, 4, or 6


plies. Heavy-duty truck and bus tires may have up to 14 plies. Tires for heavy-duty
service, like earth-moving machinery, may have up to 32 plies.

All tires do not have the same shape or profile. The aspect ratio or profile
ratio differs. This refers to the ratio of a tire's section height to section width. Three
aspect ratios are 80, 70, and 60. The lower the number, the wider the tire appears.
A 60-series tire is only 60 percent high as its width.

Fig. 69. Different parts of the tire .(www.google.com.ph.)

268
Tires has plies in order for it to be dependable and strong. Plies can be
applied in two ways: diagonally or radially. For many years, most tires have
diagonal or bias plies. These plies crisscross, making the tire strong in all
directions because the plies overlaps, although, the plies tend to move against each
other and produce heat, especially at high speed. Also, the tread tends to close or
"squirm as it meets the road. Radial tires on the other hand, were produced to
remedy these problems. In a radial tire, the plies run parallel to each other and
vertical to the tire bead. Stabilizer belts are applied over the plies to give strength
parallel to the beads. Belts are made of rayon, nylon, fiberglass, or steel mesh.

All new cars and most light-duty vehicles have radial tires. The radial-tire
sidewall is more flexible than the bias-ply. Therefore, the radial tire tread wraps
around the edge of the tire to compensate for the flexible sidewall. The result is
that the radial tread does not hold up as much when the vehicle rounds a curve.
This keeps more of the tread on the road and reduces the tendency of the tire to
skid.

The radial tire provides better fuel economy than a bias-ply tire. This is
because the radial has less rolling resistance and therefore, requiring less engine
power to roll. The radial also doesnt get worn out easily. It has less heat buildup
and the tread does not squirm as the tire meets the road.

Fig. 70. Bias and radial type .(www.google.com.ph.)

269
D. TIRE TREAD

Tire tread is part of the tire that meets the road. It has a raised pattern
molded into it. There are many designs, depending on the intended use of the tire.
Many passenger vehicles use mud-and-snow tires. These can be identified by M+S
or M&S molded into the sidewall. They provide quiet running with good traction on
mud and snow.

Fig. 71. Three different tire thread patterns .(http://www.google.com.ph.)

Mud and snow tires are used by four-wheel-drive pickup trucks. Its tread
pattern is deeper and wider (or "more aggressive") than normal tread designs. This
provides better mud-and-snow traction with acceptable wear on paved surfaces.
The tread compound is also designed to resist tearing and chunking.

Fig. 72. Mud and snow tire. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

270
The treads are symmetric and non-directional. "Non-directional" means the
tire can run equally well in either direction. The tire can be installed with either
sidewall facing out. The tire must be installed in forward rotation in the direction
indicated by an arrow on the sidewall.

Fig. 73.Directional and asymmetric. (www.google.com.ph.)

Directional and asymmetric sports car treads are used as the rear of some
car models. "Asymmetric" means the inside half of the tread is not the same as the
outside half. This tire provides better braking and handling characteristics than a
comparable symmetric, non-directional tire. Some car manufacturers use different
tire sizes in front wheels. As a result, each tire has a specific work. It can run only
in a specified wheel-position on the car.

Other tires are classified as snow tires, studded tires, and off-road tires.
Snow tires have large rubber cleats that cut through snow to improve traction.
Studded tires have steel studs that stick out above the tread. These improve
traction on ice and snow. However, many states regulate or ban studded tires
because of possible damage to the road surface. A variety of off-road tires are
available. These often have tread patterns using knobs or cleats. Off-road tires
usually make noise and wear prematurely when driven on the highway.

Some tires use two different compounds in the tread. Con compound is
softer than the other for improved traction. In general, the softer the compound,
the better the traction. The harder the compound, the longer the tread life.

E. TIRE VALVE

Air is put into the tire or tube through a spring-loaded tire valve or Schrader
valve. On tube tires, the valve is in the inner tube and sticks out through a hole in
the rim. Tubeless tires use a separate tire valve mounted on a hole in the rim.

271
Spring force and air pressure hold the tire valve in its normally-closed
position. A cap is usually threaded over the valve stem end to protect it from dirt.
The cap also keeps guard against air leaks. Some tire valves have a non-movable
valve core. The core is three-pronged white plastic. A special deflator is required to
let air out of the tube.

Fig. 74. Tire valves. (photo courtesy of http://www.google.com.ph.)

F. TIRE PRESSURE AND PRESSURE MONITORING

The amount of air pressure in the tire depends on the type of tire and how it
is used. Passenger-car tires are inflated from about 22 to 36 psi (152 to 248 kPa).
Heavy duty tires for trucks and buses may be inflated to 100 psi (690 kPa). The
maximum inflation pressure is marked on the tire sidewall. A tire placard or tire
information label lists the recommended inflation pressure for each kind of tire.
This label is usually located on a door edge or door jamb, or inside the glove box.
The label also lists maximum load and tire size (including spare). Running the tires
at a specified pressure helps provide better vehicle handling, while avoiding
premature tire wear. Underinflated tires wear easily on the outsides of the tread.

272
TIRE AND LOADING INFORMATION

SEATING CAPACITY TOTAL 5 FRONT 2 REAR 3

THE COMBINED WEIGHT OF OCCUPANTS AND


CARGO SHOULD NEVER EXCEED 435 KG OR 960 LBS

TIRE SIZE COLD TIRE PRESSURE SEE OWNERS


FRONT 225/40 R18 XL 240 KPA, 35 PSI MANUAL FOR
REAR 225/40 R18 XL 240 KPA, 35 PSI ADDITIONAL
SPARE 205/55 R16 240 KPA, 35 PSI INFORMATION

Fig. 75. Tire pressure inflation chart. (www.google.com.ph.)

Also, tires flex excessively producing extra heat and rapidly wear. Over
inflation causes the center of the tread to wear. The tire cannot flex normally and
this puts stress on the sidewalls and plies.

Some vehicles have an electronic low-tire pressure warning system (TPWS).


This system senses or monitors the tire pressure in a moving vehicle. When the
pressure drops in a tire, an instrument panel light illuminates to alert the driver. A
tire-pressure-sensor and transmitter mounts inside the tires on each wheel. When
the tire pressure falls below 25 psi (172 kPa), the tire pressure sensor sends a
radio signal to the receiver-control module in the instrument panel. This turns on
the low tire pressure light.

The receiver-control module also has self-diagnostic capabilities and can


store fault codes. If no signal is received from a tire pressure sensor, the control
module turns on a SERVICE LTPWS light.

The tire-pressure sensors are piezoelectric devices and do not need


batteries. In a piezoelectric device, a small voltage appears across a crystal when a
pressure is applied. In the tire-pressure sensors, the vibration produced by the
rolling tire generates the voltage. Therefore, the system works only when the
vehicle is moving or the tire is being vibrated.

G. TIRE SIZE AND SIDEWALL MARKINGS

The format for the metric tire-size designation found in most tires appears in
various letters and numbers. Each marking has a special meaning.

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A. Tire size: 205 / 70 R 15 B. Tire type: Tubeless, Steel belted

C. Tire make: Polyester nylon plies D. Tire brand : Bridgestone

Fig. 76. Tire Markings

H. TIRE INSPECTION

The purpose of inspecting tires is to determine if they are safe for further
use. When defects or improper wear patterns are found, inform the driver.
Recommend the services that will correct the cause of the abnormal wear.

Tires have tread-wear indicators or wear bars. These are filled-in sections of the
tread grooves that will show when the tread has worn down to 1.6 mm. A tire with
a wear bar showing is worn-out and should be replaced. Too little tread remains for
continued safe driving. A tread-depth gauge can be inserted into the tread grooves
to measure tread depth of at least 0.8 mm in any two adjacent grooves at any
location on the tire.

Check for bulges on the sidewalls. Bulges mean plies have separated and
the tire could fail at any time. Tires with separated or broken plies should be
replaced.

274
Fig. 77.Tire wear factors. (www.google.com.ph.)

I. TIRE INSPECTION GUIDELINES

Several cautions must be followed to avoid personal injury and to prevent damage
to the wheel and tire.

1. Matching tire and wheel width


Do not try to install a narrow tire with a high-aspect ratio on a wide rim. For
example, a tire with an 80 aspect ratio must not be installed on a wide rim that
requires a 60 tire.

2. Matching tire and wheel diameter


Do not try to mount a 16-inch tire on a 16.5-inch wheel, or a 15-inch tire on
a 15.5-inch wheel. The result could be a deadly explosion when inflating the
tire. Check the rim size. It may be stamped near the center of the wheel disc.

3. Mixing tires
All tires in a vehicle should be the same size, construction (radial or non-
radial), and speed rating unless, otherwise specified by the vehicle
manufacturer. If two radials and two non-radials are used by the vehicle, put
the radials at the rear. Snow tires should be installed in pairs on the drive axle
(either front or rear), or on all four wheels. Never put non-radial (bias or belted-
bias) snow tires on the rear if radials are on the front. Match tire sizes and
construction in four-wheel drive vehicles. Tires affect vehicle stability and
handling. Mixing tires may cause handling problems.

275
4. Respecting compressed air
A terrific force is contained in an inflated tire. An explosion of the tire-and-
wheel assembly can result from improper or careless mounting procedures.
Never stand over a tire while inflating it. If the tire explodes, the sudden release
of compressed air has enough energy to throw a person more than 30 feet (9 m)
in the air. People have been seriously injured or killed by exploding tires.

5. Protecting your eyes.


Wear eye protection (safety glasses, safety goggles, or a face shield) when
demounting and mounting tires. When deflating a tire, avoid the air stream
from the tire valve. The air comes out at high speed and can blow dirt or debris
into your eyes.

J. TIRE ROTATION

The amount of wear of each tire depends upon its location or how it was
mounted on the vehicle. The right rear tire wears the most, followed by the left rear
tire, then the right front tire, and then the least, the left front tire. To equalize the
wear, it is recommended that the tires be rotated every 8,000 kilometers of
operation.

Fig.78. Common tire rotation for five and four wheel vehicles. (www.tirerack.com)

276
ACTIVITY SHEET 5.1

INSPECT/CHECK WHEELS AND TIRES

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Car owners manual

TOOLS

Tire thread depth gauge

PROCEDURE:

1. Examine the sidewalls and tread area of each tire.

2. Check for cuts, tears, and lumps, bulges, separation of the tread, and
exposure of the ply or cord.

3. Check that the tire bead is correctly seated on the wheel rim, that the valve is
sound and properly seated, and that the wheel is not distorted or damaged.

4. Check that the tires are of the correct size for the vehicle, that they are of the
same size and type in each axle, and that the pressures are correct.

5. Check the tire treads depth. The legal minimum is 1.6mm over of the tread
width. Abnormal wear may indicate incorrect front-wheel alignment.

6. Recommend the necessary repair.

Fig. 79. Tire wear caused by different factors. (www.google.com.ph.)

277
ACTIVITY SHEET 5.2
CHECK TIRE PRESSURE AND INFLATE TIRE

Before checking tire pressure and filling it with air, know the correct
pressure for the tire. The specification is in the owners manual and marked on the
vehicle tire-information label. When the vehicle is carrying a heavy load, like
pulling a trailer, or driving at sustained highway speed, higher tire pressure may
be necessary. Pressure should never exceed the maximum pressure marked on the
tire sidewall.

Inflation pressure is given to a cold tire. Pressure increases as tire


temperature rises. Highway driving on a hot day can increase the tire pressure
from 5 to 7 psi (35 to 48 kPa). As the tire cools, it loses pressure. Never bleed a hot
tire to reduce its pressure. The pressure will then be low when the tire cools.
Install the cap on the tire valve after checking pressure or adding air.

SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS

Car owners manual

TOOLS

Tire gauge

EQUIPMENT

Air compressor

PROCEDURE:

A. CHECK TIRE PRESSURE

Safety Measures:

Be sure that safety measures are followed and tire inflation pressure specification
is available.

1. Place the vehicle in a level ground.

2. Remove the tire valve cover located at the side of the wheel and tire.

3. Check the tire inflation pressure specification.

3.1. For Digital/Analogue Type Gauge

3.1.1 Set the air pressure inflator at specified tire pressure.

278
3.1.2 Remove the tire valve cover.

3.1.3 Insert and press the tire inflator chuck to the tire valve.

3.1.4 Wait for the digital/analogue gauge to blink or sound. This means
that tire is already inflated according to specified air pressure.

Note : If reading exceeds tire pressure, deflate the tire to specification. If


the reading is below the pressure, inflate the tire to specification.

3.1.5 Remove the tire chuck from the tire valve and check for air leak by
pouring water on the tire valve. If bubble exist, repair or replace
the tire valve.

3.1.6 Replace the tire valve cover.

3.2 For Pocket Type Gauge (Analog/Digital)

Note:

Be sure that battery is not discharge when using digital gauge.

Be sure that pointer in analogue type is set to zero.

3.2.1 Turn ON the switch to run the air compressor.

3.2.2 Insert and press tire chuck to tire valve to inflate the tire.

3.2.3 Read the tire pressure gauge (analog/digital).

3.2.4 Continue inflating and reading the gauge until it reaches the specified
inflation pressure.

Note : If reading exceeds tire pressure, deflate the tire to specification.


If the reading is below the pressure, inflate the tire to
specification.

3.2.5 Remove the tire chuck from the tire valve.

3.2.6 Replace the tire valve.

279
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT LO 5

A. Written Assessment

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Directions: Answer the statements/questions by writing the letter of the best


option.

1. The chassis components that drives the vehicle and support its weight are
the _______.

A. Wheels and bearings C. Wheels and rim


B. Wheels and nuts D. Wheels and tires

2. Tires are air-filled that cushions and absorb most of the shocks caused by
road _______,.

A. Humps C. Safety
B. Irregularities D. Surface

3. There are two types of tires, one is tube type and the other one is _______.

A. Air borne C. Tubeless


B. Airless D. Water-filled

4. To vulcanize means to heat the rubber under _______.

A. Burn C. Force
B. Fire D. Pressure

5. Three aspect tire ratios are 80, 70, and 60. The lower the number, the
_______ the tire appears.

A. Narrower C. Slimmer
B. Shorter D. Wider

6. Tire plies can be applied in two ways: diagonally and _________.

A. Assymetrically C. Radically
B. Radially D. Symmetrically

7. The _______ tire provides better fuel economy than a bias-ply tire.

A. Assymetrical C. Radical
B. Radial D. Symmetrical

8. A part of the tire that meets the road is _______.

280
A. Tire tube C. Tire valve
B. Tire tread D. Tire wheel

9. Air is put into the tire or tube through a spring-loaded ______________.

A. Tire tube C. Tire valve


B. Tire tread D. Tire wheel

10. To equalize tire wear, it is recommended that the tires be rotated _______.

A. Regularly C. Sometimes
B. Selectively D. Weekly

B. Oral Assessment

Directions: Answer the question based on the knowledge you have gained
about wheels and tires. You will be assessed based on the
following criteria:

1. Which is better slightly underinflated tire or slightly overinflated tire? Explain


why ? Your answer will be based on the criteria below.

Criteria:

Criteria 3 ( Better ) 2 ( Good ) 1 ( Poor )


Mastery of the Manifested a Manifested some Manifested few
concept working knowledge working knowledge working knowledge
of the concept with of the concept with of the concept with
no error. few errors. many errors.
Level of Manifested Manifested Manifested
comprehension evidence of evidence of evidence of
comprehension comprehension comprehension
with critical with average with indefinite
analysis of the analysis of the analysis with
subject. subject. significance of the
subject.

Level of Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated


confidence communication communication communication
skills correctly and skills correctly but skills but made
easily with not easily. some mistakes.
confidence.

281
C. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

Directions: Below is the performance assessment that serves as your guide in


assessing the following skills you need to perform. Please be guided
with the tasks with the corresponding score and the performance
level.

Name : ____________________________ Year & Section: ______________

Course: ____________________________ Time Allotment: ______________

Module Title: _______________________ Grading Period _______________

Unit of
Competency Time Performance
Tasks Date Score Level
UNDERCHASSIS Begun Finished
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
LO 5. Check tire 5.1 Inspect tires for
and tire pressure stuck solid objects.

5.2 Inspect tires for


wear and
deformities.
5.3 Determine
causes of abnormal
tire wear.
5.4 Check tire
pressure in
accordance with
manufacturers
specifications.

Average: _____ _______

LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

RATING SCALE: Total Score Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

21 25 91 - 100 Outstanding

16 20 86 - 90 Very Good

11 15 81 - 85 Good

282
06 - 10 76 - 80 Fair

01 - 05 71 - 75 Needs Improvement

WHAT IS YOUR SCORE? _____ PERFORMANCE LEVEL _________________

Auto LM Grade 10 relc Jul 14-18, 2014


Refined Aug. 18-22, 2014, RELC
Reviewed and Fionalized Oct.14-17/ 27-31,2014
Finalized Q3Q4 RELC Nov.17-21, 2014

283
TECHNICAL TERMS OF QUARTER 1 AND 2

AMMETER - An instrument which measures the amount of amperes of current


flowing through an electrical circuit. Known also as an Ampere Gauge.

BACK UP LIGHTS-Light bulbs in the taillight housing come on when the shifter is
put in the reverse position. These lights used to illuminate the area behind the
vehicle when backing up.

COMBINATION SWITCHES These are all designed within a single multi-function


switch so that the driver is able to keep his hands on the steering wheel during
adverse weather or driving condition that would require the use of this system.

CONTINUITY refers to the circuit being continuous with no open contact.

DIMMER SWITCH - a switch and lever system that switch between low beam and
high beam headlights. In modern vehicles the lever is positioned on the left side of
the steering wheel. When the lever is pulled back (or push forward in some vehicles)
it controls an electrical switch which changes current that power the bright and dim
headlight circuits when the headlights are turned on. Many vehicles have an
additional mode which turns on the lights automatically and momentarily when the
lever is pulled back as a signal to other drivers.

FUSE - a device that contains a small piece of wire that melts if excessive current
flows through it and designed to prevent the circuit from getting overloaded.

GROWLER - test equipment for testing starter armatures for shorts and grounds. It
produces a very strong magnetic field that is capable of inducing a current flow and
magnetism in a conductor.

HAZARD LAMPS - flashing lights which can be turned on in emergency situations


or to warn other drivers. Also known as emergency lights.

HEADLIGHTS - high-performance light bulbs mounted on the front of vehicles to


provide illumination at night and in low-visibility conditions. Most older vehicles use
four headlights; two for high-beam (brighter), two for low-beams. Modern vehicles
use composite headlamps that are designed to complement the aerodynamic shape
of a vehicle's front end. These headlights generally have removable/replaceable
bulbs.

284
HORN - an electromechanical device consisting of a switch, wiring and a buzzer
which produces noise when activated. Used to warn or communicate to other
drivers. Large trucks often use air horns which are louder.

OHMMETER - is a test meter to check the resistance and continuity in a circuit.

OPEN CIRCUIT -a term used to indicate that current flow is stopped. By opening
the circuit, the path for electron flow is broken.

PARKING LIGHTS - lights that mark the front of a parked vehicle and to
mark the front of a vehicle if a headlamp fails.

RELAY- An electromechanical device that when operated opens/closes another


electric circuit; acts as a remote power switch. Relays are used to engage many
accessories from remote switches. The main advantage is eliminating the need to
route high current wires throughout a vehicle to each switch.

RESISTANCE - opposition to current flow.

SHORT CIRCUIT - a defective electrical circuit where the current in a wire or device
takes an alternate (typically shorter) path to ground. Usually the result of melted,
burned or broken wire(s) or damaged electrical part.Usually referred to as just
short.

TURN SIGNAL LIGHTS - a light which indicate an intended change in


directions by flashing lights on the side towards which the turn will be made.

TROUBLESHOOTING - the diagnostic procedure of locating and identifying the


cause of the fault. It is a step-by-step process of elimination by use of cause-and-
effect.

WIRING HARNESS - an arrangement of bundled color-coded wires which is routed


through a vehicle and carries electric current to the engine and all electrical parts of
the automobile. An automobile's equivalent of a circulatory system

Auto LM Grade 10 relc Jul 14-18, 2014


Refined Aug. 18-22, 2014, RELC
Reviewed and Fionalized Oct.14-17/ 27-31,2014
Finalized Q3Q4 RELC Nov.17-21, 2014

285
QUARTER 3 AND QUARTER 4

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION a device that allows selection of gear ratio and


pulling output in accordance with engine speed and load condition.

BLEED the removal of the presence of air in the hydraulic system.

BLEEDER VALVE - a screw-like device that has hole that when exposed to
opening, air and fluid can pass through it.

BRAKE - a device used to slow down or totally stop the vehicle.

BRAKE FLUID a special liquid substance of high boiling point used in the brake
system of a motor vehicle.

CLUTCH a coupling device that engage and disengage engine power to the
drivelines.

CLUTCH DISC a circular disc with friction materials on both sides. It is located
between the flywheel and pressure plate. It has internal spline in its hub that allows
insertion of the external spline of the transmission input shaft.

CLUTCH FORK a fork-like metal that carries the throw-out bearing. When the
clutch is pressed, the clutch fork forces the throw-out bearing in contact with the
clutch fingers.

CONVENTIONAL TRANSMISSION a manually operated device that enable the


driver to move forward and backward at varying speed.

CLUTCH FLUID a fluid used in hydraulic brake system.

DISC BRAKES a type of brake that uses a steel disc with calipers and brake pads
suspended on both sides of the rotor. The rotor is squeezed by the pads when the
brake is applied.

DRAIN PLUG a bolt with screw that allows the fluid to flow out when removed and
stops the fluid from leaking when replaced.

DRUM BRAKES a type of brake designed to have residual pressure when the
brake is not in use. It utilizes two brake shoes that expands on its drum when
brake is applied.

FLUID LEVEL a marking on the plastic reservoir or dipstick that determines the
amount of fluid in the container.

286
GEAR a round metal that has teeth-like shape on the outside portion on its edge.

INSPECTION a procedure done when going over for examination or checking.

LINES AND FITTINGS a metal tube usually made of copper, bronze or steel that
acts as a passage of fluid. The fittings, usually located at the end of the tube. It acts
to connect the end portion of the line tubing when tightened.

MAINTENANCE the proper care of assuring safety and keeping in good condition.

MASTER CYLINDER a fluid container of the brake or clutch with pistons and
rubber cups that enable liquid pressure to form when the pedal is applied.

PARKING / HAND BRAKE also called emergency brake, is a hand operated lever
that lock the brake shoes and drums when applied. Parking / hand brake is also
used when stopping in inclined position or during emergency.

PART NUMBER an alphanumeric code used when replacing vehicle part with new
one.

POWER STEERING a hydraulic pressure assisted steering that increases the


drivers ability to turn the wheels with less effort.

POWER STEERING FLUID a specially formulated fluid in power assisted steering.


It is designed for easy and smooth steering.

PRESSURE PLATE - a round metal plate that pushes the clutch disc against the
flywheel plate when the clutch and engaged ( clutch pedal is released) and releases
the pressure when the clutch is disengaged (clutch pedal is pressed).

PREVENTIVE a part of maintenance procedure that intend to stop something


undesirable from happening.

RESERVOIR a translucent plastic container with marking on its side to determine


the level of fluid in the hydraulic system. In clutch and brake systems, this is where
the fluid is poured.

SERVICE BRAKE a foot operated lever that operates the brake master cylinder to
cause hydraulic pressure in the system. When brake pedal is pressed it slows down
or totally stops the vehicle.

SLAVE CYLINDER as in the hydraulic clutch, it is a secondary cylinder located at


the side of the clutch housing. It operates the clutch fork when the clutch pedal is
pressed down.

THROW-OUT BEARING a bearing with collar carried by the clutch fork. It


operates the clutch finger to engage and disengage the clutch.

287
TIRE a round , doughnut-like, hollow rubber with threaded portion on its surface.
It is attached to the wheel to cause it to roll when the vehicle is in motion.

TRANSAXLE a combination of transmission and differential axle into a single

WHEEL a round object made of steel or aluminum alloy where tire is attached.

Auto LM Grade 10 relc Jul 14-18, 2014


Refined Aug. 18-22, 2014, RELC
Reviewed and Fionalized Oct.14-17/ 27-31,2014
Finalized Q3Q4 RELC Nov.17-21, 2014

288
REFERENCES:

Auto. Mechanics 10th Edition by Crouse/Anglin, Glencoe Division of


Macmillian/Mc Graw-Hill School Publishing Company, USA 1993

Auto. Mechanics 7thEdition by Crouse/Anglin, Glencoe Division of


Macmillian/Mc Graw-Hill School Publishing Company, USA 1993

Automotive Electricity, Electronics and Computer Controls By: Barry


Hollembeak, Delmar Cengage Learning, USA 1998

Electricity Master. Meralco Foundation Institute. Pasig City

Strenghtened Technical - Vocational Education Program (STVEP)


Competency- Based Learning Materials (CBLM)

Petersen Mini-Truck Repair Manual. Petersen Publishing Co.8490 unset Blvd.


Los Angeles , California U.S.A.,

Toyota Manual.

Tan, Marcelo E., Hernando, Emmanuel C. et.al. Pinoy Entrepreneur.


INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY. Phil. Copyright. 2007

http://www.google.com.ph

http://www.autoshop101.com

http://www.wikihow.com.

http://auto.howstuffworks.com

www.autobatteries.com

www.electronicssymbols.com

www.intermotorimport.com

www.ehow.com

Auto LM Grade 10 relc Jul 14-18, 2014


Refined Aug. 18-22, 2014, RELC
Reviewed and Fionalized Oct.14-17/ 27-31,2014
Finalized Q3Q4 RELC Nov.17-21, 2014

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