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COVER DESIGN: Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Saratoga

PO\X1ER PLUS SPEED. By Captaill Herbert W. Ehrgott 306
PORTRAIT OF AN ARMY. By Captaill Fairfax Dowlley 320
W'HO'S \X1HO? By Major Welldell G. Jolmsoll 328
THE INVISIBLE WEAPON. By Captaill Johll V. Grombach 333
ADJUSTMENT OF AA FIRE. By Captaill A. H. Bellder 346
MIGHTY MAN OF KITTERY. By Major Charles WillSlow Elliott 347
IT WAS A PHONY WAR. By Major Willialll Yale 359
PSYCHOLOGY AND MODERN WAR. By Major Charles A. Drake 360
OFFICERS' STATION LIST ..................... " 393


bi'monthly by t~e United States Coast Artil.lery Associ~tion_ Editorial and executi~e offices. 1115 Se~enteenth Street, X.W ..
m:; n, D. C. T~rms. $4.00 per rea;r: (Coast Artlller:r ASSOcIatIOn members, $3.00 per year.) Single copies, 75c. Entered as second.
- te~ ~t .Was~mgt?~. ~. C.: addItIOnal entry at RIChmond. Va .. under thp ("t , ... Q-O f"'", ••• _~,.l .. 1
f"t. ,'" , ••
By Captain ~ Some ye:lrs ago in another service journal I presented a theoretic
anal:'sis of the problem of the penetration. At that time m:' solution
HERBERT W. EHRGOTT the problem, termed the "double penetration," W:lS supported ani\'
Corps of Engineers theory and by the history of an attempted penetration which failed.
events of the past two months permit a reexamination of the theoc:' in
light of actll:llity rather than by consideration of "ifs" and" might-ha
beens"; for b:' unique coincidence, or by design on the parr of the Germ
High Command, the Battle of Flanders of May, 1940, was fought 01
the same ground as the great Battle of Picardy of March, 1918, and in
cordance with Ludendorff's original plan, which was abandoned in
midst of the 1918 battle. In my 1936 stud:' the approach was Iargel~'sea
-so much force attacking ill this or that direction; such :1nd such
density of railroads and highways-the importance of the time factor
being stressed. The experience of Nfay, 1940, shows that the time fac
is fundamental, rather than incidental. The problem is one of d~'n3/l1
not of statics.
The double-penetration theory embodies the following principles:
(I) The objective is not the penetration in itself, but rather the crea
in the defender's from of two open flanks susceptible of envelopment

(2) To insure a penetration, the attack must consist of two simultane-
liS or closely coordinated penetrating attacks (principal penetration and
bndary penetration), which diverge sharply as soon as the initial break-
rough of the defender's main battle line has been effected. The result
IIbe to stretch the front progressively, as the two penetrations advance,
tit it becomes so tenuous as to succumb to a strong, mechanized force.
u) The penetration must be so directed as to divide the defending --'

e into two segments, one of which will be small enough so that the
ncipal penetrating force can annihilate it before it can be reinforced.
eanwhile, the stronger wing of the divided defender must be contained
the secondary penetrating force in conjunction with holding attacks
the forces in quiescent sectors.
(4) The means available to the principal penetration must be sufficient
Insure that its effective com bat power will be initially, and will remain
,ll times superior to that of the defender's isolated wing.
(5) The means made available to the secondary penetration must be
lJIlicientto withstand all counterattacks that can be brought against it by
defender's stronger wing during the period required for the annihila-
of the isolated wing by the principal penetration.
This scheme of maneuver contemplates maximum use affect the balance of combat power. Given essentially
of the principle of Economy of Force by the secondary equal combat power in a theater of operations, it may be
penetration, in order to endow the principal penetration assumed that the force holding the initiative (hereafter
with sufficient Mass to insure a "Canna:" against the de- called the attacker) can concentrate superior power initial-
fender's isolated wing. ly against any selected portion of the enemy's line, and
The requirements for the success of the double pene- thus achieve a momentary break-through. This initial
tration were listed in my 1936 study as follows: power superiority must be maintained above a critical
( I) The location of the offensive must lend itself minimum value throughout the period required for the
readily to deception, not only as to time and place, but also battle of annihilation. Stated in mathematical language,

]- f.:: ]
as to which is to be the principal and which the secondary PA-PD =SH onH-Day (I)
penetration as the attack develops.
(2) The principal penetration should be directed away
from the defender's main reserve mass.
(3) The zone of advance of the principal penetration
~ [I'd [P. + ~s... "., H-lliy (,)
must contain a network of communications which, in con- Where P A designates the initial combat power of the at-
junction with available transportation means, is capable tacker, and Po that of the defender
of maintaining and supporting the advance at such a pace R designates the rate of change of combat power and
as will insure at all times the supremacy of the attack over

the defense. HHR+T
(4) The zone of advance of the principal penetration represents the net increment (or decrement)
should include few natural obstacles to the rapid progress
of the attack, few strongly defensible natural positions on of combat power between H-Day and (H+ T)-Day.
which the enemy may reconstitute his lines. Expression (2), the equation of differential combat power,
(5) If possible, the exposed flank of the principal pene- states in symbols the necessary and sufficient condition
tration should be protected by an easily defensible ex- which must exist if the principal penetration is to succeed
tended obstacle such as a wide river, a marsh, or a range of in its mission. Similar expressions apply to the secondary
hills. penetration and to all other portions of the opposing forces.
(6) The attack should preferably be in an area poorly The equation of differential combat power (2) is merely
served by communications on the defender's side of the another form of the estimate of the situation-a way of
line-particularly lateral communications connecting the expressing in mathematical symbols the balance of com-
two wings. bat power which determines the success or failure of an
(7) There should be available, as the limited objective operation. It differs from the familiar five-paragraph esti-
of the secondary penetration, a strong natural defensive mate only in the fact that instead of the vague subjective
position having the following characteristics: language of comparatives it employs a more exact sym-
It should be attainable in the shortest possible time. bolism.
It should be capable of being quickly organized for Equation (2) emphasizes the dynamic nature of a com-
resistance, and of being held by the force available for plete estimate of the strategic situation in planning a
use until the principal penetration can complete its task campaign. Not only must a separate estimate be made
and return to the aid of the secondary penetrating force. for each portion of the theater of operations, to determine
Its open wing should be based on a strong terrain whether to attack or defend at that point, but a whole
feature or tactical area difficult of envelopment. series of estimates must be made in each case [for H-Day,
It should command the routes of lateral communica- H+I)-Day, etc.... up to (H+N)-Day] to determine
tion between the defender's main reserve mass and his whether the operation will probably proceed successfully
isolated weaker wing. to the hoped-for conclusion.
(8) The location of this defensive flank established by The attacker can influence the equation in his own
the secondary penetration must be such as to afford maxi- favor in three ways:
mum protection to the nerve centers of communication ( I) By increasing the superiority of the initial com-
which serve the principal penetrating force during the bat power of the attacker over that of the defender. This
battle of annihilation. can be accomplished either by increasing the combat
It will be noted that all these requirements revolve about power of the attacker or by decreasing the defender's im-
the necessity facing the principal penetration of envelop- mediately available combat power, through diversions.
ing and defeating the defender's weaker wing before re- (2) By increasing the time increment of combat power
lief can reach it from the main hostile reserve mass. It to the attacker.
is the old problem of concentrating superior combat power (3) By decreasing the time increment of combat power
at the critical time and place, and maintaining this su- to the defender.
periority throughout the necessary period of time. If the attacker is to maintain his initial combat su-
A solution is possible only if the attacker can gain a periority for the necessary time, he must conduct his
decisive superiority in one or more of the factors which operations in such a manner as will keep the net incrc-

ment of combat power to the defender below a figure means since the development of the railroad. The army
which would bring the defender's combat power to equal- that could gain a momentarily decisive superiority in
ity or superiority over that of the attacker before the planes, trucks, and motorcycles (assuming approximate
principal penetration can complete the battle of annihila- equality in other respects) would possess the power not
tion. How this can be accomplished becomes evident only to breach a hostile defensive system, but more im-
when we break down the time increment of combat power portant, to outstrip all hostile reserves of combat power.
into its component elements: For the motorized weapon combines in a degree unsur-
(1) Battle losses, in casualties, equipment, ammuni- passed in military history the qualities of force and mobil-
tion, food, organization and morale (decrement for both ity. It not only.increases the combat force of the possessor
sides) . but enables him to attack directly the means by which his
(2) Loss of organized defensive positions or defensible opponent can renew his own combat force. It not only
terrain (decrement to the defender) . increases the mobility of the possessor but enables him to
(3) Reinforcements reaching the opposing forces (in- reduce the mobiliry of his opponent. With enough such
crement for both sides) . weapons it would be possible to wage a war of shattering
(4) Loss of elements in the systems of communica- force and unexampled speed.
tion, control and transport (decrement to the defender, By 1935 Germany had secretly prepared a big enough
and a somewhat smaller decrement to the attacker, to the force of planes and motorized and mechanized divisions to
extent that he has to operate over the areas in which com- risk the colossal bluff of the occupation of the Rhineland
munications are disrupted). Generally this element favors and the Saar-a step which gained for her complete
the attacker, since he can make extensive preparations to freedom of action for the production of the mass of
nullify enemy action against the vital points of his own motorized weapons required for a successful bid for victory
communications, while the defender cannot know be- over the Allies. The blitzkrieg concept was given its
forehand on which points to concentrate his defense. preliminary try-out in the Spanish civil war, and proved
Each of these elements of the time increment of combat sound. As long as the Spanish Loyalists were able to
power, as well as the initial combat power iself, involves maintain approximate equality in the air (they had rela-
two factors: force and mobility. As between two equal tively few tanks or trucks) "the Insurgents could make
opposing forces, that having the greater mobility (assum- little headway. But once the Italian and German planes,
ing equally competent leadership) will prevail. Great trucks, and tanks had given the Insurgents unquestioned
commanders, when opposed by equal or superior force, superiority in strategic and combat mobility, the balance
have always sought a decisive advantage in mobility. Na- of combat power tipped steeply in favor of the attackers.
poleon achieved such an advantage in his innovation of Meanwhile Germany was proceeding with the develop-
supply by combat wagons and carts. The elder Moltke ment of every possible means of gaining and being assured
built his victories largely on the masterful use of railroads of maintaining, during a limited period, unquestioned su-
for the movement and supply of his armies-a matter periority in motorized weapons.
little understood by his opponents. The World War on The air arm was given particular attention in the light
the other hand, found neither side in possession of any of the combat experience gained in Spain. Plane designs
such decisive means of attaining superior mobility. And were improved and standardized. In-line production meth-
since the opposing forces were essentially equal, the war eds were introduced into vastly expanded automotive and
necessarily degenerated into one of pure attrition, with aircraft plants. Vital industries were removed from the
Providence on the side of the larger battalions. By superior Ruhr into the interior. Production was ruthlessly decen-
tactics and organization the Central Powers succeeded in tralized into large numbers of scattered plants, at a sacri-
nullifying for four years the Allied superiority in the time fice to efficiency, but with a vast increase in strategic secur-
increment of combat force, but they never succeeded in ity. In some cases complete airplane factories are said to
developing a sufficient preponderance of mobility to main- have been constructed underground, safe against obser-
tain the attack one step ahead of the defense. Neither side vation and bombardment. Carefully camouflaged under-
was ever able to prevent the enemy from freely trans- ground hangars, with arsenals and servicing facilities, were
ferring reserves to a threatened point in time to reestablish built everywhere behind the Westwall. Bullet-proof gas
the situation. Under such conditions no penetration could tanks were developed. Swarms of pilots were instructed
be successful until one of the opponents was completely by the chain method, each half-trained recruit becoming
exhausted. an instructor as rapidly as new planes were made avail-
able. In both planes and pilots quality was sacrificed t?
The lessons of the World War were studied exhaustively quantity in view of the expected rate of attrition. Air
by all the armies of the world. The conclusions drawn by provisioning of ground troops was investigated. Parachute
the German general staff may be summed up in one word: troops were developed. Antiaircraft defense was brought
Blitzkrieg. The Germans have for long understood the to a high degree of effectiveness, with all vital installations
fundamental principles of war, including that of mobility. protected as completely as possible. Gasoline storage was
The perfection of motorized weapons offered a new means decentralized, and as far as possible placed underground,
of gaining decisively superior mobility-the first new Motor transport received the same intensive treatment.
Great wide cross-country speedways were constructed to The main effort must be concentrated on the North
provide increased strategic mobility. Facilities for the Sea and Channel coasts. This involved the invasion of
mass production of trucks, tanks and motorcycles were Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg,
obtained through the subterfuge of the Volksauto. Motor- with the consequent disadvantage of increasing the
ized infantry divisions were multiplied. The light six- enemy's initial combat power. To counter-balance this
ton tank, which had proven unsatisfactory in Spain, was disadvantage, certain economic advantages were to be
replaced by a new light tank of about ten tons, and med- gained by the occupation of each country.
ium and heavy tanks with more power and speed, heavier Norway: Depriving the Allies of important supplies
armament, and thicker armor. A number of these new of pulp, wood, ore, and fish products, with corresponding
tanks are believed to be amphibious. Cross-country troop gains to Germany. Completely isolating Sweden from
and ammunition carriers were perfected. New types of trade with the Allies, giving Germany a practical monop-
bridges were designed to carry the heaviest loads, with oly of her entire industrial effort, including the vital Swe-
particular emphasis placed on speed of erection. Key dish iron ore.
btidges expected to be demolished in anticipated theaters Denmark: Depriving the Allies of important fish, farm,
of action were duplicated, and special detachments were and dairy products, with corresponding gains to Germany,
trained in their rapid erection. Tactical organization was which was in great need of those very products.
modified wherever necessary, to make combat units less Holland: Agricultural and dairy products, stocks of
dependent upon supply by railroad. strategic metals, considerable stores of gasoline and oil,
Finally, most important of all, tactics involving the and refineries. Important rail and water communications
closest cooperation of these new fast elements of combat for the supply of German armies in Belgium and Northern
forcewere worked out and practiced until all units blended France.
together into a smoothly working team. At the same Luxembourg: Access to Belgium and the open flank
time, an improved, modernized tactics, based on infantry, of the main Maginot fortifications. Important deposits of
tank, and air corps cooperation, was developed with a view coal and iron, and a large iron and steel industry.
to maximum interference with all the vital links in the Belgium: Large reserves of gasoline, oil, and stra-
enemy's systems of communication, control, and plane tegic metals, great deposits of coal suitable for reduction
and motor production. to gasoline, an important industrial plant. Most impor-
The new material was given its first real workout in the tant of all, a dense network of railroads, roads, and canals
marches into Austria and Czechoslovakia-a sort of pointed straight at the vital industrial sections of North-
shake-down cruise. The final field test of the organization f'rn France, on her one relatively open frontier.
and combined tactics was made against the ill-prepared The invasion of all these neutral countries was worked
Polish Army, and proved entirely successful. It was ap- into a comprehensive scheme for enticing the Allied
parent that the German Army was in temporary possession armies into a decisive battle in open country. Norway
not only of a superior combat force, but also of a method was to be used as a diversion, to draw Allied reserves out
which endowed that force with superior mobiliry and of position, and to camouflage final preparations for the
made possible consideration of the main drive against main effort. Holland and Belgium would serve as bait,
Britain and France. to draw the French and British out from behind their
The strategic problem, in its broadest terms, was to Little Maginot Line. For it could be assumed that Brit-
forcethe Allies into a decisive battle before their vast in- ain's vital interests would force her to come to the aid of
dustrial power and raw material resources could be mobi- Holland by way of Belgium, and that Belgium would
lized. How was this to be accomplished? Sun Tzu thereby be forced to throw in her lot with the Allies. The
oncewrote: initial thrust against Holland had to be overwhelming-
If we wish to fight, the enemy can be forced to an engage- not only to eliminate Dutch combat power promptly, but
ment ... [if we] appear at points which the enemy must to outflank the Belgian armies, forcing rhem to with-
hasten to defend. draw from their eastern defenses. Meanwhile, the main
\Vhat points would the Allies "hasten to defend" if attack would be developing, through Luxembourg and
attacked? There were several: the oil fields of Syria; the the Belgian Ardennes.
Suez Canal and Gibraltar; the Maginot Line; the Italian We cannot know for some time General Gamelin's
frontier; the entire Channel and North Sea coast, from Le estimate of the situation, nor the details of the northward
Havre to T rondheim, from which devastating attacks movements of the Allied armies between May 10 and
couldbe launched, by sea and air, against British industrial May 13 (map 1); but all the information available seems
centers and the absolutely vital Allied shipping and naval to indicate that the Allied high command diagnosed the
~ower. Of these possible objectives, only the last men- German attack as an enlarged and improved version of
tl~nedpromised the opportunity of finally coming to grips Schlieffen's sledge-hammer plan. Much of the French
With the main bodies of the Allied land and sea forces force in the Dinant area appears to have been hurried north
under favorable conditions. The others could serve ad- to the aid of the Belgians, so that the German debouch-
mirably as diversions, in accordance with the principle of ment in force from the Belgian Ardennes found the Meuse
Economy of Force. line from Mezieres-Charleville to Givet inadequately

defended. At the time the Germ:lI1s rushed across the and Laon, were me rei;' phases in the establishment of a
Meuse on May 14 and 15 the main bod;' of Allied mecha- defensive flank, behind the protection of which the prin-
nized forces was heavily engaged with the German mecha- cipal penetration (via Cambrai-Arras-St. Pol) could
nized spearhead driving southwestward from Nhastrict proceed with its mission of surrounding and destroying the
toward Gembloux. Perhaps the Allies were aware of the Belgian and northern British and French armies.
power of the German drive through the Ardennes, and Returning to the double penetration, it will be seen that
believed the French IX Army was strong enough to hold all the conditions listed at the beginning of this article
the Meuse line. If so, it was a costly miscalculation, for were fulfilled:
the IX Army was completely engulfed by the German (I) The location and timing of the main penetration
tidal wave, and the attack proceeded too swiftly for a were admirably calculated to deceive the Allied High
reconstitution of lines. There is much in the com- Command. For the first two days the full power of the
muniques and official and semi-official statements of Nhy German forces appeared to be concentrated against Hol-
15 to 18 to indicate that the Allies believed the break- land and northern Belgium. The force of the penetratino-:->
through between Mezieres and Dinant (map 2) was attack was well hidden in the hills and forests of Lux-
aimed at Paris. German comment throughout those days embourg and the Belgian Ardennes. When the mag-
certainly nourished such a belief. But the entire strategic nitude of the penetration became apparent, it was nor
situation, the preliminary air bombardments of Calais, clear until about May 18 whether the main effort would
Dunkirk, Lille, Bethune, Lens, Amiens, and Arras, and be turned in the direction of Paris or toward the coast.
the constant preoccupation of the German General Staff (2) The principal penetration was directed away from
with the idea of a battle of annihilation, all pointed clearly the defender's main reserve mass, and sought to cut off
to an attempt to envelop the northern armies from the and destroy a large segment of the Allied forces.
south and west. By Nfay 19 the battle line bore a striking (3) The zone of advance of the principal penetration
resemblance to that which had existed on March 2 I, 1918, was selected with a particular eye to communications, but
except for the Allied "bulge" surrounding Mons, Mau- by road rather than rail: Luxembourg, the Belgian
beuge, and Valenciennes. It was on this day that the Ardennes, and Guise have very few east-west railroads,
main attack turned definitely toward the northwest, fol- and what few there are are secondary lines. It is evident
lowing exactly the route prescribed by Ludendorff's origi- that reliance was placed almost entirely on motor trans-
nal operations order of March, 1918. It soon became port for troop movement and supplies.
apparent that the previous attacks, toward Sedan, Rethel, (4) The zone of advance crossed only one important

.. - PLANS

--MA.Y 11TH
---MAY 12TH
___ MAY 13TH

2O.JO.o so

eo 00

_ MAY t4TH & 15TH

-._ MAY 16Tt't & 17TH

-- MAY 18T~
-- MAY 19TH
--- MAY 20TH

o '0
~ ~
eo 00
t..........J Map 2

natural obstacle-the Meuse River. It may be presumed as necessary to protect the Ranks of the principal pene-
that the penetrating force was supplied with ample means tration, pinch out fortified areas, maintain deception, or
for quickly effecting this crossing against whatever oppo- establish valuable points of departure for future operations.
sition, and maintaining sufficient bridges despite the ut- (5) The left Rank of the principal penetration was
most efforts of Allied air forces to close them. The well protected by the secondary penetration up to Abbe-
severity of the Allied attacks against these bridges may be ville, and thereafter by the English Channel.
inferred from the following communiques, which refer (6) The secondary penetration had little trouble in
to the actions on May 13 and 14:
establishing a strong protective Rank fulfilling all the
Two permanent bridges and two pontoon bridges were de- necessary conditions. Most of the larger streams in this
stroyed. and at least 15 enemy aircraft were brought down.
area run east and west and the intervening wooded ridges
In the fury of these engagements ... our losses, which were
not considered excessive, in view of the results obtailled, are ideal for defense. The line: Aisne River-Oise-Aisne
were 35 aircraft. Over 150 Allied aircraft took part. A part Canal-Somme River, intercepted all communication be-
from the operation in the Sedan area, where success could tween the main Allied reserve mass and the forces in
not be achieved without casualty. the balance of aircraft losses Belgium and Northern France. The right Hank of this
remain heavily in Allied favor.-British Air Ministry.
defensive line could be turned only by crossing the wide
swampy Somme estuary, or by a landing attack on the
T otallosses of the opponent on May 14 amoullted to more
than 200 planes of which 170 were shot down in air fights.
Norman coast.
More than 70 British and French planes were shot down at (7) The Allies' communication system was systemati-
one point alone. Thirty-five of our own planes are missing. cally disrupted by aircraft and parachute troops. Addi-
--German High Command.
tional impedance to Allied transport was afforded by the
:Vhen the German High Command admits the loss of systematic bombing and machine-gunning of refugees.
thlrry-five planes missing in one day it is probable that the Particular attention was given from the very first day to
actual losses were closer to I 00. We may be sure that all ports and railroad and road centers serving for the
an epic air battle was fought over the Meuse. Beyond supply and reinforcement of the northern Allied armies.
the Meuse the principal penetration was directed through- (8) The one weakness of the plan lay in the vul-
OUtits course entirely along high ground suitable for the nerability of the communications network available to the
operations of mechanized and motorized units. The penetrating attack-particularly in the area: Valenciennes
swampy land along the Sambre, and the defensible east- -St. Quentin-Arras. The strongly fortified Sambre
west river lines to the south were attacked only in so far Valley and the Somme-Aisne line converge toward the


-- MAV 21ST
---- MAY 220-230
- MAY 24TH-25TH
-- MAY 26TH-21TH
----- MAY 28TH-29TH
o 10
20 30
.0 ~ eo
10 Map 3
SCAL( IN .. ,L£S

west, with the narrowest point between Peronne and the IX Armies retired toward the north, and Weyg:lOd's im-
fortified areas of Valenciennes and Maubeuge. By the pending counterattack northward from Amiens-Peronne
time this narrow sector would be reached, the Allied north- was abandoned.
ern armies could be expected to have become well con- The theory of the double penetration as I presented it
centrated, and would probably be counterattacking to- in 1936 did not include consideration of the method to be
ward the south. The main Allied reserves would be com- used in accomplishing the final annihilation of the defend-
ing up from Paris. Moreover, by tbt time the pene- er's isolated wing. The German solution seems to be to
trating force would have lost materially in aircraft and cut it up into segments by successive pincer movements,
tanks, and its combat power would be further reduced thus disrupting all communications and organization, and
by fatigue and the exhaustion of ammunition and food leaving each seginent to be cut to pieces, or to surrender or
supplies. The attack had to be planned to conserve its starve.
most powerful effort for the break-through at this point. Several explanations may be advanced for the failure of
In the event, the attack barely outstripped the defense. the principal penetration to prevent the escape of a large
The most advanced mechanized spearheads had barely part of the isolated Allied force. Most important, perhaps,
passed Arras and fanned out toward Amiens, Abbeville was the remarkable skill and resiliency of the Allied forces
and St. Pol (map 3)' when the French VII and IX in rear-guard fighting. Time and again the Allies fought
Armies struck to the south between Cambrai and Arras, the Germans to a standstill, and then pulled out of a
deflecting the German main route of advance to the south threatened double envelopment just in time: at Maubeuge
of the old Roman road from Cambrai to Arras. Instead of - Valenciennes; at Arras - Cambrai - Bapaume; at
a gap of some forty miles, as planned, the penetration was Ghent; and at Y pres. The German westward attack north
forced to squeeze through a bottleneck of only eleven of Antwerp and Ghent was too slow, or had insufficient
miles, between the Somme and Bapaume. The quad- power. When the full story is known, the resistance of
rangle: Arras-Cambrai-St. Quentin-Albert, was not the Belgian Army in this area may prove to have been
a healthy area to be in between May 20 and 27, decisive in saving the port of Dunkirk to the Allies. It
After May 27, when pincer attacks northward through may be that by May 27 the Germans had suffered such
Vimy and westward through Orchies threatened encircle- tremendous losses in combat power that they had insuffi-
ment of the large French force on the line: Valenciennes cient reserves to finish the job. Judged by the experience
-Cambrai-Bapaume-Arras, the success of the double of our own tankers on maneuvers, most of the German
penetration maneuver was assured. The French VII and tankers must have been dead at the wheel by that time.
Jnd a considerable number of vehicles must have been to one at selected spOts. The French simply lacked the
immobilized with minor mechanical troubles, or for lack power to prevent a break-through.
of gas and ammunition. It may be that by why 27 the The Battle for France shows most of the characteristics
Germans were already withdrawing divisions for rest, of the double penetration. There is the secondary pene-
reorg:1l1ization and repair, preparatory to the drive along trating attack on June 5 to fix the Allied reserves. There
the Oise. Probably the truth includes all these factors. is the holding attack in the difficult corridor between the
\Vith the ethics of invasion of the neutral countries, the Oise and the Ourcq. There is the widely divergent, and
question of responsibility for the initial break-through at tremendously powerful principal penetration, launched on
tile N[euse, the practicability of a French counterattack June 9 from the Aisne straight up the valleys of the wfeuse,
from the vicinity of Peronne, the cost to the Germans in Marne, Aube, and Seine, toward Besancron and Dijon, to
casualties, planes and tanks, or the numbers of Allied surround the Nhginot Line. Owing to the overwhelming
trOOpssaved in the unforgettable retreat, this article is not combat superiority of the attacker, however, it was not
concerned. The important thing to be considered is that a necessary to assign a defensive mission to the secondary
complete penetration was effected, and that the isolated penetration. This force possessed a sufficient superiority
wing was eliminated as an effective combat force-a large of combat power to engage in some surrounding and
part for the duration of the war, the remainder for several pursuing of its own. Instead of the double penetration
months at least. Considering tanks, trucks, and planes, as visualized in the theory, this was a double envelopment,
well as personnel, the effect, so far as the immediate turned inside Out.
strategic situation was concerned, was the same as though The details of the Battle of France, like those of the
five or six Allied field armies had been destroyed. Battle of Flanders, are obscure, because of the extreme
rapidity of development and the particularly severe cen-
During the battle of annihilation in Flanders, General sorship on both sides. One would like to know how the
Weygand was hurriedly regrouping, organizing a defense gasoline and ammunition supply kept up with the ad-
in depth along the Somme-Ailette-Aisne line, and in- vance; why Paris was abandoned; why Metz capitulated
structing his forces in improvised tactics for countering the when Montmedy managed to hold out for six weeks. Par-
coming plane-tank-motor attack. There appears to have ticularly interesting are the questions of organization for
been little question that the next attack would be against stream-crossing by mechanized divisions, and the means
the French, and that it would be launched without delay. by which the various arms were so perfectly coordinated
The French line was badly over-extended. Allied com- in all operations. Most of these points will be clarified
bat power was reduced by four or five field armies, not to only after the war is ended.
mention disrupted communications and loss of the Little One point emerges clearly: that the German armies had
}"hginot Line. Upon the reduced force fell the necessity an overwhelming supericrity in immediately available ef-
of occupying and defending not only the additional front- fective combat power. When fire-power was needed, it
age originally allocated to the lost armies, but the Italian was on the spot ready to be used. Accounts by Allied
frontier as well. It is probable that on June 5 when the survivors of Flanders abound in comments to the effect
blow fell, the combat power of the Germans between that they "never had a real go at Jerry." Of course not;
Abbeville and Montmedy was twice that of the French . . they were never meant to. The whole show was designed
And since the Germans possessed the initiative and su- for speed and overwhelming power. The Germans had
perior mobility, this proportion could easily be made four both.
.fi9htnin9 Wa'La9ainst me allies
The 34-day period ending June 13, 1940, with the fall the war home to Britain and she made a mighty effort to
of Paris held events second to none in military history. dislodge the Germans already securely installed in cemral
Adolf Hitler's war machine, using a new type of war- Norway. In spite of the weight of British sea power thi,
fare, swept through the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxem- campaign ended in defeat and withdrawal for the Allies.
bourg, and northern France, to capture the French capital. On May I the only action in Norway was taking place in
It is of course a task for militaI')' experts to analyze the extreme north near Narvik, which finally fell under
and explain the new measures that revolutionized warfare permanent German control later on.
in a period of five weeks. The following is a presentation Smarting from her failure in Norway, Britain was again
in chronological order of the principal events in the driven into action by the German invasion of the Low
campaign, made after comparing the information given Countries on wray 10. Here the Allies felt they would at
in the high command communiques with the actual prog- least be in a position to succeed, for Holland could be
ress of the German advance. Hooded to slow up the German mechanized advance, and
This campaign, the greatest offensive of all time, de- the strong defenses along the Albert Canal in Belgium
pended for its success on three general factors: (I) The would at least give Britain and France time to rush in
perfect coordination, training, and equipment of the troops.
Reich's army; (2) The lack of preparedness on the part The first ace up the Nazi sleeve was the parachutist.
of the Allies for the incredibly swift action of the panzer After suitable preparation by undercover agents and the
divisions and their Sturzenkampfer or dive-bomber sup- Fifth Column, squadrons of transport planes Hew over
port; (3) A lack of understanding on the part of the important airdromes and communication junctions drop-
Allied high command of the plans of the German staff. ping hundreds of soldiers equipped with a fantastic variety
The end of the First World War left the Allies with a of weapons, with instructions to hold these points as long
c1e:lr knowledge of the plans of Schlieffen, German as possible, and then destroy their usefulness. At Rotter-
Chief of Staff before the War, and why these failed. Every dam, so large a force was dropped, armed with light ma-
soldier knew that the original scheme of operations called chine guns, that they managed to hold a considerable part
for a predominantly strong right-wing attack, intended of the city until the main army arrived. Near The Hague,
to engulf the channel ports and then encircle Paris. A these troops were joined by men landed by fast speedboats.
series of blunders on the part of the Imperial General Staff,The Queen narrowly escaped being taken prisoner.
including the weakening of the right wing to bolster the A decisive factor in the conquest of Holland was the
drive in the Lorraine sector, had left a strong British army action of many Nazi sympathizers and actual Germ:m
in Artois and Flanders which could attack on a line all . agents sprinkled throughout the country in preventing the
the way from Y pres to the Oise. The first battle of the Hooding of major portions of the country. Where the
Marne would have lost much of its effect had the right Hoodgates were opened thousands of small rubber boats
Hank of the German forces been protected by the English were used by the invaders.
Channel. After the' whole of the northern section around Gron-
The Allied high command probably anticipated a repe- ingen was 0ccupied, a force of two or three light mecha-
tition of this procedure, with more emphasis on the drive nized divisions was sent west through Arnheim to Rot-
along the Flanders coast from the north. Little did they terdam. This force quickly took over Amsterdam, The
visualize the audacious maneuver of a break-through atHague, and the peninsula to the north, then turned its
Sedan and the consequent cutting of communications attention to the capture of the islands in Zeeland Province
between the Allied armies in the north and those in the to the northwest of Antwerp.
south. Nevertheless this plan was most successfully car- The conquest of Holland, thus effected, was important
ried out by the armies of von Reichenau, and the BEF in many ways, but was perhaps of predominant military
was surrounded and driven out along with the best of the value in that it exposed the Albert Canal and Antwerp to
French mechanized divisions. attack. The operation which had started from Munster
could now turn southward.
THE INVASION OF THE Low COUNTRIES AND THE Simultaneous with the operations across the Netherlands
BREAK-THROUGH AT SEDAN frontier, a strong attack was launched through Maastricht
Until Tuesday, April 9, after eight momhs of small- at Liege, an important cluster of forts on the Albert Canal.
scale patrol activities on the Western From, the world Possibly through the operations of the Fifth Column, at
wondered what to make of a war which never seemed to least one important bridge across the canal was not blown
start. But the invasion of Scandinavia on this date brought up until too late, and a vanguard of motorized troops swept


,It' ~
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( CD



(;;::;I GERMAN DRIVES IN 10 20 30 ...
40 ~ 60 70

1- Occupation of Northem Holland; II - Light Mechanized Force; III - Attack

agaimt Liege Forts; IV -Strollg Attack agaimt Namur; V -Break-through at Sedtl1l.

past Liege to Waremme, flanking the original Belgian deadly accuracy. The advance shock infantry began a sys-
positions. This drive swept on towards Louvain, while tematic liquidation of the concrete forts and machine-gun
the forces in Holland attacked the Antwerp area from the nests. With stunning speed these were followed up with
north. An important thrust just north of Luxembourg panzer divisions which broke through the lines and sped
crossed the Meuse near Namur, then proceeded towards on to further objectives in the rear. Spreading fanwise to
Brussels from the southeast, assisting by a flank operation the west, north, and south behind the rest of the fortified
the fall of stubbornly defended Louvain. The gateway to line, the Germans succeeded in rolling up the flanks of the
Brussels was clear. defenders, widening the breach across the frontier, and at
. With the most important line of Belgian defense posi- the same time advancing to the Aisne on the south, and
tions successfully mopped up, and the fall of Brussels im- Laon, St. Quentin, and Le Cateau on the west.
minent, the next phase in the operations began. A fierce The French explanation of the break-through admitted
attack was launched south of Bouillon against the Sedan that the best French troops had been withdrawn from the
sector on the Maginot Line extension. The now familiar Ardennes sector and sent into Belgium in anticipation of
Stuka dive bombers dropped tons of explosives with a:1 intensified right-wing attack. General Corap's army
consisted of second-line troops incapable of quick, decisive Allies. Since the Belgian surrender exposed the whole
action, according to the French high command, making it northern flank of these forces, already hard pressed and in
possible for the Germans to achieve their initial successes. retreat, there was only one course open: retreat to the
In any case, a large body of French troops was surrounded Channel and evacuation to England. It was tragic for the
in the Maubeuge area by German advances which fol- English and French that their soldiers had no chance to
lowed swiftly after the liquidation of the Namur forts and show their courage and fortitude except during a disastrous
the crossing of the Sambre river and which were coOrdi- retreat, but such was the case. Swarms of boats of all
nated with the St. Quentin and Le Cateau operations to types and tonnages evacuated large numbers of these men
the south. from Dunkirk, the only Channel port not occll;pied by
Germany, while a fortunate mist made operations by the
The break-through at Sedan had startled the world, but German air force difficult. Complete annihilation was
the news which followed was cataclysmic. In the short avoided only by the most skillful rear-guard action. It was
space of about twenty-four hours Amiens, Abbeville, and evident to many experts as early as May 25 that the Allies
Arras had fallen to the advancing Teutonic legions. All were faced with a colossalmilitary disaster, and that Hitler
communications had been severed between the BEF and had taken a long step towards ev~ntual victory. Although
the main French armies to the south. To make affairs many men had escaped alive from Flanders, they had left
more serious for the Allies, the flower of the French mecha- behind the greatest part of their equipment, including all-
nized forces also was north of the German salient. At important tanks and artillery which could not be replaced
the time this news was received it seemed impossible for before many months. The mere handful of Allied mecha-
this audacious maneuver to succeed. Surely a counter- nized divisions had been reduced to one or perhaps two
attack by Weygand's armies in the south co~ld cut across which had been stationed on the southern front, and this
the German neck and effect a junction with the forces remnant was to be pitted against Hitler's fifteen or six-
further north. For a time, with this gap only slightly teen divisions, individually larger and more powerful.
more than a dozen miles in width between Bapaume and
Peronne, the German salient seemed in danger, but as the
days passed, Montreuil, St. Pol, St. Orner, Boulogne, and On Tuesday, June 4, most of the Allied troops had been
finally Calais, came under German domination while the driven out of Flanders and the Germans were able to under-
Allies made little or no progress along the Somme. In take the next phase of the war. French planes on recon-
spite of an almost constant pounding by French artillery naissance reported a gigantic turning movement being
along the upper Somme, and British artillery near Ba- executed by the German armies from the Flanders bartle-
paume and Cambrai, and even in the face of French tank field towards the south. The next operation of the Ger-
attacks east of Amiens, the German lines of communi- mans was no longer in doubt. The French had barely
cation were intact. The Germans in defending.this narrow time to begin consolidation of their positions along the
gap used a defense against the French tanks which, if used Somme and Aisne Rivers when on June 5 the Germans
earlier by the French, might have effectively slowed down started their huge drive on Paris.
the German armored divisions. A large number of anti- At the start of the attack the Stuka dive bombers and
tank guns and light artillery pieces were arranged in a panzer divisions did not put in an appearance. Fierce in-
checkerboard pattern in a deep belt across the area to be fantry attacks were launched and succeeded in establish-
protected, and the French mechanized cavalry was stopped ing bridgeheads at various important points along the
in its tracks. fronts. This attack cleared out many advance artillery po-
This second break-through of tqe Allied lines on the sitions which would have menaced an attack by tanks. On
Somme was effected in much the same way as the original the second and third day the tanks went over the top, sup-
one in the Ardennes, and was likewise immediately ex- ported by the air force, and the already battered French
ploited by panzer divisions, but more light units were line began to bend and bulge. Strong motorized units, fol-
used in the advance up the Channel coast. Motorcyclists lowed in turn by mechanized forces and infantry divisions,
with machine guns as well as fast armored cars were in the poured across the Abbeville bridgehead, drove across the
van, while parachutists again were used to occupy key Bresle River, past Neufchateau, to reach Forge-les-Eaux.
points behind the Allied lines. The capture of General Advances in the Peronne sector accompanied by crossings
Giraud with his staff, as well as the destruction of the of the Somme at Ham and advances down the Oise to La
French Ninth Army, were primary consequences of this Fere turned both flanks of the Somme defense line, forcing
maneuver. French troops to retreat to a line running roughly from
As if the Allied cause had not suffered enough, a new Aumale to Noyon. Simultaneously, German advances
blow was to come, the coup de grace of the Flanders were threatening Soissons, bridgeheads had been thrown
armies. Driven back across the Dendre, Scheldt and Lys across the Aisne and crossings of the Somme-Aisne Canal
Rivers in rapid succession the Belgian armies, short of all had been made. The Chemin-des-Dames heights were
necessary supplies and suffering untold casualties, capitu- under German control and another obstacle between the
lated to Germany on Tuesday, May 28. Simultaneously Germans and Paris had been removed.
the southern German forces had occupied Vimy Ridge and The most important action at this time, however, was
Lens, further tightening up the ring of steel around the being carried on by the mechanized column which had
occupied Forge-les-Eaux. From this poine the forces pro- vance from the Soissons region did not come as a surprise.
ceeded to Gisors, about thirty-five miles northwest of The German capture of Reims was the beginning of
Paris, and to Rouen on the lower Seine. Spreading out another phase of the offensive which was the encirclemenr
fanwise the\' took Beauvais on the east and advanced of the Maginot Line, and the occupation of Paris was a
cowards Fe~am p to the west on the Channel. The ad- foregone conclusion. The Reynaud governmene had al-
vance to Beauvais further outRanked the French armies ready gone to Tours, and Paris had been declared an open
due north of Paris, forcing a withdrawal to a poine south city. General Herring, military governor of Paris and
of Monedidier, while the advance toward Fecamp started commander of the troops in that area, relinquished his
the encirclemene of two or three British divisions which governorship and withdrew his troops to the south, leav-
attempted evacuation from Vallery-en-Caux, an evacua- ing the way clear for a German enery.
tion only partially successful according to British spokes- On Thursday, June 13, Paris fell. The German van-
men. guard rolled down the Champs Elysees. The end was
Thus with the German right Rank completing an ad- soon to come. Besides being a military and economic blow
vance from Abbeville across the Bresle River, through to the Allies, the loss of Paris was a terrific blow to their
Forge-les-Eaux, south to Rouen, and finally across the morale. The state of the French forces at this juncture
lower Seine north of Louviers, coordinated with the cross- has been shown by the incredibly swift advance of the
ina~ of the Aisne between Soissons and Neufchatel-sur- Germans to Foneainebleau, Orleans and Nanees in the
Aisne, the position of the French armies north of Paris was southwest, and to the Swiss froneier south of Gray in the
seriously threatened. A tweney-mile retreat down the east, invalidating and cutting off the Maginot fortifica-
Oise from Noyon to Beaumone was necessary, while tions.
French forces in the Soissons sector, also outRanked, re- Verdun had fallen at the first German assault. With
treated to Betz, a dozen miles north of Ivfeaux. The tragic irony, the man who saved Verdun in the First
news that the German Army had crossed the Marne on a World War, Marshal Petain as Premier of France on June
twelve-mile front east of Chateau-Thierry after an ad- 16, 1940, was forced to offer an armistice to Hider.
An army of long service, isolated in hostile territory,
becomes an entity, acquires a personality. Though it is a
composite of many men, it displays the traits and char-
acteristics, of an individual. That proved true of a number
of the Roman leCTions,of
some of the British expeditionary /
forces which, thrust the br-Rung empire deep into India
and Africa. It was also true of the American army that
took patt in the Indian campaigns following the' Civil
Thus the story of this Indian-fighting army is in a sense
a biography. It covers a life span of, roughly, from 1865
to 1898, although remnants of the Old Army, as it was
then called, fought in Cuba, the Philippines, and in
France in the first World War.
By act of Congress, out of necessity. So might be de-
scribed the parentage of this army. It favored and W3S
largely brought up by its mother. Its sire neglected and
11131tre3tedit and frequently disowned it. Fortul1:ltely its
birth resembled that of Minerva who sprang full-pano-
plied from the brow of Jove, for never in our history has
an army better manned, equipped and trained (though it
had much to learn about fighting Indi3ns) taken the field
at the outbreak of hostilities. There had been no long in-
terval of peace to permit the operation of our traditional
policy of indifference to and shrinkage of the military
establishment. Staff and ranks were not filled, as before
and since, with recruits and a leaveninCT ::J
of veterans, but
with the vigorous, seasoned survivors of the hard-fought
Civil War battles. Accordingly it was able, as indeed it
was often compelled, to take care of itself, and to a strong
degree it developed self-reliance and initiative.
High valor it possesed, gallantry sometimes degenerat-
ing into foolhardy rashness. It was alternately proud of
itself and bored and disgusted with its lot. As a man is
torn by conflicting emotions, so was this army the victim

of internal dissensions and jealousies; while its efficiency bacco, could spit with accuracy in a rattlesnake's eye and
temporarily suffered, it always swung back into line. did. Once an 3rmy scout, hiding in a buffalo wallow from
Honor and tradition, loyalty and duty, were its gods- a band of Indians, was confronted by a big rattler, coiled
gods worshipped by deeds, seldom words-gods disguised and ready to strike; he saved himself with a well-directed
as discipline and a matter-of-fact acceptance of orders. And scre3m of brown juice which blinded the reptile. Pipes
the symbols of the army's bith, usually only inwardly were the favorite smoke; they were cheaper, more practi-
acknowledged were these: The Rag waving over the c31 on wind-swept plains and showed less light, which
frontier posts and the guidon snapping in the rush of a might draw Indian arrows, than cigars and the later
charge. The uniform of blue it so carelessly wore. The cigarette. Some officers drank themselves to death or out
anthem the band played at Retreat and the bugle call float- of the service. On paydays the rank and file converted
ing in the still air of the plains or ringing brazenly in Uncle Sam's scanty stipend into rotgut whiskey and afrer
canyons to stir its fighting heart. a night of hell-raising crammed the guardhouse. The
It owned to the usual army vices. It chewed plug to- army chased women on occasion, though occasion seldom
'1 . ',. I •

It was a tough,
hard-swearing, devil-may-care outfit

offeredduring its constant campaigning and at its isolated adapted felt campaign hat. For a period the Prussian
stations. It was a tough, hard-swearing devil-may-care spiked helmet and festoons of braid characterized a dress
outfit, yet it almost always accepted the iron grip of dis- uniform which became the American soldier not at all.
cipline and enforced it upon itself. The field-service uniform of loose blue tunic with breeches
It was ponrayed, was this army, in drawings and paint- in lighter blue, striped with white (later pale blue) for
ings by Remington, by Zogbaum, De Thulstrup, and infantry, yellow for cavalry, and red for anillery, was not
others, who caught it in action. The cumbersome cameras as suitable in color as the later khaki. No bandbox soldier
of the day snapped it in garrison: soldiers at the pay was the Doughboy swinging along with riRe and blanket
• table; officers and their families on the porches of their roll over his shoulders or the booted and spurred trooper,
quarters; thin lines of troops on the drill ground. You see bandana knotted around his neck, saber and pistol at his
sun-bronzed men, bearded far less frequently than in the side, carbine in saddleboot. He stripped to a shirt to
Civil War but usually adorned with mustaches ranging fight under the Arizona sun or bundled in a greatcoat
from the trim to the handlebar. The forage cap, which with fur cap and earflaps against the Montana winter. He
Wasa replica of the French kepi, gave way to the better- was classed as a guerilla type by the super-military Ger-

man. the white-and-gold hussar of Austria. and the Brit- raided scattered ranches, and the Apaches swept back and
isher smart in scarlet. But this rough-and-ready. hard- forth across the border to scalp Americans or Mexicans
bitten Indian fighter. as picturesque as his surroundings with fine impartiality.
and his foe. was the most dashing. romantic figure in all Regulars? There were not a great many of them left
our wars. after Appomattox. In 1860 the Regular Army had nutn-
His deeds and his way of life were chronicled in the bered only 16,000. Throughout the war it carried no
official reports. that mass of paperwork military usage more than 26.000 on its rolls. Heavy casualties had deci-
demands; in accounts by newspaper correspondents and mated its ranks, and seldom had the gaps been filled, for
by the writing men in its own ranks and. not least, in the there was no bounty for enlistment in the Regulars. But
letters of devoted Army women who shared its perils and now replacements flowed in. Welcomed were tnany of
hardships in remote posts. Every page and picture reveals the best Volunteers, from high-ranking officersto enlisted
as its background two prime influences which made this men. Demotions, regardless of war record or merit, Were
army unique in our or any other annals. inevitable in the new, greatly reduced organizations. Take
By these twain was it wrought and moulded, as is a it or leave it, was the edict. They took it-there Were
man by his environment and the antagonistic forces he throngs of applicants waiting. -"Corps commanders be-
encounters. came colonels, brigade commanders took new rank as
First, by the vivid theater of its warfare-the West. majors and captains, and not a few who had commanded
There the army lived and marched and campaigned in regiments of Volunteers in battle accepted commissions as
surroundings of surpassing beauty or cruel harshness. second lieutenants." Former sergeants, who had won a
Over mountain and mesa. In forest or lava bed. Through commision for gallantry in action, stepped back into the
parching, shriveling desert and the snowdrifts of subzero ranks. Long years without promotion would be the
plateau. destiny of many. Gray-haired lieutenants would be no
And secondly, by its adversaries. The plains Indians, phenomenon in the Indian wars.
mounted on the descendants of Coronado's chargers, were Here were men with the love of the army too deeply
termed "the finest light horsemen the world ever has seen, ingrained in them to leave it. Restless, footloose men
with tactics that have never been equalled by Bedouin, who knew no other profession than soldiering and were
Cossack, Numidian, or Tartar at his best." The fierce, unwilling to learn one. Back into uniform came veterans
elusive tribes of the Southwest. The stubborn Modocs in who, finding stay-at-homes had married their girls or
their natural fortresses. The valiant Nez Perce, who grabbed their jobs, cursed their luck and sought the near-
made one of the most magnificent fighting retreats in est recruiting station. Here rallied youths, disappointed
history. Nor did the red man lack great leaders when he because they had been just too young to serve in the last
fought under such chieftains as Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, war and determined to see some Indian fighting-lads
Roman Nose, American Horse, Black Kettle, Sitting Bull, from West Point, youngsters from civil life.
Gall, and Joseph. Through all the period of the Indian wars they would
II keep coming, both the cream and the dregs. Farm boys,
This army was, so to speak, practically a posthumous bored clerks, blacksmiths, salesmen who drank themselves
child. When first it came into being, the far greater array out of a job. Bowery bums dragged out of the gutter.
from which it sprang was passing out of existence. At Criminals one jump ahead of the police enlisting under
scores of camps and depots, the Grand Army that had con- assumed names. Men who joined simply as a means to
quered the Confederacy was being disbanded. Regiments reach the goldfields and who deserted or tried to at the
marched through Washington in the victory parade and first opportunity. Thus have the ranks of all armies
stacked arms. Comrades b~tween whom lay the strong throughout history been filled by the call of adventure or a
bond of battle said farewell. One million, thirty-four thou- craving for glory. By the need of food, clothing, and
sand Volunteers and Militia, war-weary and homesick, shelter of a sort. By the necessity of escaping from the
were rapidly mustered out. They hastened back where law or from one's self. By motives varying from the
rejoicing families and flag-decked, cheering towns wel- patriotic to the strictly dishonorable.
comed them with honor due. But the Regulars stood fast. Yet this army was extraordinary in several respects.
There was need of them still. For one, it contained an amazing number of men who
Regulars must garrison the vanguished South for the were not whole. By no means could they be called dis-
bitter years of Reconstruction. Regulars, hard-riding abled or crippled, for they served through hard campaigns,
squadrons under Phil Sheridan, must mass on the Rio neither asking any favor nor sparing themselves. Yet
Grande until Louis Napoleon wryly withdrew his French most of them would never have passed a W orId War
invaders from Mexico, sealing the doom of the Emperor medical board. Thousands carried wounds from the Civil
Maximilian. Desperate and insistent came the call from War and subsequently from Indian bullets or arrows. Per-
the West for Regulars to relieve state troops, tired and haps no more than scars that ached in damp weather, but
some of them even mutinous-summonses from all the not infrequently far worse than that-hurts on which re-
wide frontier where the Sioux and Cheyennes wiped out tirement for disability justly could have been demanded.
wagon-trains and settlements, the Kiowas and Comanches A one-armed general was followed by an adjutant who

I tnAI

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rode with an artificial leg; and there were others lacking Heard as often as a foreign accent or a Yankee twang
a leg or an arm. Cavalrymen who limped were not un- was the soft drawl of men who, until the Battle of Gettys-
common, such as the Civil War veteran who, enlisting in burg, almost had made another nation--ex-Confederates.
a regiment on active service in Montana, was spotted as While the Civil War was still in progress, hundreds of
lame. "It's an old wound and it's only so once in a while. captured Southerners had been released from Yankee
I can ride first-rate," he pleaded and was assigned to duty. prisons to fight the Indian tribes in the West, with the
Missing fingers and toes, frozen off in winter expeditions, promise that they would not be asked to serve against
were regarded only as minor inconveniences. One good their own people. Reluctant though they were to ex-
eye was enough. Rheumatism might reduce a ca~paigner change their gray uniforms for blue, they preferred the
to being dragged along on a travois for a while, yet his plains to a cell. They were called "galvanized Yankees"
begging not to be sent to the rear would be heeded if he either because of the fact that iron, when galvanized,
proved able to mount his horse again within a reasonable changes color as they did the shade of their uniforms or
time. because their freedom after prison inactivity resembled the
The French Foreign Legion could not outmatch this effect of a galvanic shock on inert bodies. Their number
American army in variety of nationalities. Besides the was augmented after the surrender at Appomattox by
native Americans, it was full of Irish, Germans, French, comrades who despaired of making a living in the prostrate
British, Scandinavians, Italians, Russians, and others. South or could not endure the carpetbagger regime.
Many of the foreign-born had fought in the Civil War, Among these veterans were officers who, having fought
and so much of the subsequent stream of immigration against the Army of the United States, were now dis-
flowed into the service that the Army became one of the barred by law from holding commissions in it, and conse-
busiest sections of the great American melting pot. Roll quently compelled to serve in the ranks. A former captain
calls sounded like the line-up of a Notre Dame football of the Confederacy became a trumpeter in this Indian-
team. fighting army. Able officers,who had led a battalion, com-
Orders barked in a thick Irish brogue or with a guttural pany or platoon under Lee, relinquished their shoulder
German accent were commonplace. The Army drew the straps for the chevrons of a sergeant or corpora1. In later
sons of Erin as irresistibly as police forces. Woe betide the years the ban against their receiving commissions was
peace of a post when the paymaster was rash enough to ended, and some rose to high rank, notably "Fighting
payoff on St. Patrick's Day. In numbers and with aban- Joe" Wheeler. The story goes that it was that one-time
don the Hibernian celebrated. But he absorbed hard cam- Confederate cavalryman who, leading a charge against the
paigning as readily as hard liquor, and Harrigan & Hart Spaniards at Las Guasimas, Cuba, in I~8, turned time
sang his praises in the minstrel shows of the 70's. backward by whooping a Rebel yell, as the enemy broke,
and shouting, "Come on, boys. We've got the damn
There was Sergeant John McCaffery and Captain Dona-
Yankees on the run!"
Negroes, many of them fresh from slavery, served in
Oh, they made us march and toe the mark in gallant Com-
this cosmopolitan army under white officers. Fine horse-
pany Q.
men, hard fighters, well disciplined, they formed such
oh, the drums would roll. Upon my soul, this is the style
splendid regiments as the 10th Cavalry. From their woolly
we'd go: hair and the shaggy hide coats they wore on winter cam-
Forty miles a day on beans and hay in the Regular Army,
paigns, they were christened "Buffalo soldiers" by the In-
Fine soldiers, too, and hardly less predominant in num- And even Indians were represented in this force ar-
bers were the Germans. Though many of them had fled rayed against their own race. Pawnees, Crows, Shoshones,
the Vaterland to escape compulsory military service, they and Rees (Arickarees) donned the blue uniform, some-
did not hesitate to enlist voluntarily in the Army of the times shedding it to daub on warpaint when they went
United States. Army bands were composed almost en- into action. Hating the all-conquering Sioux who had
tirely of Germans and Italians. In 1870 German musicians driven them from their hunting grounds, these lesser
in several garrisons blared forth Die Wacht am Rhein tribes helped fight the white man's battles-superb scouts,
to celebrate the victories of the Franco-Prussian War. brave warriors. Scout and police companies were later on
Although French-born soldiers sang Le Marseillaise at the organized from subdued tribes of the Apaches and Sioux.
top of their lungs, they were drowned out, and fists and Rarely were the red men united; divided, they fell. The
horns flew till the guard was turned out. However, on the subjugated, loving fighting for its own sake or seeing the
whole there was little trouble among medley of nations handwriting on the wall, supported their former foe in
serving together loyally in the army of their adopted completing the conquest of their brethren.
country. An Austrian baron, ruined by gambling, march- Th~ last state troops on active service in the West were
ed uncomplainingly as a private of infantry. The sergeant, relieved in the summer of 1866. An army, formed from
who was an Eton graduate, died as gallantly under the the heterogeneous elements just described, then took over.
arrows of the Cheyennes for his new land as he would had At the outset it was, of course, a regular army in name
his forebears come over on the Mayflower. only. As has been declared it contained many veterans but
its component of Regulars (enlisted men and officers, destiniesof the Army and fought itsbattles with Congress
mostly West Pointers commissioned before and during the and the Indian Bureau. Phil Sheridan, who had seen In-
Civil War) was small. However, that nucleus would dian service as a young lieutenant, commanded the De-
sufficefor the transmutation. The old officersand, most of partment of the West. Under their orders, blue columns
all,the old noncoms, who are the backbone of any army, marched and counter-marched through the plain and
hammered this new one into a Regular organization. Aid- desert led by field commanders: Crook and Mackenzie
ing them immeasurably were the traditions of the service. and Miles; Canby, Howard, Terry, Gibbon, Custer,
As compared with the British, for instance, the United Henry, Merritt, Otis, and the rest.
States Army could boast few such immemorial usages. Ride today through the peaceful lands which were once
Yet the historiesof certain American regiments stretched Indian country, and imagination may call up one of those
back, unbroken, to the Revolution. They had fought blue columns out of the midst of some distant dust cloud
through four wars and Indian uprisings besides. Though rolling up from the sagebrush. Fanned far out ahead,
theircolors usually rested cased in a corner of the Colonel's Indian scouts-Crows or Rees under a young white lieu-
quarters, upon them, emblazoned in gold, were battle tenant, or Pawnees led by the redoubtable North brothers.
honors-Y orktown, Lundys Lane, Chapultepec, Gettys- Then advance guard and flankers. The officer in com-
burg. Washington had praised an exploit of this regi- mand and his staff. Riding with them Buffalo Bill or Jim
ment; Zach Taylor-Old Rough and Ready-had cited Bridger or one of the other mountain men whose services
that one. This battery was once Alexander Hamilton's. to the Army were invaluable. Perhaps a newspaper cor-
Their rollswere lustrous with the names of their heroes. respondent such as Mark Kellogg of the New York
Here and there was preserved a regimental custom, a H era/d, to die at Little Big Horn with Custer. Chatting
ceremony. Some regiments marched proudly to the stir- with him may be the young cavalry officer,Charles King,
ring strains of their own battle march and wore their who would write so many storiesof army life.That horse-
insignia like a decoration. So, hallowed by time and man with a sketch-pad in his kit would be Fred Reming-
strengthened by the continuity of service of regular or- ton, saddle-weary but stillgenial; once after a thirty-mile
ganizations, was fostered that esprit de corps which, prized ride he dismounted painfully and groaned to the troop
by the old soldier and instilledinto the recruit,carries a commander, "Captain, I've got the heart of a cavalryman
body of fighting men to victory or ralliesthem on a but the behind of a nursemaid." Also in the staff group
stricken field.
would be another civilian,the contract surgeon, although
The fact that this thing of the spirit,this intangible, he might be commissioned in the Medical Corps as was
should somehow have thriven and been maintained Leonard Wood, who served in the Apache campaigns,
through the Indian wars is altogether remarkable. Sel- commanded the Rough Riders in Cuba, became Chief of
dom was a whole regiment assembled in a single spot. Staff of the Army, and trained one of the best World War
Except for concentrations in a few larger campaigns, all divisions. Sometimes, making heavy weather of it on his
actionswere fought by small detachments of infantry and mount, might even be observed a naval officerwho had
cavalry,with perhaps an artillerypiece or two, or by single taken leave from dull sea duty and wangled a detail to the
troops or companies, or less. service that was seeing allthe action.
In this seriesof conflictsextending through the lastfour
Thuds of hoofs and tramp of marching feet. Troops of
decades of the nineteenth century, alone of allwars, militia
the line. Riding at heads of units and along the columns,
and reserves normally essential to supplement our small
their officers. Bluff and hearty, or mild-mannered men
professionalarmy, were not called to the colors.The Indian
of gentle demeanor. One who every day read his Bible in
Wars were won by soldiers who claimed and deserved the
the original Hebrew or Greek. Another a hard-drinking
proud titleof Regulars.
gambler who had pawned his Civil War sword of honor at
III the Post trader's.A scholar who between skirmishes toiled
The two great military mainstays of the Union-U. S. on translations of the h:enid and the Odes of Horace.
Grant, as General-in-Chief, and William Tecumseh Sher- One who was brute enough to string up a delinquent
man, as Chief of Staff-presided in Washington over the soldier by his thumbs tillthey pulled from their sockets,

contrasted with chivalrous, quiet-spoken leaders who their children and by their house guests, usually sisters or
owned the devotion of their men. An occasional skulker. sisters-in-law who in frontier posts seldom lacked an op-
Many a one who in spite of severe wounds would lead a portunity to marry into the Army too, if they thought
determined charge or a stubborn, last-ditch defense. The they could stand it. Hops, amateur theatricals, and card
incompetent and unht among them would be cleaned parties enlivened garrison existence. As for the Anny
from the Army List by the "Benzine Board" of 1~, children, they led the life of a juvenile Riley. School was
leaving a corps of "officers whose type has never been likely to be sporadic. They were given ponies as soon as
improved upon in any later state of our Army, or any they could bestride a saddle. Alarms and excursions and
other army in the world." tame Indians wandering through the post were frequent.
Marching behind them and beside them, the rank and Their friends might include Indian boys, kind old ser-
hIe. Young and old, fine soldier or shirker. Men who geants who carved toys for them, and even Buffalo Bill.
faced disablement or a quick death by bullet or arrow or an Opposite Officers' Row were the barracks of the men,
agonizing, slow one by torture; who endured incredible and on either side, the guardhouse, quartermaster store-
hardships, who performed back-breaking hard labor-all house, officers, and the hospital. Offices housed the com-
for $13 a month and food, clothing, and shelter, when any. manding officer, the long-suffering adjutant, that harassed
Hard-riding cavalry, mounted on sturdy Western mus- factotum, the quartermaster, and the paymaster whenever
tangs: sorrels, blacks, bays, and grays, leaving the gaudy he reached the post which was so often six or eight months
pinto or calico ponies to the Indians. Staunch infantry, late that an Army proverb ran:
more dreaded by the savages who preferred to match their
They say some disaster
own fine horsemanship against riders in blue rather than
Befell the paymaster.
launch a charge against the volleys of the steady foot. Per-
haps a howitzer carted in a six-mule wagon or some pack Clerks handling the rolls and requisitions were usually
artillery but all too rarely, for though they slowed the pace men of some education whose careers in civil life had been
of a march, nothing routed the red man as quickly as a ruined by drink. When one of them was reprimanded for
salvo of bursting shell. his habits by his captain who asked, "How is it that when-
Creaking wheels of supply wagons and ambulances. ever I get a clerk worth anything, he is a drunkard?" the
Cracking whips and, more explosive still, the language of backslider replied, "Sir, if it weren't for whiskey there
drivers, mule-skinners who "reduced profanity to a sci- wouldn't be any clerks in the Army."
ence, if not a fine art." Sun glistening on the sweating In the quartermaster storehouse there bulked large sup-
hides and flapping ears of their teams of Army mules, plies of hardtack so ancient that onCe a learned quarter-
cursed but prized as the king of toiling beasts-"unap- master sergeant addressed the weevils drilling therein in
proached in devilment, fathomless in cunning, born old the words of Napoleon at the Bartle of the Pyramids:
in crime, of disreputable paternity and incapable of pos- "Soldiers, forty centuries are looking down on your
terity, stolid, imperturbable, with no love for anything achievements today." The vicinity of the hospital was too
but the perpetration of tricks, no dexterity in aught save often tactlessly chosen by the band to practice "The Dead
the flinging of his heels, no desire for anything but rations, March" from Saul to the strains of which had been in-
and no affection at all." terred those who lay in the post cemetery under head-
A dust-eating rear guard passes. So vanishes the col- boards marked "Awaiting the Last Reveille."
umn returning through hostile territory to its base. Per- Outside the quadrangle lay quarters for the married
haps where its post stood, prairie grass sprouts today or on soldiers, called "Sudsville" because their wives usually
its site rises a town. But in such a town's square, the sur- eked out Army pay by doing the post washing. Further
viving veteran of the Indian wars still can visualize the away might be a sutler's store. Besides merchandise it
ghostly outlines of an Army post of the 70's or 80'S. might contain an officers' club and a canteen for the men.
Flanking one side of the square parade ground, Officers' When canteens selling beer were abolished by the influ-
Row-houses of brick, planks or unbarked logs. Dwell- ence on the government of temperance fanatics, they were
ing in them, making the best of them, Army wives- replaced by riotous, whiskey-selling "hog ranches" outside
ladies who under conditions often rather primitive some- the post boundaries.
how managed to preserve the amenities of civilization and Such was that little world of its own, the Army post,
the latest styles in bangs, bodices, and bustles. Given fairly spacious and open if not in hostile territory; other-
sometimes to gossiping, jealousies and tempests over the wise compact, constricted and stockaded and continuing
teapots when their husbands failed to receive a promotion to exist only because the Indians seldom possessed the
or were ranked out of quarters, but resourceful, enduring patience nor the heart for sieges.
and courageous. Heartsick with anxiety when their men
were absent on campaigns, yet themselves bravely facing IV
the possibility of an Iridian attack, when they were pre- The West was a great natural arena in which for thirty
pared to obey their husbands' orders to shoot themselves years or so was fought a bloody series of gladiatorial con-
with the pistols left with them rather than fall into the flicts. The Indian may be compared to the fleet, light-
hands of the savages. Their loneliness was mitigated by armed retiarius of the Romans, with his net and trident;
the soldier to the heavy-armored secular, wielding a short chance. Congress, making treaties with the Indians, which
sword. The slow pursuer would not begin to catch up it did not compel the emigrants and the prospectors to
his swift adversary until he learned to strike him in the keep, left the job to be done all over again by the Army.
winter when the red man was comparatively immobile. Confusion and cross purposes, skulduggery and useless
Watching the single combats and mass melees, spec- bloodshed.
tators were not infrequently present in the "stands." The march of empire had taken its westward path. A
Squaws and children on the hillsides or staring from the conquest, whether right or wrong, had been embarked
dark interiors of wigwams, as cavalry charged through the upon. It was stretched out over long years by a nation
\'illage. Army women and youngsters and settlers' fami- which could not make up its mind, which never exerted
lies in stockade, ranch-house or behind the canvas of but a fraction of its full strength.
wagons encircled by a whirling red ring. But a great un- They were little wars, our Indian wars. Their ultimate
seen audience, the nation, followed the wars through the result was a foregone conclusion. But let these pages from
newspapers. And it was no more unpartisan than the the record be illuminated and remembered.
Roman mob. There were more than two-hundred pitched battles be-
Settlers, railroad builders, buffalo hunters, and gold- tween the Army and the Indians from 18~ to 1875, with
rushers in the West cheered the Army or vehemently the soldiers heavily outnumbered in most of them. Many
cursed it when treaties or government interference pre- a forgotten minor skirmish meant life or death to all en-
vented the troops from giving protection. The East, for- gaged. From 1870 to 1887 there was almost incessant
getful of the long-past massacres by the Six Nations of the fighting with the Apaches; one regiment in Arizona took
Iroquois, sentimentally pitied the plight of the poor red part in ninety-seven actions. "From 1866 to 1~2 there
man and hysterically damned the Army for a gang of cut- was not a year, and hardly a three months, in which
throats. Renegade white traders sold the Indians repeating there was not some expedition against the Indians in the
riResand whiskey. Grafters in certain Indian agencies en- vast regions west of the Mississippi, and between the
riched themselves and stirred red embers into Raming re- Canadian and Mexican borders."
bellion. The Indian Bureau of the Department of the In- From that ordeal by fire the Indian-fighting army
terior hamstrung the Army right and left when it had the emerged with honor.

How will we recognize

distant tanks as friendly
or hostile?

What intensifies the difficulty of recognition and identi-

fication is the ever-increasing use of cover, concealment,
camouflage, color blending, elimination of distinctive
markings, use of neutral colors. These facilitate move-
ment on the battlefield, gain surprise, deceive the enemy.
But what deceives the enemy all too often deceives the
friend as well. On modern battlefields nobody can believe
his eyes.
A common question during last summer's Plattsburg
maneuvers was: "How can we tell enemy tanks from our
own?" The answer was easy when infantry tanks were
on our side and cavalry combat cars on the other: "Theirs
have double turrets."
But even this marked difference in type was not gen-
By Major erally known until it was disseminated, for the simple
reason that our army is woefully ignorant about its own
mechanized vehicles. Why? Because tanks have not been
Wendell G. Johnson seen, before the maneuvers of the past twelve months, by
more than a small fraction of the Army. Of foreign types

Infantry we know practically nothing. \Vhat chance have we had

to know them?
U nforcunately, recognition of tanks in general is no-
No mere map-problem phrase is "the fog of war" when where near as simple as it was in our peacetime maneuvers,
in real battles men have to stop, look, and even listen to at Plattsburg. Armored track-laying combat vehicles in
determine who's who. Afoot or mounted, entrucked, en- all armies have gradually become more and more alike.
tanked, or emplaned, in the smoky distance. friends look Distinguishing differences at a distance are minute or
much the same as enemies. The greater the distance and disappear entirely. The same may be said of other motor
the thicker the murk, the more difficult they are to recog- vehicles, of planes, guns, and military attire. Conse-
nize or identify. quencly, the questions "who's who," and "shall we shoot ~
Mistaken identity can bring about disaster when shoot- or not," are far more difficult to answer in modern warfare
ing irons are toted. It has caused men to be potted, truck than when red coats meant Britishers and blue pants
trains and guns to be strafed, planes to be winged, attack- Frenchmen.
ing troops to be fired on, and tanks rallying rearward to But an answer must be found. Means of recognition
be peppered-all by comrades in arms. and identification must be devised. As a one-time tanker
Shooting friends in the belief that they are enemies is and now an antitanker, I am concerned primarily with
tragic. But withholding fire on enemies for fear they may recognizing friendly from hostile tanks and identifying
be friends has also brought tragedy. Either kind of mis- both as to type and characteristics. \Vbat can be done to
take seldom goes uncensored or uncut into the pages of help antitank gunners, tank crews, and airplane bombers
military history . Yet in war memoirs and battle records in this matter?
many examples can be found. The World War and the In the British, German, and Russian armies these troop
Spanish civil war are full of them. carefully scudy their own and all foreign types of armore
1940 \'{'HO'S \X'HO? 329

vehicles. Thev-' learn everv./ visible, distinguish-
....... .......
reference. They are good for occasional study, but a
ing detail. We should do the same thing. soldier can't waste time referring to such a gadget when
Recognition training should be a part of all troop in- half a dozen tanks are bearing down on him.
struction, especially for scouts, ground observers including Once a group of men becomes thoroughly acquainted
antiaircraft guards and antitank guards, personnel of com- with our own machines, the same general procedure must
bat and observation aviation, tank crews, and antitank- follow with foreign tanks. Naturally, nobody is going to
aun squads. Instruction should begin with a study of our lend us foreign tanks to examine at close hand, but un-
~wn machines at close hand, then at a distance and in doubtedly there are plenry of pictures in G-2 files that
movement on rypical combat terrain. Items like track ar- could be used. The study of foreign tanks should include
rangement, size and number of bogie wheels, general armor thickness, armament, and speeds for each model.
contour, and location, number, and appearance of turrets All this training must be supplemented by a scheme of
and other projections should be pointed out, studied and recognition signals or markings that will work regardless
memorized. Silhouette charts and photographs of the dif- of camouflage, atmospheric conditions, distance, or direc-
ferent rypes of tanks should be hung up in barracks where tion of approach. Large, permanent markings on tanks
men can examine them at odd times. Even latrines might would, of course, help enemy and friend alike. Also, mud,
not be a bad place for contemplating of tank photos. fog, smoke, or camouflage might easily obliterate them.
T raining films of the tanks on various kinds of terrain Some non-permanent signal would be far better; one that
and series of still slides would be excellent to show what could be changed daily or even more often, and used only
our tanks look like from different angles and at varying on call or challenge, or at prescribed times. Such a signal
distances. shown or flashed by a tank upon demand from an antitank-
Rotating tables can be rigged up, and scale models gun squad would serve the same as the answer to a sentry's
made, so that one after another, the different tank types challenge.
could be examined from various angles and at increasing Not only antitank-gun squads, but also tank crews
distances. This would be a good way of testing training have to determine from afar whether friendly or hostile
progress, and good also for indoor work-especially on machines are approaching them. They have even more
indoor subcaliber antitank ranges. Perhaps animated films difficulty telling who's who. They lose direction, can't
could be made from these scale models.
Some foreign armies have distributed so-called silhou- Tanks are not ordinarily used at nigbt, but tbey do
ette charts showing profiles and miniature photos of vari- move into attack positions durin!! darkness. Hence
ous tanks. These can be carried in the pocket for ready tbey sbould me signals visible at nigbt.
see much, and in dust, smoke, or fog are really blind. So A mariner knows just where he is. Tankers often lose
besides being trained to recognize their own and enemy their bearings and don't know whether the tanks that come
machines, they need some way to challenge tanks they en- in view are moving from the direction of friendly or hostile
counter but are unable to recognize because of distance lines.
or atmospheric conditions. Here also, of course, the Also, with only three or four men in a tank you can't
means for replying are required on friendly tanks. expect to detail one man as a recognition-and-identification
No doubt there likewise ought to be markings or signals expert which they do on a ship. Neither will a tanker have
that identify vehicles as to unit so that tanks of one pla- time to compare a tank he sees with those on his chart of
toon or company can keep together in the dispersion, con- tank silhouettes.
fusion, dust, and smoke accompanying a tank action. We do have electrical installations on tanks that can
Air observers must also be considered. Observation be used to provide juice for luminous signals, but the
aviation has to be able to differentiate between friendly signals must be much simpler than those used by ships.
and hostile tanks and besides, must if possible, be able It isn't necessary to change signals very often on land
to identify particular units of friendly tanks. Combat cruisers because if one hostile tank crew does learn the
aviation also is interested in this marter. Therefore, in ad- code it can't pass it on to other tank crews in time to be of
dition to other training in recognition, aviators will also use. One set of signals for each phase of an operation, or
need top-view charts and markings or signals on the perhaps for each objective, would be enough.
tanks. Visual demand-and-response signals aren't so prac- Tanks are not ordinarily used at night, but they do move
ticable because cooped-up tank crews might not see the into attack positions during darkness. Hence they should
call signal from a plane. However, a solution may be use signals visible at night.
found. Radio would be fine, but it also involves difficulties. Considering all factors together, these appear to be the
Navies seem to have the recognition problem pretty characteristics needed in recognition signals for use by
well worked out. Ships carry markings showing nation- tanks:
ality and squadron and even have markings topside for ( I) They should not be permanent.
the benefit of airplanes. They use silhouette charts and (2) They should be designed both to challenge and to
instruct commissioned and noncommissioned personnel reply to challenges.
in the appearance of their own and enemy ships. Equipped (3) They should be easy to operate from within the
with his chart and binoculars, a mariner ca~ usually recog- tank.
nize a ship up to ten miles away as friend or foe. At night (4) They should be projected by a small apparatus.
luminous colors can be hoisted. Ships also carry projectors (5) They' should be visible either by day or night, and
for challenging and replying in Morse code. Luminous 'at a distance of, say 1,000 to I ,500 yards, and
signals were used by both the Allies and the Central 'visible to the flanks as well as to the front.
Powers from 1914 to 1918. (6) The p~ojection apparatus should be sturdy and
Of course this challenge procedure has some bugs in it. protected from fire.
It isn't wise to indulge in promiscuous flashing of the pass- (7) It should be possible to change signals immediately
word, especially at night when any ship within sight- upon order.
friend or enemy--can see it. In December, 1914, during
For recognition by friendly aviation, signals should be
the Scarborough raid, a German ship queried "Who's
visible from the sky. And they should be designed so that
there?" upon sighting a ship some three miles away.
they can be concealed or extinguished when not required,
Though the challenge was in the German code, the
in order to escape hostile air observation or photography.
British ship replied with "KF" repeated three times. The
They should not be visible from planes above a given alti-
Germans then opened fire. Later on, the same German
tude or to hostile OP's.
ship got cornered and flashed KF three times and thereby
was permitted to escape, along with a couple of other There are a number of possible ways of handling the
German boats. In the battle of Jutland, the Germans saw recognition problem.
one British ship ask another for the prescribed recognition- First, we have distinctive, permanent markings. These
and-reply signal and soon the whole German fleet was in- are suitable for identification of units by friendly tanks,
formed. Later when the Elbing and Hamburg flashed but do not meet the characteristics needed for distant rec-
"VA" to the British 11th T orpedoboat Flotilla, and at ognition :as to nationality.
the same time opened fire on its craft, many torpedoboats Then, there are metallic flags or semaphores. These can't
held their fire, figuring friendly cruisers were shelling be protected; they can't be seen at a distance or at night;
them. and they require a complicated apparatus liable to break
Naturally, the methods used by ironclads afloat won't down in combat.
work any too well for those on land. Battleships move in Cloth flags operated by the tank commander won't
two dimensions; tanks in three. That is, tanks also go up work at night and are hard to see at a distance. Disappear-
and down hilI, behind slopes and woods, show their bellies, ing disks and the like have the same disadvantages.
then their tops. Ships can be seen afar off, tanks only a Shortwave radio? There is already too much radio. It
few hundred yards away. Seconds count on land. Signals is costly, and a set would be needed for each tank and
must be faster.
1940 \'{'HO'S W'HO? 331
each antitank gun. It is, of course, a solution in fog and ing armorplates to screen them from fire when they were
smoke. not in use for signalling.
Smoke and smoke shells are uncertain, and liable to be Practically all-around visibiliry could be obtained by
misunderstood. Rockets, Very pistols, and similar devices using antisolar protective steel guard hoods on the lamps,
reveal tOOmuch to the enemy and may not be seen in day- something like the ones used on traffic lights and railway
time. They are also hard to project from inside a tank. signals. Or several colored lights could be put behind slits
However, they would be suitable for emergency use, es- in the armor, and pivoting plates used to cover the slits
peciaJly for signalling to friendly aviation hounding a tank when signals weren't being Rashed.
unit by mistake. On tanks with rotating turrets it might be possible to
Special movements or maneuvers of the tank turret or mount lights inside near the base of the turret so they
the tank itself have been suggested for signalling, just as would shine through apertures while the turret was rotated
airplanes dip or wiggle their wings, but they are liable to in a desired direction.
be misunderstood or go unnoticed in combat. Moreover, Whatever the arrangement of the lamps, there should
little variety is obtainable and signalling movements might be a hookup to operate them with a key or button so
be confused with actual combat movements. code signals could be sent. Colored lenses would permit
Sound signals by sirens, possibly with variations in tone, greater variety and more code combinations. Colored
and using the Morse code, have certain advantages. But Rashes would be more noticeable in daytime. Tanks might
in all the noises of a battlefield they might not work at a Rash, say twice red followed by twice green; or dot-dash-
distance. Close-in and during fog, they would be all red, then dash-dot-green.
right. Lamps possess the additional advantage of affording a
\Vhat should work most satisfactorily are luminous elec- means of communication within a unit when radio fails.
tric signals; that is, colored lamps or lights. These answer A simple code covering regularly used orders ought to be
practically all requirements: day and night use, non- routine for use either by radio (CW) , lamps, or siren.
permanency, variability, ease of operation from inside the It is true that electrical systems are liable to short circuits,
tank. And lamps can be protected too. Moreover, each broken bulbs and lenses, and other failures--especially
antitank-gun section could readily be provided with signal
lamps to be set up a hundred yards or so from the guns
Note bow tallks blelld illto tbe scellery alld bow
in order to challenge oncoming tanks.
difficult tbey are to recogllize or identify. Mea1lS
It might be possible to use the headlights now found on of identi ficatioll alld recogllitioll 11I11Stbe devised.
most tanks, but these would have to be protected from Moreot!er, sigllals should be visible from tbe sky
fire, say by pulling them inside the tank or having pivot- to illsure recogllitioll by frie1ldly aviatioll.

when subjected to the severe conditions of battle. Mere One more thought-the use of signals and the orders
protection of each lamp behind narrow slits or small holes prescribing them. It should be standing operating pro-.
in the armor won't insure them against electrical faults. cedure for tanks to flash their recognition signal frequently
It would be desirable, therefore, to have other devices to whenever they are moving to the rear. The signal to be
fall back on. The siren is one. Another, usable at night, is used should be changed periodically, instructions appear-
phosphorus. It could readily be used to form glowing "but- ing in field orders under paragraph 3 x. The sub-sub-para_
tons" of luminosity attached to plates that would be fitted graph might be headed "Recognition signals for friendly
into slides on the top, sides, front, and rear of a tank. tanks."
Signals could be sent by moving such a plate in and out The challenge and reply should be the same for both
from behind a shield. If one of these plates were struck tanks and antitanks, so that only one set of signals would
by a bullet or shell fragment it is unlikely that the phos- be needed during a given period. The order might pre-
phorus ."buttons" would be entirely destroyed. scribe International Morse signals, for example:
Besides some sorr of luminous recognition signals, tanks
Period Challenge Signal Reply Signal
should carry permanent identification markings for the
information of friendly tanks. The best place for these 1st Phase of attack Q (green) U (red)
would be on the rear end. (Phosphorescent buttons would 2d Phase of attack S (green) AM (red)
be ideal during night moves to forward positions.) Mark- 3d Phase of attack W (red) AK (green)
ings should not be so large or prominent that enemy fire The same code letters would remain in force for signals
would be attracted. They should indicate battalion, com- by siren whenever fog or smoke made visual signals im-
pany, platoon, and platoon command tanks. This would practicable. Friendly tanks moving to the rear should
simplify keeping a unit together. probably announce themselves both by lamp and siren
Geometric figures, such as squares, rectangles, triangles, signals.
diamonds, circles, checkerboard, alternate stripes of con- Secrecy requires that recognition signals be changed
trasting colors and combinations of these with letters or frequently. However, identification markings may well
numbers, give a degree of secrecy and also of distinction remain more or less permanent. Therefore markings on
not provided by numerical or lettered markings alone. tanks need not and should not appear in orders that might
Colors other than white are preferable. White makes an fall into enemy hands. Rather should they be communi-
excellent target against a dark background. For identifica- cated to interested units before combat and be memorized
tion markings all that is needed is a color sufficiently con- by them. Emergency rocket signals, on the other hand,
trasting against a background color for it to be seen by ought to be changed from time to time and should be
friendly tank personnel, say two or three hundred yards prescribed in orders.
away. Speaking of orders brings up the matter of including in-
This same sort of identification marking is needed on formation of friendly tank operations and probable enemy
trucks, reconnaissance cars, and command cars. But there mechanized movements in field orders, with numbers,
more prominent than on tanks. The color of the arm as routes, objectives and rallying points divulged in the
background facilitates identification. The rear end of paragraph covering our own tank action.
vehicles or the big bumpers on trucks is a good place for These, then, are the preventives offered against bounc-
unit markings; also the front bumper or fenders. Traffic ing bullets off our own iron buggies: Training in recog-
personnel, guides on routes, liaison officers, convoy com- nition; use of silhouette and photograph charts; pre-
manders, and quartering parties responsible for directing scribed and periodically changed recognition signals,
vehicles into bivouacs and assembly areas-they are the habitually used whenever tanks move to the rear; semi-
ones who are especially interested in unit identifications. permanent identification markings; information in orders
The present system of marking is of little help to these about our tank operations and routes.
people when it comes to spotting units as they approach Only a general idea of what might be done has been
or pass at twenry-five to forry-five miles an hour. indicated. The details will have to be worked out by
At the Plattsburg maneuvers in 1939, what first was tankers, ordnance, and signal people.
taken to be enemy detrucking a couple of miles from an Up to now nothing has been done. In the last war,
OP, turned out to be friendly infantry when the trucks lots of remedies came after it was too late. Let's do some-
were examined closely through field glasses. The unit was thing to remedy this matter beforehand. At the present
identified by the special large markings on the rear ends of time we are correcting deficiencies in our military arma-
its transport. ment and organization, and in our operating procedure.
. Confucius might say there should be a scheme for The present deficiency in means for recognizing and iden-
.~motors to signal with lights to friendly aircraft-for ex- tifying combat vehicles must also be corrected.
ample, when a night motor move is taking place and is Once we equip combat vehicles with signals for recog-
under friendly air surveillance. Flashlights could be used nition and markings for identification, we shall enable the
for this. The pilot of a plane might gun his motor or personnel who are vitally concerned to penetrate some of
flash lights in Morse code, asking "Who are you?" The the fog of war and to determine, before it is too late, who
column commanders would rep.ly with a flashlight. is who.


Captain John V. Grombach, Infantry, NGUS
World War No.2 and the year 1940 have wrought receiver for every twcnty inhabitants, almost sixty million,
fundamental and unforeseen changes in warfare. Neutral, in the Western Hemisphere alone. The air around our
non-belligerent, and warring powers have found them- world seethcs with long and short waves radiating to those
selves faced with a hundred new problems-air power, hundred million receivers from more than fifty thousand
motorized and mechanized units, new tactics, parachutists, transmitters of commercial, government, military and
and by no means least, the Fifth Column. In all this naval stations, and from those of over one hundred thou-
change, communication remains vital to the participant in sand efficient and indefatigable amateurs. From any point
war. And propaganda and the protection of military in the world, hundreds of powerful short-wave trans-
secrets are vital both to participants and to nations near mitters are easily contacted, relaying messages from the
the brink of involvement. Thus a mighty power in the most remote points of all continents and from seventy-
struggle for world dominion by nations, forms of govern- eight different countries. Such, brieRy, is the most po-
ment, and ideals, is radio. tentially powerful agency for many purposes that the
International radio is just now beginning to be evalu- world has ever known.
ated adequately as the powerful though invisible weapon While the present airplane, tank, and automatic weapon
it is. Just as dominance in the air by plane may be the have changed conditions of combat, radio broadcasting has
key to victory on land and sea, so the use of the ether completely revolutionizcd the problems of the intelligence
waves may be the most potent means for mastery of the sections of the services. For example, before and during
minds and hearts of men, without which no nation or ideal the present war, Englishmen and Frenchmen have clever-
can survive. ly sold, in impeccable English and French, Nazi and
Let us imagine, if we can, the invisible and increasing Fascist ideals and beliefs over the air. Every day, the
world-wide host of lightning messengers impressed on strongest effort has been made to discourage the English
carrier waves. A magic which in effect has banished time and French civilian public on war. In France, radio propa-
and space throughout the entire globe. In a minute frac- ganda was used to create suspicion and break down con-
tion of a second a mere whisper is audible from the Anti- fidence in the English alliance. Moreover, before the
podes to the Arctic and from Cathay to the Caribbean, to war and since, a steady stream of information has been
one hundred million radio receivers, each capable of lis- sent secretly, quickly, and effectively by the German espio-
tening in to hundreds of messages. There is one radio nage system by way of the radio. The perfect coOrdina-
tion of troops with aviation, fifth columnists, and para- programs are the best in the world. Single radio per-
chutists, particularly in Poland, Norway, and Holland, formances of many of our network programs would be
was accomplished largely through radio broadcasting. events of outstanding importance in other countries. As a
Also, the German submarine that threaded its way result, we have by far the greatest radio-listening audience
through the safeguards, mines, parrols, nets, and booms in the world, and in no country can more people be reached
of Scapa Flow on October 14, 1939, and sank the British by radio than here. Also, in no country is there any greater
battleship Royal Oak, was undoubtedly guided by some freedom and tolerance. All these facts, it seems most
seemingly innocent radio broadcast in England or Hol- evident, constitute a new and serious military problem.
land, perhaps even a band concert or a dramatic presen- There are some 813 commercial (long-wave) broadcast-
tation. ing stations in the United States, over six hundred more
Just as the ancient counterpart of the tank, the elephant, than in all Europe combined, and in addition, all of ours
was employed by the Persians centuries ago, codes and are privately owned. Then there are thirteen short-wave
ciphers have been used as long as there has been war. In stations, twenty-one television stations, and sixteen fac-
fact, recorded history tells us that a cryptogram to Ly- simile stations. There are over fifty-three million radio
sander of Sparta saved a general, an army, and the empire receiving sets, including eight million automobile sets, in
later to be enlarged by Alexander the Great. At the same the United States, and a potential audience of over one
time, all authorities from Julius Cesar, one of the first hundred million. The problem of planning the control
cryptographers, to the Black Chamber of the last World of radio by the War Department to cover both prewar and
War, all agree that there is really no secret writing code or wartime necessities is staggering. All stations should be
cipher created by man that cannot be broken by man. carefully guarded or controlled:
But as Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, himself one of the ( I) Against cryptic broadcasting, which either relays
world's greatest cryptologists, said in his Advancement of military information by enemy espionage agents, or co-
Learning: "The only truly secret system of writing con- ordinates fifth column activities, this in addition to pro-
ceals the existence of a secret." Little did Bacon know of viding ordinary censorship of news that might be of value
the day when the secret would be even better concealed by to the enemy.
not even being written. Seconds may now send a crucial (2) For the broadcasting of propaganda and informa-
cryptogram hurtling thousands of miles through space, tion to combat the enemy's short-wave propaganda which
whose secret meaning and presence is known only to would be intensified in case of war (there are many for-
sender and receiver. And an instant after it is delivered eign short-wave broadcasting stations easily picked up
there is not one shred of evidence, nor even a record of any here); also propaganda to serve as a deterrent against
kind by which the message can be deciphered into the fifth-column activity.
"clear." Such is the blitzkrieg in the cryptographic battle (3) For the proper kind of recreation and morale-
of radio in World War No.2. building entertainment, which would require minimum
A practical illustration will be far more effective, per- attention from the War Department, since this is a radio
haps, than dissertations in history and literature. Not long station's ordinary service in peacetime.
ago, a former world's heavyweight boxing champion, in (4) In order to minimize or neutralize the effects of
an interview on a major network of thirty-nine United possible physical seizure by enemy armed forces or the
States stations, capable of being picked up over thousands fifth column.
of miles, broadcast a message in the most simple jargon According to report from excellent authority, though so
code, so simple that any amateur cryptographer or alert far unconfirmed, the break-through at Sedan on May 14,
listener should have made it out. The broadcast had a 1940, which caused the separation of the Belgian and
potential audience of twenty-eight million radio homes English forces and the French Army of the North from
in the United States alone. Evidently not a single listener the main French Army and resulted in the encirclement
caught the message because not a single listener was ex- and destruction of the northern units and the hnal crush-
pecting it. The message was: "S II2-SS. Queen Eliza- ing of France, was a German victory in th~ radio war of
beth sails tonight with hundreds of airplanes for Halifax, cryptography. Over one of the government-owned and
N.B." Neither the sponsor, the network, the world's -operated stations, spies or traitors concealed messages in
champion, or the sports commentator interviewing the code appraising the Germans of the thinly held line at the
champion knew anything about the message. This partic- elbow between the Maginot and Little Maginot Line, and
ular message, of course, was only sent out as an experi- of the temporary gap between the armies moving rapidly
ment to see whether anyone would pick it up from the into Belgium and the few divisions under General Corap
air waves. But if such a message can be sent, with millions holding the northern end of the Maginot Line. If this
listening in, is it safe to assume that there have not been report is tme, it shows that government-owned stations are
far more important uses made of this agency here in as liable to subversive use as stations privately owned. It
America. also proves that the Battle of France was lost in large part
If radio could be used with such devastating effect in by radio.
Europe, it can be used here with even more telling effect. This is doubly strange when one considers the fatalistic
In America, because of our commercial radio system, our parallel this war has with World War No. 1. In World
War No.1, the turning point was the Battle of the Marne. reception and solution lay, of course, in reversing the
It was won by radio. In 1914, however, there was litde operation.
radiotelephony, but much radiotelegraphy. The air was Returning again to the four points of control which to-
filled by radio traffic with many jammed wave lengths. gether represent the new military problem of radio, we can
French, British, Belgian, and German communications label them:
transformed the German offensive into a mess of faulty (I) Espionage and fifth-column cryptography and
cOOperation. On September 2, 1914, von Kluck was censorship;
orderedto close up on von Biilow to his left and push the (2) Propaganda and counter-propaganda;
French away from Paris. He never received this message, (3) Recreation, entertainment, and morale-building;
but the French did. He radioed that he was following his (4) Neutralization of physical seizure of stations by
original orders to swing southwest to Paris. This message enemy or fifth column.
was also intercepted by the French, but never received by These form a staggering new assignment for the In-
the German GHQ. The French cryptographers laid the telligence Division of our service. And on the basis of
deciphered messages side by side before Joffre, and from European experience, they offer as vital and as difficult a
them developed the Battle of the Marne, won by radio and problem as any encountered in the warfare of 1940'
cryptography. With regard to espionage and fifth-column cryptogra-
However, ordinary military radio telephonic or tele- phy and censorship, it will be well to explain and describe
graphicmessages, their interception, and the cryptography in detail how a message can be inserted in a commercial
relating to them, do not constitute, strictly speaking, a radio program broadcast. It should be dear that if by
newproblem. Although perhaps more complex now than the adaptation of a well-known system a cryptogram can
it was before, and more exacting, particularly with respect easily and secretly be transmitted through audio means
to time, this is a fairly established military problem han- and doubly concealed in the music, sound effects, and
dled by the Signal Corps. According to the latest book- dramatic dialogue of the program, superior cryptographers
let on our armed forces, The Army of the United States, would have no trouble doing a far better and more original
the Signal Corps is charged with intercepting enemy radio job for espionage purposes or for the organization and
messages and locating enemy (military) radio stations control of a fifth column.
b~'radio goniometry. While many different methods can be used to conceal
The new military problem which is the subject of this a cipher or code message in a radio program, including
articleis more in the province of the Military Intelligence simple jargon, the most obvious cipher is the radio equiva-
Division (G-2) which has duties "that relate to collecting, lent of the grille or "cardan" method, in which the sender
studying, analyzing, and furnishing all kinds of military writes his "dear" through the holes of the grille, the letters
information," which "supervise,>any army activities deal- following the order of the numbered grilles, and then
ing with military surveys, maps and photographs, codes fills up the vacant spaces with innocent letters to make a
and ciphers, and translations," and which "also directs a message. In radio, actual words in most cases could be
Press Relations branch which prepares and issues War used as letters, and the grille replaced by key numbers, all
Department press releases and handles other matters con- based on the order of words in the program from its
cerning relations with the press and with the public at beginning, or from some key word. Here the difficulty of
large." To these extensive duties must be added the new even suspecting, much less deciphering without both a
military problem of radio propaganda and counter-propa- recording and stenographic transcript of the broadcast, is
ganda, fifth column and counter-fifth column radio activi- to be noted. This is what makes sending and receiving
ties,and the audio-aspects as against the transmitter aspects cryptographic messages by radio easier than their discovery
of radio from the creation and production of radio enter- or prevention.
tainment to preventing fifth column or espionage secret A reverse of the Gronsfeld cipher especially adapted for
communications by way of radio. radio can also be effectively used. In the Gronsfeld, there
is a set of key numbers in a series that can be easily
. !he problem does not always stop at any given line nor
memorized. These numbers are written down over the
ISIt any too well-defined. Here, for instance, is an actual
"clear" and repeated as often as necessary. Each letter of
case: One of the most powerful short-wave stations in
the "clear" is then represented in the written message by
Europe, heard all over the world, often emitted either
a letter which is the number of letters further in the alpha-
~fore or after a scheduled evening broadcast a buzzing
bet called for by the key number over it. In the radio
Signalresembling static, so fast in vibration it would not
adaptation, a key word would be written down over the
be recognized as consisting of separate noises. However,
"dear" and repeated as often as necessary. Each letter of
that was not the answer. The noise was actually a message
the "dear" can then be represented by a number equiva-
concealednot only in code or cipher, but by speed of trans- lent to the number of letters in the alphabet separating the
mission,and intended for their nationals in a country six letter of the "dear" from the corresponding letter of the
thousand miles away. First the message had been re- key word. In the radio program, words with the number
corded, and then the record was broadcast as played at of letters equivalent to those numbers could be designated
perhaps ten times the normal velocity. The key to its at indicated spots or key breaks.
However, the most effective and practical cipher which As for censorship, unfortunately, radio can sometimes
would lend itself to radio is what might be called a radio do just as much harm in war for lack of efficient censor-
adaptation of the Nihilist Bacon biliteral. ship as through enemy cryptography, in giving away mili-
In this system, the key is a square as follows: tary secrets or aiding fifth-column organization. In
Europe, especially in Belgium and France, where listeners
2 3 456
2 ABC D E were so used to accepting news and announcements on
government-controlled stations, lack of confidence and
4 L M N 0 P suggestion of catastrophe made thousands leave their
5 Q R S T U homes and block the roads, thus to nullify military de-
6 V W X Y Z fense measures. Many broadcasts, no doubt by fifth col-
umnists, urged the populations of whole cities to sur-
In writing the cipher, the numbers describing the posi- render or run. If anyone doubts American'mass reaction
tion of a letter (its coordinates) are substituted for it. In to radio, one has but to remember the hmous War of the
the original, the numbers start with I, but due to the fact Worlds broadcast which completely disrupted a quiet and
that here also numbers of the message will be given by the peaceful New Jersey countryside. Perhaps H. G. Wells
number of letters in a word in the radio program, there are did not discover a secret weapon, but Orson Welles dis-
too few one-letter words to make the original key practi- covered that radio was certainly a weapon through which
cable. In writing text for the radio enciphered by the man's mind and imagination could be successfully at-
double-transposition system as explained above, it is nec- tacked.
essary to :assign them some definite words or order of With regard to propaganda, it is a fact that there are
words, the number of letters of which will indicate the definite propaganda short-wave programs already reaching
message. For instance, if the second and fifth words after America. In addition, there are definite programs and a
every musical theme, bridge, curtain, or sound effect (all considerable number of domestic broadcasts in foreign
of which are called "business" abbreviated BIZ-in radio languages aimed at the large colonies of foreign-born.
work) has been agreed on, a sample written transcript of In Europe, before and during the war, German propa-
part of a program (involving an Oriental servant and a ganda by radio was as far ahead of the French and English
man as characters) follows: as German superiority in military equipment of ground
PING: If patiently waiting, all things coming, thank you. and air. Many times a week, at regularly scheduled times,
BIZ: KNOCKS ON DOOR. outstanding symphonic concerts featuring French music
S 2 or radio adaptations of French musical comedies and
MAN : Well-Fancy that-V/ho is that? ['Opera Comique were broadcast all over France by Ger-
PING: No doubt knock on door meaning honorable self man stations. These programs built up a tremendous
soon in bathtub, thank you. audience because of the superiority of their entertainment
MAN: I can't believe it. Open the door. and production. They could be compared with certain
BIZ: DOOR OPENS. commercial advertisers' programs in the United States,
2 6 which through superior entertainment such as Charlie
PING: Prediction is correct. Like humbly to present serv- McCarthy and Jack Benny, attain such tremendous audi-
ant with humble liquid for bath. ences that the networks have hard work selling any time
MAN: Humble liquid for batl1, eh? What is this humble competing directly against them. In other words, in
liquid? - radio propaganda, as in radio advertising, "the show's the
PING: Humble liquid very fine product of most noble thing." The size of the audience is directly in ratio to the
cow. entertainment and showmanship of the program.
BIZ: BUCKETS DEPOSITED ON FLOOR. After obtaining a large audience by superior entertain-
2 5 ment, an advertiser in America takes care to see that his
MAN: Co:w? Is that stuff there milk? I'm supposed to commercials sell his product and are as sugar-coated and
take a bath in milk? inocuous as possible. In the more serious game of selling
PING: Water very scarce. Milk very plentiful. ideals and ideas, races, countries, and man, radio propa-
BOTH: Thank you. ganda and counter-propaganda have become correspond-
MUSIC: FANFARE. ingly adept.
ANNOUNCER: The Foods Reel reels on! In the German broadcast featuring French music and
The message would therefore be: 52-26--25, or by drama, occasionally a French speaker spoke to the French
reference to the table, the "clear" would be: QED. people explaining that Germany definitely did not wa~t
The most important fact in radio cryptography is the to go to war with France. That the social advantages ~n
fact that while the sender and receiver need only worry France were only a beginning, but that France was stillm
about the key words, a recording and actual stenographic the grip of capitalists, and that the French people were
transcript of the program as it was actually broadcast must forced to fight for England and her economic control of
be obtained before a cryptogram can possibly be discovered the world. This was all done in excellent taste, with su-
or deciphered. perior production and accurate statistics, and featured na-

riveFrenchmen or Germans speaking perfect French. In The actual recreation, entertainment, and morale-
England, the propaganda took a different tack, and from building qualities of radio are almost as important as the
September to May millions of English and French soldiers propaganda and counter-propaganda which are in most
listened to Lord Haw Haw and Paul Ferdonnet prove cases carried within the talks and shows broadcast. If radio
that they were fighting for nothing. is a "weapon" then we can carry the comparison further
How efficient this invisible weapon can be is evidenced and call the entertainment the "propellant" by which it
by "The Link," an English fifth column of English reaches the ears of millions, and propaganda the "dis-
F~cists meeting regularly in London. It can be positively ruptive" that either explodes theories and ideals, and
stated that this organization owes more to radio than to leaves a horrible debris of apprehension and confusion, or
anv other single factor. When Fascist Sir Oswald Mosley crystallizes the understanding and gives men the urge to
vi;ited Paris as a member of the British fencing team at fight on.
the world's championship a number of years ago, he was The actual physical seizure of radio stations is our least
wined and dined by the radio executives of the govern- important topic because it can only come at a stage in war
ment radio agencies of France, Italy, Belgium, Holland, at which radio will already have done its worst. Only upon
Germany, and, strangely enough, Denmark, and also by invasion or revolution will the armed forces or the civil
the owners of several of the few commercial stations on agencies of law and order be so helpless as to permit the
the Continent. seizure of radio stations by the enemy or by the fifth col-
The importance of the radio weapon is still paramount . umn. Yet plans should nevertheless be formulated to
in the most militarily efficient country in the world: On neutralize the effect of such a seizure in part of a nation
June 27th, the German advance guard arrived at the Span- just as plans are made for every other military eventuality.
ish-French border. The first German unit to reach the In a visit to England just before the war, it was my very
border consisted of twenty specialists of the radio-propa- good fortune to discuss World War No. 2 with my
ganda section travelling in radio-equipped trucks. They friend, the late Sir Basil Thomson, who was head of Scot-
stated to correspondents that they broadcast many times a land Yard for eleven years and head of the British secret
day both from their trucks and from radio stations taken service in World War No. 1. His last remark to me was,
overin their advance. "Remember that in the next war, radio will be the secret
Yes, mastery of the sea may be vital to England, mastery as well as the invisible weapon one always wonders about
of the air may win the present war for Germany, but when a new war comes along." I now know he was right,
mastery of the minds and hearts of men must be gained and I hope that this article may at least serve to prevent its
today to wage war successfully, and that mastery can readers from underrating the problems created by this new
onlybe attained in full by radio. weapon.

The picture at the top of the opposite page shows a infantry weapons he gets special training in map reading
typical section from a Fallschirmjager (Parachute Chas- and the use of explosives and demolitions. After he has
seur) regiment. These young men are single, between the learned the bJsic business of an infantryman he gets an
ages of seventeen and rwenty-three, and in the pink of eight-week course of highly specialized training that has
. hysical condition. In fact, athletic prowess demonstrated 3S its object the placing of a fighting man in action at a
In civil life gives an applicant a preferred status. Recruits critical point.
.rerequired to be above the average mentally, and in addi- In classrooms (abo:Je) he learns the fundamentals of
Ion to the routine physical examination they are subjected pJrachute construction and the intricate business of para-
to extensive psychological tests to determine their ability chute folding (bottom picture, opposite page). He packs
to translate a speedy estimJte of the situJtion into instJnt his own chute-as a precaution against careless packing
and to inspire confidence in his equipment. He also learns
Initially the GermJn air soldier gets the four-month how to pack the chutes of various sizes that carry machine
?Jsic training that is the lot of every infantrymJn. But guns, grenades, riAes, ammunition, and various other
In addition to learning~ the how-and-whv of the ordinJrv
/ /
impedimentJ and tools. Portable radio sets Jnd folding


bicycles are also among the equipment he learns to handle.

Like a cat, the skilled parachute jumper always lands on
his feet. So, indoors and out, he gets a daily stint of
rumbling and acrobatics. The group of young men in the
picture on the opposite page are practising "ftee" rolling
and somersaults on an airfield.
Later on in their course of training these soldiers go
through their acrobatics while fastened to chutes on the
ground in the blast of a motor-produced wind. This makes
them expert in rising against the tug of the patachute. As
he gains his feet, the soldier runs inwatd toward the para-
chute at such an angle as will readily enable him to grasp
the twenty-eight rigging cords to collapse the chute.
Suspension exercises (pictures above and left) are for the
purpose of accustoming the soldier to the rolling swing of
an air descent and to teach him the best possible landing
In the upper picrure the instructor is cautioning the
soldiet to place his atms across his face to guard against
abrasions or cuts from obstacles on the ground.
The establishment of the German Army Parachute
School at Stendal some three years ago is an ~utgrowth of
an experiment conducted the year before with rOO men
and three officers from the Regiment General Goring.
Prior to the outbreak of the war enrollment in this school
was said to be voluntary. Indeed, enlistment was restricted
to men who had had no prior military service, although

they were required to have completed their tour in the Labor Corps. It is believed
that hundreds of men took the course at the school and that the best of these became
instructors for the larger increments that must have been trained before the attack on
the Low Countries.
While naturally enough interest centers on the more spectacular phases of opera-
tions that call for the dropping of thousands of troops, it must be realized that the
Germans prefer to land the troop-laden planes without the use of the parachute. De-
scending parachute soldiers are more than excellent targets by day, and by night
there is the not inconsiderable disadvantage of trying to collect scattered men over
terrain that is strange.
So if it is at all possible to land the planes this procedure is followed. But if suitable
fields are not available then the risk must be taken and the men are dropped. In some
instances it has proved feasible to drop covering forces who have seized airfields and
prepared them for the landing of transport planes.
The standard transport plan~ in use so far has been the Junkers JU-52, a mass pro-
duction job. This plane carries twelve soldiers with their equipment.

During the large-scale air troop movements that took place during the battle for
Norway and later for the Low Countries one may safely hazard the guess that the
'f majority of the troops were not trained parachute infantry. More likely than not they
were the run-of-the-mine foot soldiers who were fastened into a parachute and given
a three-minute lecture that wound up with "count ten before you yank the ripcord in
case you have to jump."

The German parachute jumping re-

cruit does his first jumping from a plat-
form and from the door of a grounded
plane. The soldier stands stooped in the
doorway, spreads both legs apart, and
with both hands grasps the bars on each
side of the door. The form displayed in
the ensuing leap is inelegantly bur
graphically termed "tailbuster" at the
old cOlll1try swimming hole.
In the lower picture on this page you
will note that one man has already com-
pleted his jump, one is on the ground.
:ll1d the third is emerging from the plane.
The trailing ropes are those which open
the chute when the actual descent is
After his work on the ground :lIld in
the classroom is finished. the recruit ~
aloft to witness advanced students and
instructors jumping from planes in Right.
After a series of Rights he is now reJd,.
for his first jump.
A jumping master, of whom more
later, gives the command to leap after
first fastening the soldier's ripcord to J
bar at the door. This makes it unneces-
sary for the 111anto release his own chute.

The jumping master is charged with the responsibility of judging the speed of the
plane in relation to the prevailing wind, the condition of the terrain, and the tactical
situation. When he decides that the moment is propitious he slaps the air trooper on
the back and commands "Jump!" The jumping master does no jumping himself; he
remains with the plane.
Upon the completion of six' successful jumps (one of which must be at night or at
dusk) the soldier is graduated from the school with the rating of "parachute jumper."
He now joins a Parachute Chasseur regiment and engages in further training.


To carry the idea of the vertical envelopment to its logical conclusion calls for the
design and construction of a large-type helicopter plane, say one that would carry a
useful load of 10,000 pounds-fifty men and their equipment. This is a problem that
a large-scale airplane industry should have no trouble in solving.
A Reet of several hundred of such rroop-carrying planes might in very short order
deposit behind enemy lines a force large enough to have a decisive effect.
Nforeover, no specially prepared landing fields would be needed and the attack
could be made at night.

Devices to aid in tr:lInl/lg parachute

jumpers have been in operation in this
country for a number of years. At Hio-hts-
.I ::>
town, New Jersey, Commander J. H.
Strong, U. S. Navy (Retired), has con-
structed a pair of training towers and has
also developed a training course for mili-
tary parachute jumpers. Commander
Strong describes his towers and method of
training at some length in U. S. Air Serv-
ices for Nfarch, 1940. The following ac-
count is based on his article.
The Strong system of training is divided
into four phases of progressive work.
The first phase is designed to remove
every vestige of fear and uncertainty and
consists mainly of rides in a "captive drop
with seat." This is essentially what you
get in the thrill parachute ride at the New
York World's Fair. Incidentally, nearly
:;00,000 men, women, and children have
been carried safely in one of these devices
thJt hJS been operated Jt J Chicago amuse-
ment pJrk during the past four years.
The second phase of the course consists
of J "cJptive drop with hJrness." Now
the seJt hJS been repbced by the regular
chute hJrness which permits the student
to bnd on his feet. At the SJme time,
however, the drop is controlled so that
there is no pJrJchute drift. The student
is tJught to rebx Jnd cushion his landing
with his feet. After acquiring confidence
with this experience the student is ready
for the third stage of the training.
The third phase is called the "free drop
wirh opened chute." This training stage em-
ploys a tower that has a rotating beam at the
top which is trimmed down-wind during op-
eration. Secure in his harness ar the top of the
tower, the student detaches himself from the
hoisting hook and drifts down-wind for a nor-
mal landing. During this stage of the training
he learns the various steps involved in descent,
landing, and handling the parachute on the
ground. From the ground an instructor notes
and corrects errors.
The fourth and final phase is the "captive
drop with a packed parachute." The student
now takes practical instruction in dropping
and pulling the ripcord to open the chute after
he has dropped far enough to clear obstacles.
The picrures on this and the facing page
show the various training stages. The cap-
tive drop is shown in the upper picrure on the
opposite page; in the lower picture you see a
landing from a captive drop. The upper right
picture on this page shows ~ student in posi-
tion near the top of the mast during a free
drop. In.the lower. picture a student is collaps-
ing his parachute after reaching the ground.
Several articles have appeared in recent issues of The must be answered is what is the amount of d F or the COf-
COASTARTILLERYJOURNALadvocating that antiaircraft rection in fuze. Of course for a particular spot in the sky
gun fire be adjusted in range by correcting in fuze instead such as a trial shot point the question is easily answered.
of in altitude. The reason given for this departure from But under service conditions where the target may be at
the accepted technique is that an altitude correction up- any point within the range of the battery, the relationship
sets the rates in the M4 Director, this in turn causing an between b. D and d F is constantly changing and it
erroneous prediction and consequently erratic data at the would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to construct
guns . any fire adjustment chart or rule that would solve this
It is true that an altitude correction will cause erroneous .constantly changing relationship. If the range adjustment
rates for a short period of time in the director. However, is made by an altitude correction the proper amount may
if the range rate setter pushes in the "red button" at the be determined by means of the Flank Spotting Rule, MI,
instant that he has to resort to the range rate handwheel to as the relationship between the observed deviation and the
rematch the angular height dials, holds the button in for altitude correction can be solved by ordinary trigonometry.
five full seconds after the dials are matched, and during However, the above objection to the method of fuze
the time the button is in he continues to keep the dials correction is not the most serious one. Assume that the
matched with the range rate knob, the erroneous predic- proper amount of fuze correction could be determined,
tion will be held to a very small difference from the true and that a burst occurs as shown in Figure 2, that is on the
prediction. But this cycle of events just described calls for line of position. In this case the fuze correction or d F
thorough training on the part of the range rate operator. would move the burst to B and a large down vertical cor-
The argument advanced in favor of a fuze correction to rection. would be needed to move the burst to the target.
make a range adjustment is that a fuze correction changes As angle X, the angle between the line of position and the
only data that is being sent directly to the guns and does trajectory is constantly changing and as the amount of
not upset the rates or prediction. This argument is ab- the vertical correction is also dependent on the amount of
solutely correct, but this is not the whole story. The the fuze correction applied, it will be extremely difficult, to
question is how to determine the pro per fuze correction to say the least, to determine the proper vertical correction.
apply at a moving target to take care of a range deviation In the situation as shown in Figure I the vertical adjuster
as reported from the flank spotting station and what effect would see the burst below the line of position and apply
a fuze correction will have on the fire of the battery. an up vertical correction. But actually a down vertical
Let us examine what a correction in fuze will do to a correction would be necessary had a fuze adjustment been
burst. It will move the burst along the trajectory or a made, to move the burst to <thetarget, as an examination
path parallel to it. (Figure I.) The first question that of Figure I will show.

Figure 1. Figure 2.
By Major Charles Winslow Elliott U.S.A./ Retired l

\Vhen Thomas Went- colonists. For twenty years

worth, Earl of Strafford, the work progressed, swal-
JOd his Right Reverend col- lowing so many millions of
lea<Tuethe Bishop of Bris- livres that the King petu-
to{ Queen Anne's pleni- landy inquired whether
potentiaries at Utrecht in the streets of the city were
I7I} completed their la- being paved with gold.
bors and signed the treaty Louisburg (as the Eng-
that tang down the curtain lish and Americans spelled
on the bloody War of the the name) was, by 1744-
Spanish Succession, they twO miles in circumference,
must have felt gratified at surrounded by a solid ram-
Britain's success in despoil- part of fitted masonry more
ing the Grand Nfonarque than thirty feet high, forty
of priceless possessions in feet thick at the base, with
the New World. On Hud- powerful bastions, a ditch
son's Bay, and in New- eighty feet wide, garnished
foundland and Nova with 100 cannon, seventy-
• Scotia, the white standard six swivels, and six mor-
with the golden lilies came tars. All the genius of
down; St. George's cross Vauban was reRected in
on its blood-red field went the setting and construc-
up. British rule in North tion of the defenses. On a
America crept northward rocky islet athwart the en-
to the mouth of the St. trance of the harbor was a
Sir William Pepperrell
Lawrence, and in New stone fort with a battery of
I England the fishermen and thirty guns, and at the bot-
shipping folk rejoiced in a tol11 of the harbor, facing
new freedom on the North the entrance, the so-called
Atlantic. Ci Hemisphe'z.e De~el1se Cam .. Grand Battery of thirty
The Treaty of Utrecht more, moated and bas-
left to France but one re-
maining outpost close to
pai9 11 O~ :2.00 ljea'z.s °90 tioned. Crowning the bluff
across the narrow channel
the Grand Banks. The from the Island Battery
I island of Cape Breton, "the was a lighthouse, and near
long wharf of Canada," the shores of the northeast
3,000 square miles of territory north of Nova Scotia, end of the inner bay, storehouses for naval and military
seems to have been overlooked by the British map-chang- supplies. The main entrance to the town itself, known
ers. Down to it from ceded Newfoundland, and up from as the West Gate, was guarded by a circular Battery
ravished Acadia, came swarms of refugee Frenchmen. At mounting thirteen 24-pounders. In theory, Louisburg
\ Havre a I'Anglois, a tiny settlement on a projecting
I tongue of land near Gabarus Bay, they built a town and
was impregnable. To French ships homeward bound
from Quebec or the West Indies it afforded a safe
~amed it Louisbourg in honor of the King who had de-
t hvered their homelands to the heretic English. By 1720
the statesmen at Versailles realized fully the importance
refuge in peace or war; to French privateers or naval
vessels, a convenient base from which to sally forth against
the American fishing Reets on the Banks, the unguarded
of retaining and protecting this laSt ocean outguard of coasts of New England, or the English merchantmen ply-
New France. Engineers and artisans, trained in the school ing between the colonies and the mother country. From
of the great Vauban, came over the Atlantic to fortify Maine to Philadelphia, Louisburg was balefully regarded
louisbourg, that Isle Royale might never fall into the as a loaded pistol aimed at the heart of British America.
hands of the hereditary enemy or their North American For twenty years New England looked uneasily over her
shoulder as the pupils of Vauban raised higher the great urgent and critical an import that before he could deliver
walls that were to shelter the sleek privateers in this it he must ask of them an oath of secrecy. This .was legis-
Dunkerque of America. lative procedure without precedent, but the Governor
War, long foreseen, broke out between England and stood high in the regard of his assembly and the oath Was
France in March, 1744; the War of the Austrian Succes- readily taken. Behind locked. doors he startled the grave
sion. Or, as the Americans, knowing little and caring less gentlemen of the Court by proposing to them that the
about the claimants to the imperial throne, called it, King colonies, led by Massachusetts, raise a military-naval
George's War. A swift French vessel brought the news to force, ship it to Cape Breton, and proceed with the reduc-
Louisburg before it was known in Boston. M. Duquesnel, tion of the Gibraltar of America.
military governor of the fortress, acted with promptness. But there were no regular troops, no experienced of-
He initiated a brisk little Blitzkrieg of his own, sending a ficers or engineers, no frigates or line-of-battle ships, and,
Captain Duvivier with some six or eight hundred men to worst of all, no money. The Province was, in fact, defi-
surprise and seize the English settlement at Canseau nitely in the red. Evyryone agreed that Louisburg ought
(Canso) on the Gut or straits between Cape Breton and to be taken, but to attempt the task without the consent,
Nova Scoria. The captain surprised the unsuspecting gar- approval, financial aid, and military cooperation of the
rison consisting of about eighty militia, destroyed the fish- royal government in London, was a suggestion that took
ing station and its feeble stockade, and carried off his ,their collective,breath away. A committee of both houses
prisoners to Louisburg. First blood fot l'eRoj>Sokil. Boston went into a solemn huddle, reporting after two days'
seethed with alarm and indignation. The fisping ',fleets consideration that the scheme was impracticable.
hugged the wharves. Word came in t\p~p2'Pre~r~va-: , Despite the oath, the secret quickly got out. One pious
teers were swarming; twenty-five Boston vessels were old member from the back country had retired to his
taken before the end of the year. '.. lodgings and prayed in stentorian tones for divine gu~d-
The Governor of Massachusetts, Willfam'Shirley, was, ance as to his vote. He neglected to close the transom
fortunately, no loiterer when the times called for action. over his door, and other boarders who overheard his
Able, hopeful, and a bustler, he was hounded incessantly devotions were not slow to spread the news that the in-
by an avid hunger for distinction, military for choice. Al- credible enterprise was being considered by the legislature.
though he knew nothing of the operations of war, practical For a few days the Province hummed with excited discus-
or theoretical, there appeared to him no good reason why a sion. Public sentiment so far favored the plan that Shirley
smart lawyer like himself should not contrive warlike was encouraged again to tackle the General Court. He
stratagems, devise schemes for reducing fortifications, caused to be circulated a petition for re-consideration.
and plan campaigns for discomfiting the enemy, with all The merchants and shipowners of Boston, Salem, and
the facility of an experienced veteran. Already he had other coast towns, whose profits the French privateers were
written to the home government that Louisburg ought fast swallowing, signed up by the score. The assembly
to be the object of British military attention, lest Nova reconsidered, a vote was taken, and by a majority of one,
Scotia-and thereafter the coasts of Massachusetts-be the Governor's egregious scheme was approved.
certainly ravaged by the French. One William Vaughn, Once they had determined to carry on, the excited
a restless and fiery young fishing magnate of Damaris- colonials threw overboard all doubts and misgivings. With
cotta, came to Shirley and proposed to him an astound- tremendous enthusiasm the raising and equipping of an
ing enterprise. Nothing less than the invasion of expeditionary force began. Letters begging cooperation
Cape Breton and the capture of the great fortress by an went out to all the New England districts as well as to
expedition from Boston-the soldiers and sailors involved New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. Little except
to be American volunteers, the generals colonial militia good wishes was forthcoming from any except New
officers, the fleet armed merchant ships now lying idle in Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Benjamin
the ports from the Kennebec to Long Island Sound! Franklin, who had some militia experience, wrote dryly
Shirley's first reaction was favorable. His fertile imagi- that fortresses like Louisburg were tough nuts to crack
nation took fire at the magnificent conception. Vaughn for teeth "not accustomed to it!" But New England,
told him that in winter the snowdrifts at Louisburg were teeming with fiery Old Testament Puritans, soon con-
piled so high that they filled the great ditch to the very top verted the project into a holy crusade. The French were
of the wall. All an attacking force needed to do was to ar- Roman Catholics, and it was freely predicted that Jehovah
rive just after a good blizzard and snow-shoe to the would see to it that the cities of the Sons of Belial would,
muzzles of the guns on the ramparts! The Governor like Jericho of old, come tumbling down when Israel
thought that it might be somewhat less simple than that, assailed their walls. A few sound 24-pounders, some 13-
but he was airily confident that he could work out a plan inch mortars, and several thousand loaded muskets in the
equally promising. hands of the Israelites, would also be of service in the mat-
It was essential, first of all, to obtain the consent and as- ter. So they began to get together these lethal accessoriesto
sistance of his legislature, the General Court of Massa- the trumpets of Joshua.
chusetts Bay. Solemnly he notified the members that he Governor Shirley's first necessity was a commander for
had an official communication to impart to them, of so the expeditionary force. As far as could be ascertained,

there was not a man in the English colonies who had ever Connecticut magistrate. Each of the participating prov-
issued an operations order to a muster larger than a com- inces contributed its private navy-a few brigs or schoon-
pany of militia going out to drive off marauding Indians. ers-and Massachusetts purchased a large brig to be
There were a few survivors of the disastrous Cartagena fitted as a frigate and flagship for Captain Edward T yng,
affair in 1741, but on the general subject of storming a successful privateersman appointed to command the
walled towns their recollections were too painful to bear fleet. A single French seventy-four would be big enough
resuscitation. They knew how it ought not to be done, to blow the entire squadron out of the water, but it was
but their suggestions seemed likely to have a negative hoped that the campaign would be successfully completed
value only. The Governor came to the conclusion that, before any dreadnaughts of the enemy arrived from France
failing profesional commanders, he would have to select a to interfere. Shirley, realizing the probable influence of
man preeminent for good, sound common-sense, tact, sea power on the history of his expedition, sent off a swift
energy, and personal popularity. Especially popularity. schooner to the West Indies to solicit assistance from
New England volunteers comprised a brand of soldiery Commodore Peter Warren, the British commander of a
whose notions of military discipline were anything but fle<;tof frigates cruising in those waters.
orthodox. They would enlist under, and follow a leader Naval protection for the New England coasts had
whom they liked and trusted. But none other. already been demanded from the Admiralty in London
At Kittery, in the Maine District, Shirley found the and orders had been sent out to Warren directing him to
man who seemed to fulfill the requirements admirably. proceed to Boston and cooperate with the Governor in any
William Pepperrell was a wealthy and respected merchant measures the provincials might initiate for the defense of
-he might fairly be called a merchant prince-a land- the coasts and discomfiture of the foe. These orders had
owner,shipbuilder, importer and exporter; shrewd, deeply not yet reached the Commodore when Shirley's message
religious, tactful, and highly esteemed throughout the arrived at Antigua, and after consulting his captains he
Province. A colonel of militia, Chief Justice of the Court thought it necessary to send his regrets. Three days after
ofCommon Pleas, he was also President of the Governor's the ship had departed with his refusal he received the in-
Council, the highest elective office in the Colony. In structions from the Duke of Newcastle; and with his frig-
every village and hamlet of the Maine District he was ates, the Superbe, Launceston, and Mermaid, he promptly
known, respected and looked up to as The Mighty Man set sail for Boston. On the way north he spoke to a trader
of Kittery, honest, prosperous, an upright judge, a zealous and learned that the expedition had already departed for
militiaman, a devout and earnest Puritan whose stern Louisburg. Without calling at Boston he went on directly
theologywas mellowed by a sense of humor and an un- to Cape Breton.
derstanding of human frailty. The Governor urged him It had taken Shirley and Pepperrell seven weeks to raise
to take the command and with a good deal of reluctance their army, provide transports, and assemble the stores,
he accepted the commission as lieutenant general com- ordnance and munitions. The hardest task was to find the
manding the combined land and sea forces of Massachu- artillery. They scraped together a few light 22-pounders
setts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. His ideas on and New York came through with the loan of ten 18-
siegesand escalades were fairly nebulous, but as an army pounders. New Jersey and Pennsylvania contributed some
commander he seemed likely to prove less incompetent clothing and provisions. The prisoners taken by Duvivier
thananyone else available. at Canso, who had been sent home on parole, gave full
Recruiting went on with vigor and enthusiasm. Mas- descriptions of the armament and defensive works at
sachusettsraised about 4,000 men, a third of them from Louisburg. They pointed out that in the great Royal
Maine,where the stalwart fishery population, temporarily Battery across the harbor from the town, there were at
unemployed, flocked to the standards in shoals. Whole least thirty guns of large calibre. On the dubious principle
regimentsof militia volunteered; others were easily filled that it is sometimes legitimate to sell the bear's skin even
up with doughty frontiersmen from the border settle- before he is caught, Pepperrell decided that the most
ments,unerring shots with the firelocks and bitter haters • feasible way to get heavy guns would be to filch them
~fthe French and Indians. In the towns the clergy united from the enemy. That took care of the heavy ordnance
10 preaching a sort of Jehad against the Papists; more than problem.
~neof them declared his intention of joining up as a fight- A sarcastic contemporary observed that the expedition
t~g chaplain. The celebrated Parson Moody reported had a lawyer for contriver, a merchant for general, and a
hImselfat headquarters with an ax strapped to his shoul- horde of farmers, fishermen, and mechanics for soldiers.
ders,a carnal weapon which he proposed to employ per- The lawyer-contriver, Governor Shirely, deemed it advis-
sonallyin smashing the idolatrous images in the churches able to instrUct his emissaries in advance, and in meticulous
of the French. The pay of the soldiers was fixed at six- detail, just how they were to accomplish their object. He
pencea day, recruits to furnish their own uniforms and drafted complete stage directions for the performance and
~ns. Lieutenant General Pepperrell was thrice commis- delivered them to his merchant-lieutenant-general. If the
SIOned in that exalted military grade, once by each of the French are not informed of your coming, he predicted, "it
~ provincial governors. Second-in-command was is probable that Louisburg will be surprised." That seemed
Major General Roger Wolcott, a sixty-seven-year old reasonable enough. So, he continued, you must time your

arrival about 9:00 a'clock in the evening, being careful act in support wherever needed. As simple as that.
not to bring the Reet over the horizon during daylight If Lieutenant General Pepperrell had any lingering
hours. You must land at Flat Point Cove. (Here one of doubts of his ability to adhere strictly to this truly Hit-
the Canso prisoners was evidently prompting him.) The lerian program, he must have eyed with relief the conclud-
landing must be made in four divisions, three of which ing paragraph. "Notwithstanding the instructions you
were to march to the back of certain hills a mile and a half have received from me," wrote the Governor sapiently,
west of the town, where two of the three would halt and "I must leave you to act, upon unforeseen emergencies,
"keep a profound silence," the third column keeping on according to your best discretion." There was reason to
behind the hills until it came up in rear of the Grand Bat- suppose that a goodly number of "unforeseen emergen-
tery, which it would then assault at a concerted signal. cies" would arise. Such factors as the weather, the fogs,
Simultaneously one of the other columns would storm the the surf on Cape Breton's rocky coast, the trackless forests
\Vest Gate of the City and the remaining division would around Louisburg, the swamps, the hostile population,
and the possible vigilance of the French commander had consorts added to the provincial flotilla, the expedition
very little in the Governor's consideration of the could anticipate the arrival of a French fleet without
problem. undue anxiety. Warren, after conferring with Pepperrell,
On March 24, 1746, all was ready. The armada spread sailed at once to take station off the harbor of Louisburg.
its sails and bore away for the Gut of Canso. Nantasket On the 29th the transports followed, getting an early start
waved farewell to nearly ninety transpotts carrybg 4,000 in order to arrive off the fortress at night. Governor Shir-
men, escotted by the miniature navies of the three prov- ley's orders were to take the city while the unsuspecting
inces. As the bobbing topsailoS'dipped below the horizon garrison was asleep. The vagaries of wind and tide, which
the home-folks betook themselves to the white-steepled the Governor had overlooked, dislocated the schedule so
churches to pray for success. A good many of the more that it was dawn on the 30th before the fleet came in sighr
worldly-minded rendezvoused in the taverns to invoke of the quarry.
victory over bowls of spiced rum. "If drinking to your The first attempt at a landing was made at Flat Point,
successwould take Cape Breton," wrote a co~vivial stay- about two miles west of the city. The rocky shore line
at-hometo one of the colonels, "you must be in possession was lashed by a boiling surf and as the boats drew in to-
ofit by now!" He hoped he added, that his gallant friend wards the beach they discovered that a welcoming com-
wasalready in Louisburg, with a bowl of punch, a pipe, mittee was expecting them. A force of French troops,
"and a P-k of C-ds," not to mention "a Pretty French some eighty in all, under a privateersman named Mor-
M:tddammoselle." . pain, was drawn up to dispute the landing. Peppertell
But a good many dismal days were in store for the vol- quickly changed his plans, signaled to the boats to return,
unteers before they were to have an opportunity of ex- and sent them with all speed possible to a cove farther
dl'lllging boisterous b:tdinage with the "Maddammo- west. Morpain and his parry scrambled over the rocks to
seUes"of the fortress town at their journey's end. The meet them, but the boats won the race, spilling out their
transportshad very little in common with the great steel passengers among the breakers in time to beat off the
leviathansthat would carry their descendants to another defenders.
French port 172 years later on a friendly instead of a The French were not surprised, either while they slept,
hostilemission. They were nearly all fishing schooners, or otherwise. For weeks they had been expecting the at-
sloops,or "scows"; they rolled and pitched malevolently tack, informed by Indians returning from New England
andthey stank abominably of their former cargoes. The that the expedition was planned. The commandant and
fisher-folkamong the troops were used to it, but the lads military governor of Louisburg, Chevalier Duchambon,
from the insland counties were agonized martyrs to sea- who had succeeded Duquesnel, was a capable soldier,
sickness. A violent March gale dispersed the fleet, and beset by many difficulties and somewhat lacking in force-
someof the ships narrowly escaped being dashed on "the fulness and decision. His regular troops numbered nearly
stern and rock-bound coast" of Maine. It was, as one 600, including some companies of Swiss mercenaries, and
private confided to his diary, "a very fierse Storm of he had, in the town, about 1,300 habitant militia. His
Snow,sam Rain, and Very Dangerous weather." Never- regulars were not entirely dependable, having joined in a
theless,they all managed to assemble at Canso before the near mutiny only five months before. Their officers had
middleof April. succeeded in reestablishing their authority, but retained
The army passed three weeks at the Gut before pro- little confidence in the men. Some work had been done in
ceedingto Louisburg. The winter ice in Gabarus Bay had strengthening the fortifications, but much ptecious time
not yet broken up, and until it did it was useless to at- had been wasted in futile councils and discussions that led
tempt a landing. So Pepperrell kept the troops busy, to little but confusion and disagreement.
drilling, @ling cartridges, and erecting a blockhouse By the evening of April 30th Pepperrell had upwards
whichwas to fill the double purpose of defending Canso of 2,000 men ashore; the rest, another 2,000, landed the
andserving as a base hospital for sick and wounded later following day. On May 2nd, Vaughn and 400 men
on. On Sundays the valiant Chaplain-in-Chief, Parson marched up to the high ground overlooking the harbor
Moody,drew capacity congregations in one pasture while opposite the town, appeared on the hill-tops, and an-
acrossthe fence the drill sergeants disturbed his discourse nounced their presence with a round of vigorous cheering.
by bawling commands at the extra-drill details. To fur- They then made their way along the ridges north of the
nis~ the fort-hospital cheaply and conveniently, the bay to the French naval storehouses near the northeast
cruiserswent out to sea and picked up a round half-dozen harbor. These were found full of cordage, tar, and pitch.
Frenchprizes loaded with supplies intended for Louisburg. The New Englanders immediately applied the torch, and
Oneof these was a brig from Martinique, her holds full of soon billows of thick black smoke were rolling across the
good West Indian rum-a ration component that New water towards the watching garrison of the city. Return-
Englandersappreciated even more than codfish balls. ing to camp the next morning, Vaughn passed in rear of
On the 22d, a British frigate, the Eltham arrived from the Grand Battery and gave it a scrutiny from a distance.
Boston. Her commander reported that Warren and his The flag was gone from its staff, no smoke rose from the
~~dron would soon appear-as they did indeed the fol- barracks chimneys, no sentries could be petceived on the
109 day. With the 6o-gun Superbe and her two 4°--gun parapets. The massive work seemed to be utterly deserted.

.J•• ~ S~
....... Z~

.ASCQ.l~ "f Fut

An Indian auxiliary, bribed with a bottle of fire-water that ordnance stores, including 280 live bombs, to be captured
Vaughn conveniently produced from his pocket, crept with the Battery.
down to the ditch, crawled up to and through an em- Pepperrell, as soon as he learned of this marvellous piece
brasure-and found the place unoccupied. Vaughn, with of luck, sent Brigadier General Samuel Waldo with his
a dozen of his men at once entered and took possession. A regiment of Maine and Massachusetts men to take over
youngster peeled off his scarlet tunic, shinnied up the flag- the place. Major Seth Pomeroy of the 4th Massachusetts,
pole and nailed the improvised standard of Great Britain a professional gunsmith, collected about twenty fellow-
to the staff. He slid down with greater speed when a tradesmen and quickly drilled out the spikes. By morning
shower of swivel gun balls whistled across the water from he had a number of the guns in working order and the
the walls of Louisburg. abandoned bombs were hurtling over the harbor to
"May it please your Honor," ran the despatch sent by explode against the city walls. Shortly thereafter the other
the gratified Vaughn to his C. in c., "to be informed that guns went into action. Before Waldo and his troops en-
by the grace of God and the courage of thirteen men, I tered the Battery, the French recovered from their panic
entered the Royal Battery about 9:00 o'clock, and am and sent over several boatloads of soldiers to retake the
waiting for a reinforcement and a flag." position. Vaughn and his little partly boldly went down
to the shore line with their muskets alone, and prevented
The hasty and ill-considered abandonment of the Grand
a landing until Colonel Bradstreet brought reinforcements
Battery by its garrison is as difficult to understand as it
from the ridges.
was for Duchambon to explain later to the Minister of
After the disembarkation of the army, the lieutenant
War at Paris. Thierry. the officer in command, had per-
general marched it to a locality near Flat Point, putting it
ceived the march past of the provincial column, and
into camp on both sides of a little stream. There were few
witnessed with growing panic the destruction of the store-
tems, but shelters of old sails and green boughs were run
houses. He seems to h:lVe lost his head and advised the
up. Getting the artillery landed proved a tough job. The
Governor that the Battery should be instantly evacuated. guns were lowered from the ships' decks into Hat-bottomed
A council of war in the city approved this insane recom- boats brought from Boston. These were then paddled into
mendation, directing that the guns be spiked while for- the surf and unloaded by hand, the men sttuggling chest
bidding the blowing up of the works. Thierry and his deep in the icy breakers. It was then necessary to drag
crew hastily and inefficiently drove spikes in the touch- the cannon for a mile or more through the swampy, path-
holes of the big 42-pounders, dumped their loose powder less forests, in order to site them on the low hills close to
in the well, and took to their boats, leaving all their the citv.
There were no horses, but the men cheerfully
harnessed themselves in teams of 200 to heavy wooden targets despite the shortness of ammunition. They went
sledges designed and built on the spot by Lieutenant hunting and dug on the beach for clams, listened to the
Colonel Nathaniel Meserve of the New Hampshire regi- exhortations of their voluble chaplains, yelled insults in
ment. Meserve was a field officerwho, in the non-military bad French at the besieged. Alarums and excursions
intervals of a busy life, pursued the trade of carpenter and could not wholly divert the Gloucester and Salem men
shipbuilder. Floundering in the soft muck, the soldiers from the honest trade in which they had been born and
dragged his sledges to the assigned positions, constructed bred. "Went a-fishing," wrote one subaltern disciple of
emplacements, and threw up some protective cover in the Izaak Walton in his diary, "about two miles off. Caught
form of fascines and hogsheads filled with earth. Most of 6 T routts." Another party exercised its ingenuity in
the labor had to be done at night as the line of march and catching lobsters: "caught 30'"
the battery positions were all more or less in view of the The great man of Kittery ruled these half-broken mili-
enemy on the walls, who kept up a brisk and well-aimed tary colts with the same kindly, sympathetic, but firm
firewhenever targets appeared. hand that he had used in ordering their civilian lives at
Five batteries were soon established. The most distant home. He recognized the fact that they were not, and
from the West Gate was on Green Hill, a mile from the never would be, regulars. In his wisdom he sought to
Bastion. Four 22-pounders and 10 coehorns (grenade keep them good-natured, to prevent and assuage jealousies,
throwers), were emplaced 600 yards nearer the wall. The and to fan their natural ardor for a fight in a good cause.
third battery, mostly coehorns, was only 440 yards from His immense personal popularity enabled him to get his
the Gate, a fourth 200 yards, and the fifth, five big 42- orders obeyed with good will and reasonable alacrity. To
pounders brought from the Grand Battery, was set up on minor infractions of discipline and good order he sensibly
a hillock overlooking the little bay at the Northwest end turned a blind eye. As one of his biographers puts it:
of the harbor. ''Though he was not insensible of the necessity of dis-
On May 7th Pepperrell sent in to Duchambon a de- countenancing vice by proper punishments, yet the
mand that he surrender the fortress. The Frenchman re- humanity of his temper disposed him to make all those
plied defiantly that he would discuss the matter with his allowances which might be alleged in extenuation of the
cannon. He was then bombarded vigorously while his fault." In command of an army like his, it was necessary
own guns replied, making good practice. Both sides used to make numerous "allowances."
their muskets as well, the French protected by the walls, He was constantly plagued by a cloud of irritating and
the New Englanders crawling forward under cover of vexatious worries, requiring all his resources of patience
brush and trees to pick off the gunners or such infantry- and subtlety to resolve. The masters of the transports,
menas showed themselves. many of them owners of their vessels, were a great trial to
Had Duchambon possessed trusrworthy troops, he him. Their behaviour, he complained, "is the greatest
coulddoubtless have captured or destroyed the nearer bat- fatigue I meet with." His supplies of clothing, blankets,
teriesby energetic sorties. But since the Christmas mutiny powder, and rum always fell short of the army's needs;
hisconfidence in the Swiss grenadiers had evaporated, and his urgent letters and requisitions on the War Committee
he evidently feared that if he sallied out he would lose at home for replacements, were too often returned with
more men by desertion than by enemy fire. One half- aggravating discourses on the unfortunate inability of the
hearted attempt of the kind was made, easily repulsed by Committee to oblige.
the Americans. The French were amazed and discon- The cannonade kept up by the American batteries did
certed by the utterly unorthodox manner in which their a good deal of damage. The West Gate and adjoining
adversaries conducted siege operations. "The enemy," wall were soon smashed up. Many of the houses in the
wrote one of the inhabitants, "do not attack us in the town were wrecked. The habitants and soldiers found it
correctform, and they do not construct any trenches to necessary to spend most of their time huddled in the case-
providecover for themselves." To the white-coated regu- mates, which, in the early summer heat, were smother-
lars,a siege was a siege, and the proper manner in which ingly hot. Pepperrell discovered that he had few practiced
the besieger ought to enact his part was all clearly laid gunners and was obliged to borrow some man-o' -warsmen
down in the books. But these unconventional foes broke from Warren's fleet. The New Englanders were much
allthe rules and disregarded all the precepts. They drew too prone to double-shot and overload the guns; several
no parallels, dug no saps or zig-zags, recklessly moved of them burst in consequence of this practice, killing and
about in full view, laughed at cannon-balls, and hurled injuring many of the amateur artillerymen.
verbal taunts at the besieged from behind their fascine Before long the Commodore began to display im-
defenses. It was all very unorthodox, and the regulars patience with the slow progress of the siege. He could not
found it difficult to believe that there was not something guess when a relieving French fleet, possibly of over-
decidedly"phoney" about such tactics. To play safe they whelming strength, might show up on the horizon. His
stayed prudently within their ramparts, amazedly ob- own ships had been more than three months at sea; he
servingthe antics of this strange assailant. When off duty, and his crews were weary of inaction, salt rations, and
the Americans frolicked in the fields just out of range, cramped quarters. Many of the seamen were sick. "If
wrestling, chasing spent cannon-balls and shooting at we could get some fish for them," he plaintively observed,

"it might be of service to them." His letters to Pepperrel1 bardier" of the eXpedition, to set up a battery near the
-they corresponded almost daily-began to show irri- lighthouse, half a mile distant from the Island, on the
tation. "For God's sake," he urged upon the harassed eastern side. Guns were ferried over from the plentiful
General, "let us do something, and not waste our time in supply at the Grand Battery, hoisted with block and tackle
indolence!" He urged vehemently that the army try to up the cliffs and dragged a mile to a point from whence
take the Island Battery, an enterprise which the army they could play with good effect on the formidable work
council regarded with justifiable apprehensions. Pepperrell, in the harbor mouth. Forty-two pound balls began to
however, was anxious to oblige his impetuous colleague. make things interesting for the hitherto secure garrison
He called for volunteers and met with a ready response. on the Island.
Four hundred men, mostly from his own regiment, were The encouragement afforded the French by their re-
quickly assembled. The irrepressible Vaughn offered to pulse of Brooks and his storming party was short-lived.
take command of them, promising that if allowed to On the 19th May, a week before the affair, Warren had a
handle the undertaking in his own way he would reduce chance to vary the tedious routine of blockade duty. He
the little stronghold in forty-eight hours. The volunteers intercepted a 64-gun French frigate, the Vigilant, which
preferred a leader of their own selection. Under an obscure arrived from France with stores and munitions for Louis-
captain named Brooks, they put off from the Grand Bat- burg. She put up a ~tiff battle, but was no match for the
tery in boats, after several false starts, on the night of three British ships and the provincial cruisers. Her cargo
May 26th. proved to be composed of precisely the articles most
The Island Battery was one of those "tough nuts to needed so that her capture was a veritable godsend to the
crack" that Franklin had mentioned. It was a strong work, besiegers. Twice already had the host of Israel been provi-
fully walled about, heavily armed with thirty cannon, dentially supplied with implements of war by their Ca-
and bristling with swivels and mortars; garrisoned by a naanitish foes-or so it seemed to the pious in the army's
captain and 180 regulars. When the boats approached the ranks. Now a third dispensation favoured them. Some of
pounding surf on the rocky beach below the parapets they the men, wandering about on the Rats at low tide, probably
were not discovered until about 150 of the men were gathering dams for a good New England chowder, dis-
ashore. These then committed the incredible folly of an- covered thirty excellent cannon buried in the mud. Ten of
nouncing their presence by giving three chee~s. The them were hauled out, taken to Lighthouse Point, mount-
sleeping garrison came to life with disconcerting promp- ed and used with further good results against the Island.
titude. They lined the walls, poured musketry into the In order to cooperate effectively with Warren, it was
milling crowd below, and grape, langrage-shot, and can- necessary for Pepperrell to visit him occasionally on the
non-balls into the boats waiting just off-shore to land Rashship-the Commodore seldom came ashore. But in
their men. Many of them were smashed to bits; the the thick blankets of fog that usually concealed the Reet,
others hastily pulled out of range. When day broke, 119 the Superbe was hard to find. "I went aboard a schooner
Americans, a good many of them wounded, were stalled with some of my council," wrote the General to his naval
among the rocks, the French above them still as safe as coadjutor on the 31st, "and was out four hours trying to
ever. There was no choice but to surrender or be an- reach you, but was prevented by fogs; shall try again
nihilated. They threw down their firelocks and put up ... in order that we may do something effectual in the
their hands. enterprise we have so much at heart." On June 5th he
Pepperrell, although disappointed by this fiasco, was finally succeeded in meeting his colleague and found him
not discouraged. When the Commodore again insinuated still unwilling to enter the harbor until the enemy bat-
that it was high time something decisive was done, he kept teries had been further damaged. They then decided to
his temper and replied with commendable patience. let Duchambon have the bad news of the capture of the
Rather reasonably he had the impression that he had been Vigilant, a misfortune that so far had been concealed from
doing quite a bit, and he tried to make the fact clear. him. It was rumored that the prisoners taken when the
"I beg leave to represent that it is now the 29th day since Island was assaulted were being subjected to unnecessary
the army invested Louisburg and drove in the inhabitants. suffering. The Marquis de la Maisonfort, late commander
That we have erected five fascine batteries, and mounted of the Vigilant, was permitted to visit his own imprisoned
them, have distressedthe inhabitants, made some breaches in crew, finding them comfortable and well treated. It was
the wall, and doubt not we shall soon reduce the circular
suggested to him that he write Duchambon, stating this
battery. That in this time we have made five unsuccessful
attempts on the Island Battery, in the last of which we lost fact and intimating that equal consideration ought to be
189 men and many of our boats.... The fatigue has given the American prisoners. He willingly complied and
brought on disease and left us not more than 2,150 men fit a Rag of truce carried his message to the Governor. Great
for duty .... The council decide that another attack on was the consternation at the Chevalier's headquarters
the Island is impracticable.... We continue our best exer-
when it was learned that their high hopes of a relief by
tions against the enemy."
the expected Vigilant had been blasted. From that
But the Island Battery had to be reduced, even if it moment the resolution of the besieged seems to have
could not be stormed. The General sent Colonel Richard wavered.
Gridley, captain of the artillery train and "Chief Bom- Warren still stuck to his determination not to run the
Island Battery and Pepperrell declined to assault that im- ment." And his two correspondents were his humble
pregnable stronghold a second time. Two Swiss deserters servants, Peter Warren and William Pepperrell.
caIDeinto the camp on June 9th, bringing the welcome Duchambon offered to capitulate on his own terms and
information that there was no more than a month's supply' was politely but firmly informed that these were not ac-
of provisions in the city and that unless help came from ceptable. However, he would be supplied with vessels to
France soon the garrison expected to surrender. They also take himself and his troops back to France on his guarantee
mentioned the fact that a mortar installed near the light- that they would not again bear arms against His Britannic
house "would greatly annoy them." The General took Majesty's forces for a space of twelve months. His sick
the hint. "I shall send over our large mortar this night," and wounded would be tenderly cared for, and if there
he assured Warren, "and more cannon to bear upon the were any in the city who desired to leave without being
enemy, and shall make the island battery too warm for recognized, they would be permitted "to go off masked."
them." On the 9th and 10th June the bombardment was Duchambon then insisted that his troops be allowed to
intensified; red-hot shot were poured into the city together march to the beach under arms and with colors Hying.
with all the bombs that the mortars could throw. A day This was granted him. The uncertainty of their affairs,
or so later sevetal additional British frigates joined Warren observed Warren to the General, made it necessary "not
and he concluded that he was at last capable of forcing the to stickle at trifles."
hatbor entrance. He wrote to Pepperrell that when the There was some confusion in arranging for the delivery
win~ was fair he would get in; a Dutch Hag at his main- of the town. Warren, being a high officer in the regular
topgallant masthead would be the signal that he was service of the King, perhaps expected that the formal
under way. "When I hoist the Dutch Hag," he ad- transfer of possession would be made to him, rather than
monished the General, "you should march towards the to Pepperrell, a mere provincial appointee. If so, he was
town, drums beating and colors Hying; when I hoist the disappointed. The astute merchant-soldier acted with the
red Hag on the Hag-staff you may be assured I shall be in utmost courtesy and tact, but he made it clear that the
and begin the attack in about half an hour." army had taken the fortress with the help, and not as the
Pepperrell exerted himself to the utmost to do his part, helper, of the Navy. When he strayed a bit from accepted
He prepared to overwhelm the town batteries with a international diplomatic usage in conducting the nego-
concentrated fire-first borrowing fifty barrels of powder tiations with the Governor, Warren rather tartly informed
from the Heet-he piled up brush heaps on the hills for him that these grave matters were not settled quite so
smoke signals, constructed scaling ladders and plied the casually as he seemed to suppose. Pepperrell acquiesced
Island Battery with bombs and solid shot from his newly without taking offense and went serenely on his way,
constructed positions near the Lighthouse. On June 15th giving full credit to the Commodore and praising him
Warren came ashore to review the troops, both he and profusely in his final report to Shirley. Long experience in
Pepperrell delivering orations to the men exhorting them the mercantile world had accustomed him to handling
to a supreme effort. After his speech the Commodore touchy customers and he handled the impulsive sailor as
went over to the Grand Battery and presented the regi- easilv as he had recalcitrant bankers, tradesmen, and
ment stationed there with a barrel of rum, a courtesy that shippers all his life.
signally enhanced his reputation with the grateful gar- On the 17th June the tattered provincials entered the
rison. Six hundred soldiers were sent to the ships to aug- ciry, with the Mighty Man of Kittery riding triumphantly
ment their crews. The Heet lined up before the harbor in his best scarlet uniform at their head. The fleet sailed
mouth, an imposing array of eleven men of war, with unmolested into the harbor and the marines landed to
fromforty to sixty ~ns each. find the situation already well in hand. The Americans
The Chevalier Duchambon recognized the purport of were amazed at the damage their fire had done to the
al,lthese preparations. The Island Battery, upon which fortress. "Never was a place more maul'd with cannon and
hISsafety depended, was practically out of action; the shells," wrote the General to Governor Shirley, "neither
guns at the northeast battery were mostly silenced and so have I read in History of any troops behaving with greater
exposed that their crews could no longer operate them. courage. We gave them about 9,000 cannon-balls and six
The circular battery was in much the same case, the West hundred bombs." To the vast disgust of the army, the
Gate hung in splinters with the nearby wall breached. terms of surrender had included a promise of the in-
The French troops were exhausted by the forry-eight days violability of personal property. Louisburg appears to have
of closeconfinement under incessant fire; all hope of relief been regarded as a sort of modern Babylon and the ragged
from abroad had vanished. Surrender alone could save provincials were looking forward to the luxury of looting
the lives of the discouraged soldiers and terrified populace. a rich prize. When they found the scared inhabitants still
On the afternoon of the 15th the Governor sent a Hag of occupying their battered homes, and were themselves
r:u ce to Pepperrell asking that he be given time to con- detailed to guard the buildings from plunderers, there
s:der terms of capitulation. He was allowed until eight was, as one angry soldier remarked, "A great Nays and
?,cl~k the next morning to think it over, being told that hubbub amongst ye Solders a bout ye Plunder; Som
If III the meantime you surrender yourselves prisoners cursing, som a-Swearin."
of war, you may depend on humane and generous treat- The Navv fared better in the matter of material reward
for their exenions. They kept the French Rag Rying until
Connecticut, :md Rhode Island also being
a number of enemy merchant ships unsuspectingly sailed paid in full for their expendirures. Of the men who served I
into the trap and were seized as prizes. Cargos valued at before Louisburg, many received training in the an of war I
more than a million pounds were taken in this manner, which they were to apply effectively when, thiny years
half the proceeds being the King's share, the balance later, New England was in arms on her own behalf against
divided among the officers and seamen. The army was the King.
left entirely out of the distribution. The soldiers had to be The reduction of Louisburg was the outstanding exploit
content~r discontent-with the glory of having been of the war on either Continent. To the intense monil1ca-
chieRy responsible for the fall of the mighty fortress. tion of the Americans, the treaty of peace nullified all the
General Pepperrell himself received the keys of the city, labor, sufferings and gallantry of the untutored volunteers
but a rumor that \\Tarren attempted to allocate to himself who lowered the standard of the Most Christian King in
the distinction and credit attending the capitulation caused 1746. Louisburg was restored to France in exchange for "a
a good deal of hard feeling in America for years thereafter. petty factory in the East Indies," and thirteen years later
England received the news of this stanling success over- the job had to be done all over again when Jeffrey Amherst
seas with rapturous delight. The King bestowed on the and an army of regulars recaptured the town after a siege
Kittery paladin the honor of a baronetcy and commis-' conducted in the manner prescribed by the regulations.
sioned him a colonel in the regular army~f a regiment But New England never forgot that the Dunkerque of
which he was directed to raise in. America. Warren 'was Americ3 was first taken by the Mighty Man of Kittery
promoted admiral and Shirley m3de a colonel of regulars. and his heterogeneous army of citizen soldiery"although
Massachusetts, financially insolvent and burdened with a they were not permitted to do more than share the glory ,
debt of nearly 200,000 pounds spent on the expedition, with the Puritan Providence of which they were "the
was fully reimbursed from the British treasury, New humble instruments."

By Captain Burgo D. Gill Coast Artillery Corps

It is re:llized th:1t there :lre two schools of thought in Therefore, while the front to the east was held securely,
[he CO:lst Artillery Corps concerning :mti:lircr:lft mobile there W:lSd:lnger of :l thrust from the north or north-west
regiments being given :l second:lry mission other th:ln by an encircling movement of the enemy's mechanized
[he prim:ll)' :lnti:lircr:lfr purpose. The "single" purpose c:lv:llry. The same thre:lt C:lme from the south and south-
aroup is in the m:ljority. The new tent:ltive Field Service west where the enttUcked infantry from the Sth Blue
ReulIlations m:lke no mention of :lny secondar" mission Division W:lS operating.
" --/
for :lnti:lircr:lft :lrtillel)" It will be seen th:lt the new Corps Headquarters at Lees-
But, it is quite possible th:lt :l mobile :lntiaircr:lfr regi- ville with its :lmmunition dumps, gasoline, W:lter, :lnd
ment might be c:llled upon to furnish protection :lg:linst r:ltion distributing points easily might have suffered :l
enemy t:lnks, mech:1I1ized cl\':llry, or swift-moving truck sudden :lttack. Very few units were left to the IX Corps
forces. :lS line of communiC:ltion troops or as :l gU:lrd to protect
Before discussing the rel:ltive merits of :lny p:lrticubr Leesville.
school of t:lctiC:lI thought, let us first consider :l situ:ltion Early during the d:lrk hours of ivfay I I, the 61st CO:lst
[hat :lrose in the IX Corps of the Red Army of T eX:lS Artillery (AA) W:lS hurriedly ordered forw:lrd from the
[hat inv:lded the Blue territory of Louisi:ln:l durinO" the bridges on the S:lbine to protect Leesville from :lir :lnd
- b
Third Army m:lneuvers in ivby, 1940. mecll:lnized :ltt:lcks and r:lids.
On the morning of M:lY 9, the Red Army consisting \Vhile the gun batteries were disposed around Lees-
of the 1st C:lv:llry Division :lnd the 2d Division, inv:lded ville with the I11:linobjective of protecting it from the :lir,
Louisi:lna with its m:lin body crossing the boundary, the the :lutom:ltic we:lpons b:ltteries, and the gun batteries'
Sabine River, :It Burr's Ferry.
pbtoons of 'So-c:lliber m:lchine guns were emplaced to
The 61St CO:lst Artillery (AA) protected the bridges
over the river :It three points on a forty-mile front from o 1000 5000
Pendleton, to Toledo, :lnd Burr's Ferl)"
Corps He:ldgmrters, the re:lr echelon est:lblishmenrs, AREA

and the railhe:ld were some thirt" miles behind the front
lines at J:lsper, Tex:ls. -
By the night of ivby 10, the Red forces h:ld c:lptured
Leesville, Louisi:ln:l, seventeen miles in enemy territory,
and had extended its control some eiO"hteen miles further
castward. Natur:llly, the Red :lrmv comn1:lnder deemed
i[ advis:lble to order his he:ldqu:lrters :lnd re:lr est:lblish-
mcnrs forw:lrd from J:lsper to Leesville .
.\~hile this move W:lSbeing m:lde, the Red forces were
d'~tnbuted in :l wide :lrc with :l r:ldius of :lbout eighteen
mIles to the east from the center :It Leesville. To the north
Wasthe 4th C:lv:lII)', :l reconn:liss:lnce regiment, the 1st
Cavalry Division to the e:lst, :lnd on the southern fbnk
Wasthe 2d Division.
It will be seen that the line of.' communic:ltion from
Lcesville to J:lsper, :llmost :l due e:lst-west line, W:lS:lbout
~ft)' miles long. On the Texas side, this road soon bec:lme
a mOst impassable for extr:l he:lvy trucks, particularly for
[he.brge trucks of :l civili:ln trucking firm hired by the
QMC as r:ltion :lnd supply tr:lins from the :lrmy est:lblish-
~ent :It Nacogdoches, Tex:ls. The line of communica-
tIons Was then changed to run in :1 wide circle to the
south to the S:lbine River over c:lptured enemy ro:ld nets RESTRICTED
centered :It Leesville. AREA

A division of Blue inbntl)' directly east opposed our

Red forces. To the north was :l mech:lnized cavalrv bri-
~ '1° " '1.
gade. Intelligence st:lted that :lnother infantry di~ision Scutf' '" ....... S

Washeaded north from New Orleans.

T be i\lalleUl'er Area.
cover all roads and open held approaches to guard against antiaircraft regiment gives it high mobility and great fire
mechanized attacks. power.
That this problem was solved is apparent on viewing (2) The antiaircraft regiment is eminently fitted I

the sketch of the operations map drawn up by the 61st for dual missions, or even triple missions if one includes
Coast Anillery (AA). This defensive measure extended the passive mission of serving as line of communication
over a period of two days until the situation changed, and troops.
General Krueger ordered funher dispositions and missions \Ve should not be blinded by doctrine. Instead of
for the 61st. standing adamant on a certain line or adhering to a series
\Ve can conclude from this bit of maneuver war that: of teachings all soldiers should be mentally prepared for
(I) The present orga/llzatJon and equipment of an an." of the unpredictable whims of war.

By Major William Yale
'Way back in the autumn of 1939--it seems a century and all ranks lacked the essential psychology of troops who
ago now-Americans called the European conflict a must fight in the open in a war of movement demanding
phony war. The people on the other side of the water the highest integration of every arm. The Allied armies
were indignant, the pro-ally columnists heaped ridicule had been coddled in comfortable fortifications and billets,
and abuse on Americans who with their native shrewd- lulled by a false sense of security created by concrete
ness sensed there was something "phony" about the war fortifications and instilled by the philosophy of defensive
in Europe. Unfortunately for the Allies the Americans warfare. The British, certain of the invulnerability of the
were right. The Allied disasters in Holland, Belgium, French defense lines, convinced themselves that "Hitler
and France are the inevitable results of that "phony" war. had lost the bus" and that the Allies had Germany in a
After the campaign in Poland winter was too near for trap formed by the British naval and economic blockade
a German offensive in the west. But during the long and the French Maginot Line and that the Nazis could
hardwinter months, during the hardest winter Europe has be starved into subjection.
known for years, what were the Germans doing? A dress The responsibility for defeat rests primarily on the
rehearsal in Poland where all the modern machines of civilian political leadership in England and France which
war were brought into play-all but the parachute arm was convinced that victory could be attained by what in
which was kept as a surprise-had been held. The Ger- America was called a "phony" war. Miscalculating the
man staff studied that rehearsal, analyzing every detail military might of Germany, overestimating the strength
of the Polish campaign, its strong points and its weak- of the defense-the Maginot Line and the British fleet-
nesses.German troops and officerswere constantly drilled the civilian leaders complacently awaited the Nazi of-
in the new tactics and trained to use the new weapons fensive without preparing to counter it. Following these
until they became perfected in the synchronized employ- erroneous conclusions of the civilian governments, the Al-
ment of new instruments of offensive warfare. From the lied military commanders, Gamelin in France and the
staff down through the line officers to the fighting men Admiralty in England, relied upon a defensive strategy
the psychology of the offensive was imbued in the Ger- which has proved disastrous to the Allied cause.
man army. Officers and men alike were not coddled in In Germany, as in Italy, military and political leader-
the impregnable fortresses of the West Wall; the night ship passed int~ the hands of new men, of young men,
clubs of Berlin were not crowded with officers on leave, and of older men with new ideas and concepts, who com-
entertained by strip tease dancers to make up for the prehended the significance of new weapons and new
hardships of living in the cramped quarters of fortified methods. On the other hand, in the Allied countries old
lines.On the contrary they were being hardened mentally men, fighting over again the first World War, lacked the
and physically, trained and rehearsed in preparation for imagination and vision to understand the new world in
the tremendous offensives which were planned for April which they lived. Timid, uncertain, wavering leadership
and May. And during these long winter months the on the one hand faced daring, purposeful, determined
German staff perfected down to the most minute details leadership on the other. New dynamic, revolutionary na-
the approaching campaigns in Norway, Holland, Bel- tions hurled themselves against old static conservative na-
gium and France. There was nothing "phony" about tions. A new world order challenged an old world order.
these military preparations by the Germans. The outcome now appears inevitable. With the vast re-
The "phony" war was all on the other side. Depending sources of two world empires with almost limitless re-
upon the Maginot Line, the French complacently waited sources, with a large portion of the world sympathetic to
the Teutonic onslaught, confident that their fortifications their cause, old static societies failed to produce that lead-
wereimpregnable. Their general staff at the top, the line ership which is essential to victory in the ruthless struggle
officers,the troops were imbued with the spirit of defense, of armed conflict. Fate has written its eternal decree as it
certain that the major ordeal would fall upon the attack- has done over and over again throughout history. Those
ers. The morale essential for fighting was sapped, the states which fail to use and master the new instruments
training necessary to attain a mastery of the nt;w weapons of warfare succumb to those who do. The struggle for
of warfare was lacking. Despite the example of blitzkrieg
existence is inexorable. Those who fail to learn its lessons
tacticsin Poland the Allied commanders told themselves
in the military realm suffer defeat and extinction.
and their men "it can't happen here." As a result the Al-
liedarmies were completely unprepared either to meet the May we in America profit before it be too late from the
German offensive or to carry out an effective counter of- tragic events of the past months in Europe. Then others
fensive.For such military operations the staff had no plans, may not say of us what we today are saying sorrowfully
the officershad no experience, the. troops had no training, about England and France-too late.
Major Charles A. Orakel InFantry Reserve
Psychology made its first and most brilliant contribu- hand-and-foot, or eye-hand coordinations called for on a
tion to the military service through the famous Alpha and particular job.
Beta Intelligence tests that were applied to millions of Consider this example. Everyone is familiar with the
officers and men of the World War army. These tests circular typewriter eraser to which a small bristle brush is
were amazingly successful in identifying those individuals attached. The cycle of hand operations in making the
of high mental alertness who were the best bets for further fixture in which this article is assembled bears a striking
training, particularly for training as officers. The high similarity to the cycle in the operation of the 37-mm.
standards set by these eady group tests of more than two cannon. Successive operators on this fixture were scarcely
decades ago have scarcely been surpassed by the more able to earn the basic piece-rate wages and were obviously
recent tests. working under great strain. They were changed fre-
Toward the close of the Wodd War still other tests quently because of their dissatisfaction.
were produced that were useful in the quick identification The job called for two-hand coordination, a fair level of
of persons possessing knowledge of particular trades, visual perceptual ability, and eye-hand coordination. An
plumbing, steam-fitting, and the like. These tests, sup- operator was selected finally who had a high score on each
plemented in some instances by quick practical tests in of the tests of this ability, with resulting earning of 140 to
actually wiping a lead joint or threading a pipe, facilitated 160 per cent of normal or standard. Production was in-
the classification and assignment of trade specialists re- creased, earnings increased, and dissatisfaction ended.
quired in construction, maintenance, and the technical What might such an increase represent in the application
services. of infantry weapons?
The increasing emphasis upon mechanization in the As another example, consider this case. A job was set
armed forces, the newer and more complicated weapons, up on a power-operated press requiring the handling of
and the large number of new types of labor-saving devices two sets of parts simultaneously. Each hand picked up a
useful in production, handling, and storage, made a new bottom unit and placed it in the die; returned, picked up
demand upon psychology. Trained men for the handling and placed the middle units; returned again, picked up,
of this technical equipment exist only in small and totally and placed the top units. A pressure with the right foot on
inadequate numbers. Quick training of large numbers of a pedal operated the press and swaged the parts into two
such specialists will have to be undertaken. complete articles, which were then removed by simultane-
Training on mechanical devices succeeds best and quick- ous motions of the two hands. The job was set up as
est when the trainees possess the basic aptitudes required straight piece-work at a rate that would yield $16.00 a
by the job. The problem therefore becomes one of iden- week for an average operator. Simple analysis showed
tifying, prior to selection and training, the individuals pos- that dual-hand and hand-and-foot coordinations were the
sessing the required aptitudes. special abilities required.
In the light of recent advances in industrial psychology, Au applicant was selected who had high scores on two
this is no longer the simple problem of selecting persons of tests measuring these basic abilities. The first week he
a general mechanical aptitude or a so-called mechanical earned $26.00, the second week $28.00. When we asked
intelligence. The problem becomes one of specific analysis him why he did not earn the $32.00 the tests indicated he
of the basic abilities in visual perception, auditory per- could earn, he replied that the foreman had warned him
ception, two-hand coordination, hand-and-foot cOOrdina- "not to go so fast and spoil the rate for everybody." While
tion-to name only a few-required for superior perform- he was a superior operator on this job, other test results in-
ance on the job. dicated that he would have been a below-average performer
Persons possessing these basic abilities can be trained on inspection operations or assembly-inspection requiring
in a fraction of the time required by the average person. visual perception.
The reduction of a standard training time of six weeks Probably most significant for the military service is the
to only two weeks is commonplace. Inexperienced indus- recent discovery of the wide range of visual perceptual
trial employees selected by suitable aptitude tests have ability among persons whose eyes are found to be normal
attained performances in two weeks at I 13 per cent of on the usual eye examinations. It is as true in the Army as
normal, as against the 100 per cent level of average em- it is in baseball that "you can't hit what you can't see."
ployees of years of experience. An individual may have perfect vision but still function
Increases in production on the job as high as 60 per at a low level of visual perceptual ability, unable to see
cent, by selection alone, have been demonstrated. Selec- what he should see for effective performance.
tion supplemented by suitable training can even increase This perceptual ability is not related to intelligence, as
this gain materially. This is not the result of incentives or the latter is usually measured, and is consequently not
the forced speeding up of the work, but solely the effect revealed in intelligence test results. Since neither the eye
of choosing persons who can easily achieve the hand, examination nor the intelligence test will detect it, its

measurement calls for special forms of tests. Some of these for in the loading, aiming, and firing of a rifle, or the
special tests exist and have already demonstrated their cycle of similar operations of any other weapon, is well
worth in selecting inspectors for factory operations. established. The design and construction of suitable tests
The need for quick and accurate inspection of mecha- for the abilities called for is relatively simple. The results
nismsin the manufacturing process, to guarantee their per- from the applications of such tests will then make possible
formance in the field, is evident. Quite as important, per- the early selection of the men who are to receive the spe-
haps even more so, is quick and accurate perception in cial training required.
handling such mechanisms. Training time for such One interesting feature of such tests, as they have been
handling can be greatly reduced and the level of effective- applied in industry, is that trained and experienced
nessof such handling can be greatly increased by selection operators do not make materially better scores than they
basedupon measures of this basic ability. made before their training and experience. This is evi-
Until recently it was taken for granted that intensive dence that the tests are measuring innate, basic abilities.
and prolonged training would offset the lack of such If the later test scores were significantly better than the
specificaptitudes in the trainees. But repeated applications earlier ones, the improvement would indicate that the gains
of suitable tests, both in the area of perception and in were due to experience and skill.
motor coordinations of body muscles have shown only It is because of this characteristic of real aptitude tests,
small gains wholly out of proportion to the time and their measurement of inherent or native abilities, that they
effort expended in training, and sometimes no gains at can be used so successfully for selection of personnel prior
all. to training. This makes it possible to eliminate the long
Even in the relatively simple task of coordinating the delays and the wasteful trial-and-error that characterize
two hands in dual operations, in which two objects are selection and training when not aided by measures of
manipulated simultaneously, wide differences appear. basic abilities. It must be noted in this connection that
Someindividuals can increase their production as much as we do not make direct measurements of the aptitudes
55 per cent by dual operation as against one-hand opera- themselves. We measure certain performances that re-
tion, while others can actually do less with two-hand or quire basic abilities and from such measurements infer
dual operation than by one hand alone. These differences the amount of aptitude shown.
seem to be innate, basic, and exceedingly resistant to As the last war made such striking contributions to the
training. instruments and techniques for testing intelligence, so
Some gains in eye-hand coordination are shown as the will the next war probably make its gre<Jtestcontribution
result of intensive training. This is the area of great im- to psychology in the further development:' of aptitude
portancein the aiming and firing of infantry weapons. But tests and techniques. Time becomes an increasingly im-
as a rule, these gains come slowly, at great cost in time portant factor, particularly in training, while skill acquires
and training effort, and inferentially, at great cost in the a new importance in the effective employment of mecha-
expenditure of materiel. nized equipment. The new demands can and will be met
With our present industrial experience and the tech- by services that psychology is now ready to supply. As
niquesnow available, it should be no great task to develop the war will contribute to the development of psychology,
suitable tests for the operators of every infantry weapon. so will psychology in turn contribute to the winning of
The method of analysis of the basic human abilities called the war.
From the time of Constantine the names of the various been the earlier practice. The pulley at D is fitted with a
Roman engines change. We hear no more of catapults, trigger-release by which it is fastened to a hook on the
and the word ballista is used to describe both arrow under side of the arm. The rope passes through the pul-
throwers and light stone throwers. These were similar to ley, and is then made fast to the frame. This was to re-
the stone and arrow throwers described in earlier chapters, duce whipping of the rope when the arm was released.
with one important difference. The onager was operated by handspikes thrust into the
The Roman artisans had now learned to handle steel mortises which turned the drum until the bow was bent
to better advantage, and the torsion system which has been and then engaged a pawl in the ratchet on the drum. In
used in all Roman machines gave way to the tension prin- firing, the trigger-handle on the pulley was struck by
ciple. Steel bows, instead of twisted skeins, supplied pro- a hammer.
pelling power. This mighty onager could hurl a half-ton stone to a
Three types of artillery are now seen in the Roman range of 1,000 yards. Stones were not the only missiles in
service: the ballista, the carro-ballista (a catapult mounted use. Logs, six to ten feet long, were also thrown. Often
on a two-wheeled cart-incidentally the first real "field they would be soaked in pitch and ignited before being
gun") and the onager. hurled.
With the use of the tension principle the onager, or Vie see also the first attempt to give heavy pieces a
"siege howitzer" assumed an unprecedented size. Al- certain degree of mobilitv, for wheels are fitted to the
though less accurate than some of the fine machines of onager. This obviated t1{e arduous task of hoisting the
the Macedonians of an earlier age, the onager was never- machine aboard a wagon for transport.
theless capable of giving perhaps the most astounding After the revival of Roman power after the barbarian
performance of all pre-gunpowder weapons. invasion Belisarius used a large number of onagers to
The huge steel bow, designed on the principle of a drive the Ostrogoths from Rome and to capture the iI1l-
spring-leaf, is twenty-five feet long. The cup (A) is port:ll1t fortress of Ravenna.
three feet in diameter. Metal has been used extensively During the Dark Ages, the armorers of Europe forgot
in the construction to reinforce the wooden frame. The how to make such fine "siege guns" as these. The knight
beams BB converge behind the arm to form a guideway held sway largely by virtue of his impregnable castle
for the bowstring. The drum at C is mortised and fitted against which the feeble catapults of his day worked I

with a ratchet and pawl. It will be noted that both these in vain. The impact of I,ooo-pound stones would have I

fittings are inside the frame instead of outside, as had crumbled the majority of feudal day fortresses.

Coast a'ttille't~ Boa'td 'notes


Any individual, wbether or not he is a member of the service, is invited to submit constructive sugges-
tions relating to problems under study by the Coast Artillery Board, or to present any new problems that
properly may be considered by the Board. Communications should be addressed to tbe President,
Coast Artillery Board, Fort iHonroe, Firginia.



Loading Antiaircraft Fire Control Equipment for T rans- the remainder of the fire control equipment in the other.
portation. With a view to preventing damage, which The arrangement of the equipment in the two trucks is
might be caused to antiaircraft fire control equipment by shown in Figures I and 2.
improper handling. the Coast Artillery Board has pre-
pared instructions for loading this equipment in the 15- Antiaircraft Camera Spotting of Higb Explosive Bursts.
foot body I ~-ton trucks recently procured for mobile Considerable difficulty has been experienced in camera
antiaircraft organizations. Two trucks are being issued for spotting for antiaircraft fire when high explosive shells
the purpose of transporting the antiaircraft fire control are used. The bursts from these shells are black and when
equipment. fired against a blue sky background afford a poor con-
The Board recommended that the two power plants and trast which makes photography difficult.
data transmission cable be transported in one truck and It is believed that the following excerpts from a letter to

Figure I: Power and cable equipment loaded. Figure 2: Fire cOllfrol equipment loaded.
the Chief of Coast Artillery from the regimental com- so f~r a satisfactory method of photographing high ex-
mander of an antiaircraft regiment, together with com- ploslve bursts successfully at lono- ranges against a blue
ments by the Coast Artillery Board, will be of interest to sky has not been found.. b

a!l personnel .concernedwith antiaircraft gun target prac- '2. Experimental photography has been conducted te-

tICeswhere hIgh explosiveshells are fired: cently by the Coast Artillery Board in collaborationwith
1. The ... has recently completed a preliminary a representative of the Signal Corps Laboratories with a
three-inch an~iaircrafttarget practice utilizing a special view to determining the proper photographic technique
allowanceof SIXhundred rounds of high explosiveshell. to meet the conditions described in the preceding para-
Camera records were taken of the first practice but the graph. The data collected during these experiments are
bursts failed to show on the film. The cameras were now under study at the Signal Corps Laboratories and
opened to their maximum extent for the next practice information has been received that a report coverino-the
but the bursts still were so indistinguishable that the r~sults of this study will be forwarded through the Chief
camera records were valueless. SIgnal Officer to the Chief of Coast Artillery.
2. Without technical knowledge on the subject of 3. Further comment in referenceto the b;sic communi-
cameras and films it was concluded that the above re- cation appears below:
suIts were due to one or a combination of the following a. Paragraph I. Experience to date has indicated that
reasons: the F or No. 29 red filter, furnished with the antiaircraft
a. Deterioration of the film through age or through spotting theodolite as a standard accessoryis not suited to
the effectsof tropical weather on it. photographing high explosive bursts' against a blue
b. The absolute atmosphericclearnesswhich exists in sky background. The red filter tends to destroy the con-
this section of the country. There is no haze and con- trast necessaryto obtaining an image on the negative. In
sequently no background for pictures. photographing high explosive bursts against a clear blue
c. The darkness and indistinguishability of the bursts sky, better results will be obtained without a filter than
of high explosive shell. with a red filter. The camera lens aperture should be open-
In connection with 11, above, one lot of film used was ed 1)1z stops more than indicated by the exposure meter.
Film, M. P., Negative, supersensitive panchromatic, For instance, if the exposure meter indicates Stop F-z2 to
Agfa, 3s-mm., zoo-foot roll. This film was received be correct for the light conditions prevailing at the time, a
by the ... on August 28, 1939, and the expiration stop of F-12.7 should be used. These instructions apply
date was September, 1940• A different lot of the same only when photographing against a clear blue sky with-
film with an earlier expiration date produced no notice- out a filter.
ably different effects. b. (1) Paragraph 2 a. Film in sealed containers,
3, In order to produce more satisfactory results from packed for export to tropical countries, should not de-
subsequent records of practices the following requests teriorate if properly stored. It is considered unlikely
are made: d1at the difficulties reported were the result of de-
a. That technical information be furnished on the teriorated film.
subject of photographing high explosive bursts against (2) Paragraph 2 b. The absence of haze is an ad-
a clear blue sky. vantage in photography of this character and should
b. That should the request made in a, above, involve simplify tl1eproblem. The blue sky background, how-
additional equipment such as specialfilters these be fur- ever, does complicate the problem by reducing contrast.
nished this organization. The black high explosive burst against a white cloud
c. That film be shipped fresh to this organization background is an ideal combination, favoring excellent
prior to each firing. photographic results.
4. The visual records obtained from the practices (3) Paragraph 2 c. The conclusion that the condi-
referred to in paragraph 1 were highly unsatisfactory tion of a dark burst against a dark background contrib-
because of the many bursts reported as "lost." The uted to the poor results obtained is believed to be cor-
fault does not lie with the spotters in that at the slant recto The lot of film reported to have been used is
ranges fired at, the high explosive bursts are more dif- considered to have been quite suitable.
ficult to see. Since very little .improvement can be ex- c. (1) Paragraph 3 a. If information obtained from
peeted in the visual section, it is felt that camera records current studies related to this subject proves to be of
are essential if the morale of the firing barteries is to be value, the Coast Artillery Board will recommend to the
kept at the high standard now existent. Chief of Coast Artillerv that such information be fur-
nished to the service as'soon as practicable.
Comments by the Coast Artillery Board: (2) Paragraph 3 b. The Chief Signal Officer has
1. The difficulties in photographing high explosive under consideration a proposal to furnish suitable addi-
bursts against a blue sky background, which are reported tional filters to all spotting theodolites now in service.
in the basic letter, have also been experienced in the Har- Determination of the most suitable filters is believed to
bor Defenses of Chesapeake Bay. The Coast Artillery be dependent on conclusions reached as a result of cur-
Board has had this matter under study for some time, but rent studies at the Signal Corps Laboratory.
(3) Paragraph 3 c. The Coast Artillery Board is of test to determine whether or not the Oxford type (low
the opinion that a fresh shipment of film at six-month quarter) shoe is suitable as a replacement for the present
intervals co tropical stations should be sufficiently fre- brown calfskin garrison shoes of ankle top height.
quent, provided such film is properly stoted by the Based on a service test conducted by three selected
using personnel. organizations at Fort wlonroe the Board decided that the
d. The Coast Artillerv Board concurs in the belief that
low quarter shoe is superior in comfort and appearance
aood camera records are essential co dependable analyses to the present garrison shoe and recommended its issue to

of antiaircraft gun target practices. all Coast Artillery units for garrison duty only.
General. All other equipment and materiel recently
Low Quarter Garrison Shoe. Recently fifty pairs of
considered by the Board is classified as restricted, con-
low quarter shoes were shipped from the Boston Quarter- fidential or secret and it is impossible, at this time, to
mastet Depot to the Coast Artillery Board for a service publish any data pertaining co the items tested.



(Covering the period May 1, to June 30, 1940)

Colonel Edgar B. Colladay to Fort Lewis. Lieutenant Colonel Carl S. Done,' to 6th, :\fajor \Villiam Hesketh to 69th, Fort
Colonel James S. Dusenbury to Philip- Fort \\'infield Scott .. :\[onroe.
pine Department, sailing, New York, Sep- Lieutenant Colonel Bird S. DuBois to :\fajor Harold R. Jackson promoted
tember 14. 70th, Fort Screven. Lieutenant Colonel, June I, 1940.
Colonel \Villiam D. Frazer to Instructor, Lieutenant Colonel John L. Homer pro- }'fajor William Q. Jeffords, Jr. to 61st,
~rinnesota National Guard, Saint Paul, moted Colonel, June I. 1940. Fort Sheridan.
~linnesota. Lieutenant Colonel Frank L. Hoskins re- ~[ajor Edgar \Y. King to 2d, Fort :\1011-
Colonel Frank Kemble to 8th. Fort tired, June 30. 1940. roe.
Preble. Lieutenant Colonel 1Ianning 1L Kimmel. :\[ajor Percy S. Lowe to Instructor. Mas-
Colonel Allen Kimberly to 10th. Fort J r. to 57th, Fort Monroe. sachusetts National Guard, Boston, Massa-
Adams. Lieutenant Colonel Russell York Moore, chusetts.
Colonel Kellev B. Lemmon to 18th, Fort N.G.U.S., to active duty, 'War Department Major Robert W. McBride to Instructor,
Ste\'ens.. General Staff. June 10, 1940. Missouri National Guard, Webb City, :\1is-
Colonel George F. 1foore to Hawaiian Lieutenant Colonel Donald B. Sanger to souri.
Department, sailing, Charleston, Oct,)ber Sacramento High School, Sacramento, Cali- Major Robert N. Mackin to Fordham
12. fornia. University, Fordham, N. Y.
Colonel Harold F. Nichols to Assistant Lieutenant Colonel Carl J. Smith ap- Major )ohn G. Murphy to Fort Lewis.
Commandant, Coast Artillery School. pointed Acting Quartermaster for North. ~[ajor Archibald L. Parmelee to 63d,
Colonel Edward P. Noyes to duty in con- eastern New York Recruiting District. Fort 1!acArthur.
nection with recruiting, Omaha, Nebraska. Lieutenant Colonel Harry \V. Stark to Major Paul W. Rutledge to Office of the
Colonel Peter H. Ottosen to 19th. Fort Fort Lewis. Chief, National Guard Bureau.
Rosecrans. Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Turley, J r. 1[ajor Joseph F. Stiley to 19th (PCAD),
Colonel Louis L. Pendleton to 13th, Key to 67th, Fort Bragg. Fort Rosecrans.
West Barracks. Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. Van Volk. }'fajor Frederick L. Topping to 63d, Fort
Colonel Edward \V. Putney to Univer- enburgh to 6th, Fort \\'infield Scott. MacArthur.
sil\' of Cincinnati .. }'fajor Thomas J. Betts orders to Stu- 1fajor James R. Townsend orders as
Colonel Otto H. Schrader to duty in con- dent, Army \Var College, revoked. Student, Army \Var College, revoked.
nection with recruiting, Harrisburg, Penn- :\fajor Lloyd W. Biggs (Cav.) to Coast }'1ajor James R. Townsend to Army \Var
sylvania. Artillery Corps, Philippine Department. College for duty.
Colonel Edgar H. Thompson to Instruc- :\fajor \Villiarn G. Brey to Fort Lewis. Major Henry \V. Ulmo to 13th, Fort
tor, Georgia National Guard, \Vashingtol1, }'fajor James D. Brown to Instructor, Moultrie.
Georgia. :\linnesota National Guard, Saint Paul, :\fajor Fred B. \Vaters to University of
Colonel Rollin L. Tilton to 6th, Fort ~[innesota. San Francisco.
Winfield Scott. :\fajor Hugh }'fcC. Cochran to 69th, Fort Captain George },!. Badger orders as In-
Lieutenant Colonel Robert D. Brown to Crockett. structor, Command and General Staff
2d Coast Artillerv District, New York, N. School, revoked.
Y. / },[ajor Frederic \V. Cook to Organized
Reserves, 6th Corps Area, Lansing, }'[ichi- Captain George ),r. Badger to Army \Var
Lieutenant Colonel Charles \V. Bundy to gan. College for duty.
General Staff Corps with Troops, Julv I, Captain Robert \V. Berry to 6ith, Fort
, 1940.• :\fajor Charles S. Denny to Finance Of-
ficer, Fort Jay. Bragg.
lieutenant Colonel Albert D. Chipman to Captain Laurence H. Brownlee to 2d,
In.structor, Delaware National Guard. \Vil. :\fajor Arthur \V. Gower to Fordham
University. Fordham, N. Y. Fort )'1onroe.
mmgton, Delaware. Captain Xathaniel A. Burnell 2d orders
lieutenant Colonel Clarence E. Cotter to }'fajor }'forris C. Handwerk to duty
Army \Var College. as Instructor, Command and General Staff
Fort Bragg. School, re,'oked.
lieutenant Colonel James B. Crawford }'fajor Howell R. Hanson (F.A.) to Captain Nathaniel A. Burnell 2d to Of-
prOmoted Colonel, April 30, 1940. Coast Artillery Corps, Philippine Depart- fice of the Chief of Staff, \Vashington,
Lieutenant Colonel Henrv C. Davis. J r. ment. D.C.
to ~richigan State College: East Lansing. ~[ajor James L. Hayden to University Captain \\'alter H. Carlisle promoted
~lichigan. of California, Berkeley, California. :\fajor. June I, 1940.
Captain Edwin \V. Chamberlain to 70th, First Lieutenant lfarshall S. Carter to First Lieutenant Grosvenor F. Powell to
Fort ),foultrie. Panama Canal Department, sailing :Xew Ordnance Department.
Captain Lee A. Denson, Jr. to 67th, Fort York, August 6, 1940. First Lieutenant Charles L. Register to
Bragg. First Lieutenant Avery J. Cooper, Jr. to \Vatertown Arsenal (O.D.).
Captain Charles E. Dunham orders to 69th, Fort Crockett. First Lieutenant Alvin D. Robbins to
Hawaiian Department revoked. First Lieutenant Harry B. Cooper, Jr. to 67th, Fort Bragg.
Captain Carl H. Fernstrom to 71st, Fort Fort Lewis. First Lieutenant John V\'. Romlein orders
Story. First Lieutenant Ira \Y. Cory to Fort to Coast Artillerv School revoked.
Captain Lester D. Flory to U. S. Mili- Lewis. First Lieutenant Franklin G. Rothwell
tary )'fission, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. First Lieutenant James T. Darrah pro- to 19th, Fort Rosecrans.
Captain George A. Ford to 10th (PC moted Captain, June 12, 1940. First Lieutenant Paul A. Roy promoted
AD), Fort Adams. First Lieutenant John B. F. Dice pro- Captain, June 12, 1940.
Captain James R. Goodall to 19th (PC moted Captain, June 12, 1940. First Lieutenant Arnold Sommer to 71st
AD), Fort Rosecrans. First Lieutenant Charles B. Duff to 69th, F'ort Story. '
Captain Lawrence Md. Guyer to 22d, Fort Monroe. First Lieutenant John C. Steele to Fort
Fort Constitution. First Lieutenant Joe C. East promoted Lewis.
Captain John S. Henn to 19th (PCAD), Captain, June 12, 1940. First Lieutenant Oren Swain to 6th, Fort
Fort Rosecrans. First Lieutenant \Valter F. Ellis to 9th, Winfield Scott.
Captain Edward B. Hempstead to 71st, Fort Banks. First Lieutenant Alden P. Taber (O.D.)
Fort Story. First Lieutenant Carl H. Fernstrom pro- promoted Captain, June 12, 1940.
Captain Armand Hopkins to 69th, Fort moted Captain, June 12, 1940. First Lieutenant John F. Thorlin to
Crockett. First Lieutenant Frank T. Folk pro- Watertown Arsenal (O.D.).
Captain Harold H. Hunt (F.A.) orders moted Captain, June 12. 1940. First Lieutenant Joseph H. Twyman, Jr.
to Hawaiian Department revoked. First Lieutenant Arthur L. Fuller, Jr. to promoted Captain, June 12, 1940.
Captain John W. Huyssoon to Judge Ad- 69th, Fort Monroe. First Lieutenant Humbert J. Versace
vocate General's Department. First Lieutenant Arthur L. Fuller, Jr. (F.A.) to 70th, Fort Screven.
Captain Frederick R. Keeler to Adjutant promoted Captain, June 12, 1940. First Lieutenant William H. Waugh, Jr.
General's Department. First Lieutenant Max S. George to 67th, to Fort Lewis.
Captain Lyman L. Lemnitzer to 70th, Fort Bragg. First Lieutenant Donald B. Webber to
Fort ~foultrie. First Lieutenant Seymour 1. GilDml1to 67th, Fort Bragg.
Captain Donald McLean to Fort Lewis. Fort Lewis. First Lieutenant H. Bennett 'Whipple to
Captain Emmor G. Martin to 69th, Fort First Lieutenant Robert F. Haggerty 2d, Fort Monroe.
Monroe. promoted Captain, June 12, 1940. First Lieutenant Stanley A. \Vilfong,
Captain Paul B. Nelson to Fort Lewis. First Lieutenant William H. Harris pro- CA-Res. promoted Captain, June 27, 1940.
Captain Howard H. Newman promoted moted Captain, June 12, 1940. First Lieutenant Pennock H. W oUaston
Major, April 30, 1940. First Lieutenant Harry J: Harnson to orders to Coast Artillery School revoked.
Captain William H. Papenfoth promoted 3d, Fort MacArthur. First Lieutenant Robert J. Wood to 57th,
Major, June 1, 1940. First Lieutenant Clarence J. Hauck, J1". Fort Monroe.
Captain Willis A. Perry to 67th, Fort to Office of Judge Advocate General. F'irst Lieutenant Robert J. Wood pro-
Bragg. First Lieutenant Lauri J. Hillberg' to moted Captain, June 12, 1940.
Captain John E. Reierson to Instructor, Fort Lewis. First Lieutenant Joseph B. Yost to 69th.
Connecticut National Guard, Hartford, First Lieutenant Gordon H. Holterman Fort Monroe.
Connecticut. to 69th, Fort Monroe. First Lieutenant Frank J. Zeller to Fort
Captain James G. Renno to 69th, Fort First Lieutenant John N. Howel! to 57th, Lewis.
Crockett. Fort Monroe. Second Lieutenant Godfrey R. Ames pro-
Captain Warren C. Rutter to Office, First Lieutenant Howard W. Hunter to moted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
Chief of Staff, Washington, D. C. 57th, Fort Monroe. Second Lieutenant Frank W. Andrews
Captain Joseph P. Shumate orders to First Lieutenant Maxwell M. Kallman to (In£.) to Coast Artillery Corj}s.
Hawaiian Department revoked. 6th, Fort Winfield Scott. Second Lieutenant Frank W. Andrews
Captain Peter W. Shunk to Fort Lewis. First Lieutenant Henry J. Katz tn Aber- promoted First Lieutenant, June 12, 19-W.
Captain Logan O. Shutt to Fort Bragg. deen Proving Ground (O.D.). Second Lieutenant Herbert C. Armstrong-
Captain Alba C. Spalding to 71st, Fort First Lieutenant Franklin Kemble, Jr. to promoted First Lieutenant, June 22, 19-W.
Storv. Springfield Armory, Massachusetts. Second Lieutenant William W. Bailev
Captain Rupert E. Starr promoted First Lieutenant Robert H. Kessler to promoted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
Major, June 1, 1940. 67th, Fort Bragg. Second Lieutenant Walter F. Bosky pro-
Captain Andrew P. Sullican to 67th, First Lieutenant Adam A. Koscielniak moted First Lieutenant, June 26, 1940.
Fort Bragg. to 57th, Fort Monroe. Second Lieutenant Donald R. Boss to
Captain Maxwell Vol. Tracy to 57th, Fort. First Lieutenant Adam A. Koscielniak Air Corps.
Monroe. promoted Caj}tain, June 12, 1940. Second Lieutenant Raymond C. Cheal
Captain Charles H. Treat (Inf.) orders First Lieutenant Hubert DuB. Lewis to promoted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
to Hawaiian Department revoked. 2d, Fort Monroe. Second Lieutenant Stanley J. Cherubin
Captain Louis T. Vickers to Fort Lewis. First Lieutenant Hubert DuB. Lewis pro- promoted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
Captain Walter L. Weible (G.S.c.) pro- moted Captain, June 12, 1940. Second Lieutenant Milton H. Clark pro-
moted Major, June 1, 1940. First Lieutenant Henry D. Lind to 9th, moted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
Captain Charles M. Wolff to Fort Lewis. Fort Banks. Second Lieutenant James M. Cochran to
First Lieutenant George E. Adams First Lieutenant Richard H. Mattern to Fort Lewis.
(F.A.) to 70th, Fort Screven. 57th, Fort Monroe. Second Lieutenant Walter C. Conway
First Lieutenant Dana S. Alexander pro- First Lieutenant Thomas McG. Metz to promoted First Lieutenant, June 21, 1940.
moted Captain, June 12, 1940. 65th, Fort Winfield Scott. Second Lieutenant George W. Croker to
First Lieutenant Lewis K. Beazley to First Lieutenant Elmo C. Mitchell to 6th, Fort Winfield Scott.
67th, Fort Bragg. Fort Lewis. Second Lieutenant Joseph Paul D'Arezzo
First Lieutenant Severin R. Beyma to First Lieutenant Thomas D. Neier to commissionedJune 25, assigned to 63d, Fort
Leland Stanford, Jr. University. 71st, Fort Story. MacArthur.
First Lieutenant \Varren S. Blair to 62d, First Lieutenant Charles J. Odenweller, Second Lieutenant \Valter C. DeBill pro-
Fort Totten. Jr. promoted Captain, June 12, 1940. moted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
First Lieutenant Gaspare F. Blunda to First Lieutenant Charles S. O'Malley, Second Lieutenant William G. Easton
62d, Fort Totten. Jr. to 67th, Fort Bragg. promoted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
First Lieutenant Edward Badeau to Ord- First Lieutenant Byron L. Paige to 69th, Second Lieutenant Perry H. Eubank pro-
nance Department. Fort Crockett. moted First Lieutenant, June 12, 1940.
First Lieutenant Lawrence A. Bosworth First Lieutenant Willis A. Perry pro- Second Lieutenant Albert L. Evans, Jr.
promoted Captain, June 12, 1940. moted Captain, June 12, 1940. to Air Corps.
First Lieutenant Harry R. Boyd pro- First Lieutenant Howard P. Persons, Jr. Second Lieutenant Philip Henry Farley
moted Captain, June 12, 1940. to 69th, Fort Monroe. promoted First Lieutenant, May 16. 194O'
First Lieutenant Richard C. Boys to First Lieutenant Arthur C. Peterson pro- Second Lieutenant Robert H. Fitzgeral d
69th, Fort Monroe. moted Captain, June 12, 1940. promoted First Lieutenant, June 12. 1940.
First Lieutenant \Vallace H. Brucker to First Lieutenant Ray A. Pillivant to Second Lieutenant Frederick H. Foerster.
67th, Fort Bragg. Springfield Armory, ~fassachusetts. Jr. to Air Corps.
Second Lieutenant John Frederick Fre- Second Lieutenant Charles D. T. Lenn- Second Lieutenant John Aloysius Ron-
und commissioned June 25. assigned to i1st. hoff to Fort Lewis. ayne. CA-Res. promoted First Lieutenant.
Fort Story. Second Lieutenant Earl \Villiams Lim- June 28. 1<;40.
Second Lieutenant James D. Garcia to berg promoted First Lieutenant, June 26, Second Lieutenant Charles L Register
-\ir Corps . 1940. (O.D.) promoted First Lieutenant. June
. Second Lieutenant ;.,[ax S. George p~o- Second Lieutenant Charles J. Long 3d 12. 1940.
moted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1949. to Air Corps. Second Lieutenant Raymond \V. Rumph
Second Lieutenant Robert H. Greer to Second Lieutenant James L. ;.,lcBride, J r. promoted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1940.
.-\ir Corps. to Air Corps . S.econd Lieutenant James A. Scott, J r. to
Second Lieutenant John ;.,[c;.,1. Gulick Second Lieutenant :\ orman J. ;.,IcGowan 5ith. Fort ;.,Ionroe.
promoted First Lieutenant. Jut}e 12. 1940. to Air Corps. Second Lieutenant James A. Scott, Jr.
Second Lieutenant Linscott A. Hall pro- Second Lieutenant Edward \V. ;.,[cLain promoted First Lieutenant, June 12. 1940.
to 69th. Fort Crockett. Second Lieutenant Donald \V. Shi\'e pro-
moted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1940.
Second Lieutenant Alfred A. ;.,[a\'bach moted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1940.
Second Lieutenant Laird \V. Hendricks
promoted First Lieutenant. June 12. '1940. St'cond Lieutenant \Villiam T. Smith to
to .-\ir Corps.
Second Lieutenant Elbert O. ;.,[eals to Air Corps.
Second Lieutenant ;.,(onte J. Hickok. Jr. Air Corps.
to Sith Fort ;.,[onroe.
Second Lieutenant Henr\' ;"1. Spengler
Second Lieutenant Thomas ;.,IcG. ;.,[etz promoted First Lieutenant: June 12. 1940.
Second Lieutell1nt ;.,[onte J. Hickok. J r. promoted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1940. Second Lieutenant Oscar B. Steely pro-
promoted First Lieutenant. J line 12. 1940. Second Lieutenant Jessie C. 11 iller pro- moted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1940.
Second Lieutenant Farrell .I ohnson. J r. moted First Lieutenant. June 15. 1940. Second Lieutenant Stazy James Sukien-
promoted First Lieutenant. June 19. 1940. Second Lieutenant Robert B. ;.,Iiller to nik CA-Res. promoted First Lieutenant,
Second Lieutenant Harold O. Johnson to Air Corps. June 3. 1940.
iSth. Fort Lewis. Second Lieutenant Charles F. ;.,[onteith Second Lieutenant Louis O. Turley pro-
Second Lieutenant Edward Anthon\' promoted First Lieutenant. June 1i. 1940. moted First Lieutenant. June 15. 1940.
King promoted First Lieutenant . .I une 26. Second Lieutenant Thomas D. ~eier pro- Second Lieutenant GeorRe V. Under-
1940. moted First Lieutenant. June 12, 1940. wood. Jr. promoted First Lieutenant. June
Second Lieutenant Joseph T. KinRsley. Second Lieutenant John G. Nelson to 12. 1940.
Jr. to Air Corps. 69th. Fort ;.,[onroe. Second Lieutenant \Villiam J. \Vorcester
Second Lieutenant Andrew J. Kinney to Second Lieutenant Da\'id B. Nye pro- orders to Panama Canal Department re-
.-\ir Corps. \'okeel.
moted First Lieutenant, June 12. 1940 .
Second Lieutenant Edward ;"1. Lee . Second Lieutenant \Villiam J. \\'orcester
Second Lieutenant Herbert R. Odom to
(0.0.) promoted First Lieutenant. June promoted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1940.
Fort Lewis.
12.1940. Second Lieutenant Tilden P. \Vright to
Second Lieutenant Charles S. O';.,lalley, Air Corps.
Second Lieutenant George F. Leist to J r. promoted First Lieutenant, June 12.
69th. Fort ;.,Ionroe. Second Lieutenant Prentiss D. \\'ynne,
1940. Jr. to Air Corps.
Second Lieutenant George F. Leist pro- Second Lieutenant John G. Pickard to Second Lieutenant Charles G. Young pro-
moted First Lieutenant. June 12. 1940 . .-\ ir Corps. moted First Lieutenant. June 12, 1940.

Tbis is tbe Douglas B-23 bomber recentl)' delleloped b)' tbe United States Arm)'.

The United States ?1ews at1d eOmmet1t

Coast Artillery 1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllmllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIm

Association Meet the New Editor

As this issue of your magazine goes to press the pres-
ent management relinquishes its editorial post to Lieuten-

The purpose of the Association shall be to promote
ant Colonel Charles Thomas-Stahle, Coast Artillerv
Corps. The qualifications ~f
our successor are well known to
all Coast Arrillervmen. How-
ever, it will not be taken amiss
the efficiency of the Coast Artillery Corps by main-
taining its standards and traditions, by disseminating if we run over the record of
professional knowledge, by inspiring greater effort to- Colonel Thomas-Stahle to as-
wards the improvement of materiel and methods of sure the Corps that our JOUR-
training and by fostering mutual understanding, re- NAL and Association will be
spect and cooperation among all arms, branches and
in very competent hands for
components of the Re~ular Army, National Guard,
Organized Reserves, and Reserve .officers' Training
the next four years. Colonel
Corps. Thomas-Stahle, a Pennsyl.
vanian by birth, graduated
from Pennsylvania State Col.
lege in 191 I, as a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.
lvlAJOR GENERAL J. A. GREEN Almost immediately he took the examination for com- I
PRESIDENT mission in the Regular Army and was appointed a sec-
ond lieutenant, Coast Artillery Corps, in December of I
191 I. Colonel Thomas-Stahle has seen service in the
Philippines, in France, at Fort l'vfonroe. Fort Totten and
LlEUT. COLONEL AARON BRADSHAW, JR. in the Harbor Defenses of Puget SOllnd. Moreover he 1

SECRETARY-TREASURER has the experience of duty with the civilian components 1

for he has served tours of ROTC duty at Michigan State

College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
WfAJOR GENERAL H. K. LOUGHRY He is :1 graduate of the Coast Artillery School Ad.
COLONEL C. C. DAWES vanced Course (1926), the Command and General Staff
COLONEL F. S. CLARK School (1927), and holds the degree of Master of Science
COLONEL C. S. GLE[~[ from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1922). Our
COLONEL E. A. EVANS new editor and secretary comes to his desk well fortified
LtEUTEr>:Ar>:T COLOr>:EL MILO BRINKLEY by the experience of three decades of soldiering.
MAJOR A. V. WINTON We are glad to turn over to the guidance of Colonel
Thomas-Stahle a JOURNAL that marks an all-time high in
circulation and an Association that is sound financiallr.
The Coast Arti7Jery Journal This satisfactory condition, in the main, is due to the
wholehearted cooperation of our many friends who have
LIEUT. COL. AAIWN BRADSHAW. JR.. Editor labored on our behalf in the field. Furthermore, it is due
The JOURNAL prints articles on subjects of to the wise counsel and cooperation given unstintedly by
professional and general interest to officers of all the personnel of the office of the Chief of Coast Artillery.
the components of the Coast Artillery Corps in
order to stimulate thought and provoke discussion. Running an editorial office and business enterprise of the
However, opinions expressed and conclusions drawn size your JOURNAL has now achieved requires the inter-
in articles are in no sense official. They do not re-
/lect the opinions or conclusions of the Chief of ested help which has been at our command. The present
Coast Artillery or any other official or branch of management has had that assistance in more than gen~r-
the War Department.
The JOURNAL does not carry paid advertising.
ous measure. We know the same cooperation and wise I
The JOURNAL pays for original articles upon counsel will be given Colonel Thomas-Stahle. We know
publication. Manuscripts should be addressed to he will be as appreciative of it as we have been.
the Editor. The JOURNAL is not responsible for
manuscripts unaccompanied by return postage. To our successor we wish the best of luck. To our sub-
scribers we offer our congratulations since they are assured
excellent management in the future.
Questions From the Battlefield To m." understanding, the only way to meet a situation
Major Yang Ya-mei, of this kind is to form a screen in the vicinity of the first
C/o Post Office Box 95 plane's descending point. Is this right or not?
Kweiyang, Kweichow, Thirdly, in area defense, air forces cannot work in
China. close cooperation with the ground force. Gun batteries
May 25, 1940 usually hold their fire when the friendly air force is in the
Editor air. Thus we lose opportunities to fire and sometimes the
COASTARTILLERY JOURNAL raider may dive down to throw a few loads at the gun
Washington, D. C. battery. I have spent a lot of time in searching the text-
books for material dealing with the cooperation of pursuit
My dear Sir: and AA guns, but so far have found nothing definite.
}ViayI have a few minutes of your valuable time in Once, a little before dark, waves of raiders came to at-
reading this letter from the war country. I am an old tack a city. We had both air force and several batteries
friend of yours-not personally-but through the me- of 75-mm. AA guns. Poor visibility prevented us from
dium of your valuable JOURNAL.SOI have little hesitation distinguishing the insignia on the planes so we did not fire
in mailing this to.you. for the first few minutes. Later we decided to shoot dis-
First, from the theoretical point of view, trial fire is un- regarding the danger to our own aviation. Fortunately,
suited for the AA unit. Especially is this true in the for- five of the bombers were brought down, and none of ours
ward area, where to shoot trial fire before the raider arrives were hit. However, I do hope that somewhere there are
would undoubtedly tell him where I am and would warn some good ideas concerning this kind of a situation.
him where not to go. Even in the rear area, the opportun- My fourth problem concerns the infantry in the field.
ity is quite limited to shoot four or more rounds to deter- As there is no country that can furnish sufficient AA
mine the conditions which affect the trajectory. I have troops with the field units, protection against aviation is
often observed the ground-air battle and I have discovered the duty of the infantry itself. Here I believe that active
that few batteries could control the regular pattern of the methods will be the most effective means to check attack
four projectiles. Even though there is extensive examina- aviation, but nine times out of ten a commander dislikes to
tion and check of materiel before fire, the ballistic errors have his boys shoot at planes even if these fly low enough
can never be corrected except by actual service firing. To to be hit by rifle or machine-gun fire. The chief reason
my mind, the question as to whether or not to fire trial for this unwillingness to open fire seems to be a fear that
shot is a problem of both tactics and gunnery. Of course units will be discovered and will thus afterward attract
in defending a city several hundred miles distant from the more attack aviation and so cause more losses. Three years .
enemy there is no tactical danger in shooting trial shot, of war in my country have brought little change in this
but how about in the field army in the forward area? And, idea of the troop leaders. Yet to rely too much on passive
moreover, suppose air superiority is held by the enemy? methods results in weakening the morale of boys who
Once our battery is discovered, low-flying machines in have never been in battle. We have had many arguments
formation will rain bombs on it. The infantry or field about the active or passive defense. I wish I could have
artillery units in the vicinity will undoubtedly' dislike to some of your valuable ideas on this.
have a battery shooting when enemy aviation is not in Maybe you are too busy, so answering this will be
sight. Should the rounds be fired before we see the raider "out" for you, but I do hope your advice will reach me in
or not? If so, when? How much fire may we indulge in the near future.
if projectiles endanger the civilians who have not seen or Best wishes to you and your members.
heard any enemy bombers? Sincerely,
Secondly, the single-line column formation is very dif-
ficult to fire at. Once I saw eight bombers in triangle for-
Major, F. A.,
mation. The 3-inch gun battery fired immediately the
Chinese Army.
target came within effective range. The raiders then
broke down into a single-line column formation. This "f "f "f
action apparently caught the battery unawares, for there
Promotions of German Army Officers
Wasa three or four second interval before I saw the second
bursts. The bombers' target was a false airfield, not more A recent study of changes. in the commissioned per-
than 1,000 yards long and 500 yards wide. The bombers sonnel of the Reichswehr following a period of over nine
dropped their loads in turn from the same point. We years-May, 1930 to August, 1939---indicates a rapid
made a big error. The fire was not handled so as to form acceleration upward. At the beginning of this period there
a screen in the vicinity of the planes' descending point. were 42 generals. In August, 1939 two were listed as
Otherwise, at least rwo of them could have been brought army commanders, five as unassigned and 35 as deceased
down. Owing to the long distance between the individual or retired. Likewise, of 106 colonels, two had become army
planes-about 300 yards or more-it was useless to fol- commanders, seven corps commanders, one a general of
low them. As a m~tter of fact, one cannot follow them. the air service, five division commanders, three brigade
commanders and 88 deceased or retired. Of 192 lieutenant Abroad it is considered advisable first of all to conduct a
colonels, one had become an army commander, 25 corps thorough visual and photographic reconnaissance of the
commanders, two generals of the air service, 25 division areas where hostile antiaircraft weapons are believed to
commanders, one a commander of an air division, 12 be situated.
brigade commanders, one a commander of an air brigade, The next step is the destruction of the antiaircraft fire
five colonels and 120 deceased or retired. Of 378 majors, system by sudden attack against individual targets. It
three had become corps commanders, seven generals of contemplated that this will force the antiaircraft personnel
the air service, 31 division commanders, eight command- to take cover or to be kept fully occupied in defending
ers of air divisions, 139 brigade commanders, 16 com- themselves. With the destruction or neutralization of the
manders of air brigades, 67 colonels, one a colonel of the AA defense weapons, the enemy at once takes advantage
air service and 106 deceased or retired. Of 1,100 captains, of their momentary inaction for the execution of his
13 had become brigade commanders, IS commanders of air primary mission.
brigades, 400 colonels, 40 colonels of the air service, 450 The Spanish Insurgents bombarded Government AA
lieutenant colonels, 40 lieutenant colonels of the air service batteries with swift bombers, attacking simultaneously
and 142 deceased or retired. Of 1,300 first lieutenants, ten from different directions. There were some isolated attacks
had become colonels of the air service, the others lieutenant by pursuit aircraft against AA artillery positions.
colonels or majors. Of 600 second lieutenants all had be- The following methods were also employed. Having
come majors or captains. La France Militaire, 24 February, determined the location of the Government AA artillery,
194°. the Insurgent planes approached the zone of effecrive
of of i AA fire and circled about with a view to diverting the at-
tention of the artillery personnel. Fire could not be opened
The Armament Program because the targets were still beyond the range of effective
The following tabulation showing the status of supply fire. And while the attention of the AA artillery was at-
of Coast Artillery critical items, is extracted from the testi- tracted to the direction where the hostile aircraft were
mony of the Chief of Staff before the House Appropria- circling about, attack planes delivered their raid from
tion Committee on May 22, 1940: another direction.
Will be on For the purpose of "blinding" the AA weapons the
hand at area in which these are situated is covered with smoke.
On hand completion Under the normal disposition of batteries the general area
Type of equipment May I, 1940 of program occupied by an AA battalion is about sixty square kilo-
meters. The task of covering an area of this size with
ANTIAIRCRAFT smoke is by no means simple, and requires the utilization
3-inch guns 448 500 of a large number of planes. The number of planes needed
9o-mm. guns . 317 to smoke two or more AA artillery battalions is readily ap-
Directors 168 273 parent. The effort involved is so great as to render such
Height finders 142 276 action prohibitive.
Sound locators 194 801 And yet the possibility of "blinding" individual areas
37-mm. guns, antiaircraft .. IS 1>423 must not be overlooked. The enemy may "blind" anti-
Machine gun, caliber .50 .,. 1,014 1,682 aircraft weapons in a particular sector, and by so doing
facilitate the action of his bombers.
What are the methods to be employed in the circum-
8-inch railway gun and carriage stances? First of all, there must be efficient reconnaissance
that will permit of a proper estimate of the intentions of
the hostile air raiders. The moment the hostile planes are
37-mm. antiaircraft gun .... 46,000 discovered attempting to use smoke against the area, the~'
ENGINEER CORPS must be destroyed. Hence reconnaissance must insure
timely detection of the hostile aircraft. It is important that
Searchlight, 6o-inch mobile .. 285 1,028
the main group of the hostile aircraft be prevented from
reaching the area.
Furthermore, the AA artillery personnel must be
Defense of AA Artillery Against Air Attack trained for action from smoke-covered positions. In these
Two tactical methods may be employed against anti- circumstances, fire may be conducted with the aid of
aircraft weapons by aviation: The direct attack, and the listening devices, and by creeping and fixed barrage fire.
"blinding" of the AA weapons. It should be noted that Consequently, each battery must be prepared to deliver
the direct attack is quite difficult for bombardment avi- barrage fire in its particular sector.
ation, since the positions of the antiaircraft batteries as a The enemy may also utilize smoke-screens to cover
rule present extremely small targets. When properly his bombers against ground observation during flight over
camouflaged these are hardly noticeable. the antiaircraft defense zone. Here a smoke-screen will be
laid down frontally and in depth of the flight of the bom- simultaneously with his reconnaissance operations. In this
bardment group. This will be undertaken in rare instances instance the enemy will employ two or three tactical
only, since it will involve the employment of a large num- groups echeloned in depth and altitude. The first group,
ber of airplanes. Nevertheless preparations must be made proceeding at low altitude but at great speed, will cause
for such contingencies. inexperienced antiaircraft personnel to open fire. The latter
First of all, action must be taken against hostile recon- failing to realize the fact that these hostile planes are
naissancecraft attempting to discover the antiaircraft de- being followed by another group of aircraft with the ob-
fense system. Next, the hostile aircraft laying down the ject of attacking all AA weapons will reveal their positions
smoke-screen must be destroyed, and most important of by opening fire.
aU, the main hostile bombardment group must be de- To avoid this, observation must be conducted further
stroyed. than merely against the planes flying at low altitude. Care
Action against the hostile reconnaissance craft is under- must be taken to note whether other planes (of greater
taken by specially designated batteries. Otherwise the potential danger) are not following these first hostile air-
entire antiaircraft system will be revealed to the enemy. traft.
As soon as fire against the hostile reconnaissance craft has The enemy will endeavor to deliver his attack from dif-
been ended, the batteries are shifted to previously pre- ferent directions, more often from the direction of the
pared positions. Otherwise the batteries which had dis- sun or from behind clouds. Consequently, it is always
closedtheir positions during their fire would be subjected important to maintain observation in the direction of the
to attack, and find themselves unable to participate in the sun and clouds. In the event of a simultaneous attack
action against the principal hostile air forces. from different directions, the antiaircraft weapons are di-
In certain instances pursuit aviation may be employed vided so as to fire against each of the targets.
againstthe hostile reconnaissance craft, to the end that the Mutual assistance is of cardinal importance here. When
antiaircraft positions may not be revealed. the hostile craft are attacking one battery, the next battery
In planning a direct attack against the AA positions, situated nearby must open fire against these hostile craft.
the enemy will of course conduct a reconnaissance first. In defense at night, searchlights are of vital importance.
On the basis of this reconnaissance he will make his first Without the aid of these, the effectiveness of the AA ar-
decisionwhether to attack the antiaircraft weapons or to tillery weapons will be greatly reduced. The enemy will
avoid their positions entirely. The reconnaissance will be first of all attempt to disable all searchlights in operation.
conducted by individual fast bombers or by pursuit craft Hence these must be protected by the AA artillery.
Rightsproceeding at low altitude.
The AA artillery must also consider the fact that even
As demonstrated by the experience of recent conflicts, a single assault at night will suffice to put the battery out
the aviation goes into action at the more probable points of action. Consequently, it is necessary to change positions
of the location of hostile troops, in order to determine at night after each fire action. Krasnaya Zwesda (USSR),
whether any hostile troops are actually situated there. In August 14, 1939.
someinstances this method of reconnaissance has afforded
satisfactory results. Having taken cover in groves or at
the edge of woods, the troops during aerial attacks dis- "Gnats"
persedin various directions, or they opened fire, and thus
betrayed their presence. The reconnaissance thus accom- The following gives the most interesting features of
plished its objective. German "gnats," or motor torpedo boats.
From this it follows that fire must not always be opened The first motorboats of the LM-rype built about 1925'
against reconnaissance planes and that the action must displaced not more than 6-7 tons with a length of 52;1z
here be based on the tactical situation. The enemy, as a ft. and a beam of 8 ft.; they were propelled by 3 propellers
rule, will undertake his reconnaissance in the area of the driven by gasoline engines of 630 to 720 hp. and attained
principal attack objective. And this being the case, it speeds from 28 to 30 knots. They had a cruising radius of
would not be wise for all antiaircraft weapons in the area 150 to 200 miles. The armament consisted of a 1.45- or
to reveal their positions. 1.76-in. gun, a machine gun, and an 18-in torpedo tube.
The enemy will also conduct reconnaissance in sec- In 1926, the K-cIass were built, length 34.4 ft., in
o.ndaryareas for the purpose of concealing his actual direc- which the horsepower jumped to 1,060 and the speed to
tionof attack. In the circumstances it is highly important 40 knots.
to estimate properly his real intentions. About the same period some much larger boats were
The antiaircraft personnel must be provided with suit- built, 26 tons, length 69 ft., beam greater, but capabl~
able cover against aerial attack. Even the use of simple of only 29 knots; these craft were designed primarily as
dugouts will greatly reduce personnel losses. Special at- submarine chasers.
tention must be given to camouflage discipline. The boats constructed from 1933 on have undergone a
. The enemy will obtain best results where he succeeds new transformation. According to the Germans, craft
In destroying the principal antiaircraft defense weapons having a rounded hull cross section would have better
sea-keeping characteristics than those with concave or War Brings New Tactics
flat bottoms. It is in the direction of craft with rounded
Royal Air Force Quarterly, June, I94o--New devices
hulls but of large displacement that the Germans have
have been fitted to British bomber aircraft as the result of
concentrated their efforts. 1v10reover,they have discarded
recent advances by the Royal Air Force in the scientific
gasoline engines as being too dangerous and have em-
study of precision bombing.
ployed in their stead light motors burning a heavier and
Details of bomb sights and mechanism are always close
less volatile fuel.
secrets, and the new tactics developed by the Air Force as
The R-I to R-I6 boats, built from 1930 to 1935, have
a result of experience in air actions against the enemy are
a 45-ton displacement, 85.4 ft. length, and are propelled
not yet for general--or enemy-knowledge. But an
at 18 knots by 2 M.A.N. 600-hp. motors. They mount
understanding of the principles of the aerial bombardment
2 antiaircraft guns and have a I7-man crew.
of defined targets-as opposed to indiscriminate bomb-
The most recent torpedo launching motorboats of the ing-affords some indication of what may be achieved.
$-6 to 5-37 type, built from 1933 to 1939 have a displace-
ment of 62 tons, a length of 93 ft., and are propelled at TYPES OF ATTACK
speeds of 30 to 36 knots by 2 double acting M.A.N. or Roughly speaking, modern bombing takes one of
Daimler-Benz motors of 2,400 hp. They carry an antiair- three forms-high-Ievel or precision bombing, low-level
craft gun and two 2o-in. torpedo tubes. There is a I7-man bombing, or dive-bombing. The type of attack depends
crew. on such things as ground opposition, nature of target,
The majority of these craft, hulls of wood, are built by degree of penetration required, the weather, and the type
Lursen-Vegesack. These same yards recently furnished 8 of bomb used.
similar craft to the Yugoslavian Navy. They have a dis- High-level bombing may be from any height within
placement of 60 tons, a length of 92 ft., a beam of 14-1 the "ceiling" of the aircraft. Conceivably this may be as
ft., and a draft of 5 ft. Three l,ooo-hp. Daimler-Benz much as six miles high, where antiaircraft guns and bar-
motors of the BF 2-type furnish the power plant; there is rage balloons cease to be a menace, but in practice accu-
in addition a small auxiliary motor for use at cruising racy would demand a lesser height. For the same reason
speeds. The armament consists of a 1.8s-in. gun, a ma- a straight and level approach is necessary. Sometimes the
chine gun, and two I8-in. torpedo tubes. The crew are bomber can make use of clouds to hide its approach, but
12 in number. All of these craft, of large tonnage and generally a clear run is required to achieve accurate
Diesel motored, natura~ly possess a large cruising radius. results.
The normal cruising radius of a boat driven by gasoline To allow for its forward travel the bomb is released
engine of around 20 tons is scarcely greater than 600 miles. some distance from the target. "Drift" due to the wind,
The Diesels used in the German craft are the ones which has also to be allowed for. Although, at a ,considerable
had been developed by several firms-under government height, the point of release may be as much as two or
contracts-for use in Zeppelins. These motors underwent three miles from the target, the bomb arrives on the
very severe tests. The Daimler-Benz motors have been ground at about the same time as the aircraft would be
used in Zeppelins in transatlantic service. Those used in directly overhead.
the motorboats develop 1,3So hp. through 16 cylinders "Pa~tern" bombing, or the aiming of a number of
arranged in 2 banks of 8 in a V at an angle of 50 degrees. bombs at various points round the centre of the targe~,
The pistons are 7 inches in diamerer and have a 9-in. rather like the bunch of pellets fired from a shotgun, IS
stroke. The weight of the motor dry is some 4,400 lb., a a modern development of high-level bombing. In such
little more than 2 lb.jhp. types as the Vickers Wellington, Handley-Page HamI:
The M.A.N. motors can develop 1,200 hp. at 1,200 den and Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley, the Royal AIr
r.p.m.; they normally turn up for 900 to 1,000 hp. Their Force possesses numbers of fast, powerful aircraft ad-
weight ratio is 2.62Ib.jhp. These motors have 7 cylinders mirably suited for precision bombing.
of 7.S-in. bore diameter and have a I2-in. stroke.
The auxiliaries of this 2-cycle, double-acting motor Low-LEVELANDDIVE-BOMBING
are: centrifugal blower for scavenging, pump for cooling Low-level bombing is a method of attack designed t~
oil, pump for lubricating oil, and centrifugal pump for secure accuracy, whilst minimizing the risk from ant!-
circulating water. They are driven by the motor and use aircraft fire. It has the advantages of surprise, and it I?ay
up about 30 per cent of the i. hp. The fuel consumption be employed under weather conditons unsuited for hlgh-
,does not exceed 3 oz. per horsepower hour, which bears level bombing. The fast, medium-size bomber of a~-
witness to the excellent scavenging and complete com- vanced design, which is not suited for dive bombing, IS
bustion. The weight of the motor dry is 3,608 lb. the type which can best be used for this work.
The German Navy has forbidden the sale of this type Dive-bombing also aims at attaining greater acc~racy
of motor as well as the publication of any or all descriptive than bombing from high altitudes and at presentmg a
literature. V.S.N.!. Proceedings from Journal de la Ma- more difficult target to the ground defences. It may be
rine Marchande. of the "high" or "low" dive variety. In a high dive tbe
bomb will generally be released between 2,000 and 18)0 to those employed for pavements, will it is claimed, prove
feet above the target. A low-dive attack may start at an effective antidote.
about 2,000 feet and continue to as low as 200 feet before In the early days of the war, sandbags were used to pro-
the release and pull-out. tect the wheelhouses, but these had only a short life in
Dive-bombing was largely used by the Germans in their North Sea weather conditions. They 'were expensive,
initial surprise attack on Poland, following tactics worked cumbersome and heavy, costing on an average £120 per
out in their rehearsal in Spain. Roads, railways, moving trawler, and weighing about 20 tons. Later, the Ministry
trains, columns of troops, headquarters, aerodromes, tele- of Shipping considered the suggestion of substituting
phone exchanges and similar nerve centres miles beyond concrete paving slabs in place of the sandbags. It was
the fighting area were attacked, resulting in paralysis of claimed that these slabs would be easier to fit, take up less
communications. room, be lighter in weight with less strain on the super-
Special aircraft have been developed for dive-bombing structure, and afford permanent protection for the dura-
duty, strong enough to withstand the stresses set up in the tion of the war. Moreover, supplies of such slabs were
dive and the pull-out. They are usually fitted with some available for every trawler and coasting vessel in the
form of air brake to control the speed of the dive. A typical country. Plans were produced, and the fitting of con-
German example of the type is the JU.S7A, whilst the crete slabs to the wheelhouses of such vessels has recently
Blackburn Skua is a first-class British aircraft specially de- become tecommended as preferable to the use of sand-
signed for dive-bombing as well as fighting. bags.
The slabs are made to British Standard Specification,
like those used for street paving, and are of a minimum
Finland thickness of 2;1z inches, which is sufficient to withstand
Royal Air Force Quarterly, May 1940, from Le Vie del-
A wheelhouse can be given effective protection by
'aria,6th April, 194o--Now that the Russo-Finnish War
placing the slabs flat against the structure and holding
is over, certain information is available relating to Finnish
them in place with wood or steel channels. Alternatively,
antiaircraft activity again~t the Soviet bomber units. It is
they can be held in position by cover plates where the
reported that the number of Soviet aircraft brought down
slab butts join. In those vessels which normally have an
by Finnish AA artillery was 275-50 in December, 60 in
open wheelhouse, the slabs can be erected and held in
January, more than 100 in February, and about 50 during
position by a strutted framework.
the remaining period of hostilities. The mean number
Windows, which are 12 inches deep by about 1 foot
of rounds fired for each aircraft destroyed was 54. Al-
6 inches or 2 feet wide, can be closed at a moment's notice
though the source of information cannot be considered
by lowering iron shutters; the doors can be protected in a
reliable, since it is manifestly biased, and in spite of the
similar way, or preferably by auxiliary doors made of
well-known deficiencies in the organization and employ-
paving slabs and carried in a special frame.
ment of the Soviet bomber units, nevertheless these figures
The compass remains unaffected by the concrete as
areof increased interest when one considers that at the be-
paving slabs made to the authorized British Standard
ginning and end of the Great War, 1914-IS, the average
Specification do not require steel reinforcement.
number of rounds required to bring down a single aircraft
was 11,000 and 6,000 respectively. The Finnish record in l' l' l'
this field of activity was made by the AA battery com- The Dual-Mission Problem
manded by Lieutenant Marton, which is reported to have
The article "Who's Who?" beginning on page 328, is
brought down alone more than 30 Soviet aircraft.
believed to be of special interest to officers serving with
l' l' l' antiaircraft units as it is probable that contingent anti-
mechanized missions frequently may be assigned to auto-
Paving Slabs as Protection Against Air Attack matic weapons battalions.
The Shipbuilder and Marine Engineer, May, 1940- It will be noted from another article-"AA-Anti-
Perhaps the most cruel of all the tactics so far adopted by mechanized Defense of Leesville"-on page 357, that an
the Nazis has been the machine-gunning of defenseless antiaircraft regiment already has had to cope with this
coastersand trawlers; but the use of paving slabs, similar problem during recent maneuvers.

Coast Q'ttilleIL~ Qcti"ities



Chief of Coast Artillery
Materiel and Finance Seetion Organization and Training Section
Plans and Projects Section LIEUTENANT COLONEL F. E. EMERY, JR.

MAJOR L. U. BOWLER, Adjutant General & S-l
Commanding 59th Coast Artillery (HD) Commanding 60th Coast Artillery (AA)
Commanding 91st Coast Artillery (PS) (HD) Commanding 92d Coast Artillery (PS) (TD)
By Major S. McCullough

"The Rains Came" certainly applied at Corregidor dur- Battery Regiment Armament Battery Commander
ing the last few days. Prior to I'day 22d we had bright B 59th CA. 12" Guns Captain Clair M. Conzelman
cloudless days ideal for outdoor training and athletics. D 59th CA. 12" Guns Captain L. S. Kirkpatrick
F 59th CA. 12" Guns Captain John H. Fonvielle
However, the last two months have been hot and at A 60th CA. AA SL 1st Lieut. Arthur C Peterson
times muggy so the rains were welcomed to the extent B 91st CA. 3" Guns 1st Lieut. John B. Dice
that they brought the temperature down somewhat, also C 91st CA. 6" Guns 2d Lieut. Melvin R. Russell
turned the dry-brown grass on the golf course green again. F 91st CA. 155-mm. Guns Captain Will K. Stennis
T raining during this laSt two months brought to a G 91st CA. 155-mm. Guns Captain Dean Luce
and Submarine
close a busy training year. All target practices arc now Mines
completed and these harbor defenses can well be proud A 92d CA. 3" Guns 1st Lieut. Robert H. Kessler
of the excellent results obtained. B 92d CA. 155-mm. Guns Captain Olaf H. Kyster, Jr.
The Philippine Department announced in General D 92d CA. 155-mm. Guns 1st Lieut. Thomas H. Harvey
USAMP Harrison 1st Lieut. Harry J. Harrison
Orders that the following organizations of the Harbor De-
fenses of Ivfanila and Subic Bays, are classified as "Excel-
lent" in Coast Artillery target practice for the calendar The month of May has been used to clean up antiair-
~'ear, 1940: craft machine-gun firing, supplementary small-arms prac-

rice, unfinished emergency defense training and the heat of April and May. Camp John Hay is also becoming
furnishing of instructors and technical assistance in anti- popular with the men and during the hot season many
aircraftand antimarine firings to units of arms other than have taken advantage of the authorized fifteen days of
Coast Artillery now in camp on Corregidor. DS. The lifting of the ban on visiting Shanghai was the
In the realm of athletics, King Baseball still reigns su- occasion for Major Thompson, Captain Kirkpatrick, lieu-
preme. Boxing, tennis, softball and volleyball have also tenants Lind, Hauck, and McLain to visit that cosmo-
been in full swing with lots of enthusiasm shown by politan city on leave of absence. The Southern Islands trip
members of the entire garrison. was taken by Colonel Glassburn, Captain Miller and
Two interpost boxing smokers were held with the pick families. Upon returning Colonel Glassburn went on a
of the fighters, both American and Scout, participating. hunting trip into the unexplored portion of the Zambales
Fighters from all the regiments at Fort Mills traded Mountains.
punches with the best from Forts McKinley, Stotsen- The 11ay transport brought Lieutenant Burton R.
burg, Nichols Field and Post of Manila. The matches Brown to the 59th and will take away Lieutenants Henry
were of high caliber with Fort Mills winning a goodly D. Lind and Edward W. McLain to Fort Monroe.
shareof the bouts. Included among the noncommissioned staff officers ar-
The baseball season, which has just ended, was one riving on the May transport, and assigned to the 59th,
of the best in the history of the "Rock." The 59th Coast were First Sergeant Franklin A. Green, and Staff Sergeant
Artillery after losing the post championship to the 60th Robert E. Bergsten.
Coast Artillery (AA) in a bitter five-game series, came The transport sailing from Manila on May 31st will
backstrong to win the department league pennant in the have as passengers the following noncommissioned staff
American division; winning nine and losing only one. officers of the 59th returning to the United States for
The 60th Coast Artillery (AA) also did itself proud by duty at stations indicated: Staff Sergeant Norman Senn,
finishing in the runner-up position. The 91st Coast Ar- Fort Monroe, Staff Sergeant Thomas Woods, Fort Mac-
tillery (PS) though deserted by Dame Fortune this year, Arthur, and Staff Sergeant George P. Heaton, Fort
losing several close games, managed to wind up the Crockett. During the month First Sergeant Adrian
seasonin fourth place in the Scout League of the de- Leclerc departed on commercial steamer via China and
partment. Japan en route to Fort Barrancas.
The rainy season having started, the athletic interest During the past two months, athletic competition has
automatically turns to bowling. The inter-battery bowl- maintained its usual high level and enthusiasm. Baseball,
ingleagues in the regiments are already under way. Duck- within the regiment, was won by Battery G, who barely
pins come first, then tenpins. Officers' teams are now nosed out Battery A, in a whirlwind finish. In the inter-
organized and the scheduled games get under way June regimental games the 60th nosed us out 3 games to 2.
3d. However, at this writing, we have just defeated the 60th
Personnel changes not covered in the regimental articles to the tune of 17 to 3 in the department league thereby
that have occurred during this period are as follows: Re- clinching the department championship for the 59th.
turning to United States on May 31st: Major G. C. The regimental tennis team won the post champion-
Pilkington, to Fort Riley; Major J. H. Gilbreth, to Fort ship, defeating the 60th 5 matches to 4 and the detach-
MacArthur, and Major Joe B. Hafer, to Columbia, ments 6 matches to 3,
SouthCarolina. The following arrived on the May trans- Volleyball, nine teams competing, was won by Battery
portfor duty in the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic B. Fine spirit and enthusiasm were displayed throughout
Bays, Lieutenant Colonel Murrell, Major E. F. Barry, the regiment. The post volleyball championship (Ameri-
Captain Artman, and Nurses Fellmeth, Breese, and can Division) was won by the 60th.
Stoltz. The following noncommissioned staff officers ar- Duckpins arc now the order of the day as rainy season
rived:First Sergeant S. R. McKellar, Technical Sergeants approaches. Headquarters Battery now holds the lead at
McArthur and Sherman, and Staff Sergeants Conklin, the end of the first half with Battery B and the Quarter-
and Johnson. master at their rubber heels. Season ends June 30th so
At the conclusion of the war condition period, which anybody can win yet.
doses the active training year, many officers took advan-
tage of detached service and leaves of absence to visit
Bagnio, the Southern Islands, China and Japan during By Major J. L. Hogan
this hot season of April and May. The regiment did not receive any officersfrom the May
transport, but it was fortunate in having two officers as-
signed from the 92d Coast Artillery (PS). These are
By Major Louis H. Thompson Lieutenant Dallas F. Haynes who was assigned to Bat-
At the conclusion of the war condition period nearly tery D and detailed as assistant regimental motor trans-
all of the officers of the regiment who are "over the portation officer and Lieutenant John D. Wood was as-
hump" took advantage of detached service at Camp signed to Headquarters Battery and detailed as regimental
John Hay or leave to travel and seek surcease from the gas officer and officer in charge of records section.
Lieutenants Franklin G. Rothwell and James R. Holmes The regimental volleyball series is over. Battery A won
have rejoined the regiment from a month's leave during eleven out of the twelve games played. Battery A repre-
which they visited China and Japan. Major Joseph H. sented the regiment in the inter-regimental volleyball
Gilbreth and Captain William C. McFadden are now tournament, defeating the 92d Coast Artillery in- two
on leave and will return in time to embark on the May straight games.
transport. The regimental tennis team now holds the post cham-
During the past two months baseball has predominated. pionship (Scout Division). It defeated the 92d Coast
Volleyball and tennis have also had a place in the line of Artillery, score 8- 1.
sports with many interesting matches. During the past two months the officers have been
In the Philippine Department baseball league the 60th taking advantage of the recreation and recuperation
opened its season by defeating the Nichols Field Club. features of Camp Jqhn Hay, at Baguio. The following
Recently the 60th lost to the 59th and thereby took officers have been registered at the Camp recently:
second place in the final standing of the department base- Colonel Willis Shippam, Majors Jos. P. Kohn and
ball league. Valentine P. Foster, Captains Joseph H. Rousseau, Jr.,
The regimental volleyball championship was won by William B. Short and Will K. Stennis, Lieutenants
Battery D. Representing the regiment, Battery D then Thomas McG. Metz and Edgar S. Rosenstock.
won the post championship from the 59th in close and Lieutenant John B. F. Dice returned to the regiment
interesting games. after an interesting forty days leave in China.
The commanding officer, Colonel W. C. Koenig, dur-
ing the past week presented the various organizations and
individuals with trophies and medals for their past per- By Major Elvin Barr
formances. The awards were made at an appropriate The annual target practice season for 1940 came to a
ceremony and after having received their trophies, the re- grand finale when the approved ratings were announced
cipients reviewed their comrades with the commanding by Headquarters Philippine Department.
officer and his staff. All batteries are busily engaged in the conduct of gun-
Battery A, the Searchlight Battery, completed its an- ners' instruction and examinations. The officers are also
nual target practice after encountering many obstacles, occupied in working out their topic assignments and com-
due primarily to weather conditions. The hearty co- pleting the schedules for basic and Battery officers'courses.
operation of the Air Corps in conducting air missions as- Harbor defense and regimental troop schools for officers,
sisted materially in bringing this practice to a successful commence the first week of June and continue to the last
completion. week of August.
The gun batteries of the antiaircraft defense continue Officers are now practicing daily for the duckpin tourna-
training on all available air missions for the purpose of ment as preliminary to the bowling season. Although
retaining the efficiency of the command during the in- most of the members of last year's championship team
door season. have departed for other stations, the new arrivals are
The machine-gun batteries completed their training showing good form.
for the year, but are now engaged in training groups from The inter-battery volleyball league completed its sched-
the 4th Composite Group (Air Corps) that have been ule with Battery B again winning the league pennant.
attached to this regiment for instruction in antiaircraft fir- Lieutenant Kappes has been detailed for duty at Fort
ing. This training consists of instruction in rifle marks- Wint with the Philippine Army.
manship and the use of antiaircraft machine guns. Vari- Lieutenant D'Arezzo was transferred from the 91st
0us infantry units have returned again to Fort Mills for to the 92d for duty with Battery E of the Guard Battalion.
training in machine-gun firing against moving air and Lieutenant Ball has returned for duty with the regi-
water targets. ment from Fort Wint.
91STCOASTARTILLERY (PS) The regiment welcomes Lieutenants Madison, Snoke
and Farris who arrived on the May transport.
By MajDr V. P. Foster
Lieutenant Haynes, formerly the Regimental Utilities
The 91st Coast Artillery received two new officerswhen Officer was transferred to the 60th Coast Artillery (AA).
the Grant arrived. Major Napoleon Boudreau has taken May 19th. Lieutenant Miller was relieved from the 9zd
over the positions of regimental plans and training officer Coast Artillery (PS), May 20th and assigned to Harbor
and commanding officer, 2d Battalion, while Lieutenant Defense Headquarters for duty as Assistant Harbor De-
Philip H. Lehr is assigned to Battery F and will live at fense Recreation Officer. 2d Lieutenant Wood will be re-
Fort Frank. lieved from the Guard Battalion and assigned to the 60th
The Philippine Department baseball tournament, Scout Coast Artillery (AA) on the 25th of May.
Division, ended with the 91st Coast Artillery (PS) in Captain and Mrs. Kyster, and Lieutenant and Mrs.
fourth place winning five and losing five games. Four of Kessler are returning to the United States on the May
these games were lost by one run. }I, 1940 transport.
Hawaiian Separate Coast Artillery Brigade
MAJOR L. V. WARNER, Adjutant General & 5-1


Com. and Engineer Officer Sec. Ath. Officer
Chemical Warfare Officer Ordnance Officer
Commanding Harbor Defenses of Pearl Harbor
Commanding 64th Coast Artillery (AA) Commanding Harbor Defenses of Honolulu
By Lieutenant Milan G. Weber

OAHU'S TROOPS TAKE TO THE FIELD and utilities. A blackout of the entire territory took place
on the night of May 23.
In line with the intensive training schedule prescribed
by the War Department, the department commander has TARGET PRACTICES
directed that all troops participate in an extensive field Battery C, 15th Coast Artillery, commanded by Cap-
exercise designed to afford training in field duties to all tain Ray E. Dingeman with Lieutenant Willard J.
elements of the command. Deployment for this exercise Hodges as range officer, fired a 16-inch gun practice from
began on the morning of June 17. Designed to test and Fort Barrette on June 13, using two-thirds charge at an
maintain the defense in a state of complete readiness, the average range of 20,900 yards. One broadside and three
test brought special problems that had not been met in bow-on hits were obtained. A Navy high-speed target
past maneuvers. Among these problems are: towed by a naval vessel was used. Battery D, 16th Coast
I. The maintenance of a condition of readiness for Artillery, commanded by Captain Albert C. Franklin,
an extended time without loss of morale or relaxation of conducted an additional assignment antiaircraft searchlight
the "alert" status. Previous maneuvers have usually been practice at West Loch on April 29, Firing of 3-inch anti-
of relatively short duration and the alert status could be aircraft high explosive shells against a towed seacoast tar-
maintained by the simple process of overworking the get took place at Fort DeRussy on June 10 by Battery L,
soldier and granting a rest period after the maneuvers. 64th Coast Artillery, commanded by Captain F. E. Day.
This is not true for a war condition period which is apt
to extend indefinitely.
With a view toward determining the correct combi-
2. The time required to change directors equipped with
nation of film, filter, lens opening, developer, and fixer
their peacetime shrapnel cams to their wartime high-ex-
for photographing high-explosive bursts with the spotting
plosive cams. Even in a large command, the Ordnance
set PH32, the 64th Coast Artillery fired thirty rounds at
personnel qualified to perform this duty are limited. In a
fort Kamehameha on April 29. The camera experiments
sudden alert, especially if it comes shordy after a target
were conducted by Lieutenant A. Deane Gough with the
practice season, considerable time is required to make the
technical advice of Mr. C. Henry Guell of Eastman Ko-
necessary changes in all directors.
dak Company.
3. Live ammunition. For the first time since the W orId
War, the issue of live ammunition to all troops took place. NEW GOLF COURSE AT FORT RUGER
Although this created no special problems, it afforded A small practice golf course has been constructed at
excellent opportunity for the troops to actually construct Fort Ruger, but owing to field exercises it has been used
fOrtification works for the storage of this ammunition at very litde to date. The course is on the parade ground and
the battery position and to test the time element for the has nine tees and three greens. The course is for the
drawing of ammunition. use of both officers and men of the post. The watering
system on the parade ground has been much improved
and the grass has been sodded where necessary.
The regular annual department maneuvers took place
May 13 to 25, As usual, this brigade participated in a
Joint Army-Navy and Antiaircraft-Air Corps Exercise. During the past several months the department in-
The Department phase was unique in that it was largely spector, Colonel W. W. Hicks, inspected all posts of this
concerned with anti-sabotage measures. Great emphasis brigade with the exception of Fort Kamehameha which
Was laid on guarding all installations, communications, was inspected by Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Herr.
First Coast Artillery District
Commanding Harbor Defenses of Portland and Portsmouth Commanding Harbor Defenses of Boston
Commanding Harbor Defenses of Long Island Sound Commanding Harbor Defenses of Narragansett Bay
Commanding Harbor Defenses of New Bedford

Current Army expansion, with a corresponding in- In the meantime, sports have been going full blast.
crease in recruiting activity and extended active duty for Basketball, bowling, softball, and baseball all hold their
Reserve officers; has accelerated the tempo of training to share of the limelight.
a marked degree. Most harbor defense units have received
substantial increases in their authorized strengths. HARBOR DEFENSES OF BOSTON

The routine summer camps are now being held as By Captain Ben E. Cordell
scheduled. Preparation for extensive Coast Artillery par-
ticipation in the forthcoming First Army fall maneuvers Colonel Hickok, the harbor defense commander, has
now dominates the whole district. returned to duty after ):lOspitalizationfor an eye ailment.
Many of the units have already completed their regu- Colonel Dennis, the executive, has returned from duty
lar annual target practices; all will have done so by Sep- with Army maneuvers in ,Georgia and Texas and is now
tember 30. on detached service at Headquarters, First Coast Artillery
. The objective of all these widely varied activities is the District .
achievement of a single purpose: "Readiness for combat" Personnel changes during June include the arrival of
with the weapons we now have, and with those we expect Lieutenant Colonel Dean F. Winn, MC, from Fort Sam
to receive-when we get them. Houston; Major Harold deB. Bruck, QMC, from Fort
Leavenworth; and Captain Richard M. Costigan, who
HARBOR DEFENSES OF PORTLAND AND PORTSMOUTH came from Madison Barracks. Lieutenant Colonel Chaun-
By Lieutenant Edward L. Whelan cey Dovell, MC, and Major Harry C. Snyder, QMC,
left for their new stations during the month. Colonel
The 68th Coast Artillery (AA) was activated on Dovell went to Fort Sheridan, and Major Snyder to Fort
November 4, 1939, with a cadre of IS0 men from Fort Sam Houston.
H. G. Wright. The regiment began to function as such Captain Norman A. Congdon, has returned from
on November IS when the recruits began to arrive. Walter Reed Hospital. At present he is on a month's sick
Since that time the 68th has gone a long way in organi- leave. It is expected that he will return to duty on July 17.
zation and training. The regiment is commanded by The following Reserve officers have recently reported
Colonel Robert C. Garrett who also commands the de- for a six month tour with the 9th Coast Artillery: lieu-
fenses of Portland and Portsmouth. His executive is lieu- tenants Frank B. Semple of Caddo, Oklahoma, and Pa-
tenant Colonel Paul H. French, who also is adjutant of trick M. Hollis of Phoenix, Arizona. Captain Joseph
the Harbor Defenses of Portland. Major Donald B. F. Cook, of Boston, has reported for a twenty-eight day
Greenwood commands the 1st Battalion at Fort Williams, tour of duty.
Maine, and Major Cameron commands the 2d Battalion Battery A, 9th Coast Artillery completed 6-inch gun
at Fort McKinley. target practice and engaged in yinch gun antiaircraft
The recruiting period was scarcely over when the practice in June. During July the battery held submarine
motorized equipment of the regiment began to arrive. mine practice.
To date it numbers some 264 units, and includes the . Technical Sergeants James M. Settle and Joseph F.
latest model reconnaissance cars, searchlight trucks, gun Hardiman, Headquarters Battery (9th Coast Artillery),
trucks, radio cars, and numerous other vehicles necessary have departed for a tour of foreign service.
for a motorized antiaircraft regiment.
With the arrival of the vehicles came the task of in- HARBOR DEFENSES OF LONG ISLAND SOUND
structing drivers and teaching convoy rules. By Second Lieutenant Joel T. Walker
Then searchlight drill and gun drill got under way-
and it was not long before the searchlights were picking The annual target practice season at Fort Wright waS
out the targets and the antiaircraft guns were booming completed on May 29 when B Battery fired the 12-inch
away. DC guns. Heavy fog delayed the scheduled firing for al-
With many inspections completed, and with new re- most a week. All batteries turned in good scores and
cruits already arrived and some ready for duty, the 68th demonstrated efficient operation of material. On May 20
is rapidly becoming the equal of any antiaircraft regiment C Battery moved from Fort Wright to Fort Terry for a
in the service. three-week period of fatigue and police work. At the same
Colol/el If/. 11". Gordol/, illSPector gel/eral, 1st Corps Area, illSpects Battery A, 68th Coast Artillery (AA) at Fort
W"illia1lls, Maille.

Battery D, 68th Coast Artillery (AA) takes part ill the Memorial Day parade at North Wil/dham, Mail/e.

time, Battery A started training on the 16-inch gun at The 4th Provisional Battery, Panama Detachment fired
Fort Michie, making daily trips to and from that fort. a practice from Battery Dickenson and the 3d Provisional
During the last week of May, the lIth Coast Artil- Battery, fired a practice from Battery Wheaton.
lery Band orchestra journeyed to Boston to play for a Battery Wheaton had not been fired since 1925 and
number of social events incident to Memorial Day. these firings aroused some consternation among the resi-
The baseball season at Wright has been quite success- dents on the "Dumplings."
fuL Battery C is in the lead in the hard ball standings The 2d Provisional Battery, Panama Detachment, has
with the QM-Med Detachment team running a close organized a Provisional Quartermaster Service Company
second. After the baseball season was off to a good start, for the First Army maneuvers.
the growing interest, in softball brought about the forma- The remainder of the Panama Coast Artillery Detach-
tion of enough teams to warrant a small softball league. ment assisted in the training of 950 CMTC enrollees
The officers' team now leads this league. during July.
All personnel of the I I th Coast Artillery look forward The Fort Adams baseball team is doing quite well in
with interest to their summer assignments. Thirry-one the Sunset League of Newport, Rhode Island.
men are now on recruiting duty in Connecticut and Captain George L. Holsinger has reported for duty with
Massachusetts; the CMTC cadre and band are preparing the 10th.
to leave for duty at Fort Adams; and the remaining Captain Charles J. Odenweller, Jr., visited West Point
organizations, with the exception of Headquarters and during June.
E Battery, are preparing for the First Army Maneuvers. Captain O. A. Nelson went to Norwich University to
Summer camp activiry has begun with the arrival of sev- receive a Military Certificate from his Alma Mater.
enry second lieutenants who are here for their fourteen-

Social activity has increased considerably during the By Captain Charles N. Branham
last few weeks. Band concerts on Thursday afternoons
and parades on Friday have augmented the usual post en- Constant improvement of all existing materiel and
tertainment. The officershave also been enjoying the golf, facilities in the Harbor Defenses of New Bedford is the
swimming, and tennis facilities of the Bay Harbor Club, continuing purpose of our garrison. This activity, which
which is located just off the post. includes Ordnance, Engineer, Signal Corps and Quarter-
Yo provide for year-round recreation for those who en- master installations and equipment, has produced many
joy game and competitive shooting, a group of about nine changes in the physical aspects of Fort Rodman, both in
officers and noncommissioned officers got together and its visible features and in those not so readily perceptible
founded the Fort H. G. Wright Gun Club. They have to the casual visitor.
laid out a trap and grouse shooting course and have in- Battery A, 10th Coast Artillery, whose home station is
stalled the necessary equipment and supplies. The club is Fort Adams, conducted its annual antiaircraft machine-
open to both officers and men. gun target practice at Fort Rodman in July. Fort Rodman
was host to the Quartermaster Detachment from Fort
Adams for the portion of their annual celebration of the
By Captain O. A. Nelson QMC Organization Day. The Fort Rodman baseball
Battery A, 10th Coast Artillery, fired two practices team, now a very active member of a local league, had no
from Battery Crittenden at Fort Wetherill, a 3-inch rifle difficulty in defeating the Quartermaster's team on this
battery, during May. occaSlOn.
The 1st Provisional Battery, Panama Detachment, 10th Lieutenant Colonel Alden G. Strong, of the officeof
Coast Artillery, fired a target practice from Battery Edger- the Chief of Coast Artillery, visited us on June 20th.
ton at Fort Adams, a 12-inch mortar battery. The 2d Lieutenant Seth F. Hudgins, lIth Coast Artillery, on
Provisional Battery, Panama Detachment, fired a practice temporary duty here since March 9th returned to his
from Battery Greene at Fort Adams, also a 12-inch mortar permanent station, Fort H. G. Wright, on May 19th.
battery. Both these practices were sub-caliber. The U.S.S. Lawrence, a destroyer commanded by Com-
The 3d and 4th Provisional Batteries, Panama Detach- mander V. C. Barringer, Jr., visited New Bedford during
ment, conducted calibration firings from Battery Wheat- July in connection with the local observance of Independ-
on (l2-inch disappearing carriage), and Dickenson (6- ence Day. Personnel from Fort Rodman assisted the local
inch barbette) respectively. authorities in welcoming the warship to this port.
Puerto Rico
By Lieutenant Peter S. Peea
During these hectic days mmors are much in vogue. novel experience for the personnel to be under roofs again
The only real fact is that nothing is permanent; mobility for they have been quartered in tents for the past eight
is the password. months. However, they were immediately made to feel
Alerts continue with a modern touch. Parachute troops right at home as the roofs leaked with the first rain.
and fifth columnist activities are simulated. The first Nevertheless, Borinquen Field promises to be one of the
alert of this type caught the troops flatfooted. lYfany finest antiaircraft stations in the Army.
organizations were "captured" and put out of action. The On May 5, the battalion, consisting of eleven officers
failure on the part of the troops to guard themselves and 271 men proceeded overland by motor convoy from
sufficiently was soon corrected, and the next alert found Fort Buchanan to Borinquen Feld, for the department
the attempts of the parachute troops and fifth columnists commander's tactical inspection. The period lasted three
without success. The troops, both officers and enlisted days during which the battalion was inspected in every
men, learned quickly. Now they expect the worst so they phase of its training. Battery C fired one course at a
are ready for any eventuality. towed target and Battery A conducted a searchlight
The opportunity for command has been emphasized. demonstration for the edification of the department staff.
Junior officers take over higher commands whenever pos- Captain E. A. Merkle has been taken away from the
sible. Colonel O. G. Pitz, 66th Coast Artillery, has been battalion to act as Coast Artillery adviser to the post com ..
detailed to the department staff. As a result" Captain J. mander of Fort Buchanan. At the present time there are
E. Nfortimer assumes command of the regiment. only two captains serving with the 66th-Captains J. E.
66TH COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Mortimer and W. F. McKee. Four of the five batteries
are commanded by first lieutenants.
On June 17 the entire command was alerted at 2:00
By Lieutenant H. F. Turner
a.m., and kept active until 2:00 a.m., on June 18. Every
On .tvfay 24, Battery C, Lieutenant Robert Totten, man was armed with blank rifle ammunition and skirm-
commanding, moved to Borinquen Field for permanent ishes between patrols were constant throughout the period.
station. On May 27 the remainder of the battalion moved It was not difficult to tell that the novelty of springing
and are now settled in temporary barracks. It is quite a out in the middle of the night had completely worn off.

Fort San Cristobal during Spanisb days.

The only noise at the sounding of the alert was the first mous old fort formed the last and strongest unit in the
sergeants' voices bringing their organizations to the proper defenses of San Juan. It was considered by many as the
places. The absence of moans and groans was conspicu- most formidable defense in the Western Hemisphere.
ous. The element of surprise now exists when you are Modernization by the Quartermaster and the WP A has
awakened by a bugle call and discover that it's merely converted the casemates of the old structure into com-
reveille and not "Call to Arms." fortable living quarters.
Alerts continue as usual. They include practical prob-
51ST COAST ARTILLERY lems dealing with the activity of parachute troops and
LIEUTENANT CoLONEL B. L. FLANIGEN, Commanding fifth columnists and other means which are devised to de-
By Lieutenant O. K. Marshall, Jr. velop the alertness and security of every organization.
The personnel of this organization are thoroughly en-
The first of June saw the 51st Coast Artillery together grossed with this new and interesting aspect of warfare.
under one security force commander. Battery B moved Several surprise attacks during the first alert of this type
from Fort Buchanan to quarters in the casemates of his- were enough to cure the troops of the attitude of "What
toric Fort San Cristobal. Battery A moved from Borinquen the hell, just another alert." A nod from an unseen umpire
Field back to Fort Buchanan where it joined Headquarters and a battery will be turned into a group of fifth colum-
Battery. nists within a half-hour. The net result is that no one
The occupation of Fort San Cristobal by a harbor trusts anyone. Sentries on security patrols really mean
defense unit is reminiscent of the days of the Spanish business. As a matter of fact the whole alert is a vivid pic-
Government of Puerto Rico, when the heavy Spanish ture presented to the men that is as realistic as it is in
artillery manned the ramparts of the old fort in defiance of modern warfare. Both officers and men have learned con-
Dutch and English fleets. Completed in 1778, the enor- siderably.

Harbor Defenses of Puget Sound

By Major F. Webster Cook
In these harbor defenses May was an extremely busy 248th Coast Artillery also took place during June. Aided
month, probably the busiest in many years. The intensive by excellent weather, this fine regiment, although it had
seacoast firing planned for the period May 13-May 31 was two new batteries due to a reorganization since its previ-
carried out on schedule. In all, ten practices were fired: ous camp here, manned the usual seacoast armament at
two by D Battery at Battery Kinzie, two by A Battery Fort Worden and conducted excellent practices.
with the mortars, three by G Battery at Battery Tolles, The post was honored by visits by Colonel Dohm, the
including a night practice and three at Battery Tolles by former commanding officer of the 248th Coast Artillery,
the Panama Canal Detachment. who now commands the new 205th Coast Artillery
The last week of this firing was witnessed by Major (AA), W ashingron National Guard, and by General
Harrington, assistant executive, 9th Coast Artillery Thompson, adjutant general, State of Washington. The
District, who represented the district commander and latter was accompanied by his aide, Lieutenant Vanden-
who imposed the service conditions required for this firing. berg, Mrs. Thompson and Mrs. Vandenberg. After a
In the middle of the firing the Commanding General, salute and an escort of honor, the General and his party
Ninth C'...oastArtillery District, arrived at Fort Worden witnessed the firing and later had lunch with Colonel and
for his annual tactical inspection. General Burgin and his Mrs. Cunningham.
aide, Lieutenant Fergusson, stayed with Colonel and Changes in officer personnel go on with lightning-
Mrs. Cunningham at their quarters and were honored like rapidity. Lieutenants Chevaillier, Dennis and Tracy,
by a dinner and reception at the officers' club. The recep- have rejoined our station for another six months of active
tion was attended by many of General Burgin's old friends duty under the Thomason Act. Captain Miillin left last
from Port Townsend, he having been twice stationed at week for Fort Lewis and a few days later sailed on the
Fort Worden. During General Burgin's visit a joint tacti- Saint Mihiel bound for Alaska. Captain Vickers left to
cal exercise was held with the Navy. join the 75th Coast Artillery at Fort Lewis and Major
June has been spent in preparation for the Fourth Army Arthur L. Irons, our dentist, has been ordered to Me-
exercise at Fort Lewis in August. This will require large Chord Field. Major Cook leaves in July for his new post
personnel details from these defenses, including radio with the Organized Reserves in Lansing, Michigan. To
operators, telephone operators, truck drivers and an en- partly offset the loss of the above officers, Lieutenant
tire battery to act as a railhead battery. In addition, prep- Moore has arrived from the Philippines and Lieutenant
arations are being made for the CMT Camp in July and Clark from Hawaii. Orders for Major Myers, Lieutenant
the training of a number of Reserve officers of the 9th Ashworth and Lieutenant Sharp to leave Fort Worden for
Corps Area Service Command. The annual camp of the various school details have been suspended.
Panama Separate Coast Artillery Brigade
Communications and Intelligence Aide-de-Camp and Assistant S-3
Plam and T raining Aide-de-Camp
Ad iutant and Publicity Munitiom and Suppl)'
1st Coast Artillery (HD) 4th Coast Artillery (HD)
72d Coast Artillery (AA) 73d Coast Artillery (AA)

By Lieutenant C. G. Patterson

Contrary to the schedule normally expected in Panama planned to (I) conserve Bying hours, (2) place all bat-
ar rhis time of the year, the intensive training period which teries on a similar basis for annual rating, (3) simulate
beuan for the Panama Separate Coast Artillery Brigade actual service conditions, and (4) afford all units the
bs~ November did not end with the dry season. Anti- maximum training from observing the fire of other units.
aircraft target practices were completed at Rio Hato on The camp was constructed and firings completed on
June 10th and all the antiaircraft units expected to return schedule. The completion of the requirements laid down
to their home stations and to the rainy season program of for the gunnery camp was made possible by the superior
posr rehabilitation and indoor training. However, on coordination of firing and the wholehearted cooperation
June 20 the entire Brigade moved into tactical positions of the Air Corps. In all, twenty-three gun batteries and
for a war condition period. ten machine-gun platoons completed all required prac-
At present, all units of the Brigade are experiencing tices.
arduous field service under field conditions. Mine and Four mobile four-gun batteries were emplaced in line,
harbor defense batteries at both ends of the Canal are en- the guns of each battery in the square formation. Firing
uaued in full time training which results in constant and
DO. batteries alternated on the line so that four batteries were
complete service test of all equipment. The railway bat- always ready to fire on every course. Direct radio com-
rery (Battery G, 4th Coast Artillery), Fort Amador, was munication from safety tower to plane permitted variation
ordered to Fort Randolph on short notice and made the
movement, with all equipment, in record time without
The 72d Coast Artillery (AA) and 73d Coast Artil-
lery (AA) returned from Rio Hato to their home bar-
racks only to leave them again for the movement to field
posirions. Full time is being devoted to improving anti-
aircraft installations, digging in, perfecting supply systems
and standing frequent unexpected alerts. For those who
have not served in Panama, it is sufficient to say that it
requires some 1,500 truck miles, 500 water miles and 100
horse miles daily to supply the units in field positions.
Those of you who have served with antiaircraft artillery in
Panama realize the difficulties experienced in supplying
all units. However, "Can Do" seems to be the watch-
word of the S-4's and every battery receives sufficient
food, ammunition and other supplies-to say nothing of
rhe water that must be hauled in for some of the outposts.


Seacoast: No seacoast target practices have been fired to

dare. Nevertheless, all batteries completed functional
firings to test functioning of armament and emergency Searchligbt review at Fort Amador
firecontrol systems. Regular practices will be fired during Left to rigbt, front row: Maior General Van Voorhis, De-
August. partment Commander, Maior General AmoId, Cbief of
Air Corps, alzd Brigadier General Jarman, Commanding
Antiaircraft: The AA practices fired at Rio Hato were Panama Separate Coast Artiller)' Brigade

Searcbligbt rel'iew at Fort Amador

of courses and altitudes. As many batteries as possible gunnery camp with the entire regiment present. Spe-
fired on each crossing course. Owing to a wide field and cifically, conclusions may be summarized as follows:
absence of fishing boats, two, oftcn three, and on occasion I. Firing under service conditions with target on un-
four batteries fired on each crossing course. The comple- expected courses at varying altitudes keeps officers and
tion of fourteen preliminary practices within a period of men on the alert. Firing was opened on much shorter
six hours is an indication of the successful method of co- notice than under normal target practice conditions.
ordination adopted. 2. Results indicate that firing four guns from a sguare

Machine-gun platoons were emplaced along the beach formation produces egually as good results as does firing
at sufficient intervals to allow all platoons to fire on every from line formation.
crossing course. Two and sometimes three platoons fired 3- Percentage of hits obtained under service conditions
on every mcommg course. was as high as obtained under "down the groove" target
The records made by the two regiments are evidence of practices.
the state of training of thc two largest regiments in the 4. The maximum training for all batteries was obtained
Army, and until recently, the two youngest. Health and by conducting annual target practice at a gunnery camp.
morale were maintained at a high standard. Supplies were
transported daily by barge and truck convoy. Recruits at
Rio Hato soon became seasoned troops under the hot dry On June 15 the first issue of the brigade newspaper,
sun seventy-five miles from the white lights and enter- The Panama Coast Artillery News, made its appearance.
tainment in Panama. This bright weekly publication provides a medium for I

While no scores have been forwarded to the War De- dissemination of news, gossip, challenges, general infor-
partment, the results obtained are in themselves complete mation and whatnot, and lets the rest of the Army know
justification of the conduct of AA target practice at a what the Coast Artillery in Panama is doing when it isn't
<oldiering. Would-be poets, edito~ial.writers, :olumnists MORALE
nd cartoonists from all the battenes m the bngade con- Despite the discomforts of life in the field under simu-
J "bute plentifully, and with Lieutenant Hardy as ofhcer- lated war conditions, the morale of the troops is high, and
~~-chargeand Master Sergeant Doster e~itin% the weekly Coast Artillerymen who arrived in the Department as
newS,our paper shows promise of expandmg mt~ a wo:rhy recruits only' three months ago have developed into
publication. Published every Saturday mornmg, It IS veteran field soldiers who are rapidly acquiring an esprit
distributed to all organizations at no expense to the Gov- which promises much for the future.
ernment, battery funds nor individuals.
The War Department has approved regimental coats- JOINT EXERCISES
of-arms for the new antiaircraft regiments and has speci- An example of the whole-hearted cooperation between
fied the regimental insignia. Most attractive, and qui~e branches of the armed services in Panama is the willing-
appropriate, the new regimental insignia will make theIr ness with which the Navy enters into the training ot
appearance soon. The motto of the 72d Coast Artillery Army personnel. On the night of June 29-30, a squadron
(AA) is "Whatever The T ask:': and the ~3d has delv.e~ of twelve Navy patrol bombers returning to Coco Solo
into the Latin for its motto, Defensa sma Desaevzo from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, staged a simulated bom-
(Defense but not Defiance) . bardment attack on the Canal. The first A WS reports at
4:47 A.M. indicated that many bombers were approaching
the Canal from the north. From these reports it was esti-
Troop schools for officers have been suspended tem- mated that the attacking planes would arrive over the
porarily because of field duties. In lieu of these schools, isthmus at about 5=45 A.M. At 5:46 A.M., they launched
all officers who are not graduates of the Coast Artillery their first attack on Gatun Locks. Successive attacks were
School are taking Basic Gunnery Extension Courses. made at five-minute intervals at altitudes ranging from
Gunners' instruction conducted in the field within sight 10,000 to 15,000 feet. Other flights attacked Pedro Miguel
of armament under the influence of daily association with and Miraflores Locks at 5:53 A.M. All guns, searchlights,
the equipment should produce a high perce~tage of ~x- AAAIS stations and automatic weapon platoons were
peres. Schools for height finder observers,. Dlese.l engme alerted in plenty of time to enable them to bring the at-
operators, radio operators and motor vehIcle dnvers are tacking planes under simulated fire. Based on the rules
being carried on by all regiments. The sudden demand prescribed by the "Umpires' Manual," all planes partici-
for teletype machine operators has necessitated intensi:e pating in the attacks were shot down. Since the attacks
instruction of operators in this modern system of rapId were made during daylight, no searchlight action was
message transmission between command posts of the necessary. A few minor deficiencies were discovered as a
Brigade. result of the simulated attack, but none that could not be
remedied at once.
The move to field positions disrupted all athletic sched- Major General Daniel Van Voorhis, commander of the
ules but reports over the communications nets indicate Panama Canal Department, and members of his staff,
that softball, volley ball, horseshoe pitching and boxing observed the progress of the attack on the operations board
arejust as popular in the jungle as at home. Hunting and at the brigade command post, and also visited AAD posi-
fishing continue to provide recreation for a large percent- tions in the field as the troops were being "alerted." The
ageof the personnel and reports are constantly corning in department commander expressed himself as very much
overthe radio and wires of the killing of alligators, snakes pleased with the antiaircraft defense of the Canal as it was
and large fish. demonstrated in this exercise.


CAPTAI:-':.-\. H. BE:-':DER,Coast Artiller:' Corps, \\"as born ber. 1928, :1I1dhas rendered all his subsequent service
in New Iersev. After initial service in the Officers' Re- in that arm. Clptain Gill is a prolific contributor to
serve Corps he was appoinred a second lieutenant of periodicals. both militar:' and civil. He is on duty with
Coast Artiller:' in 1926. He is a graduate of the Coast the 6 I st CoaSt Artillerv, Fort Sheridan.
Artillery School Baner:' Officers' Course (1933)' Ad- f ~ f

vanced Technical Course (1935)' and the Command C.-\PTAI:-\ JOH:-\ \'. GRO~(BACH,Infantrv, NGUS, was a
and General Staff School (1939). Captain Bender is on member of the \\' CSt Point class of '23 and was ap-
dut.'" with the Coast Artillery School, Fort ivionroe. pointed a second lieutenanr of Infantr~'. In September,
., ., ., 1927. he resigned his commission to enter the radio and
CAI'TAI:-\ FAIRFAXDO\\':-\EY, formerlv of the 12th Field entertainment fidel. Shord~' after his resignation he
Artillerv, 2(1 Division, AEF, was educated at Yale. He joined the 165th Infantr:'. New York National Guard,
is the :;uthor of a number of books and his work has reaching the grade of captain in June, 1929. In civil
also appeared in m:wy periodicals of national circula- life Captain Grombach is a radio program producer and
tion . ., ., ., writer. He has produced shows that have featured some
of radio's outstanding stars, including Jack Dempse~',
iV[AIOll CHAllLESA. nllAKE, Infantrv Reserve, is head of
Helen Claire, Max Baer, :1I1dFav Bainter. In addition
the Bureau of Industrial Research', \Vest Virginia Uni-
to his radio work, he has found' time to act as co-pro-
versity. In addition, he is an industrial psychologist
ducer for :l New York stage production of J. B. Prie~t-
with a consulting practice. After service on the jv!exi-
le~:$ Time and tIN Conways.
can Border in 1916 with the Illinois Guard he took part
f f f
in the \Vorld \Var as a lieutenant of Infantry, serving
MAJOR WE:-\lJELLG. 101-1:-\50:-\, Inbntry, hails from Illinois.
overseas with the 4th Division. He is the author of
Graduating from the jvl ilitary Academy with the class
more th:lll forry articles dealing with business admin-
of 1923 a$ a second lieutenant of Infantry he h:ls send
istration, industrial management, and special aptitude
with that arm continuousl~', Among the highlights
tests for industrial workers.
., ., ., of his career are a tour of duty with the Spanish Arm.I'
'when Alfonso was still a kina,o a hitch on an editori~lI
CAI'TAI:-\ HEllBERT \\'. El-lllGOTT, Corps of Engineers,
desk at the Infantr\' School and the course at the Com-
graduated from the Militar~' Academy with the class of
mand and GeneraI' Staff School. He now command~ J
'26. H is career has encom passed a year as an artillery-
company of the t8th Infantry, Fort Hamilton, New
man before transferring to the engineers, a course at
~\'!IT, a scholarship in France where he attended the f f -f

Ecole des Pants et Chausces, troop duty with the 1st QUE:-\TI:-\ROOSEVELT started his militarv career at the age
and 9th Engineers, an ROTC detail at Alabama Poly- of nine by attending St. Augustin~'s Militar~' Aca'd-
technic Institute, and his present detail to Rood-control emv in Puerto Rico while his father was Governor Gen-
work at Binghamton, New York. He is now engaged eral there during 1928--29. Between subsequent school
in collecting material for a treatise tentativelv tided terms he has found time to engage in fossil hunting in
The Dynamics of War. Nlexico and China and to take part in an expedition to
f ., ~ Haiti. A graduate of Groton he is now in his senior
?vIA/OR CHARLES\\'I:-\SLO\\' ELLIOTT, USA, retired, is a year at Harvard. At the moment he is taking the
well-known military historian. After entering the ROTC Fidd Artillery Camp at Fort Ethan AI/en, Ver-
Army in 1908, he subsequenrl~' saw service in the mont.
f f -f
Philippines, China, i\Iexico, and France. He is the ~VIAJOR\\'ILLlA~1 YALEis Profcssor of Historv at the Uni-
author of Winfield Scott, the Soldier and the 111an, and versity of New Hampshire. During our' p:trticipation
a book on the Lanao ivioro dialect. He h:1s conrributed in the \Vorld \\1ar he served as spccial agent for the
many articles on militar~' histor:' and biograph~' to State Department at Cairo and as a military obselwr
various service journals and to the Dictionary of A meri- with AI/enbv in Palestine. At the Paris Peace Confer-
can H istor)'. ence he was' a member of the section of the American
f ., f

CAPTAI:-\ BURGOD. GILL, Coast Artiller:' Corps, entered staff that dealt with Arab affairs. In 1919 he went to
the Amw as a second lieutenant, Field Artillery, in Turkev to serve in the American Section, Internationa:
J lIne, 19;5, after service in the Officers' Reserve Corps. Ivland'ates Commission. Later he served as a major
He transferred to the Coast Artiller:' Corps in Decem- Militar:' Intelligence Department Resen'e.
torical section can, however, be dropped from considera-
tion as not affecting the rest of the book in the least.) And
because the book does touch every phase of modern war-
fare, much as it Ius already manifested itself on the field
of battle in Europe, and is, with the exception of its his-
torical sections, so thoroughly readable, it should be read
by every officer of the Army of the United States who
thinks a second time about the immediate future develop-
ment of his own army. And is there any officer, these
days, who doesn't think abour it mOst of the time?
What Colonel Foertsch has to say about tactics, Strat-
egy, space and time, and the moral factors of war has, a
great deal of it, been said before, though never more suc-
THE ART OF MODERN WARFARE. Bv Colonel cinctly. In these parts of his book the author uses a good
Herman Foertsch, German General Staff. New York: many quotations from the old maSters to whom he would
The Veritas Press, Inc., 1940. 265 pages; index; $2.75. naturally rum. Clausewitz, the elder Nloltke, Prince
Tbe Art of il10dern IVarfare is bv far the clearest dis- Frederick Charles of Prussia, Frederick the Great, and
cussion of its tremendous subject ~hat has appeared in General von Seeckt are the names that appear most often
many a decade. In the past, English translations of Ger- in the author's discussion of these broader aspects of war-
man military books have generally made ponderous and fare. Whether he agrees or disagrees that the principles of
tortured reading. But not so with this new book. The war are immutable, the reader of this new book will at least
translation is amazing in its clarity and superbly easy to find them presented in lively discussion and in a readable
follow and digest; which, of course, can only indicate that manner.
the original work was indeed an exception to many of the Any reader will find the most meat in the part of Colo-
standard military classics of the past that have come from nel Foertsch's book which deals with the technical side
~!iddle Europe. of warfare and the weapons of today. Regarding technical
For this reason if for no other, it seems likely that The contributions to warfare Colonel Foertsch writes as fol-
Art of Modem IVarfare will, in the future, be a constant lows:
source of quotation among military writers. Colonel Technical improvements are made in normal life, or grow
Foertsch himself quotes Clausewitz and others. It is not from the conditions of ordinary existence, and are brought in
to help in war. Others will be made at the behest of military
hard to imagine that Colonel Foertsch will be as freely requirements, and later come into general use. In any event
9uoted. it is a soldier's duty to look into all the technical improve-
The publishers have chosen not to indicate directly, on ments that are offered him, to try them out, to put them to
tide page or in introduction or preface, just when The use, and to promote theit extension. The technical side, on its
part, has to continue its investigation and to work in every
Art of j\1odern Warfare was first published. From in- way to assist the soldier, so as to assure him superiority in his
ternal evidence in the text, however, it appears to have field.
been completed toward the end of the recent Spanish civil " " "
The complete balance of technical equipment on all sides,
War. Thus the book can be examined, and will doubtless
and in all fields at once, will never be obtained. If it should
thus be examined by many readers, as something of a pre- be so, then the genius of the commander must assert itself the
viewof the present great conRict. more. Other things being equal it is the spirit of the com-
When the book is so read and reRected upon, there ap- mander and of the troops that brings about success.
, pears to be little in the German operations thus far which
Colonel Foertsch, in the ten pages or so of his book
Colonel Foertsch does nOt touch on indirectly in his gen-
which he devotes specifically to the infantry, writes in
~raltreatise. Even his farcical history of warfare, covered
part: "So long as wars have been, so long as armies have
In a few brief chapters written in the customary Nazi
existed, the foot soldiery-the infantry-has been a vital
fairy-tale manner, gives us an indication of what the Ger-
part of the army. It has usually been the decisive arm."
!nan troops are given to believe. (An example is the full
He then goes on to describe the tremendous changes
creditgiven to the Prussians for the downfall of Napoleon
which took place in infantry during the last great war.
Withouteven a mention of England's part. This small his-
He speaks of the necessities of combat that caused both

the machine gun and the mortar to be developed. He lish have tended farthest toward the development of an
then considers briefly the tank, which he takes up in independent tank arm. Judging from the battles that have
greater detail later on in another chapter. so far been fought in Flanders and in France the German
"It is the duty of infantry in attack," thinks Colonel Army has tended rather toward the "cooperation of tanks
Foertsch, "to bring the fire to bear on the enemy, to with infantry" than "the use of a separate mechanized
overwhelm him by means of fire and shock effect, and to force."
harry his positions; on the defense its duty is to desttoy After a single careful reading of The Art of Modern
the enemy by fire effect and counter-attack, and to hold TVarfare it is hard indeed to think of anything whatever
its own positions. To accomplish all this, it must have the concerning armies of today which the author does not
weapons that have been described. They must be so or- consider. In this brief outline it has only been possible to
ganized that the quickest possible kind of cooperation is touch on a few of the parts of the book. To any leader,
assured. For this reason the infantry is everywhere one of its most striking parts is the concluding chapter on
equipped down to its smallest unit with all the various "the officer." The closing paragraphs of this last chapter
types of weapons which are different in effect but all of are as follows:
them supplementing one another." In the author's opin- The man who sees nothing more in a machine than some
ion, also, the way infantry fighting is carried on has not kind of a strange instrument, who yearns for "the good old
changed basically since the First World War. The rule, times" when there were no motors, radios, armored vehicles,
he believes, requires fighting in depth whether in the o.r quick-firing guns, has not correctly read the signs of the
attack or on the defense. In remarking on the viewpoint A man who is not continually and unintermittently work.
found in some armies that the infantry cannot deliver the ing at himself and at the training of his mind, has not heard
final blow except through the aid of tanks, Colonel a whisper of the dynamics of our life.
Foertsch says: "An infantry that believes that it is no A man who thinks he can study passively aside in view of
longer able to undertake a decisive attack by its own the political developments of our times, who thinks he can set
himself off from the underlying ideas of our political life, has
power has, to a great extent, lost its meaning."
not recognized the grand connections of the experiences and
As for the future of infantry-meaning the foot infan- the struggles of peoples. He will never gain an ascendancy
try, motorized or not-the author thinks that the possi- over the hearts of those whom he will some day have to lead.
bilities of any great changes in the weapons of infantry are But the man whose mind is open to everything that hap-
not within sight. He sees as the most interesting ques- pens in the field of technological appeal, who is imbued with
tions, first, the possibility of applying still more rapid-fire a sense of his own duties and responsibilities, whose life is
weapons than the infantry now has; and second, the ad- wholly lived in communion with his people-that is the kind
of officer for whom the present and the future are calling.
dition of still more high-trajectory weapons to infantry. Firmly rooted in his people, borne by a feeling of solidarity
Both of these he apparently favors but clearly points out with his men, standing firmly on his own feet in the brief
the disadvantages that must be overcome. moments of his independency of decision-that is how an of-
Any division into light and heavy infantry Colonel ficer should aim to realize his destiny as the supreme em.
Foertsch looks upon with disfavor. "No one can tell in bodiment of a mind under control, and of an unshakable
will to victory.
advance where there is going to be attack, and where
defense," he writes. "War recognizes no such rigid boun-
dary, and no commander could bear with the shackles that Those closing paragraphs just quoted form the mark of
such a mode of organization would impose on him. To the entire book. It will not be possible for any officerwho
insist on uniformity at all costs is another rigid principle of believes he stands within the category that Colonel
the same kind. A standardized method of employing the Foertsch has described in those paragraphs, to do without
mass of the army, however, seems even today to be a reading the book of which they are the conclusion.
necessity on which there can be no compromise."
of of of
This German writer also has definite opinions as to the
place of the artillery in a modern army. He sees artillery Selective Service
definitely as a firing weapon without shock force. It will,
he says, "always remain a subsidiary arm which can help
Fitzpatrick. Milwaukee: Richard Publishing Company.
prepare the way for the decision, but which can never
1940' IS0 Pages; Index. $1.50'
bring it about alone." He also thinks that it will always
be the most important and desirable auxiliary to be found. The author of this book, a Reserve officer who is noW
The biggest question concerning the tanks, thinks Colo- President of Mount Mary College, was from 1917-19 the
nel Foertsch, is this: "Will the tank, together with the draft administrator of Wisconsin. The interest which he
other weapons that enjoy armored protection, go its own gained in selective service during the World War stay~
new way, and so become a separate great and self-sustained with him, and for a number of years he has made a special
part of the armed forces, or will it remain the auxiliary it study of conscription.
was when it originated in the World War?" This he poses Dr. Fitzpatrick first describes in detail the World W21.
as an unanswered question, pointing out that the French set-up and how it operated, and then tells us what kind 01
have been most cautious in this respect and that the Eng- selective service he believes will work best for another
1940 BOOK REVIE\X'S 389
emergency. He completed Conscription and A merica, of
course, before. the first move had been made in Congress
this :'ear toward any general form of nationwide service
for war. COAST
This author, though he feels strongly about his subject
and puts a good deal of that feeling into his book, writes
also with a common-sense based upon his practical ex- ARTILLERY
perience. He believes that selective service in a new
tmergency should be handled in much the same manner
as in 1917-18. He looks upon it entirely as a means of RING
obtaining the right men for the right places in our armed
forces, and does not hold with the broader and more in-
definite ideas of conscription of wealth and conscription of
industry. His book is limited in its detailed treatment to
the military side of conscription.
One of the points this author insists upon most strongly
isthe absolute desirability of having selective service under
civil control rather than military. He feels that so long
as a man is classified by boards made up of men from his
own locality-men who know him, or at least can readily
nnd out all about him-the highest degree of fairness can
be maintained and the man himself will not, in the great
majority of cases, feel compulsion as a ruthless military
dictation. He will feel it, rather, as a measure which the
others of his own community are readily complying with,
and therefore expect him likewise to comply with. At the
same time, there must surely be available to all a full road
of appeal, as there was in the World War, leading all the The Coast Artillery Association
has approved this ring, but it may be ..

\\'a:' to the President. But let the military come however
circumspectly into a community to handle selective serv-
worn by any Coast Artilleryman,
whether or not he is a member of i
ice, and there at once arises the feeling of being grabbed
the Association. The design, as
shown in the illustration, has been

by the scruff of the neck from normal civil occupations or

idleness and thrown bodily into ranks.
worked out with great care. The
other side is equally attractive, de- ..

picting a fort and the shield of the 1:
United States superimposed on a :)
Most of the points which Dr. Fitzpatrick favors are well E
crossed saber and rifle above the
established in the minds of those who have given any real letters U.S.A. ~
, study to selective service. His book offers an excellent i
way to gain background on a subject now foremost in our To keep the cost within reach of ~
minds. all, the manufacturer has worked 'C

out a plan whereby the outside of .8

the ring is 10k. gold over a sterling 0

silver inlay; in appearance this is ~
A New Military Classic
exactly like the solid gold ring and
will wear equally as well. ..

10K Solid Gold SterlinG 00

eral J. F. C. Fuller, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, Plain
Gold Oyerlay
$26.00 $17.00 $ 7.50
30.00 20.00 12.50


1940. I '°36 Pages; Maps; Index. $4'50' Blue Sapphire .. 30.00 20.00 12.50 ~
30.00 20.00
.:::::: ~g:gg ~g:gg ~~:gg
General Fuller is perhaps the most readable of living Green Tourmaline 30.00 20.00 12.50

Emerald 30.00 20.00 12.50 ""

military writers. However little or much we may have B1ood.tone 28.00 19.00 11.00 ~
agreed with the broad ideas on war he has put forward in Oll~'X 27.50 18.50 10.50
The sallie design fumished ill 'i
someof his past works, and whatever we may think of his 'C
lIlillwture for ladies. :;
m~re recent expressions of totalitarian philosophy, we t
WIll most of us agree that no soldier writes with a greater !.
~ '0
fluencyor a keener sense of narrative. Order From
.! ~
In this I,ooo-page book, in which he describes thicry- COAST ARTILLERY ...~
!evenbattles and campaigns, we have more than a mod- JOURNAL g ~
ernizedCreasy. For the author has prepared not merely a 1115 Seventeenth Street, N.W. ..
..... ~
~nvenient textbook, as he modestly writes in his preface, Washington, D. C. .."
t a military classic in its own right-a work to be placed
~~~~p:~-=p~ beside that of Creasy on the shelves of every reader with
Y] _ ••• U an interest in the art of war.
I £..eU,L U General Fuller places each battle or campaign he de-
; FEDERBUSH SINGLE ROD au scribes in world history by an historical synopsis, and it is
his aim, successfully attained, to present a background for
MAGAZINE BINDERS U the war now being fought. "It is true," he says in his J
preface, "that the full study of war will not seriously assist
The single magazine binder is used e.xtensively in
a subaltern on picket duty; but when it comes to under-
waiting rooms and reading rooms of libraries, offices,
steamships and other public places. Besides lending standing the present war conditions and the probable
a dignified appearance, when on the reading table or causes and origins of the next war, a deep and impartial
in the magazine rack, it keeps the copy clean and knowledge of histor"/ is essential. Further still, as it is not I
inviting. Inadvertently. people often carry off maga- subalterns 'or generals who make wars, but instead gO\'o
zines which are lying around loose, whereas it is less
ernments and nations, unless the people as a whole have
likely to happen if book is comained in a binder. The
key lock mechanism locks the rod which holds maga- some understanding of what was meant in past ages, their
zine fastened to binder. Binding is made of stiff opinions on war as it faces us today will be purely al-
boards, covered with canvas, genuine or imitation chemical. ... Therefore, though my original idea was
leather. Also made in Flexible Covers. Supplied in to write a book for military students, seeing that today war ,
colors, if desired, for any size magazine.
Three lines of lettering in gilt allowed without
is on every lip and consequently we should all be students
charge, i.e. name of magazine, organization and loca- of war, I have attempted to write it in such a way that it
tion. Instead of location you may substitute "Do Not will prove interesting to the civilian reader. Frankly, I
Remove From Day Room." G1I1 say that there is nothing technical or abstruse in this
book." Nor is there.
~ ~ ~
GUN COLLECTING. By Charles Edward Chapel, 1st
Lieutenant, U.S.M.C., Ret. New York: Coward-Me-
CU1O, Inc., 194°.232 Pages; appendix, glossary; bibli-
ography; index; illustrations. $2'50'

~ ~ ~
V ALUES. By Charles Edward Chapel, 1st Lieuten-
ant, U.s.M.C., Ret. Published by the author: San
Leandro, Cal., 1940. 222 Pages; illustrated. $2'50'
These two books arc from the pen of an international
authority on arms history and the hobby of collecting I

weapons. Here will be found the answer to hundreds of

questions for the beginner, the advanced collector, the
student of history and the man in the street who merely
has a love for things mechanical. It is safe to say that
Lieutenant Chapel's contribution to the literature of arms
Key Loc:k 1\lechani8m
will be required reading for all even remotely interested
in the subject.
Prices Gun Collecting explains in plain unvarnished English
Style MK - Imitation Leather what types of guns are valuable and why, how to arrange,
I to 25-$2.25 each, any size repair and photograph them, but, most important of all,
26 Up-$2.00 each, any size it reveals the story behind the guns and brings to life
the men who have carried them down through history.
The Gun Collector's Handbook of Values is full" as
ADDITIONAL QUOTATIONS AND unusual as the other volume. By actual count ther~ are
INFORMATION FURNISHED more than 500 pictures of arms and there are about 2,200
ON REQUEST described in detail and listed for value. Obviousl" such a

Order from book is needed by every collector.

At first sight, one might leap to the conclusion that
The Coast Artillery Journal these books are merely for the "gun nut." But there is
1115 17th Street, N.W'. \V'ashington, D. C. much more to them tl~an that; the volumes are a needed
addition to the library of the srudenr of the military art.
ETHAN ALLEN. By Stewan H. Holbrook. New
York: The ~facmill:m Company, 1940' 273 Pages;
~lap; Index. $2.50'
The biggest, roaringest, fightingest, writingest man a
sm311state ever produced was General Ethan Allen of
\'ermont. For more than ten years what Louis XIV of
Fr3nce had once said of himself was just as true of Ethan
:\lIen. He was the state. It made no difference that Ver-
mont came into the Union in 1791, two years after he THIRD EDITION, NE\V
died. His force and influence had made it into an inde-
pendent state, fighting with its neighbors, dickering in- ~ POPULAR demand has required this new edition
dependently with Britain before and after the Revolution of THE OFFICERS' GUIDE, a ready reference that
ended, and then clamoring for admission into the United 'speaks authoritatively on subjects of particular inter-
$r3tes. est to officers of all arms and services. It contains the
philosophies. thoughts, and conclusions of many ex-
Like the rest of the Green Nfountain Boys, Ethan
perienced officers.
Allen thrived on "stone-walls," which were hard cider and
Selection of material has been made from the fol-
rum, half and half. But as easily as he could down a dozen
lowing viewpoint: Would it be useful for the vast
of these at a sitting, he could ride along the mountainsides, majority of officers? Is the information readily avail-
o3ther an arm)' of five hundred men, and with it take a
able elsewhere? Will the information assist the young
Ticonderoga, invade Canada, or drive the hated New officer during the period of adjustment?
Yorkers back across their borders. No trick, either, for This edition is not just a revision. Most of the sub-
him to search every harsh and resounding word from his jects have been rewritten by an experienced author
of the Regular Army. only a few outstanding parts of
dictionary, fashion them into epithets, and spread them
previous editions being retained. Several new sub-
down the pages of his pamphlets. These he loved to jects are presented in a most interesting manner.
peddle in regions where there was a price upon his head. With a new type format for easy reading and new
He even wrote a book on philosophy before he finished. illustrations. it represents the latest reference book
Mr. Holbrook's biography is equal to his man, and he for the Army officer.
writes with an appropriate vigor. He has missed none of Now available at a lower price than ever before.
humor and drama that his hero lived. His pages are rich
with quotations from the words of Ethan Allen himself.
Ethan Allen, as a colonel, was captured by the British TABLE OF CONTENTS

3nd held for two years. On a ship that carried him to
The Army As A Career, by Life Insurance Analysis
England, Lord Cornwallis was also aboard. Allen, at- Gen. J. G. Harbord. Chair- Provisions In AnticIpation
man of the Board, the of Death
tempting to walk the quarterdeck, was asked by Corn- n. C. A.
First Station The Army of the United
w311isif. he didn't know "the quarterdeck was a place Orientation
The National Guard
for gentlemen." "Yes, by God, I do," said Allen, "and Uniforms and Equipment
The Organized Reserves
that's the reason I'm here." Assumption of Command
The Reserve Officers' Train-
Exercise of Command Ing Corps
Ethan Allen is here, now, in Mr. Holbrook's new book Mess Management
The Organization Staff and
Supply Its Functions
because his story has wanted telling in first-class fashion Mllltary Courtesy A Background for Peace
for over a century. Customs of the Service and War
Pay and Allowances Dlsclpllne and Leadership
Leaves of Absences. Promo- by Gen. G. V. H. Moseley
tion. Retirement Mana!!:ement of the Ame~l-
Indispensable to the Firearms Specialist EffIciency Reports can Soldier by Gen. D. C.
Foreign Service
NOTES ON U. S. ORDNANCE. By Captain James Army Educational System
Army Posts and COL As-
signments In Each State
E. Hicks. Volume I: Small Arms, 1776-194°' Pub- Privileges. Rights and Re- and Territory
strictions of Officers Tactical Definitions and
lished by the author, 1940' 117 Pages; 80 Plates. $4'50' Participation In Post Ac- SpeCial Map Symbols
tivities Index
Captain Hicks's historical work on the ordnance of our
OWnand other nations, even to the military man who is Price $2.50, Postpaid
neither an expert nor a collector of olden weapons, is easy
to recognize as valuable, and is deeply interesting in the
bargain. In this volume we have the American firearms
from the rifles of 1792 to the M-I of our own day. There
are copious historical notes on matters never before as- 1115 17th Street, N.\X'.
sembled in one place, facsimiles of some of the more im- Washington, D, C.
ponant early documents on ordnance, and 80 plates of
exterior and sectionalized views of the weapons described,
illustrations of remarkable accuracv and c1aritv which
were drawn by Andre Jandot.' /
The book is large in size, clearly printed, and bound in
durable buckram. A second volume will contain ordnance
correspondence covering the history of American firearms
from 1781 to 1866.

Shorter Mention

MILITARY TARY ACTIVITIES (Senate Document No. 91).

Prepared by the \Var Department for the Chairman of
the Committee on wfilitary Affairs of the Senate. \Vash-
ington: Government Printing Office, 1940' 200 Pages;

BOOKS Illustrated. $1.00.

A splendidly illustrated summary of the Army of the

A General Staff Officer's ~ otes. Valli me /: The United States covering all of its components, agencies, and
Oi,'isioll $ 2.00 activities. This book was prepared by the Public Relations
Tactics & Technique of Infantry, Basic 3.00
Adl.allced 5.00 Branch of G-2, War Department General Staff, as a (Ten- t>
Fighting Tanks Since 1916 (Jones et a/) 2.50 eral source of information on the Army. It is not a tech-
~fachine Gunner's Pocket ~lanual. plaill 1.75
With slate, map pocket. flap, etc 2.25 nical work but a factual account simply presented.
Field Service Regulations, 1923 .40
Fundamentals of Military Strategy (Robinson) 2.50
~Ianual of Administration for the CCc. .75
Outlines of World's ~Iilitary History Olitchell)
cloth 3.00 THINKING ALOUD IN WARTIME. By Leslie D.
American Campaigns (Steele) 2 volumes 8.00 Weatherhead. New York: Abingdon Press, 1939.
A Rifleman Went to War (~lcBride) 3.50
Index to Leavenworth-Benning 1Iaps 1.00 $1.00.
~Iass Physical Training (Raycroft) 3.00
Balancing Daily Diets (Perley) 2.00 There is much in this little book that will help the
Infantry in Offensh'e Combat (S. T. 266) 70
Infantry in Defensive Combat (S. T. 265) 50 sincere Christian to find some degree of peace in a torn
Illfantry Antiaircraft Defense (S. T. 267) .45 and changing world. "Force," believes Dr. Weatherhead,
Infantry Signal Communications (S. T. 268) 90
Command. Staff and Logistics for Infantry (S. "cannot make a bad man good, but it can, and I think
T .179) 35 ought to, limit the scope and extent of the evil he plans."
Organization of Infantry (S.T.5) .20
Troop Movements and Shelter (S.T.6) 35 Thus the war of England and her Allies began and has
Weapons and Musketry (S.T.8) .40 continued, he feels, in no sense to seek vengean<;e but to
Solution of Map Problems (S.T.IO) 25
Care and Operation of ~Iotor Vehicles (S.T.270) .30 prevent yet other crimes-an end that does not conflict
Infantry in Special Operations (S.T.13) 20 with Christian teachings.
Offensive Combat of Small Infantry Units (S.T.!I) .20
Modern Military Dictionary (Garber) rloth ........ 2.00
leat/rerette 2.25
Essentials of Infantry Training, paper 1.25
cloth 1.50 ONE HUNDRED YEARS AT VMI. By Colonel
Company Administration (Virtue) paper 1.25
cloth 1.75 William Couper. Richmond: Garrett & 1vfassie, Inc.,
Infantry Drill Regulations 50 1940. Four volumes, 400 Pages per volume; Illustrated.
Officer's Guide 2.75
Map Reading, Sketching. Aerial Photographs. $12.00 per set.
paper 1.00
cloth 1.25 This compilation of documents and accounts of the his-
leatheretle 1.50
Training Guides (Elarth) paper 1.00 tory of Virginia Military Institute, despite the fact that it
cloth 1.50 is not a running history of that fine school, contains man)'
a fascinating page of reading. The founding of VMI, the
Discount on Quantity Orders
participation of its cadet corps as a body at Newmarket in
the Civil War, and many another solid basis of its tradi-
tions, are covered in ample detail. There is a prefatory
letter from its distinguished graduate, General George C.
Marshall, Chief of Staff.
Coast Artillery Journal The third and fourth volumes are to be issued in the
1115 17th Street, N.\V. \Vashington, D. C. fall of this year. Garrett & Massie, The JOURNALprinters,
have done an attractive job of binding and printing.

Section 1. Regular Army Personnel

Washington, D. C.
Major General J. A. Green
Blood. K. T. LERYBOARD I nine, ~r.::If.
Rtrollg. A. G. Fort Monroe, Va.
Thomas.Stahle, ('. SUBMARINE :MINE
Emer:r, F. E .. Jr. COLONEL DEPOT
Cotter, C. E. Bowell, ,,~. 8. Fort Monroe, Va..
Lewis, J. T. Edgeromb. F. E. Lenzner. n. ~.
::IrrCroske~', ~. L. Gerhardt. Wm. R. (Ord.)
Dayis. L. L. Kreuter. R. H. 1lAJORH
Herrirk. H. X. ('riehlow, R. " .... ,Tr. Reuter. H. ('.
Jefferson. L. \Y. LurE', D.
Starr. R. E. CAPTAI:X::;
Harrinlan. J. E. ::>hepherll. C. E. ('APTAIX
R('huvler. C. Yan R. Hmith. n. H. Toftor. H. X.
Kane. F. B.
Plory. L. n. (Temp.)


Boston, Mass. Fort Monroe, Va. Presidio, Sa.n Francisco, RATE COAST ARTIL- COAST ARTILLERY
~mith. R. H. Smith, F. H. RRIHADIER UKNERAl .. Quarry Heights, C. Z.
Burgin, H. T. RRIGA1)IER ({gXERA1 ..
~[AJOR COJ.O~EIJ Gat"dner, F. Q. C.
Chaplin. R. T. Bennett, E. E. COLOXEL BRIGADIER GENERAl.
JJiucoln. P. H. ('OLOXEL Jarman. R.
2d C.A. DISTRICT 1 ST TJIEeTExAxT LouRtalo!. A. L.
New York, N. Y. Ellis. W. F. (Aide) 1[AJOR (D.S. Hq. Haw. Dept.) I.iIErTENAKT C'OI.OXI-:L
Harrington, .T. H. Finley, C. R.
('ooper. A. J. Fort McPherson, Ga. Skene, C. ::If. R. ::IfAJOR~
m,,'oe. E. Lindt, J. H. Detwiler. H. P.
~lacldux. R. F. (Temp.) COLONEL Perkins. R. 1f. Bartlett, h \\-.
~ritrhell. R. ::If.
Burher, O. B. Ln~rTEK\NT COLOXEI; Bates. J. ('. Deichelmann, :;If.K.
.Tarhon, A.::If. (Temp.) ~[c('ain. J. D. Ritrhie, 1. H.
{'rim. C. H. (Temp.) 1ST LIEl'TEXAXTS
WilIiam,on. E. Y. 1IAJOR 1ST LIgrTENAST Patte,"on, C. G.
(F.A.) (Temp.) Hill. R.E. Weber,::If. G. (Aide) Skidmor". W.::II. (Aide)
Hardy. R.::If. (Aide)


1st COAST ARTIL- 2nd COAST ARTIL- Frith, R. Eoo Jr. 1ST LIEL:TEXAXT Fort Robbe, C. Z. 6th COAST ARTIL-
LERY LERY \Vorrester. \Vm. J. Harrison. H. J. LERY
Fort Sherman, C. Z. Fort Monroe, Va. CAPTAIX Fort Winfield Scott,
Frenrh, A. J. Hardawar. F. P. Beandry. C. L. Fort Amador, C. Z. 2n LIEl'TENAXT COLOXEL
::Ifiler, H. A., Jr. Bane, J. C. Tilton, R. L.
lIowman. O. D. Lohmann, L. H. Att- XirholR, \Ym. R. 5th COAST ARTIL- I ...IErTEN.-\XT COLOXEI.S
~'ortman. V. \V. Kerr. C. Ba~eunan. Fernando LERY Doner. C. R.
odge. F. B .. Jr. Lt .• Chilean Xayv. IJIEI'TEXAXT COLOXEL Fort Hamilton, N. Y.
MAJORS Aguayo, Felix •• 1fAJORS
Kennard, J. (Cay.) Whittaker, L. A.
('.\PTAIX~ Chamherlain. F. R., Jr .• Lt. Comdr .. 1fAJOR
lIaron. A. S. (SO, CA Bd.) Chilean Xavr. 1fAJORS ~rowell. E. R.
Barrow •. E. R. Fleming, P. C. (F.A.)
Po;"'e. G. F.
Johnson. \V. L. k ~:.
Sowell. H. E. (F.A.)
Rcott, W. W.
Wolfe, W.J. Engelhart. E. C.
KI"inman. E. A.
l~T LIErTExAxT King. E. W. (D.S 1st Fort MacArthur, Calif. B~'Jr":;. \i;. L. Jordan, W"m. H. SimmonR. J. F.
}[at~'a<.A. A. (Cay.) Fonyielle. J. H.
Army 3oIs!lel!vpr:;::, Sturman. J. F .. Jr. Lafrenz. \\'m. F.
Canton.~. ,..) LIELTENAXT COLOXEL Duyall H H Fort Wadsworth, N. Y.
2u LIErTExAxTS :Mead, E. C. ' .. CAPT.\IXl<
~!iehelet. H. E. CAPTAIXS 1fAJOR Haakensen. S. T.
ratti<on .•J. B .. Jr. RORS,L. G 1fAJORS 1ST LIECTEXAXTS Lowder, J. R.
Corum. D. R. Carey. G. R.
',,:a""r. P. R. Brownlee. 1.. H. Sne'l. V. C. )IcKinney. )1. :T.
(;,Iehrist. M. E. Jr. Ward. E. R. C. Hawley. D. C. (Cay.) Cherubin. S. J. Panama Coast Artil- Pride. R:L (F.A.)
Wood. R.J. Barn"s. H. C.. Jr. lery Det.achment Rothgeh, C. E.
Fori Randolph, C. Z. 2D LIECTEXAXTS Camp Upton, N. Y.
l<T LIECTEXAXT Walter. E. H. Tucker. G. A. Herstad, .J. O. 1fAJOR
oyle. P. \'". Alfrey. J. Twyman. J. H .. Jr. Belardi. R. J. Gib,on, R. S. (I nf.) ~~r';;;::~~~~R~R~fcF .. Jr.
Kramer. A. Hinternhoff. W. A. Rothwell. F. G. LERY Ah'ton. A. A.
$waiu. O. Hl'nr;'. Wm. J. Fort Kamehameh .... T.H. Holmes. J. R.
Lh'CBki. F. A. 11th COAST ARTIL- :McGraw. J. E. LERY :lIAJORi' ~'~d~~.~.F.
Fitzgerald. R. II. LERY Decker. K. X. (F.A.) Fort Crockett. Texas ~li,>l'r.H.H.
Fort H. G. Wright, N. Y. Darrah. J. T. Brady. ,Yo l. 61st COAST ARTIL-
Web'ter. G, B.. Jr. COLOXEL 1ST Lu:rTExAxTS Yogl'l. B. CAPTAIX Fort Williams, Me.
~~~~.e~:Yil.' T.
JoneB. T. H. Hoffman. T. F.
Schmick. P.
Powers. J. D. 'Yalbridge. Y.
LIEl'TEXAXT COLOXEL :Moore. R. E. (Inf.) :lI.\JOR 1ST LIErTEXAXTS Homer, J. 1..
7th COAST ARTIL- Hill. 1. B. Clark. :M. H. Block. E. R. IF.A.) Conway. ,Yo C.
LERY Bailey:Wm. W. :MAJORS
Fort Hancock, N. J. lIAJORS 20 LIEl"TEX.~XT ('-'l'TAIX HarriB. C'. S.
8chmidt. V. G. Chandler, H. B.. Jr. Zimmer. L. A. 2D LIErTEXAXTS Kilgarif, L. :M. (F.A.)
C'OLOXEL Dawson.:M. A. (F.A.) Kapcsak. A. ,\. Jeffords, William Q.
Williford. F. E. Remington. ,Yo E. (Inf.) 21st COAST ARTIL- Lawll. G.
LIEl"TEKAXT COLOXELS C.~PT.\IXS LERY Fort Dupont, Del. Fort Ruger, T. H. Anderson. R. L.
Rbein. W. W. Barber. J. T. Fort K&mehameha, T. H. :Morrow. S. H.
Kell;', P. K. (Inf.) 8amu~ls. A .. Jr. LIEl"TEXAXT COLOXEL LIEl"TEX.\XT COLOXEL Gill. B. D.
Henn]g~ Wm. H. COLOXEL Hut,on, J. C. ,rolfe. S. E. Franklin. A. G.• Jr.
:lIAJORS Dunham. C. E. Walker, E. B. Briggs. K. :If.
Hennessy. H. P. :MAJOR :lL\JOR Dice, J. B. F.
Jeffords:T. E. 1ST LIEl"TENANTS :M.~JORS Harris, P. A. Lawton. Wm. !,;.
deCamp, J. T. Lip,comb, L .. Jr. Van Buskirk, R. J. 1ST LIEl'TEXANTS
Russey, J. W. (F.A.) :lIurrin. "'m. R. Ladd. R. V. 1ST LIEl"TEXANT 1ST LIEl"TEXAXT Curtis, K. I.
Gough, A. D. Pendleton, H. E. 'Yhipple, H. B. Eubank, P. H. :Morris. Robert
CAPTAIXS Lawrence. A. M. Easton, 'Ym. G.
England. J. :M. 20 LIEl"TEXANTS :McCarthy. Wm. J. 22d COAST ARTIL- 20LIEl'TENAXTS
Jaccard. P. A. Kelly. J. J .. Jr. Anderson. G. LERY Simon. L.A. 20 LIEl'TENAXTS
Vestal, Wm. M.
Woodbury', K. J.
Hudgins. S. F.
Walker. J. T.
Ellis, H. P.
Dingeman, R. E.
Fort Constitution, N. H. RooRa .• T. A.
Lentz. CooII
Barr;'. R. B .. Jr.
L. "T.
Berilla, G. P. Jr., (Cav.) Rice. H.E. MAJOR. Xickergon, D. K.
Colligan. R. L., Jr. 1ST LIEl'TENAXTS Cowen. E.G. 57th COAST ARTIL- Sigley. W. B.
Lotozo, J.
Cordes, C. F., Jr.
ii. ,*=.
Steely. O. B.
:lIitchell. J. D.
Fort Monroe Va.
Platt, R. G.
Moore. J.:lf.
Hamelin, R. 'V.
de:lIetropolis, H. Fort Barrancas, Fla.. 20LIEl'TENANT
,Ianowski, R. A. 23d SEPARATE BN. Kimmel. :If. :II.. Jr.
'''hite. A. B. (D.S .. Ft. 62d COAST ARTIL-
Allen. H. C. Fort Rodman, Mass. CAPT •.uX~ LERY
Bradley. F. X. :lIartin. E. G. Fort Totten, N. Y.
Epley,A. D.


Rinearson, A. V. Fort Ruger, T. H.
Branham, C. X.
..\. A. COT.ONEIl
Rpiller. O. I•.
Rweet. 'V. H. Potts. A. E. Kocheyar, J. H. Hickok. :II. J .. Jr.
:lIorgan.:lL Dutton. D. L. Small, H. E.
COLONEL Haggart, A. L. Scott. J. A .• Jr.
l~T IJIErTEx ..\NT
Kemble. F. Thomas. B. A. (Ca\'.) Howell. J. X. :lfAJORS
:lfAJORS l'nrlerwood, G. V .. Jr.
Dayis. T. D. (Inf.) Hunter, H. "'. O'Connell. G. :II.
:lIAJORS :lIcCormick. ,Yo L. Willard, S. E.
Hudg-ins. L. A.
Imperatori. R. J.
Gunn, C. O.
Burnett. J. R.
Blaney. G.
:lforgan, C. C. (Inf.)
OAST ARTIL- 59th COAST ARTIL- Eri('~on. R. A.
Hatch.:l1. A.
Featherston. J. H. Fort Kamehameha, T. H. LERY
Hoge.D.H. Adkins, J. R .. Jr. (F .•\.) Fort Mills, P. I. Car;'. :If. G.
Palmer. G. 'V. Rhumate. J. P. Glal:ol.~hurn. R. P. Brusher. H. A.
Gibbs. G. G. 20LIEl'TENAXTS Kpter. O. H .. Jr.
French. F. J. Gifford. J. R. CAPTAIK
Treat, C. H. (Inf.) Xiethamer. ,V. F. :lIAJOR
Weinnig. A. J. :lIartin. D. D.
Hitchings, J. L. (Ca\'.) Thomn'on. L. H. 1ST LIErTExAxT~
1ST LIEUTENANTS Jor(lan. R. E. Routh. D. B.
1 ST Ln:rTExAxT Chambers. A. K.
:lfacLachlan. C. L. '''eisemann. H. C... "a\'ant. A. F. (D.
Hackman. E. E.
"T. Yarnall. K. I,. X;'e. D. B.
D. ,Yo (Cav.)
R. Fort :lIonmoutb.
20LIEl'TENANTS Powell. C. W. Kirkpatrick. L. 8. Drake. L. R.
Vann. '\'. :lIacR. 18th COAST ARTIL- Hodg-es. ,Yo ;r" ;rr.
Donahue. J. M. RinlIDOndf:. X. B. Ashman. A.
Hackett. C. J. LERY Rkinrood. X. A.
Snann. C. Eoo Jr. Fort Stevens, Ore. 51st OOAST ARTIL- Conzelman, C. :lIcK.
Young.R. D. Gooclman. S. J. (D. K BuynoRki, .\. S.
Hiddleston. E. W. LERY
Fort Buchanan, Hq. Phil. Dent.) Ellert. h J.
2n LIEI'TEXAXTS Puerto Rico (;raws. R. <Tnf.)
LERY Lemmon, K. B. RhiYe. D. W.
Price. '''m. H .. Jr. :lfiller. A. D.
Fort Banks, Mass. Smitb. H.T. I..n~rTEx \ ~T ('OLOXF.L Blunda. G. F.
Barnett. '\Tm. H. T,ofqui,t, F. Flanig-en. B. L. 1ST LIEl'TEXAXT
COT.OXF.rJ~ :lfacDonald. A. F. '\'arren. A. L. (F.A.) Julian. H. 2f1 LJErTExAxT::;;
Hickok. :11. J. 'Yilliams. J. W. :If.\JORS \\'00<1. O. E. (D. K
Dennis. E. B. Gregory. P. T. 2D LIEl"'EXAXTJ':. Fort 'Yacl~worth.
Gillmore. '''m. K. Wood, F. O. (F.A.) Corclero, :II.
Ba)'er. K. H. Burg'es~. G. R. Hauek. H. H. :lIanruRo. S. J.
:.\rA;r{)R~ Turner. H. J ... Ir. Conh;Iiaro, .T. BraRsel. A. L.
r<]'I::<:"nrcLF. nA'''' Ka,per. 'Ym. :II. Shaw. L. E. ("APTAr",r-::. Ba1<1idn. L. C. Brown. G. E.
('''''i".n 1>,:lf. (Foo\.) Grindf>r. R. H. marle.K. :lfarRh. C. TooJr.
Ho«an. J. L. Key West Barracks, Fla. Kendall. "'m. H. Peddicord, E. D. (;erlirh. F. ,J. Hpinemanll. ""ID. E.

R F:,
1ST l ..JErTExAxT:-:
Pa~l.:arplIa. P. F. l~T Ln:rTEXAXTf-', ~~~~.~~:TB.\. 6:ld COAST ARTIL-
(t,-w/1l3'1. Pendleton. L. L. Fairchild. F. H. :-:imoll~. 11". :.\L
( ..... ' ..... X \
Taylor. K O. Fcrt Drum, P. 1. ~:~1:acArthur. Calif.
;':tl'i(.l{lal~il'. IT 'E. :lfAJOR Fritz. William G. :lTA.lOR
Putnam. ,Yo F. Hovell. B. B. Stul,b'. G. H. COLOXEI.
1 ~'T' T.TT'l'TE"; \XT 2n LIErTEXAXT~ ",tOC.ktOll. E.. \.. .Ir.
Lin'l. H. D. 1ST LIEI'TEXAXT :lfar,hall. O. K .. Jr. 60th COAST ARTIL-
Lockhart. E. E. 19th COAST ARTIL- Rnow. J. R. LERY LIErTF"; \XT ('ot.m<1tl.
LERY HU'Rey. ''I'm .. J. A. Fort Mills. P. 1. O'Bripn. :If. .T,
1 nt.n /10AST ARTIL- Fort Moultrie, S. C.
:r.Rl?V Fort Rosecrans, Calif. Rppw;,. C'. W.
Fort Ad2ms, R. I. ("tH.O'\;"F.L 1fA.JOR'"
:lIAJORR ('or.OXEl, 52d COAST ARTIL- Kopni!!;. 'Y. C. Pnrma1f?P. _\. L.
Dnnn. G. 'Y .. Jr. Ottosen. P. H. LERY C:ilhreth .• 1. H.
LIEl'TE'" ",. ('OLOXEI. c'lmo, H. 'Y. Fort Hancock, N. J'. Ln:rTF.x.\~'T" COl.OXEL TOl'l~in.g'. F. L.
Pendleton. R. T. :lIAJORR ('ampl.eIL .\. H.
CAPTAIX .Iacoh,. ,I. P. Ln:rTEX\XT \OLO~F.I. f"APT\TX';;
:lfA.TOR~ Wil'on. D. :lfcC. Woodruff. V. R. (F.A.) Sinrlair. J. L. )'IAJOR::: Tomlin. R. F.
•Toll,. E. P. ShoreR. R. <Inf.) .\ moro o.. \. D. Frmu.j;:•• \C H .
Brent. G. '\'. 14th COAST ARTIL- Water~. F. B. ~IAJO" .\u ..mll J) ~""wnrd.:r. R
Xel-on. O. "\. LERY Stiley. J. F. 'Yoarl,. F .. 1. .\(lam,. E. F. iTnf.) TT.....
nllrix. R. R.
Fort Worden, Wash. Harr;-, .T. nreitun~. II. E. f'. Roy. P .. \.
em.oxu, ~rank. K. C. :If''(;eehan. C. ,Yo
Kimm. Y.:lf. C\PTAr' .... l:;T LTFf"TES.\ST'
Hol"in'!:er. (;. L IF.A.) Cunningham, J. H. (;~~~~l~lR. 1~T LIErTExAxT8 Fif'1<1.(;. 1.. \-\ikon. X. B.
For!l. GeOTfte A. Pf"tpr~()n. A. C. Tl1l,h,,_ H. K
('arter. e. C. Enl;::~;~~XfXFT ('OLO"EL CAPTAIXS !':uthf'rlam1. A .•J.
Hi1<1ebrandt. C. W. I;alla!<hf'r. R. E.
Oflen1Yeller. C.•J.. Jr. ~ , , .. Parr. 'Y. H. l:;T LIErTEx.-\xT;':' :::::henard,;;:ol1. F. F
:lIAJORR Alexander. D. K 2D LIECTEXAXTS (;la ...~lmrn. R. D. T.emmon, K. Boo.1r
1ST LIEI.'TEXAXT ('jayton. L. L. Hunt. H. H. (F.A.) <TTlf. ,
:Uullikin. O. W. fInf.) Bell. C. O. Henn. J. S. iA~~~:..t
l.:'J:.' :lIa('Xair. T. K.
•.\me;;;:. (;. R. Rinley. 1.. H .
0)0 LIErTE~A~T;5. 20 LIEt.TEXXXT~ Pai",e. B. L. C_\PT.\IXs. 1ST LIEl"TEXAXT )!.\.10R~
H,;iloway. R. H. Bowman. J. A. lIcLain. E. W. Wright. W, L. Roth. 1. D. :McGarraugh. R. E.
p'.\rnzo. J. P. :mal.J.P. Bailey. D. J. Shutt, L, O.
~lh'a~y~s. 2n LIErTExAxTSo :Miter: F. F. LIErTExAxT:,
cunningham~ H. _.\.
.. Jr. t~db,:';;,;;;.~.F. Chadwick. 'Ym. D .. Jr. Lepping. A_ J.
Boughton. R. W .. Jr. C_-\.PTA1X::'
Light. E.D. Smith.e. O. Shivers:. G. "\Y.. Jr. Raymond.:M. B. tD.S. Xewronler. F. K.. Jr. Smith. J. C.
DeYilIe. L. B. df'Latour. F. A.. Jr. Hq. P.C.D.) Che,ter. R. S. Wrean.J.T.
filth COAST ARTIL- Abf'r. J. E. \\nite. T. B.
LERY 67th COAST ARTIL- Harris. \\'. H. 74th COAST ARTIL- 1ST LIErTExA::ST;O:
Fort Shafter, T. H. LERY 70th COAST ARTIL- :\lilIer. R. L. LERY Ogden. :M, L.
Fort Bragg, N. C. LERY Fort Monroe, Va, Young.C.G.
COLOXEL Fort Moultrie, S. C. 1ST LIErTEXA.XTS Robbins. A. D.
Wing. C. K. LIEl'TEXAXT COLOXEL )Ioore. R. W. 1IA.10R Grorge. :M. S,
Turley. R. E .. Jr. COLOXEL Adams.G. X. Hesketh. 'Ym.
Ln:I'TEXAXT COLOXELS' Cox. R. F. Kushner, G. L. 78th COAST ARTIL-
BehrenB. H. R. :MA;fORS Re..-bold. F. B. CAPTAI" LERY
\rmstrong.11. G. Xewman. H. H. :MA.10R Andrews. F. W'. Fuller, A. L .. Jr .
. Denson, L. A .. Jr. Lemuitzer. L. L. :Maybach, A. A. (D.S .. C.A. Sch.) Ma.rch Field, Calif.
Johnson. J. J. Bern'. R. ,Yo Tischbf'in. C. F. Baile)'. J. R., Jr. Duff, C. B. Van Volkenburgh. R. H.
lIe"er •• H. F. Perry, ,Yo A. Parks. H. C. Seff. A. Bovs, R. C.
Turnhull, H. T. Chamberlain. E. W. Wald.J.J. Hoitermau, G. H. MA.10RS
Glasgow, R. I.
Beazle,. L. K.
Brucker. W. H.
~~fs~";:: it:J.
Curtin. R. D.
Persons. H. P.t Jr.
Yost, J. B.
Bunting. G. C.
Aldrich, H. S.
Leist. G. F.
Forman. O. T. O':Malley. C. S .• Jr. Foote. S. W. Kell~'. J. P. A. Nelson. J. G. CAPTAIN~
Da".F.E. Webber. D. B. 'Yollaston, P. H. Dougan, :M. D. \Vallace. E. C.
FrOderick, R. T. :Metz, T. 11cG. 2n LIEl:TEXAXTS Howell. J. P .• Jr.
Folk. F. T. 2n LIEl:TE"AXTS Mason. T. O.
2n LIEI'TEXAXTS Banks, J. 11c~L Fort Sherman, C. Z. 1ST LIEI'TEXAXT"
Gordon, T. F.
1ST LIEl'TEXAXT~ l.eNom. J. W .. Jr. Hart, J. E. Kallman. M. M.
Thompson, E. H .. Jr. Jones, E. B. Gilbert, C. M. LIEl'TEXAXT COLOXEL 75th COAST ARTIL- :McFeely. H. G.
Kauffman, R. K. Wilson. H. L .• Jr. Underwood, E. H. LERY Croker; G. W.
Till'an" K. Eo (Inf.) 68th COAST ARTIL- Lynn, E. A" Jr. Fort Lewis, Wash.
Rumph. R. W. LERY 91st COAST ARTIL-
Fort Williams, Me. Fort Screven, Ga. COLOXEL LERY (P.S.)
2D LIELTEXAXTS Collada)'. E. B. Fort Mllls, P. I.
Wickham. K. G. COLOXEL
Langford. C. ,.L Garrett. R. C. 1ST LIEl:TEXAXTS LIEl'TENAXT COLONEL
Spurgin. Wm. F. COLOXEL
Peterson, 1. A. Stark. H. W. Shippam, W.
Yail. W. H .. Jr. LIEt'"TF.XAXT COLOXEL :MAJORS Rawls, J. W'.
E,an.'. B. S., Jr. French, P. H. Hanson. H. R. (F.A.) lIfAJORS MA-JOR.8
Bennett. A. Wahle, C. B. 2n LIEcTEXAXTS
Brey. Wm. G. Foster. V. P.
Walker. J. W. 1IAJORS Pavick, J. J. :\rurphy. ,T. G. Kohn. J. P.
Greenwood. D. B. CAPTAIN Luczak, B. R. l.oupret. G. J. Boudreau. N.
65th COAST ARTIL- Cameron. H. H. (Ca,.) Weddell. Wm. A. :McLean. D. Caluya. P. Q. (P.S.)
LERY )foore. J. M. 73d COAST ARTIL- Wolff. C.)T. Se,illa, P. C. (P.s.)
Fort Winfiold Scott, 1ST LIEl'TEXAXT" LERY
Calif. CAPTAIXS Lazar, A.lIT. Fort Amador, C. Z. CAPTAIX~ CAPTAINS
Gard. H. P. VI'rsace, H .•J. (F.A.) Kelson. p, B. Alba. B.lIL (P,S.)
COLOXEL Xelson. C. G. (F.A.) Romlein. J. ,Yo LIEI'TEXANT COLOXEL Shunk, P. ,Yo Stennis. 'V. K.
('rawforll. .T. B. Gilbert. O. H. Adams, G. E. (F.A.) Chapin. W. 11. Vickers. L. T. Short. W. B.
Dayis. J. W.
Hickey. D. '\' .••Tr. Wood, J. E., Jr. Bottoms. M. Cooper. H. B., Jr. :!\fellnik. S. 11.
Jones:R. C. 1ST LIEl:TEXAXTS Brumfiel, O. liT. McCormick, J. W. Cory. 1. 'V. Smith. R. A. (Cay.)
Holder, W. G. WoUe. Y.H. Gilman. S. I.
Krueger, R. H. "Taternlan. B. R 71st COAST ARTIL- (Inf.) Hillberg, L. J. 2n LIEl'TEXA"T"
Greenlee. H. Roo Jr. LERY Carlisle. W. H.
:!\fItehell. E. C. Russell. )L R.
F o rt St ory, V a.
('APTAIX. Wilson. A. E.
)IcGoldri<'k. F. :\1. Bullene, L. R. Steele, J. C. Rosenstoek. E. S.
Dayharsh. T. J. 1Iorgan, J. B. Ash,,'orth. E. T. Dayis, P. C.
Young. G. E. 'EI Thompson, E. B. (T>.
Weitzel. G. J. .I ,IEUTEXANT C OLO" , S. P.C. Dept.) Waugh. W'. H., Jr . Dayis, J. H .. Jr.
R8~mUSRe-ll. K. E. Hall, L. A. HlUman. D. D. Gurley, F. K. Zeller, F. J.
Allison, P. W. (P.A.) Fort Frank, P. I.
CAPTAINS Cochran ••T. )f.
l~T LIEr'TEXA~T:' Cleverly. R. deF. Timberlake, E. 'V. CAPTAIX
Gamble. A. S. (Jnf.) Johnson. H. O.
Donnell)'. H. C. Hig-gins. H. D. Spalding. A. C. Gamber. J. F. East. J. C.
Porter. G. l'. Horton. 'Ym. F. Ed",a]',l •• P. \V.
Lennhoff. C. D. T.
Hale. H. R. Ratf's. R. H. CAPTAIX~ Odom. H. R. 2D LIEI'TEXA"T
Kinard. W'm. H .. Jr. Elias. P. Biswanger. C. T .. Jr.
Fernstrom.C. H. lIIeXiekle, S. P. (Inf.) Lehr, P. H.
Wilkins. G. R. 69th COAST ARTIL- HempBtead. E. B. 1fackin. R. X .. ITI
Monmow. O. A. LERY Hincke, J. I. 11iner. R. E. 92d COAST ARTIL-
Paddock. J. W. (Inf.) 1 ~T LIEI'TEXAXTS
Fort Crockett, Texas Green. C. E. LERY (P.S.)
1ST LIEl'TEXAXTS 76th COAST ARTIL- Fort Mills, P. I.
2n LIErTF.XAXT~ Logan, \Ym. B. LERY
C'OLOXEIJ Neier, T. D.
Eaton. G. P. Long-ino. O. H. Sommer.A. Fort Bragg, N. C. COI,OXEL
Eyan!-=:.• T. C. 2D LIEl'TE"AXTS
Nelson, R.11. Schrader. J. R ... Jr. LIErTExAxT ('OLOXEI. Cottrell. J. F.
~mith. V. ('. )lAJOR~
Hoffman. T. h, Jr. :Megiea.::I1. G. Pieree. H. R.
Darrell. R. H. (Cay.) 2n LIELTEXAXTS Pulliam. C. C. LIELTENAXT C'Ol.OXEl.
O'Brien. J. A. Robin~on. J. S. Freund. J. F. ~fAJOR" ::Ilartin. J. B.
Xanney. D. Y.
Delane~'. R. J. Cochran. H. :\1eC .. III :\Iahone~', 'Vm. C., Jr. White. L. A.
Fling. '\'m. J.
1Ivrah. H. H. Richards. A. P. Sulliyan. A. P. :MAJOR~
66th COAST ARTIL- Green, G. D.
LERY (1st Bn.)
Borinquen Field, P. R.
Pitzer. J. H.
Renno. J. G.
1fcFaddl'n. ,Yo C. 72d COAST ARTIL-
Fort Kobbe, C. Z. CAPTAI~~
Berliner. S.
iP S,)
E. (P.S.)
LERY CAPTAIX LewiR. H. du'''.
C.\PTAIX;::: CAPT ..\IX8 Fort Randolph, C, Z. Thompson, :\1. R. Town~end. H. F. 1ST LIELTEXA"T~
~ferkle. E. A. Partin. C. L. Haryey. T. H.
~h'Kee. W. F. Benz. H. T. COI.OXEI.J 2D LIEl'TEXAXT Crawford. G. H.
~fortimer. J. E. ~pwmall. n. Ke,"ler. R. H.
Oldfield. H. R. )Iedinnis, C. L. P. Bogart. F. A. Ball, 'Vm.H.
Dem.-::on.P. B. Cheal. R. C,
l:-:T LIEl"'TESAXT~ 1IAJORS Post of Corozal, C. Z. 21) LIEt'TEXA"T~
Totten. R.
Srh ,,'eidel. K. R.
Turner. H. F.
l:-:;T Ln~rTgXAXT~
'Yilliams. R. L ... Jr.
:'.Teacll'.L. K.
Adams, X. L.
Archibald. H. G.
Stephens. J. ('.
Kappes. G.
D' Arezzo. A. J,
White. C. E.
Seofield. F. C. Fort Bragg, N. C.
~terle. P. Gregory. E. :\1. :\[adison. S. A.
(\~h'TJman.E. A. ~~';.fi~~d:~~\r' Gettys. C. \\'. CAPTAIX LIErTEXAXT COLOXEL Snoke. D. R.
nehl. W. E.H. Cooper. A. J ... Jr. Gower. A. '\'. Harwell. :\1. H. Thie!e. C.1L Farri~. R. C.


DEPARTMENT Rimmer. H. p, RO"B. R. X. MENT (Unassigned) Ostenherg. F. T. RONY. Wm, H.
(Unassigned) Witt. L.A. S]Jengler. ;T. T, H.
"!i: ~:
Gildar!. "'m. J,
Coontz. J. B.
Lederman. 11. D.
Bo~'d. H, R.
Craig, Wm. C.
1Ioore. G. F. 1ST LIEl'TEXAXTS Carnahan. G. D.
(:off .•J. L.~ Smith. P. E. Sanford. G. C. Diestel, C, J, Xorris. R. R.
~Ir('ormick. T. C. (F.A,)

f' }'T LIErTExAxT

Raumler". \\'. ,,,-
Arnold. H. H ... Jr.
)Ierehant. 11. H.
White. F.G.
Floyd. A.• J.
Kuzh'. :\1.. ;)"1',
Griffin. will. E.
::IIunford. T. '\',
Hampton. Wm. A.
E. En Jr,

C. R.
.. L.
Fraser. R. H.
arter. :'.1. S. LaRose. R. .T. Bennett. 'Vm. J. Smith. p, ::lIef'. :\lansfield, H. ". Harnett •.J. ~,
Cihotti. P. Roo.Tr, Spangler. R. S. Kolda. R. :\1.
Stine.s~, P. B.
HQ. RD. OF :MAJfiLA. BowlN" L.J. PHILIPPINE DEPART- l"T LIEt"TEX....XTS Wright. J. ::IIat'N.. Jr. 1ST LIEXTE.~~""~T
AND SUBIC BAYS 8mith.H.W. MENT (Unassigned) Lawlor. R. J. Britt, C. K- Peca. P. S. (Aide)
Fort :Mills, P. I. Bra ..... W. C. ::IIa>;;ello.Wm .••lr. Yate •.• 1. D.
McCullough. B. COLOXEI. :':l'henck. H. W. Cullen. A.J. PUERTO RICAN
BRI\.~.:\DIER (iE~E.RAL 8mith.J. W. IP':;.) Holt'omb\'. J. L. Somenille. E. C. DEPARTMENT
\YiI>on. \Y. K. Martelino. P. (P.s.) PUERTO RICAN DE- (Unassigned)
("OLOXEL DeCarre. O. Day ... T. W .• III San Juan., P. R. MAJOR
Pric\', F. A. 1:;'1'LIE1:TEXAXTS Cornwall. P. R. Phillips. T. R.
Moore. R. F. ::IHJOR Cooper. R. Ii. LIEl"TEX....XT COLOXEL 2n LIEl'TEXA::\TS
LIEI'TEX.~XT COLOXELEdL'ou, D. D. Biggs. L. ,Yo (Cav.) Pace. H. E.. Jr. Pitz. O. G. Ba~'erle. G.• T.. Jr.
Dalao. E. B. (P.s.) :':pengler, H. M. (Aide) Wheat. R. 1. 1[alone. A. G.
C'APTAIXS Sho.s.::II. L. ~HJOR Ferrill. H. B.
MAJORS Bo.worth. L. A. Simpson. H. T., Jr. {'onwa~', E. T.
Rntherford. D. J. Haggarty. R. F.
Rtillman, E. H.
Crews. L. R.


COMMANDANT STAFF INSTRUCTORS Lowry, P. P. )fadison. J. H. Bender, A. H.
Dennis. L. C. Merritt. \\'. B. McNamee. Wm. L.
Smith. F. H. NicholR, H. F. 'Yeeks, L. B. Anderson, S. ,Yo Yanderslui>, H. J.
(Asst. Com.) Robison, G. B. ::IIcNeel~',O. D. 1ST LIEl'TEXAXTS
::IIAJORS Foltz, C. G. ::IIorrison, D. E. {'APTAIXS Russell, S. C.
Ril'ker. G. ,Yo Lewis. P. 'Y. 8t~vens. v. (', Chace, E. N.
Low,,'. P. P. ::I[AJORS Hartman, X. E. Holcomb, C. W. Weld. S. L., Jr.
Anderson, S. W. Rieker, G. W. EnniR, A. 1. (A.C.) Chester, G. A.

Hocker, C. E. Towll>,end. J. R. Staft:
Staff Ostrom, C. D. Y. LlEt'TEXANT COLONEl, Handwerk.::If. C.
Carrington, G. Der" Badger, G. ::If. ::IIAJOR
Benitez, E. ~L


Ii Pllpral
Ab .•alom Baird {ienaal J. Franklin B,17 C'ablp.•hip Jouph Henry (fent>ral WiUiam Jf. {irahom
Fort H. G. Wril(ht. N. Y. Fort Amador, C. Z. Fort Hancock, N. J. Fort Sherman, C. Z.
Captain, N. A. McLamb 1st Lt. L. C. Ratcliffe ::Ilajor J. B. Carroll Captain J. J. Holst
(ipn,ral O. C'. Ord LiPId. ('07. E17n-lJ W. Sile .• anural John M. Schofiel'l ('01. Gpo F. E. Harrison
Fort HancocK, N. J. Fort Baker, Calif. Fort Monroe. Va. Fort )fillR, P. 1.
{'aptain E. F. Heidland ::Ifajor Samuel Rubin Captain \\'. B. Hawthorne 1st L!. J. ::IIdL Gulick


OFFICE, CHIEF OF ::Ifajor C. W. Higgins, Lt. Col. ~'. A. Hause, Lt. CoI. E. Villaret, ::IIajor F. J. Cunningham ::Ifajor J. H. RouRseau, Jr.
NATIONAL GUARD 242d (HD), 212th (AA). 260th (AA), 204th (AA), 217th (AA),
BUREAU Bridgeport, Conn. New York, N. Y. \\'ashington, D. C. 8hreyeport, La. St. Cloud, 1Hnn.
Lt. CoI. R. E. Phillips, ~Iajor R. N. ::Ifackin, 1[ajor ,Yo R. Goodrich, lIIajor F. C. lIfcConnell, Col. R. E. Guthrie,
Washington, D. C. 242d (HD), 212th (AA), 260th (AA), 202d (AA), 200th (AA)
Bridgeport, Conn. New York, N. Y. 'Vashington, D. C. Chicago, Ill. Sante Fe, N. ::If.
Lt. Col. J. P. Hogan
~Iajor A. V. Winton )fajor J. E. Reierson, It Col L C lIlitchell Lt. Col. J. D. Walbach, lIfajor R. 'V. lIfcBride, ~fa.ior G. F. Heane~'. Jr.
20Rth(AA), •....• ,
~Iajor P. W. Rntledge Hartford, Conn. 245th (HD), 252d (HD), 203d (AA), 200th (AA),
::IIajor R. T. George, Brookl~'n, N. Y. Wilmington, N. C. Carthage. ::110. Deming, N. ::If.
COAST ARTILLERY 243d (HD), Lt. CoI. J. "l.[acMulIen, Major W. D. Eyans, Lt. Col. K. lIlcCatt~', ::Ifa;or P. F. Biehl.
NATIONAL GUARD Providence, R. I. 245th (HD), 252d (HD), 203d C.A. (AA), 250th (TD),
REGIMENTS ::Ifajor E. Young, Brookl~'n, N. Y. Greensboro, N. C. Carthage, ::IIiss. San Franeil"eo, CaI.
Instructors 243d (HD), Lt. CoL A. D. Chipman, ::Ifajor H. S. Johnson, lIfajor A. L. Bullard, Lt. Col. W. E. Duvall,
Providence, R. I. 261st (HD), 263d (HD) & (AA). 206th (AA), 251st (AA).
)'fajor H. W. Lins ::Ifajor, J. L. Craig. Wilmington. Del. Columbia, S. C. Little Rock, Ark. San Diel(o. Cal.
240th (HD), 244th (TD), CoI. Allen Kimberly, ::IIajor G. A. Patrick, )fajor G. R. O,"{enf', ::Ifaior ,Yo F. ::Ifarquat,
Portland. Maine. XewYork, N. Y. 19Rth (AA), 263d (HD) & (AA), 206th (AA), 251st (AA).
::Ifajor V. ,Yo Hall, Lt. CoI. N. Dingley, nI, Wilmington, DeL Greenwood, S. C. Helena, Ark. Long Beach. Cal.
240th (HD). 209th (AA),
Rockland, ).faine Buffalo, New York. ::IIajor J. F. Cassidy, {,oL E. H. Thompson, CoI. '\'m. D. Frazer, Lt. Col. H. C. Dayis, .Tr.
)'fajor ,Yo H. Papenfoth, lIfajor K. P. Flagg, 198th (AA), 214th (AA), 215th (AA), 249th (HD) & (AAl.
197th (AA), 209th (AA), Wilmington. Del. 'Vashington, Ga. St. Paul, "l.finn. RaIE'm, Oregon.
Concord, N. H. Rochester, N. Y. ::IIajor H. H. Blackwell, lIfajor D. S. Ellerthorpe, ::I[ajor J. D. Brown, Lt. Col. K. Rowntree,
Lt. Col. H. R. Jackson Lt. CoL A. Bradshaw, Jr., 246th (HD), 214th (AA), 215th (AA), 249th (HD) & IAA),
241st (AA), 207th (AA), Roanoke, Va. ],farietta, Ga. St. Paul, lIIinn. Hale-ro. O'regon.
Boston. ~Iass. Xew York, N. Y. 1.1. Col. S. F. Hawkins, Lt. Col. E. O. Halbert, ::Ifajor C. L. Berr~', Capt. F. F. Rcheifller,
)'fajor J. G. Devine, ::Ifajor C. Forrest Wilson, 246th (HD). 265th (HD) &I (AA), 216th (AA), 248th (HD),
21lth (AA), 207th (AA), Lynchburg, Va. Jacksonville, Fla. ::Ifankato. ::\Iinn. Olympia, Wash.
Boston. )'Iass.
:\fajor P. R. Lowe, I. XC"i1ork.~. Y. Lt. CoI. C. J. Herzer, ::IIajor W. W. 'Vertz, lIfajor D. B. Herron. ::Ifajor '\'. H. 'Varren,
t. O •• D. rown, 213th (AA), 265th (HD) & (..1...1.), 216th (AA). 205th (A.\).
211th (HD),
Falmouth. Mass. ~~~,:\~;-:.-~. Y. Allentown, Penn. lIfiami, Fla. lIIankato, lIfinn. Reattle. '\'ash.
).faior R. E. De"l.ferritt, ::I[ajor A. D. Fisken, U. CoI. R. lIfelberg, I.!. CoL F. F. Gallagher, :M:aior J. B.lIIuir, Jr. ).[ajor L. D. Farnswortb
24ht (HD). 369th (AA), 213th (AA). 204th (AA). 217th (AA), 205th (AA),
Fall River. 1fass. Xew York. ~_ Y. Allentown, Penn. Rhreveport. La. St. Cloud, ::Ifinn. Reattle, '\' aRh.

1st CORPS AREA 1[ajor A. 'v. 'Yaldron, Col. T. M. Chase, 5th CORPS AREA 7th CORPS AREA 9th CORPS AREA
::Ifajor L.E. Rchoonmaker, XI'''' York, N. Y. Richmond, Va. )faior ,Yo R. ::IIaris, Col. George Ruhlen, Lt. {'ol. "L E. Rowland.
B01"ton. 1f a.c;::~. Co!. H. LeR. ::IIuller, 11ajor C. D. Hindle, Clewland, O. Omaha. Neh. Lt. Col. A. H. "'arren,
{'olonel L. P. Horsfall, Wilmington, De!. Pittsburgh, Pa. lIIajor C. R. Roberti;, ::I[aior H. A. "l.fc"l.forrow, 11aior C. R. Adams.
Hartford, Conn. Lt. Col. '\'. ::II.Cravens, Cincinnati. O. ::Ilinneapolis. ::Ifinn. San Frand:;::co. Ca1.
Lt. Col. E. C. Seaman, r..;('hene{'tad}.~ X. Y. 4th CORPS AREA lIIajor B. C. Dailey, Lt. Col. B. Bowering, Col. P. H. Herman.
Providence, R. 1. ::Ifaior A. L. Lavery, Col. Clifford Jones, Indianapolis, Ind. Topeka, Kan. ::IIaior "l.f.E. Conable.
Col. C. B. ::IIeyer, Buffalo, X. Y. Knox~lne. Tenn. 6th CORPS AREA },fajor lIL B. Gibson. Portland, Ore.
Portland. Me. Lt. Col. C. R. Jones, Lt. Col. R. T. GibRon, St. Louis. ::IIo. Col. P. D. Bunker.
3d CORPS AREA Atlanta, Ga. Chica~o, III. 1Iaior E. L. Supple, Col. J. H. Hood.
2d CORPS AREA Col. R. B. Cocroft, Lt. Col. E. H. Freeland, Co1. J. S. Dusenbury. Duluth, ::Ifinn. Los Angeles. Cal.
Col. A. Gilmor. Fort },fonroe. Va. Jack_onville. Fla. lIfajor F. W. Cook, I,t. Co1.'\'m. R. Stewart.
Col. C. W. Baird, CoL P. S. Gage, ::Ifaior C. A. Gillette. Lansinl!'. "l.fich. 8th CORPS AREA Seattle. 'Wash.
Lt. Col. W. C. Philadelphia. Pa. JacksoTI. )fis~i~sippi7 Col. C. D. Peirce, Col. O. C. Warner, 1faior L. Y. Hartman.
'Ya~hington, 1fajor F. L. Christian, :lofajor J. B. Hafer. ~fiIwaukee. Wi~c. San Antonio. Tex. Salt Lake City. nah
Col. F."l.L Green, WashiTilcton, D. C. Columbia. S. C. ::Ifajor A. W. Jones, lIfaior E. B. :loIcCarthy,
Detroit. ::Ifich. Den'\""er. Co].


University of Ma.ine, Orono, Maine Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta., Ga.. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, :Minn.
Lt. Col. J. C. Haw Lt. Co!. F. E. Gross Lt. Col. C. A. French

Mass&chusetts Institute of Technology, Athens High School, Athens, Georgia Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
Oambridge, Massachusetts Lt. Co!. A. A. Allen :\1"jor H. ,\\'. Coebran
Colonel C. T. :Marsh
Mississippi State Oollege, State College, Miss. Dever High School, Denver, Colorado
University of New Hampshire, Durham, N. H. :Major :M. Heilfron Lt. Co1. G. F, Humbert
Colonel E. K. Smith :Major C. P. Young
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas,
University of DelaWll.re, Newark, Delaware The Citadel, Charieston, S. C. College Station, Texas
:Major R. W. Argo Lt. Co!. Gooding Paekard :Major F. A. Hollingshead
:Major T. L. Waters ::Iiajor C. ?Ii. :Mendenhall. Jr.
Sacramento High School, Sacramento, Calif.
University of Clnci.nna.ti, Cincinnati, Ohio Lt. Col. D. B. Sanger
Fordham University, Fordham, New York Colonel E. \V. Putney
Lt. Col. J. S. Sm)'lie :Major W. H. Steward University of California., Berkeley, Calif.
:Major F. S. Swett
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.. University of Illinois, Ohampaign, Illinois
Colonel R. W. Wilson Lt. Co1. H. F. Grimm University of California., Los Angeles, Calif.
:Major D. C. Tredenniek :Major D. R. Xorris
Virginia. Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va.
Lt. Co1. J. H.'Coehran Michigan State College of Agriculture and University of San Francisco, San Francisco,
Lt. Col. W. S. Phillips Applied Science, East Lansing, Michigan California.
:Major J. T. Campbell Colonel Frank Drake
Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Va.. Kansas State College of Agriculture and Utah State Agricultural College, Logan, Utah
Lt. Co!. H. B. Holmes, Jr. Applied Science, Manhattan, Kansas Colonel ?l1. A. Cross
:\Iajor H. S. ::IIaeKirdy
University of Alabama., University, Alabama University of Washington, Seattle, Wllsh.
Colonel \Y. T. Carpenter University of Kansas., Lawrence, Kansas :\1ajor G. ,\\'. Ames
::IIajor \V. R. Carlson Colonel K. F. Baldwin ::IIajor T. R. Parker
?lIajor C. G. Riggs :Major A. )'i. Wilson, Jr.

GENERAL STAFF ht Lt. H. P. Van Ormer

('olonel Frank S. Clark •..................... G.S., \Vashington, D. C. 1st Lt. J. C. )'Ioore
Lt. Cot Harold F. Loomis ~, •~ •• 1st Lt. J. DuV. Stevens
Lt. Co!. La Rhett L. Stuart ' ,
Lt. Co1. William M. Goodman . RECRUITING DUTY
Lt. Co!. Wm. C. Foote . Colonel G. T. Perkins.
Major Homer Case . U. S. Arm3-- Recruiting OffiC{'1 San Frau('isro. California
::Ilajor Frank J. McSherr)' . Colonel Lewi;S Turtle,
«Federal Security Ageney) U. S. Arm)' Recruiting Offiee, Seattle, \\"ashington
Major Stanley R. Miekelsen . Colonel L. B. Magruder.
Major Cyrus' Q. Shelton ........•..........• 2nd Corps Area, GOyprnOTR I~land. X. Y.
~Iajor 'Walter L. Weible " . Colonel E. P. No)'es, .
Major Edward Barber ..................•... U. S. Army Reeruiting Offiee, Omaha. Xebraska
~Iajor Thomas J. Betts . Lt. Colonel A. C. Chesledon,
::Ilajor \Varren C. Rutter . U. S. Army Recruiting OffieE".De~ )rOine~1 Iowa
::Ilajor Xathaniel A. Burnell, 2d ...•........... Colonel Otto H. Sehrader,
U. S. Army Recruiting Offire. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
G. S. WITH TROOPS Lt. Colonel Carl J. Smith, •
('o!. Riehard Donovan, Hq. 8th Corps Area, Fort Sam Houston. Texas 'G. S. Army Recruiting Offiee. Xew York, Xew York
('01. Thomas C. Cook, Hq. 2d Corps Area, Governors Island, ~. Y.
Co!. Arthur G. Campbell, Hq. 8th Corps Area, Fort Sam Houston, Texas MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS
Col. 'Walter K. Dunn, Hq. Philipvine Division, Manila, P. 1. Colond Arthur L. Fuller,
Lt. Co!. Earl H. Metzger, Hq. 4th Corps Area, Atlanta, Ga. Civ. Component Affairs, Fort Ha)'es, ColumbnR, Ohio
Co!. Ralvh E. Haines, Hq. 1st Corps Area, Boston, Mass. Colonel John S. Pratt,
LI. ('o!. Joseph D. Brown, Hawaiian Department, Fort Shafter. T. H. Civ. Component Affairs. Fort Hhafter. Hawaii
::Ilajor 'William H. Donaldson, Jr., Hq. 7th Corps Area, Omaha, Xebr. Colonel F. A. ::I[ountford,
::Ilajor Frederic L. Hayden, Hq. 6th Corps Area, Chieago, Illinois S. P. Port of Embarkation, Fort ::IIaRon, California
::Ilajor Hobart Hewett, Hawaiian Dept., Fort Shafter, T. H. Lt. Col. Cyril A. '\V. Dawson.
Co!. John P. S. Smitb, Hq. 4th Corps Area, Atlanta, Ga. C. O. TroopR, r.S.A.T. RfJluhlir
('o!. George \V. Easterday, Hq. 3d Corps Area. Baltimore, :Md. Lt. Col. Robert 1f. Carswell,
~Iajor ,John H. 'Wilson, Hq. 9th CorpR Area, PreRidio of San Frandseo, Ca!. Offipe. ,Judge Advooate, Hq. Philippine Department
Lt. Co1. George R. 1feyer, Hq. Panama Canal Dept., Quarry HeightR, C. Z. Lt. Co1. William Saekyille,
('01. ,John T. H. O'Rear, Hq. Philipvine Dept., 1lanila. P. I. F. R. ::IIilitarv :MiRRion.Rio de ;Janeiro. Brazil
Lt. Col. CharIeR '\V. Bundy. Hq. Pnerto Riean Devt .. San Juan, P. R. )[ajor Walter J. Gilbert,
::Ilajor Paul B. Kelly, Hq. 8th Division, Camp Jaekson, R. C. )IeKinley High School, Honolulu, Hawaii
::Ifajor Joe D. 1fos.',
U. S. MILITARY ACADEMY Hq. Fonrth CorpR Area, Atlanta. Georgia
West Point, N. Y. Lt. Co1. LeRo)' Lutes.
Lt. Co1. J. C. Ruddell HQ. Third Army, P. O. Building. Atlanta, Georgia
Lt. Co1. C. H. Armstrong ::Ifajor Fenton G. Epling,
::Ilajor W. 1. Allen Air Defense Command. ::Ifitehel Field, ~ew York
~Iajor B, F. FellerR Captain Artbur B. XieholRon,
('R})taill"T. G. De-venl' Air DefenRe Command. ::Ifitehel Field. Xew York
::Ifajor '\VilIiam H. ;J. Dunham,
Captain "T. L. ::lIePherson
Captain F. A. :Mitchell Aide, Seventh Corps Area. Omaha, Xehraska
Ca]ltain A. Hopkins "'Iajor LeRter D. Flor)',
Captain A. T. Bowerl-' U. S. )'fiIitar'V ~fiRsion, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Captain A. R. Hartman lRt Lt. John J. Stark.
raPtain J. A. )'lcComse" Aide, Hq. First Corps Area. BORton, ::IfaRRachusetts
('aptain '\V. L. Riehardf;on
('aptain G. E. Keeler, Jr. Washington, D. C.
raplain L. K. Tarrant Colonel Charles HineR
Captain ),f. G. Pohl Lt. Co1. C. H. Tenney
1,t 1.1. A. C. Gay
1st Lt. D. B. Johnson ENGINEER BOARDS
1st Lt. R. C. Leslie IL Col. J. F. Kahle. Ordnanee Board. Aberdeen Proyin!!: Ground. ::IIar)'land
1st Lt. H. J. Jablonsh' "'fajor H. C. ?lfabbott. Engineer Board. Fort Belvoir. Virginia
ht 1.1. J. J. Lane •
ht Lt. J. E. )'Ietzler :MILITARY ATTACHES
1st Lt. C, G. Dunn
1st Lt. P. \V. Guiney, ;Jr. ::I[ajor V,. D. Hohenthal, American EmhasRY. Berlin. German)T
l<t Lt. C. L. Andre,;'s Cavtain Robin B. Pape. Care American Embassy. Tokio. ;Javan
ht 1.1. H. A. Gerhardt Captain ;John R. Lovell, American Embassy, Berlin, German)'
1,t Lt. S. F Giffin
l<t Lt. Y. H. King DETAILED I. G. D.
Ist Lt. T. V. StaTIon Colonel C. H. Patterson. Fourth Corps Area, Atlanta, Georl!:ia
l,t 1.1. R. A. Turner Colonel H. C. :Merriam, Hq. Sixth Corps Area. Chipae:o. IlIinoiR
Ist Lt. F. T. Berg Colond W. W. Hieks. Hawaiian Department, Fort Shafter. T. H.
ht Lt. H. W. Ebel Colonel W. ~f. Colvin. Hq. Seeond Corps Area. Goyernors Islaud. XewYork
1st Lt. R. G. Finkenaur Colonel Franklin Babeopk. Washington. D. C.
1st Lt. R. ::If. ::IIiuer Lt. Co1. Roy S. Atwood. Hq, FirFt Corps Area. Boston. :Massaehuselts
("""'aptain J. A. Saw'yer. Fort :Monmouth. Sew J€'rs€'y Dallas Ayiation School & Air Coll..g... Dallas. Texas
2nd Lt. J. :M..L. Ridg ..ll. Jr.
ASSIGNED TO DUTY WITH AIR CORPS Alabama Institutp. of Aeronautit"5'. 111t'n Tus.caloo~a. Ala.
2nd 1.1. C. W. Bagstad 2nd Lt. J. W. Ruebel
Alabama Institut .. of A..ronauti,.s. In .... Tus ..aloosa. Ala. Allan IIaneock College of Aeronautics. Santa ~faria. Calif.
2nd Lt. A. B ..nwnuto 2nd Lt. R. A. Shagrin
Alabama InstituH> of A{>-rouauti("~. Ine .. TU5t:aloo:::.a.Ala. Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa. Ok~a.
2nd Lt. A. H. B..thnn .. 2nd Lt. F. S. Shawn
Allan Hancock Coll ..g.. of A..ronautics. Santa ~Iaria. Calif. Cal-Aero Training Corporation. Glendale. Calif.
2nd Lt. E. F. Black 2nd Lt. 1. H. Sh ..ar ..r
Dallas A',-iation School & Air Colleg ... Dallas. Texas Alabama Institute- of Al"ronauties. Inc-.. Tus.(,8Ioo~a. Ala.
2nd Lt. A. R. Brouss ..au 2nd Lt. T. K. Spen,'er
Dallas A',-iation School & Air Coll..g... Dallas. T ..xas Cal-Aero Training Corporation. Glemlale. ('alif.
2nd Lt. William E. Buck. Jr. 2nd Lt. ,,,. C. Stirling
Dallas A',-iation School 8= Air Coll..g... Dallas. T ..xas Alabama Institute of Aeronautics. Ineu Tu~("aloo$8. Ala.
2nd Lt. H. F. Bunz .. 2nd Lt. P. C. Stoddart
Cal-Aero Training Corporation, Glendale. Calif. Spartan School of Aeronautics. Tulsa. Okla.
2nd Lt. :M. B. Chandler 2nd Lt. J. B. Summ ..rs, Jr.
Alabama InstitutE" of Aeronautics. IDe .. Tuscaloosa. Ala. Alabama Institute of Aeronautics. Ine., Tuscaloosa. Ala.
2nd Lt. :M. Clok .. 2nd Lt. L. E. Svmroski
Cal-A ..ro Training Corporation. Glendale. Calif. Spartan S'chool of Aeronautics. Tulsa. Okla.
2nd Lt. J. :M. Cole 2nd Lt. F. B. Wagn ..r
Allan Hancock Colleg .. of Aeronautics. Santa :Maria. Calif. Alabama Institute of AeronautiC's. Inc., Tuscaloosa. Ala.
2nd Lt. 'Villiam F. Col..man 2nd Lt. R. H. 'Warren
Alabama Institut .. of A..ronautics. Inc .. Tuscaloosa. Ala. Alabama Institute of Aeronautics 1Inc .. Tuscaloo~a. Ala.
2nd 1,1. J. P. D\'Q'er 2nd Lt. C. H. W..bb, Jr.
Spartau School of A..ronautics. Tulsa. Okla. Cal-A ..ro Training Corporation, Glendale. Calif.
2nd Lt. J. J. Eaton 2nd Lt. S. T. Willis, Jr.
Alabama Institut .. of Aeronauti ..s. In .... Tuscaloosa. Ala. Dallas Ayiation School & Air Coneg .., Dallas. T ..xas
2nd Lt. D. B. Ellis 2nd Lt. H. T. Wright
Alabama Institute- of Aeronautie<;::. 1n(".. TUl'.ealoo~a. Ala. CaJ-..\..ro Training Corporation, Gl..ndal ... Calif.
2nd Lt. A. T. Frontczak
Allan Hanco ..k College of Aeronautics. Santa Maria, Calif. DETAILED ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT
2nd Lt. C. E. Gushurst Captain A. P. Taber. Selfridge Field, :Michigan
Ryan S..hool of Aeronautics. Ltd .. San Di ..go, Calif. 1st Lt. Edward Bodeau, GHQ Air Fore ... Mitchel Field, X ..w York
2nd Lt. E. H. Hendrickson 1st Lt. E. H. Kibler, Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Spartan S..hool of Aeronauti ..s, Tulsa, Okla. 1st Lt. A. J. Stuart, Jr., Picatinny Arsenal, Doyer, Sew Jerse~-
2nd Lt. A. B. Hu/\,h ..s. Jr. 1st Lt. F. J. lIfc:Morrow, Wright Fi ..ld, Dayton, Ohio
Dallas Ayiation School & Air College. Dallas. Texas 1st 1.1. F. Kemble, Jr .• Springfield Armory, Springfield, :Mass.
2nd Lt. 'Villiam R. Kintn ..r 1st Lt. J. O. Baker, Aberde ..n Proving Ground, Maryland
Ala hama Institute of A..ronauti ..s, In .... Tus ..aloosa. Ala. 1st Lt. R. A. Pillivant, Springfield Armory, Spriugfield, Mass.
2nd Lt. M. C. B. Klunk 1st Lt. S. R. B ..yma, Leland Stanford University, Stanford "Cniversit,'. eal
Spartan S..hool of Aeronauti ... , Tulsa. Okla. 1st Lt. J. F. Thorlin. 'Vat ..rtown Arsenal, Massachusetts
2nd Lt. A. J. Knight 1st Lt. C. A. Cozart, Raritan Arsenal, Metuchen, New Jerse,'
Cal.A ..ro Trainin/\, Corporation. Glendal<>. Calif. 1st 1.1. F. L. Furphy, Mitch ..l Field, New York
2nd Lt. P. C. Loofhurro1\' 1st IL C. L. R ..gister, '\'atertown Arsenal, Massachusetts
Alabama Institutt' of Apronautir~. Ine .. Tm:.('aloo~a. Ala. 1st Lt. E. ~r.Lee. Hawaiian Department, Fort Shafter, T. H.
2nd Lt. T. F. ~ransfield 1st Lt. Henr,' J. Katz, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Cal-A ..ro Training Corporation. Glendale, Calif.
2nd Lt. J. B. ~f ..Afee
Alahama Institute of A..ronauti ..s. Inc .• Tuscaloosa. Ala. DETAILED FINANCE DEPARTMENT
2nd Lt. A. A lIfcCartan ~rajor C. S. Denny, Fort Ja~'. New York
Cal.A ..ro Training Corporation. Glendale, Calif.
2nd Lt. R. L. ~rcK ..nn ..y DETAILED J. A. G. D.
Dallas Ayiation School & Air College, Dallas, Texas Captain J. \\". HUYSSOOll,
2nd Lt. B. E. ~rcKenzie Office, Judge Advocat .. General, 'Vashington, D. C.
Lincoln Airplane &. Fl,'ing School. Lincoln. Xehr. 1st Lt. C. J. Hauck. Jr ..
2nd Lt. T. H. ~ruller Office. Judge Advocate Gen ..ral, '\'ashington, D. C.
Dallas Ayiation School & Air Colleg ... Dallas. T ..xas 1st Lt. C. R. Bard.
2nd 1,1. E. A. Murphy. Jr. University of Virginia. Charlottesville. Virginia
R,'an School of Aeronautics. Ltd .. San Diego. Calif. 1st Lt. F. P. Corbin. Jr ..
2nd 1,1. R. 'V. Nelson, Jr. Columbia UniYersit~.,., New York
Allan Hancock Colle/\,,, of Aeronautics. Santa Maria. Calif.
Spartan School of Aeronautics. Tulsa. Okla. 1Ilajor G. B. And ..rson, New York Cit,'
2nd Lt. 1IL E. Parker (1aptain A. R. Thoma~, Fort BarraueRR. Fla.
Ca1-Apro Training- Corporation. Glendale, Calif. Captain A. 'V. Seh ..rmacher. Fort Robinson, N ..braska
2nd Lt. .r. .r. Pidg ..on Captain Leif X eprud, Fort Clark. Texas
Alla11 Fa'H'ock College of A..ronautics. Santa ::IIari... ('alif.
2nd Lt. H. B. Pillsbur,-
Dalla" Aviation School & Air College. Dallas. T ..xas
2nd Lt. ",,'m. L. Port .. Colonel J. B. ::Ila~'nard, Hq. Eighth Corps Area. Fort Sam Houston. T,'sa.
Alallsma In~titlltE' of Aprousutic<;;(, Inc .. TUf'raloof'a. _ila.
Rpartan Rehool of .\ ..ronautics. Tulsa. Okla. Colon ..l Rohert Arthur

Section 2. National Guard Personner

*It had been intended to publish a complete list of all Coast edition of The Official National Guard Register makes this unneces.
Artillery National Guard officers in this number of The JOURNAL. sary. We are showing the commanding officersof all National Guard
However, the publication within the past three weeks of a new Coast Artillery units.

Brig. Gen. 'Villiam Ottmann (CG not )'et designated)
120 'Vest 62d ::;tr..et Armol"'\"'
"ew York. X. Y. 6th St: & Exchang .. Place
St. Paul. ~Iinn .."ota


Colonel Albert E. Colburn Colonel Charles G. Sage Colonel Rav E. ",,'atson Colon ..l Edward C. Dohm
State Armorv State Armor\'" Stat .. Armor~' R05 W. Fifth A venue
Concord, Xe,\" Hampshirp Deming~ Xe\~"::Mexico " ..bb City. ::IIissouri Ol,'mpia. Washington

Colonel Grorge J. Schulz Colonel Charles C. Dawes Colonel J. Fair Hardin Colou ..l Elgan C. Robertson
State Armory 5917 Broadwa'\"" Hiate Armor,. State Armory
'Vilmington.' Delaware Chicago, Illinois Rhr.pyel'ort. Loui,iana )farianna. A••frkan~as
;~1th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 215th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 24,ith COAST ARTILLERY (Tn) Armory. Balboa Park
Colonel Ralph C. Tobin Colon ..1 I'I"an Bow ..n ('o'onel Maleolm 'W. For ..t' San Diego. California
ti-i3 Park ~.\:~'-enue ~tatP Armon- 125 W ..,t 14th Str ....t
St'w York. X. y_ :\Iankato. ::\Ifnnesota X ..\\' York. X. Y. 252d COAST ARTILLERY (TD)
Colon ..1 Row .. S. :\f..CI..Iland
Lt. C-olonel Louis S. Tra ..y Colon ..1 Donald B. Robin,on ('olonel (,harl ..s S. GI..im 'Yilmington. Xorth Carolina
~tatf~ Armory Armory. 6th St. & Exehang .. PI. Armory
Hartford. C-onn....ti ..ut 8t. Paul. Minnesota 8umnf'or & Jeffers:on A~enues 260th COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
Brooklyn. X..\\' York
;09th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 217th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Colon ..1 "-alt ..r ,,_ Burns
(CO not yet d ..,ignated) 246th COAST ARTILLERY (ED) Sational Guard Armory
,So C-. O. y..t d ..signated}
s,tat(l- Armory '\'a.hington. D. C.
State Armor\" Colonel Alonzo E. ,V nod
Buffalo. X ..,,: York St. Cloud. ),Iinn ..,ota State Armory
L~'nehburg. 'virginia 261st COAST ARTILLERY (HD)
mth COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 240th COAST ARTILLERY (HD) :\fajor H ..nry K. Roseo ... Jr.
('olon ..1 Stuart G. Hall Colon ..1 G..org .. E. Fogg 248th COAST ARTILLERY (lID) Stat .. Armory
105 Arlington Street Milk Str ..et Armon )'lajor Robert W. Forbes Doyel". Dela,,'are
Bo~tonJ Massachusetts Portland, .Maine • }:;tate Armor'~
Olympia. 'Vashington 263d COAST ARTILLERY (HD)
;12th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 241st COAST ARTILLERY (HD) Colon ..1 Claud C. Smith
Colonel Edward E. Gau ..he Colon ..l 'Villiam D. Cottam 249th COAST ARTILLERY (HD) State Armory
120 West 62d Street .south Armor~~ Lt. Colon ..l Clifton ),I. Irwin Greenwood, South Carolina
Sew York, X. Y. Boston. 1Iassaehusetts Stat .. Armory
Sal ..m, Or ..gon 265th COAST ARTILLERY (lID)
Colon ..1 P ..rey L. 'Vall
Colon..1 Charles C. Curtis Colon ..1 Russ ..ll Y. :\foore 250th COAST ARTILLERY (TD) State Armor~~
State- Armory State Armory JaeksonYiII ..: Florida
Allentown, Penns;ylvunia Bridgeport, Conneetieut ('olonel Dayid P. Hardy
Armory. 14th and :\Ii~sion ~t~.
2Hth COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 243d COAST ARTILLERY (HD) ~Rn Fran('i~co. California 369th COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
Colon..l John E. Stoddard Colonel Earl C. 'Veb,ter Colonel Benjamin O. Dayj,
State Armorv (lranf:.ton Street Armory 251st COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 2366 Fifth Awnu ..
Washington: Georgia PrO'l"id..nee, Rhode Isla'nd ('olonel John H. Sh ..rman X ..w York. N. Y.

Section 3. Organized Reserve Personnel

(CG's not yet d ..,ignsted)
Xot Organiz ..d. Allott ..d to Post Offiee Building F ..d..ral Building 90 Chureh Street
Third Corps Ar ..a V.entura, California D ..troit, ;lIiehigan Xew York, X. Y.

Xot Organiz ..d. Allotted to 40 'V. Palisad .. A " ..nn .. 155 U. S. Court House F ..deral Building
Third Corps Area Englewood, Xew JprR(»~ St. Louis, 1\Ih~~ouri Charlott .., Korth Carolina
Xot Organiz ..d, Allott ..d to 510 Fed ..ral Building
90 (,hur ..h Rtreet Third Corps Ar ..a Pittsburgh, Pennf:,~~IYania Post Offie.. Building
Xew York. X. Y. vTentura, California
BRIGADE (AA) (RAI) Post Offiee Building F ..d..ral Building BRIGADE (TD)
414 Federal Building .Jackson, ~fisRiRf:.iplJi Indianapolis, Indiana Pare ..1 Post Building
Indianapolis, Indiana Ri('hmond, Virginia
BRIGADE (AA) (RA!) F ..deral Building
519 PO"t Offie.. Building
Post Offie.. Building Cin!'innati. Ohio DE'~ }Ioine~, Iowa
Columbia. South Carolina

(Ry) (RAI) (AA) (RA!) (AA) (RAI) Lt. ('olonel Albert B. Cox
Fort )f onroE', Yirginia Lt. Colonel Caldw ..lI Dumas Lt. Colon ..l H. '\-. P ..as .. PreRidio of Han Fral1ri:-:('o
exo ('. O. d..signaterl) 1076 P ..abody Awnue 428 Fed ..ral Building California
)fE'mphh~. TE';lnE'~}:flE' ~eattle. ,\- ashington
(Ry) (RA!) Colon ..1 Forrest E. Bak ..r
(AA) (RAI) Colon,,1 .T. B. B ..nn ..tt 1418 Post om....
~[ajor .\Ifred .\. Gunter Lt. ('olonel Frank R. ;'Ililler ~oo Cu~tom Hou~e Los Ang~l ..s. California
1011 Post Offiee Building 519 P""t Offie.. Buildin?: Philad ..lphia. P ..nn"~'l\'ania
Pitt~Jmrgh. Penn~ylYania Cincinnati. Ohio 521st COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
5llth COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Colonel .Janw~ E. Xe~tor
Hth COAST ARTILLERY 506th COAST ARTILLERY Colon,,1 Timoth~. A. R~.an Post ()fti" .. Buildin!'.'
(TD) (RAI) (AA) (RAr) 5:1fi Federal Bui1rlin~ Ea<;:t Oran.g-p, Xpw .It'r~f':r
Lt. Colonel J. C. H ..nderson ('olon ..1 Lineoln K .. \dkin' n..wlan(1. Ohio
"00 Cu-'tom Hou ... a 12 E. \'~iR("on~in AypJlu{> 523d COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
Philadelphia. P{>nlls~.lYania 513th COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
~IilwaukeE'. \\"h:eon,in Colonel Carl ~1. Heakin
Lt. Col. Fr ..d"riek ,Y. (TiIehrbt 1011 Po>t Om,'e Buildim:
502d COAST ARTILLERY 507th COAST ARTILLERY F ..d..ral Building Pitt~hur1;h. Pt.'nn:--ylvania
(4) (RAr) (AA) (RA!) Buffalo. X ..\\' York
('olon ..l Charl ..s H. E. Sehe ..r Lt. Colonel Haroltl E. PridE:' 514th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 524th COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
90 ('hureh Str ..et :rif; Post Ofti{.p Building'
Lt. Col. Xieholas E. D..wr"ll". Jr. 1...1. ('{)~mwl Charle'" ),1. BoYt--r
Xew York, X. Y. )!innpalJOli .....::\Iinnf'~ota ~ :{22 Fl:'llp:rlll _\UIWX •
243 ~tate gtT€,pt
:-:ehen-p(.tatly. Xew York _\tIullta. Georgia
Colonel Edwin A. Ziegler Colonel Jam£' ... ::::.Ervin Colon ..1 Rollert L. Cochran )fajor Cohert E. O'Conner
HIll Po ..t Offi('{> BuildiuO" 1011 Po>t Offie.. Buildin~ 1443 H Stre ..t
Pittf.fmrgh. Penn,,-)-Ivani; 43::3.)Ia:-:oniC' Temple Building
Pittsburg-h. Penn~ylvania- I...ineoIn. Xf"brao;;:ka Charle~ton. \\~e;.::tYil'ginia
Colonel Hunter C.,\Yhite Lt. Colonel Jame~ R. Waltman (AA) (RAI)
Lt. Colonel Jobn W. FINt'ber
FPderal Building 238 Post Office Annex 227 FPderal Building ::\Iajor E\'erard H. BON'kb
Detroit. )ficbigan Providence, Rhode Island .Ta{.ksonyille~ Florida 519 Po~t Office Buildin!!;
Cineinnati. Ohio -
(Information not available) Lt. Colonel A. X. ::IIurpbey
:Major Jam"" :M. ::\lozle~' First Xational Bank Bnilding (AA) (RAI)
749 r. S. Court House Post Office Builuing
Jaekson. Mississippi Oklahoma C'it~.• Oklahoma Lt. Colonel Rupert .\ .• \ndeTe~
8t. Louis. :Missouri 519 Post Office Building
601st COAST ARTILLERY (Ry) 626th COAST ARTILLERY Cineinnati. Ohio
(AA) (RAI) :Major Eugpne Y. Yigneron
Colonel Dinsmore Alter 945tb COAST ARTILLERY (ill
Lt. Colonel :M. W. Hawkins FPderal Building
Bridgeport. Connecticut 141$ Post Offiee Bnilding Lt. Colonel Edward ::\I. Howell
225 r. S. Court House FPderal Building
Los Angeles. California
Portland, Oregon Detroit. :Michigan
Colonel Cbarles Houston 627th COAST ARTILLERY
Lt. Colonel Cbarles 1. Clark 90 Cbureh Street
Xew York, X. Y. Lt. Colonel Lvle D. '\Vise Lt. Colonel Claude ::II. Cade
90 Cburcb Street Presidio of San Franciseo P. O. Box 624
Xew York, X, Y. California Lansing. ::IIicbigan
531st COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Colonel ,\Yilliam Dennen 951st COAST ARTILLERY
Colonel Howard W. Hodgkins /l00 Custom House (AA) (RAI)
252 LC. S. Court House Philadelpbia, Penns~'lvania r
Lt. Colonel Felix :M. sis
Presidio of San Francisco Lt. Colonel Sanford E. Chureh
Cbicago, Illinois 252 C. S. Court House
604th COAST ARTILLERY (Ry) California
Chicago, Illinois
532d COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Colonel Washington Bartlett
Lt. Colonel 'Walter H, Ogden 444 Federal Building 629th COAST ARTILLERY (liD) 955th COAST ARTILLERY (ill
Federal Building Salt Lake City. I'tab
::\Iajor R. C. Dunham Colonel Frank C. Tenney
Springfield. Illinois 225 C. ::l. Court House 217 Xew Federal BUilding
Portland, Oregon Dulutb. ::IIinnesota
533d COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Lt. Colonel Arthur J. ::Iloxfield
Lt. Colonel George A. Burden 1305 Post Office Building 630th COAST ARTILLERY 958th COAST ARTILLERY. (ill
90 Chuch Stre<>t Boston, ::Ilassaehusetts (HD) (RAI) Colonel Floyd C. Carl
New York. X. Y. ('olonel ,\\T. C. Bickford 749 1'. R. Court Hou~e
428 Federal Building St. Loui~. ::\Ii~souri
534th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Lt. Colonel '!erg-ne Chappelle Seattle, '\Yashington
Coionpi Henr~' 1. Ellerbee 90 Cbureh Rtreet 960th COAST ARTILLERY
Post Office Building Xew York. X. Y. 90lst COAST ARTILLERY (AA) (RAI)
Columbia. ~outh Carolina (AA) (RAI) ::Ifajor George E. Rose
Lt. Colone] Stanley G. Barker Federal Building
535th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Xot Organized. Allotted to Topeka. Kansa~
41 Brighton Road
Coionpi Bowman Elder Rerond CorpR Area ""'or('estp.r~ ?\.IassRehu8E"tt8
Federal Building 969th COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
Indianapolis, Indiana 614th COAST ARTILLERY 902d COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
(liD) (EAI) Colonel Jobn Perkins
::\[ajor Benjamin B. D'Ewart Federal Building
536th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Xot Organized. Allotted to 1a05 Post Offiee Building
First Corps Area San .Antonio. Tf'xa~
Lt. Colonel Stanley D. 'Wiggins Bo~ton. )'Ia~8achuf:E"tts
Federal Building
Detroit, ::\Iichigan 615tn COAST ARTILLERY (liD) 970th COAST ARTILLERY (ill
::\[ajor Robert B. Kelton Xot Organized. Allotted to
::Irajor Ralph A. Armstrong :::iN'ond Corps A rea
537th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 31a Federal Building
"Tilmington, DelawarE" Federal Building
Colonel Earl E. Howard Hartford. COllllE"etieut
375 POgt Offiee Building 972d COAST ARTILLERY
)'linllesllolis, :Mil1I1eRota 616th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) (EAI)
(AA) (RAI) Lt. Colonel F. F. Bell
538th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Xot Organized. Allotted to ::\fajor Albert '\Y. '\Vaterman 921 Ranta Fe Building
Lt. Col. Gwvnne G. ::IleCau,tland First Corps Area Post Office Building Dallas, Texas
Federal Buiiding Portland, ).fain€'
Topeka, Kan.sas 618th COAST ARTILLERY (liD)
::Ifajor Arthur L. Se]b~' 910th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) (RAI)
539th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Post Offiee Building (AA) (RAI)
Xot Organized. Allotted to
Elizabeth, Xew Jerse~' Lt. Colonel Clarenee E. Doll Sixth Corps Area
Xot Organized
Brookl~~nJ Xew York 90 Cburch Street
540th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Lt. Colone] Allison F. H. Seott (AA) (RAI)
90 Church Street 913tb COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
(Information not available) Xew York, X. Y. ::I[ajor EarlL. ::I!iekelRon
504 Post Office Building Lt. Colonel Robert R. Hendon Railwa~' };xebange Building
Jaekson ~Iississippi 2145 C Street, XW Deuyer, Colorado
J 620th COAST ARTILLERY (liD) Washington, D. C.
Lt. Colonel Allan B. Campfield
541st COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 90 Chur(.h I:;treet 916th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 975th COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
::Ilajor Collis P. Hud_on ~ew York, X. Y. Colonel Earl W. Tbomson Lt. Colonel Frank H. Holden
425 Post Office Building 313 Parcel Post Building 1418 Post Offiee Building
Lexington, Kentuek:r 621st COAST ARTILLERY Richmond, Virginia Los Angeles. California
(liD) (RAI)
542d COAST ARTILLERY (AA) Colonel Archibald E. Tanner 925th COAST ARTILLERY (AA) 976th COAST ARTILLERY (AA)
Colonel Gordon L. Carter 313 Federal Building Lt. Colonel Fred H. All Lt. Colonel Llovd E. Rolfe
233 Federal Building '\Vilmington, Delaware Federal Building 1418 Post Offiee Building
::\Ianchester, Xew Hampshire Jaeksonville, Florida Lo~ Angeles, California
Lt. Colonel Allvn D. Stoddard Colonel John B. Bentlev Colonel Robert L. Cole Colonel Edward A. Evans
Federal Building 2145 C Street, ~W • 414 FPderal Bnilding 1418 Post Office Building
Hartford, Connecticut '\Vasbington, D. C. Columbus, Ohio Los Angeles. California
1. Oath of Enlistment
• and Citizenship
2. Army Regulations
3. Articles of \\7ar
4. Military Discipline and Courtesy
;. The \\7eapons of Infantry T bis book bas been com IIIetel)' rellised l1/ui
6. General Rules of Drill brougbt up to date. Everything in it is of
7. Drill: The Soldier \\7ithout Arms 1940 vintage. Moreover, it is written in lan-
Section I: Positions guage that the soldier understands. It tells
Section II: Steps and Marchings him in simple, conversational language what
8. Drill: The Soldier W'ith Arms he wants to know.
Section 1: General Fully illustrated and well-indexed, it gives
Section II: Manual of Arms for the Rifle
the soldier a convenient and compact source
Section III: Carrying the Automatic Rifle
Section IV: Manual of the Pistol of information that he could only procure by
9. Drill: The Squad lugging around pounds of scattered pam-
10. Extended Order: The Squad phlets. It qualifies the soldier to perform his
11. Signals duties and helps to prepare him for the re-
Section I: General sponsibilities of promotion.
Section II: W'histle Signals In addition to the revisions and editing,
Section III: General Arm-and-Hand Sig- new sections have been added. In every in-
stance the text is based on instructional matter
Section IV: Additional Arm-and-Hand Sig-
nals for \X'eapons Units contained in various official documents of the
Section V: Arm-and-Hand Signals for latest date. Yes, the new drill is included.
Motor Vehicles The JOURNAL is now equipped to pre-
12. The Infantry Pack pare special regimental editions of the Hand-
13. Display of Equipment, Foot Troops book. National Guard and Regular regiments
14. Interior Guard Duty should investigate the morale-building possi-
1;. Cover Against Fire bilities of a special regimental edition. \\7e
16. Protection Against Gas shall be glad to discuss prices and details.
17. The Scout Check over the chapter headings and see
18. The Messenger the value of this big fifty-cent Handbook.
19. The Observer
Convenient pocket size
20. The Compass
21. Rations Illustrated
22. The Use of Maps SINGLE COPIES: ;Oc postpaid
23. Insignia Substantial discounts on qUlintit)' orders
Section 1: Insignia of Rank and Service

Section II: Insignia of the Arms and Serv-
24. Clothing
Section I: Cloching Allowances
Section II: Care of Uniforms and Clothing
2;. Equipment
26. First Aid
Coast Artillery Journal
27. Care of the Feet 111; SeventeenthStreet, N. \\7.
28. Personal Hygiene \\7 ASHINGTON, D. C.

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