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U.S. DURUM
Wheat
Regional Quality Report
U.S. DURUM
Wheat Montana North Dakota

5-8 9-10 11-13


Grading & Kernel Milling Pasta
Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics

14 15 16
Summary Export Cargo Laboratory
Information Sampling Analysis

16-17 18-22 23
Methods, Terms Varietal Handling &
and Symbols Information Transportation

Montana North Dakota

making premium pasta


Durumis the hardest of all classes. Also unique to durum is its holes, to create hundreds of differ-
wheats. Its density, combined with yellow endosperm, which gives pasta ent shapes.
its high protein content and gluten its golden hue and the best color for
Durum production is geographically
strength, make durum the wheat couscous.
concentrated to the Northern Plains
of choice for producing premium When durum is milled, the endo- because it demands a special agro-
pasta and couscous products. sperm is ground into a granular nomic environment. In most years,
Pasta made from durum is firm with product called semolina. A mixture the states of North Dakota and
consistent cooking quality. Durum of water and semolina forms a stiff Montana produce 80 percent of the
kernels are amber-colored and dough. Pasta dough is then forced U.S. durum crop.
larger than those of other wheat through dies, or metal discs with

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 3
Montana North Dakota

2016 overview Production 2011-15


Data 2016 2015 Average
The 2016 durum crop in Montana are higher than average
MILLION BUSHELS
and North Dakota is the largest in portions of the crop,
since 2000 and nearly 50 percent averaging 0.9 percent, Montana 31.4 18.8 14.7
larger than 2015 due to record compared to zero for a North Dakota 58.3 42.5 32.2
yields and a one-third increase in five-year average, as part U.S. Total 104 84.0 65.0
planted area. The crop averages of the increased durum MILLION METRIC TON
No. 1 Hard Amber Durum with acres in 2016 came from
Montana 0.85 0.51 0.40
grade parameters that are very ground previously planted
similar to 2015. The crop benefited to hard red spring wheat. North Dakota 1.59 1.16 0.88
from mostly dry conditions for the The mostly dry harvest U.S. Total 2.83 2.29 1.77
bulk of the harvest, although sig- secured a low moisture
Source: USDA 2016 Small Grains Summary

nificant differences in moisture and crop, just 11.4 percent,


disease pressure during the last age DON is 1.0 ppm, based on
and a sound crop with an average samples collected in the survey,
half of the growing season resulted falling number of 423 seconds.
in a big difference in DON levels up from 2015 levels, but below the
Sixty percent of the crop is above five-year average of 1.2 ppm. In
in some of the northern growing 400 seconds, and only two percent
regions. Functional performance the most impacted regions, DON is
below 300 seconds. Protein levels a significant marketing challenge
is very similar to the 2015 crop for are slightly lower, as expected
milling and pasta processing quali- and may be higher than this survey
with a record yield, averaging 13.4 reflects in some areas. Although
ties. percent (12% moisture basis). many producers applied fungi-
Eighty-six percent of the crop is This compares to 13.9 percent last cides to control Fusarium disease
#2 grade or higher, compared year and 13.6 percent for a five- at flowering time, preserving yield
to ninety percent in 2015. Spe- year average. A wider than normal potential and kernel development,
cific kernel factors that are strong difference in protein exists across ongoing high humidity levels during
features in 2016 include an above the region due to vast differences kernel fill favored late DON devel-
average test weight of 61.2 lbs/ in growing season moisture. Still, opment. On a positive note, lab
bu (79.7 kg/hl), average damaged distributions show seventy percent testing of semolina from the survey
kernels of just 0.4 percent and of the crop exceeds the industry samples shows very minimal levels
an average vitreous kernel level standard specification level of 13 of DON, indicating much of the
of 90 percent. The portion of the percent. DON in the 2016 crop may be on
crop with greater than 90 percent Fusarium Head Blight disease the outside of the kernel.
vitreous kernels, is lower than pressures were prevalent across
2015 however, due to sporadic Milling performance, based on a
northern North Dakota into north- Buhler laboratory mill, reveals a
late harvest rains, and pockets of east Montana, but non-existent
lower protein. Contrasting classes significant jump in total extrac-
in other regions. The crop aver- tion, averaging 73.6 percent, and
semolina extraction, averaging
Approximate Share of
67.9 percent. These are both
Regional Production by Crop Reporting Area three percentage points above
the five-year average. Part of the
A B A B C increase can be attributed to the
3% 29% 48% 6% 2% replacement of all purifier screens
on the lab mill. The milled product
D
is reflecting higher ash levels, 0.71
12%
percent compared to 0.64 percent
in 2015, and a higher speck count.
North Dakota Wet gluten values for the crop are
Montana at 32.4 percent, well below 37 per-

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 4
Montana North Dakota

cent last year and 35.4 percent for lower protein crop with lower color significant impact on price values.
the five-year average. The aver- scores, a slight increase in cook- End-use performance of the crop is
age gluten index of 60.8 percent ing loss and slightly lower cooked strong for milling yields and semo-
is up from 2015 and the five-year firmness values compared to last lina color, but somewhat lower than
level. year and the five-year average. the five-year average for cooking
Semolina properties show very Buyers will find larger supplies but qualities. Good supplies of high
high color scores with a b value a somewhat diverse quality mix milling quality durum are available,
of 30.3. Mixing properties are in the 2016 crop. Grade factors but buyers are encouraged to use
similar to 2015 and slightly weaker remain high across a broad part of diligent contract specifications,
than the five-year average. Evalu- the region, but protein content, vit- especially for DON, as levels do
ation of the cooked spaghetti, reous kernel levels and DON are not always correlate with grade
reflects some impact from the factors that vary and will have a parameters.

seasonal conditions

Planting of the northern durum


crop got off to a slow start in
April, but was in full force by Emergence and crop development
May and finished well ahead of were well ahead of the average Harvest began in mid August with
average by the end of the month. pace. Timely precipitation was the bulk of the crop harvested by
Producers experienced mostly received in northern producing ar- the end of September. Sporadic
favorable conditions with little to eas of North Dakota and Montana, rains delayed harvest at times,
no rain delays. Soil moisture was promoting yield potential. Dis- primarily in the north, but progress
generally adequate although some ease pressures were greater than remained ahead of the average.
areas became short on moisture normal in this part of the region. The first half of the harvest came
by early June. Producers applied fungicides at off under dry conditions with little
flowering but high humidity in July to no quality impacts. The second
kept disease threats high through half of the harvest was hit with
kernel development. Producers in rain delays and increased quality
southern North Dakota struggled concerns due to disease pressures
with below average moisture for a during the growing season.
large portion of the growing sea-
DURUM PLANTING PROGRESS son, impacting yield potential but DURUM HARVEST PROGRESS
2016 Avg. eliminating disease threats and 8/28/16 55%
2016 Avg.
4/24/16 6% 5 Yr. Avg.
5 Yr. Avg. accelerating crop maturity.
5/1/16 11% 9/4/16 69%
5/8/16 32% 9/11/16 77%
5/15/16 68% 9/18/16 85%
5/22/16 83% 9/25/16 92%
5/29/16 10/3/16 95%
94%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Percent

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 5
Montana North Dakota

wheat Characteristics
WHEAT GRADES as defined by the Federal Grain
Inspection Service (FGIS) of the USDA Grain
Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration
(GIPSA), reflect the general quality and condition of
a representative sample. U.S. grades are based on U.S. Grades
test weight and include limits on damaged kernels, GRADING FACTORS 1 2 3 4 5
foreign material, shrunken and broken kernels, and DURUM - MINIMUM TEST WEIGHTS
wheat of contrasting classes. Each determination Pounds per bushel 60.0 58.0 56.0 54.1 51.0
is made on the basis of the grain when free from Kilograms per hectoliter 78.2 75.6 73.0 70.4 66.5
dockage and shrunken and broken kernels. MAXIMUM PERCENT LIMITS OF:

Subclass is a separate marketing factor based Damaged kernels

on the weight percentage of kernels with a com- Heat (part of total) 0.2 0.2 0.5 1.0 3.0
Total 2.0 4.0 7.0 10.0 15.0
plete, hard and vitreous endosperm, the portion that
Foreign material 0.4 0.7 1.3 3.0 5.0
makes semolina. For durum wheat the subclasses
Shrunken/broken kernels 3.0 5.0 8.0 12.0 20.0
are:
Total 1 3.0 5.0 8.0 12.0 20.0
Hard Amber Durum (HAD)at least 75 percent Wheat of other classes 2
or more hard, vitreous kernels; Contrasting classes 1.0 2.0 3.0 10.0 10.0

Amber Durum (AD) between 60 and 74 per- Total 3 3.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

cent hard, vitreous kernels; Stones 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
MAXIMUM COUNT LIMITS OF:
Durum (D)less than 60 percent hard, vitreous Other material
kernels. Animal filth 1 1 1 1 1
Castor beans 1 1 1 1 1
Crotalaria seeds 2 2 2 2 2
Glass 0 0 0 0 0
Stones 3 3 3 3 3
Unknown foreign material 3 3 3 3 3
Total 4 4 4 4 4 4
Insect-damaged kernels 31 31 31 31 31

U.S. sample grade is wheat that:


a. Does not meet the requirements for U.S. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5; or
b. Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor
(except smut or garlic odor); or
c. is heating or of distinctly low quality.
1. Includes damaged kernels (total), foreign material, and
shrunken and broken kernels.
2. Unclassed wheat of any grade may contain not more than
10.0 percent of wheat of other classes.
3. Includes contrasting classes.
4. Includes any combination of animal filth, castor beans,
crotalaria seeds, glass, stones, or unknown foreign substance.

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 6
Montana North Dakota

wheat grading data


SHRUNKEN/
FOREIGN BROKEN TOTAL CONTRASTING VITREOUS
STATE AND CROP TEST WEIGHT DAMAGE MATERIAL KERNELS DEFECTS CLASSES U.S. KERNELS
REPORTING AREA LBS/BU KG/HL % % % % % GRADE %
MONTANA
Area A 60.5 78.8 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 1 HAD 96
Area B 61.4 80.0 0.2 0.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 1 HAD 93
State Avg. 2016 61.3 79.8 0.2 0.0 0.7 0.9 0.9 1 HAD 93
State Avg. 2015 60.5 78.8 0.1 0.0 1.2 1.3 0.1 1 HAD 95

NORTH DAKOTA
Area A 61.4 80.0 0.5 0.0 0.7 1.2 1.1 2 HAD 89
Area B 61.3 79.8 0.6 0.0 0.6 1.2 0.8 1 HAD 84
Area C 60.8 79.2 0.7 0.0 0.6 1.3 1.0 1 HAD 87
Area D 60.3 78.5 0.5 0.0 1.3 1.8 0.5 1 HAD 90
State Avg. 2016 61.2 79.7 0.5 0.0 0.8 1.3 1.0 1 HAD 88
State Avg. 2015 60.7 79.0 0.4 0.0 0.9 1.3 0.0 1 HAD 88

TWO-STATE REGION AVG


Avg. 2016 61.2 79.7 0.4 0.0 0.8 1.2 0.9 1 HAD 90
Avg. 2015 60.6 78.9 0.3 0.0 1.0 1.3 0.0 1 HAD 91
Five-Year Avg 60.2 78.3 0.4 0.0 1.1 1.5 0.0 1 HAD 85

GRADE TEST WEIGHT


REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
OTHER 3% lb/bu -56
1%
7% kg/hl -73 2% 2015 Avg. - 60.6 lbs/bu (78.9 kg/hl)
2016 Avg. - 61.2 lbs/bu (79.7 kg/hl)
3 HAD 7% 2015 Avg. grade - 1 HAD 56-57.9 5%
7% 2016 Avg. grade - 1 HAD 73-75.5 8%
1-2 AD
9% 58-59.9 28%
10% 75.8-78.0 25%
2 HAD 23% 60-61.9 46%
19% 78.1-80.6 45%
58% 62+ 20%
1 HAD 20%
57% 80.7+
0 10 20 30 40 50
0 20 40 60 80

AVERAGE TEST WEIGHT BY AREA lbs/bu


kg/hl
A A B C
B
60.5 61.4 61.3 60.8
61.4
78.8 80.0 79.8 79.2
80.0
D
60.3
78.5

North Dakota
Montana

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 7
Montana North Dakota

VITREOUS KERNEL AVERAGE VITREOUS KERNEL BY AREA


REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION (Percent)
Percent
-50 1% A B A B C
3% 2015 Avg. - 91 percent 96 93 89 84 87

50-59 0% 2016 Avg. - 90 percent


4% D
90
10%
60-74
11%
22% North Dakota
75-89
34%
Montana
90+ 67%
48%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

1000 KERNEL WEIGHT AVERAGE 1000 KERNEL WEIGHT BY AREA


REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
Grams
11% 2015 Avg.- 38.5 grams
(Grams)
-33.9 9% 2016 Avg.- 40.0 grams A A B C
B
17% 39.7 39.1 40.7 42.7 40.7
34-36.9
11%
D
28%
37-39.9 37.7
27%
40-42.9
29%
36% North Dakota
43+ 15%
17% Montana
0 10 20 30 40 50

PROTEIN - 12% MOISTURE


REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
AVERAGE PROTEIN BY AREA
Percent 12% Moisture Basis-Percent
-12
7% 2015 Avg. - 13.9 percent
2016 Avg. - 13.4 percent
7% A B A B C
17% 14.6 13.2 13.0 13.9 13.1
12-12.9
22%
13-13.9
32% D
31% 14.5
14-14.9
23%
27%
15+ 21% North Dakota
13%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Montana

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 8
Montana North Dakota

other kernel quality data


1000 Kernel Kernel
Kernel Dist. Dist. Protein Protein Wheat Falling Micro
STATE AND CROP Dockage Moisture Weight Medium Large (12% moisture) (0% moisture) DON Ash Number Sed
REPORTING AREA % % G % % % % (ppm) % (sec) (cc)
MONTANA
Area A 0.4 10.9 39.7 40 58 14.6 16.6 <0.25 1.64 499 65
Area B 0.3 11.1 39.1 49 47 13.2 15.0 <0.25 1.60 428 53
State Avg. 2016 0.3 11.1 29.2 48 49 13.4 15.2 <0.25 1.60 438 54
State Avg. 2015 1.0 10.4 36.3 59 37 14.6 16.6 <0.25 1.47 426 70

NORTH DAKOTA
Area A 0.2 11.6 40.7 43 53 13.0 14.8 1.3 1.62 408 54
Area B 0.1 11.8 42.7 33 64 13.9 15.8 1.8 1.67 426 56
Area C 0.1 12.4 40.7 36 62 13.1 14.9 4.5 1.68 397 42
Area D 0.1 10.8 37.7 52 44 14.5 16.5 <0.25 1.54 443 58
State Avg. 2016 0.2 11.6 40.5 43 54 13.4 15.2 1.5 1.62 415 54
State Avg. 2015 0.9 11.6 39.7 46 51 13.6 15.4 1.2 1.62 407 58

TWO STATE REGION


Avg. 2016 0.2 11.4 40.0 44 52 13.4 15.2 1.0 1.61 423 54
Avg. 2015 0.9 11.2 38.5 51 46 13.9 15.8 0.8 1.57 414 62
Five-Year Avg 1.0 11.6 38.9 44 51 13.6 15.5 1.2 1.61 370 52

FALLING NUMBER AVERAGE FALLING NUMBER BY AREA


REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
Seconds (Seconds)
-200 0% 2015 Avg. - 414 seconds
0% 2016 Avg. - 423 seconds A B A B C
499 428 408 426 397
201-300 2%
2% D
26% 443
301-400
39%
72%
400+ North Dakota
59%
Montana
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

AVERAGE DON BY AREA


(PPM)
A B A B C
<0.25 <0.25 1.3 1.8 4.5

D
<0.25

North Dakota
Montana

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 9
Montana North Dakota

milling characteristics
Total extraction repre-
sents the portion of the kernel that TOTAL EXTRACTION
can be milled into flour and semo- REGIONAL AVERAGE
lina. 2011 70.4%
Semolina extraction is the por- 2012 68.6%
tion milled into semolina only. 2013 70.3%
Ash content in the endo- 2014 70.4%
sperm of durum is inherently higher
2015 70.6%
than in the endosperm of other hard
wheats, but can still be used as a 2016 73.6%
65.0 67.5 70.0 72.5 75.0
relative measure of bran or mineral
Percent
content in the flour and semolina.
Specks appear in semolina SEMOLINA EXTRACTION
when small particles of bran or other REGIONAL AVERAGE
material escape the cleaning and 2011 64.5%
purifying process. Millers can control 2012 63.4%
speck count by selecting durum that 2013 65.2%
is free of disease and foreign mate- 2014 64.5%
rial, thoroughly cleaning the durum,
properly tempering and condition-
2015 65.1%
ing the wheat before milling, and by 2016 67.9%
60 62 64 66 68
using purifiers to remove small bran Percent
particles from the semolina.
Protein content in semoli- AVERAGE SEMOLINA EXTRACTION BY AREA
na has a high correlation with gluten (Percent)
content and, in turn, mechanical B
A B A C
strength and cooking quality. Wet 67.8 67.8 68.3
68.2 68.4
gluten is a quantitative measure of
the gluten forming proteins in semo- D
lina that are primarily responsible for 67.0
its mechanical strength and pasta
quality.
North Dakota
Mixogram curves reveal im-
portant information about the dough Montana
quality of semolina and ultimately
about the potential cooked firmness
ASH CONTENT
REGIONAL AVERAGE
of pasta. Mixograms are rated on
a scale of 1 to 8, with the higher 2011 0.66%
values indicating stronger mixing 2012 0.63%
characteristics. 2013 0.66%
2014 0.74%
2015 0.64%
2016 0.71%
0.60 0.63 0.66 0.69 0.72 0.75
Percent

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 10
Montana North Dakota

semolina quality data


SPECKS
TOTAL SEMOLINA NO/10 PROTEIN GLUTEN MIXOGRAM
STATE AND CROP EXTRACTION EXTRACTION ASH SQ IN (14% MOISTURE) WET GLUTEN INDEX CLASSIFICATION
REPORTING AREA % % % % % % % SCALE 1-8
MONTANA
Area A 72.6 68.2 0.74 23 14.1 35.8 87.0 7.0
Area B 73.7 68.4 0.70 30 12.6 32.9 58.0 5.0
State Avg. 2016 73.5 68.4 0.70 29 12.8 33.3 62.4 5.3
State Avg. 2015 70.2 65.1 0.64 20 13.3 38.8 57.7 5.3

NORTH DAKOTA
Area A 73.7 67.8 0.72 30 12.2 30.1 58.2 5.0
Area B 73.9 67.8 0.70 33 12.6 34.3 58.4 5.0
Area C 74.4 68.3 0.78 30 12.4 32.0 62.9 5.0
Area D 72.5 67.0 0.67 30 13.9 36.7 66.8 5.0
State Avg. 2016 73.6 67.7 0.71 30 12.5 31.9 59.9 5.0
State Avg. 2015 70.9 65.1 0.63 27 12.3 35.9 46.0 5.0

TWO-STATE REGION
Avg. 2016 73.6 67.9 0.71 30 12.6 32.4 60.8 5.1
Avg. 2015 70.6 65.1 0.64 24 12.7 37.0 50.2 5.1
Five-Year Avg 70.1 64.5 0.67 26 12.6 35.4 53.3 5.4

SEMOLINA PROTEIN WET GLUTEN


REGIONAL AVERAGE REGIONAL AVERAGE
2011 12.4% 2011 35.6%
2012 13.7% 2012 37.0%
2013 11.7% 2013 34.8%
2014 12.5% 2014 32.8%
2015 12.7% 2015 37.0%
2016 12.6% 2016 32.4%
11 12 13 14 15 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0
Percent Percent

MIXOGRAM CLASSIFICATION AVERAGE GLUTEN INDEX BY AREA


(SCALE 1 TO 8) REGIONAL AVERAGE (Percent)
A B A B C
2011 5.4 87.0 58.2 58.4 62.9
58.0
2012 5.6
2013 D
5.5 66.8
2014 5.5
2015 5.1
2016 North Dakota
5.1
5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 Montana

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 11
Montana North Dakota

pasta characteristics
Dry pasta processors want
a finished product that is visu- COLOR SCORE (SCALE 1 TO 12)
ally appealing, elastic and strong REGIONAL AVERAGE
enough to resist breakage during
cutting, packaging, handling and
2011 9.3
2012 9.5
shipping, able to withstand the rig-
ors of cooking, and satisfying to the 2013 8.6
consumer palate. 2014 8.8
Yellow color in semolina and pasta 2015 8.9
is a traditional, rather than func- 2016 8.5
tional, mark of quality. In the early 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0

AVERAGE COLOR SCORE BY AREA


(Scale of 1-12)
A B A B C
9.0 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.0

D
8.5

North Dakota
Montana

days of the pasta industry, before


sophisticated testing evolved, COOKED WEIGHT
consumers assumed that a yel- REGIONAL AVERAGE
low pasta was made from durum 2011 32.1
wheat, which is known to make 2012 31.3
pasta with superior cooking quality
compared to that made from other 2013 31.3
hard wheats. 2014 31.9
Most consumers prefer pasta that 2015 31.0
is al dente, meaning it has some
2016 31.0
firmness to the bite. Good quality 30 31 32 33
pasta that is cooked according to Grams

AVERAGE COOKED WEIGHT BY AREA


package directions should not be
sticky or mushy when eaten.
(Grams)
A B A B C
30.4 30.7 31.3 30.8 31.5

D
31.0

North Dakota
Montana

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 12
Montana North Dakota

semolina & spaghetti data


SPAGHETTI SPAGHETTI SPAGHETTI SPAGHETTI
SEMOLINA SEMOLINA SEMOLINA COLOR COOKED COOKING COOKED
STATE AND CROP COLOR L COLOR a COLOR b SCORE WEIGHT LOSS FIRMNESS
REPORTING AREA (black-white) (red-green) (yellow-blue) (1-12) G % G CM
MONTANA
Area A 83.8 -2.8 32.2 9.0 30.4 5.9 4.6
Area B 84.2 -2.8 30.1 8.5 30.7 6.0 4.3
State Avg. 2016 84.1 -2.8 30.4 8.6 30.7 6.0 4.3
State Avg. 2015 84.5 -3.1 30.3 9.0 31.1 5.5 4.6

NORTH DAKOTA
Area A 84.4 -2.9 30.4 8.5 31.3 6.5 4.0
Area B 84.5 -2.8 29.6 8.5 30.8 6.0 4.1
Area C 84.1 -2.5 28.1 8.0 31.5 6.5 4.0
Area D 84.5 -2.8 30.7 8.5 31.0 6.7 4.5
State Avg. 2016 84.4 -2.8 30.2 8.5 31.2 6.5 4.1
State Avg. 2015 84.3 -3.0 30.0 8.9 31.0 5.9 4.3

TWO-STATE REGION
Avg. 2016 84.3 -2.8 30.3 8.5 31.0 6.3 4.2
Avg. 2015 84.4 -3.1 30.1 8.9 31.0 5.8 4.4
Five-Year Avg 84.6 -3.2 29.0 9.0 31.5 6.2 4.6

COOKING LOSS
REGIONAL AVERAGE
2011 6.5%
2012 5.3%
2013 6.7%
2014 6.8% AVERAGE COOKING LOSS BY AREA
2015 5.8% (Percent)
2016 6.3% A B A B C
5.9 6.0 6.5 6.0 6.5
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0
Percent
D
6.7

North Dakota
Montana

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 13
Montana North Dakota

COOKED FIRMNESS
REGIONAL AVERAGE
2011 5.3
2012 5.1
2013
4.0
2014 4.2
2015 4.4
2016 4.2
3.00 3.75 4.50 5.25 6.00
grams cm
AVERAGE COOKED FIRMNESS BY AREA
(G CM)
A B A B C
4.6 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0

D
4.5

North Dakota
Montana

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 14
Montana North Dakota

average quality factors


Five-Year
2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 Average
GRADING AND WHEAT DATA
Test Weight (lbs/bu) 61.2 60.6 59.0 60.7 60.6 59.9 60.2
Test Weight (kg/hl) 79.7 78.9 76.8 79.0 78.9 78.0 78.3
Total Defects (%) 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.0 1.8 1.8 1.5
Vitreous Kernels (%) 90 91 74 85 89 88 85
Grade 1 HAD 1 HAD 2 AD 1 HAD 1 HAD 2 HAD 1 HAD
OTHER WHEAT DATA

Dockage (%) 0.2 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.0


Protein: 12% moisture 13.4 13.9 13.2 12.8 14.6 13.6 13.6
1000 Kernel Weight (gm) 40.0 38.5 38.0 44.1 36.9 36.6 38.9
Moisture (%) 11.4 11.2 12.4 12.1 10.5 11.6 11.6

DON 1.0 0.8 2.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2


Ash (%) 1.61 1.57 1.64 1.57 1.57 1.71 1.61
Falling Number (sec) 423 414 276 375 412 372 370
Sedimentation (cc) 54 62 60 46 49 43 52
SEMOLINA DATA
Total Extraction (%) 73.6 70.6 70.4 70.3 68.6 70.4 70.1
Semolina Extraction (%) 67.9 65.1 64.5 65.2 63.4 64.5 64.5
Ash (%) 0.71 0.64 0.74 0.66 0.63 0.66 0.67
Wet Gluten (%) 32.4 37.0 32.8 34.8 37.0 35.6 35.4
Specks (no/10 sq in) 30 24 26 26 23 31 26
Protein (%) 12.6 12.7 12.5 11.7 13.7 12.4 12.6
Gluten Index (%) 60.8 50.2 45.1 55.1 60.6 55.5 53.3
Mixograph Classification 5.1 5.1 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.4
Color: L (black-white) 84.3 84.4 84.9 84.6 85.0 84.6 84.6
a (red-green) -2.8 -3.1 -4.0 -3.2 -2.8 -2.7 -3.2
b (yellow-blue) 30.3 30.1 27.9 27.7 29.8 29.7 29.0
SPAGHETTI PROCESSING DATA
Color Score (scale of 1-12) 8.5 8.9 8.8 8.6 9.5 9.3 9.0
L (black-white) 53.5 54.5 53.5 56.4 55.5 55.2 55.0
b (yellow-blue) 26.4 27.3 26.6 27.4 27.5 27.3 27.2
Cooked Weight (gm) 31.0 31.0 31.9 31.3 31.3 32.1 31.5
Cooking Loss (%) 6.3 5.8 6.8 6.7 5.3 6.4 6.2
Cooked Firmness (g cm) 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.0 5.1 5.3 4.6

Semolina color performed on CIE color scale. Granulation size is approximately 40 percent above 425 microns
and 12 percent below 180 microns. Spaghetti color is performed on Hunter color scale.

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 15
Montana North Dakota

export cargo sampling


2015 2014 Data contained in previous sections of
SAMPLE COUNT (14) (36) this report are derived from the testing
GRADING AND WHEAT DATA of samples gathered during harvest from
Test Weight (lbs/bu) 60.6 60.0 origination points throughout the northern
Test Weight (kg/hl) 78.9 78.1 U.S. durum growing region. The results
Damaged Kernels (%) 3.2 4.3 provide an assessment of the overall
Foreign Material (%) 0.1 0.1 quality of the crop produced in a given
Shrunken & Broken (%) 1.4 1.4 year.
Total Defects (%) 4.7 5.7 U.S. Wheat Associates, the export
Vitreous Kernels (%) 69 62 market development arm for American
Grade 2 AD 3 AD wheat growers, furthers this information
OTHER WHEAT DATA by commissioning an export cargo sam-
Dockage (%) 0.6 0.6 pling program. That data is shown in the
Moisture (%) 11.8 12.3 table to the left. The program provides
Protein: 12% moisture (%) 13.5 13.2 an accurate representation of the sup-
Protein: Dry (%) 15.3 15.0 plies moving through the grain marketing
Ash: 14% moisture (%) 1.64 1.63 and transportation system and actually
Ash: Dry (%) 1.90 1.90 reaching export points. Results show the
1000 Kernel Weight (gm) 39.1 40.0 quality levels at which U.S. wheat is real-
Kernel Size (%) lg/md/sm 51/45/4 47/51/2
istically traded and are useful to custom-
ers in developing reasonable purchase
Falling Number (sec) 377 275
specifications.
DON (ppm) n/a 1.4
SEMOLINA DATA The Federal Grain Inspection service
Total Extraction (%) 72.2 70.1
oversees the program whereby all export
Semolina Extraction (%) 65.9 63.7
inspection agencies at all ports collect
Ash: 14% moisture (%) 0.74 0.69
every tenth sub lot sample from every
Ash: Dry (%) 0.86 0.81
vessel of U.S. wheat shipped during
Gluten Index 56 48
three two-month time periods annually.
Specks (no/10 sq in) 29 28 The durum wheat samples are sent for
Protein: 14% moisture (%) 12.3 12.0 analysis to the Durum Wheat Quality and
Protein: Dry (%) 14.3 14.0 Pasta Processing Laboratory in the North
Mixograph Classification (scale of 1-8) 5.6 5.4 Dakota State University Plant Science
Color: L (black-white) 84.3 84.4
Department. The samples represented
here are based on samples collected
a (red-green) -2.68 -2.81
from the fall of 2014 through the summer
b (yellow-blue) 27.8 26.8
of 2015 for crop year 2014. For crop year
SPAGHETTI PROCESSING DATA
2015, samples tested were collected
Color Score (scale of 1-12) 8.4 8.0
from the fall of 2015 through the spring
Cooked Weight (gm) 31.0 31.5 of 2016. Grade data in the table is the
Cooking Loss (%) 6.4 6.3 actual official grade on individual sublots.
Cooked Firmness (g cm) 3.9 3.9

Semolina color performed on CIE color scale.


Granulation size is approximately 40 percent above 425
microns and 12 percent below 180 microns. Spaghetti
color is performed on Hunter color scale.

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 16
Montana North Dakota

laboratory analysis
All quality data contained in this samples were collected during har-
report is the result of testing and vest from Montana (55) and North
analysis conducted by or under the Dakota (155).
supervision of Dr. Frank Manthey, Analysis Half of the total wheat
professor, Hiroshi Ando and Yu Liu, samples collected were analyzed
food technologists of the Durum for grade and other physical kernel
Wheat Quality and Pasta Process- characteristics. The data obtained
ing Laboratory in the Department from the analyses was used to
of Plant Science at North Dakota generate frequency distributions
State University, Fargo, North Da- as a percentage of the harvested
kota, USA. crop. Distribution results may differ
Collection The North Da- from data presented in the vari-
kota and Montana state offices of ous tables, because the latter are
the National Agricultural Statistics derived from production adjusted
Service obtained durum wheat averages, rather than simple aver-
samples during harvest directly ages.
from growers, farm bins and local All samples received in the labora-
elevators. These samples reflect tory were sub-sampled to obtain
the condition of the grain at the one composite sample for each of and spaghetti processing qualities.
point of origin. Collection began in the four areas in North Dakota and Again, all state and regional aver-
mid August when approximately 20 one composite each of two areas ages have been adjusted to reflect
percent of the regional durum crop for Montana. These were analyzed production as opposed to simple
had been harvested and continued for grade and physical characteris- averaging.
until late September. A total of 210 tics as well as milling performance

methods, terms, symbols


vitreous kernels Approxi- 55-10 approved April 1961, revised
WHEAT mate percentage of kernels hav- October 1999. Measured as pounds
SAMPLE COLLECTION Each ing vitreous endosperm, based on per bushel (lb/bu), kilograms per
sample contained approximately 2 weights. hectoliter (kg/hl) = (lbs/bu X 1.292)
to 3 pounds of wheat, stored in se- + 0.630. Approved Methods of
dockage Official USDA proce-
curely closed, moisture proof plastic the American Association of Ce-
dure. All matter other than wheat
bags. real Chemists, Cereal Laboratory
which can be removed readily from
moisture Official USDA pro- a test portion of the original sample Methods (10th Edition), St. Paul,
cedure using Motomco Moisture by use of an approved device MN (2000).
Meter. (Carter Dockage Tester). Dockage thousand kernel weight
grade Official United States may also include underdeveloped, Based on 10 gram sample of
Standards for Grain, as determined shriveled and small pieces of wheat cleaned wheat (free of foreign ma-
by a licensed grain inspector. North kernels removed in properly sepa- terial and broken kernels) counted
Dakota Grain Inspection Service, rating the material other than wheat by electronic seed counter.
Fargo, ND, provided grades for and which cannot be recovered by kernel size distribution
composite wheat samples repre- properly rescreening or recleaning. Determinations made according to
senting each crop reporting area. test weight American Asso- the procedure described in Cereal
ciation of Cereal Chemists Method Science Today 5:(3), 71 (1960).

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 17
Montana North Dakota

Kernels remaining over a Tyler No. strument as an indication of gluten Dick, Cereal Sci. Today: 16(11)
7 (2.92 mm opening) are classified strength. 385, 1971. A 1-Kg semolina was
as large; kernels passing through mixed with the appropriate amount
the top sieve but remaining on a of water that gave a dough con-
Tyler No. 9 (2.24 mm opening) are SEMOLINA sistency of 32 percent total water
classified as medium size kernels. extraction AACC Method absorption. The other process-
Kernels passing through the second 26-41 (modified for the Buhler Mill). ing conditions used were: Water
sieve are classed as small. Size Expressed on a total product basis. temperature, 40 C, extruder shaft
is reported as percentage of large, ash AACC Method 08-01, ap- speed, 25 rpm and vacuum, 18
medium, and small kernels. proved April 1961, revised October in. Hg; the dough was pressed
protein American Association of 1999; expressed on a 14 percent through an 84-strand teflon-coated
Cereal Chemists (AACC) Method: moisture basis. spaghetti die with 0.157 cm open-
46-30 (Combustion Method), ex- ings. The extruded spaghetti sam-
protein AACC Method 46-30 ples were dried at high tempera-
pressed on dry basis and 12 per- (combustion method), approved
cent moisture basis. ture for 12 hrs, using maximum
September 1995, revised October temperature and relative humidity of
ash American Association of Ce- 1999, N x 5.7, expressed on a 14 73 C and 83 percent, respectively.
real Chemists Method 08-01, ap- percent moisture basis.
proved April 1961, revised October color Color scores were
specks The number of specks determined by light reflectance
1999; expressed on a 14 percent in semolina was determined on a
moisture basis. (AACC Method 14-22, 1983), using
flat surface under a constant light a Minolta Color Difference Meter
DON Analysis was done on source, and counting the visible (Model CR 410, Minolta Camera
ground wheat using a gas chro- specks (brown and black particles) Co., Japan). The scores were
matograph with an electron cap- in three different one-inch square generated according to the new
ture detector as described in J. areas. The average of the three color map designed by Debbouz
Assoc. Official Anal. Chem 79,472 readings was converted to the (Pasta J. vol 6, No 6, 1994). A
(1996) number of specks per 10 square spaghetti sample with a score of
Falling number American inches. 8.0 or higher is considered to have
Association of Cereal Chemists mixograph Mixograph evalu- good color.
Method 56-81B, approved No- ation of semolina was performed cooked weight AACC Meth-
vember 1972, revised September according to the AACC Method od 66-50 with some modifications:
1999; units of seconds (14 percent 54-40A with some modifications: 10 g of dry spaghetti were placed
moisture basis). Ten grams of semolina (weighed in 300 ml boiling distilled water and
micro sedimentation De- on 14 percent moisture basis) were cooked for 12 min. The cooked
termined as described by Dick, mixed for 8 min at constant water and drained spaghetti sample
J.W. and Quick, J.S. Cereal Chem. absorption of 5.8 ml, using a spring was weighed and the results were
60(4):315-318, 1983. setting of 8. The mixograms were reported in grams.
scored by comparing them to refer-
wet gluten American Asso- ence mixograms. A scale of 1 to 8 cooking loss AACC Method
ciation of Cereal Chemists Method is employed, higher values indicate 66-50. Solids lost to the cooking
38-12, approved October 1999; strong mixing characteristics (see water. After drying the residue was
expressed on a 14 percent mois- reference mixogram chart). weighed and reported as percent-
ture basis determined with the age of the original dry sample.
glutomatic instrument. firmness AACC Method 66-50
gluten INDEX American Asso- SPAGHETTI with a Plexiglas tooth attached to a
ciation of Cereal Chemists Method processing Pasta was made Texture Analyzer (Model TA-XT2,
38-12, approved October 1999; using the laboratory procedure Texture Technology Corp., Scars-
determined with the glutomatic in- described by Walsh, Ebeling, and dale, New York).

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 18
Montana North Dakota

varietal information
Quality products begin with quality TEST WEIGHT mixograph
ingredients. In the case of wheat,
quality begins with the varieties Lbs/Bu Kgs/Hl
Measurement scale 1 to 8
62 79.4 8
planted. Within the durum class of
wheat, there are different varieties 61 78.1 7
availableall with relatively
uniform characteristics. The public 60 76.9
6
plant breeding program at North 5
59 75.6
Dakota State University in Fargo
develops and releases most of 4
58 74.3
the durum varieties grown in the bo a io k e a ail ld a
ka pp rp oc Divid ioga enor untr gfie lzad 3
Al Jo Ca bs T Gr Mo n A
northern region, although some Le t ro io da a de a ld ra o ck il
S rp za pp Divi Tiog ngfie reno lkab bso ntra
private firms also have durum Ca Al Jo r o G A L e o u
St M
breeding programs. Before any
durum variety is released to the
public, breeders are encouraged
to show that it meets or exceed kernel protein pasta color
current standards for the class.
Percent
Prospective releases are evaluated 9.5
14.5 Measurement scale 1 to 12
for milling and pasta characteristics 9.2
as well as for yield, protein content, 14.0
test weight, resistance to diseases 8.9
and insects, and straw strength. 13.5 8.6
Environment influences the 8.3
13.0
quality of varieties across growing
areas and planting years. For 8.0
12.5 pp
a bo io e ra ga fiel
d k a
oc lzad trai
l
ka rp vid no
this reason, wheat breeders use ck eld da e ail bo pio ra ga pa Jo Al Ca Di Gr
e Tio ong ebs A oun
so gfi lza vid ntr lka ar no Tio Jop t r L
check or reference varieties to L eb ro
n A Di ou A C
Gr
e S M
St M
evaluate quality in experimental
varieties. They test and analyze
quality data from multiple years
and growing locations before a falling number cooked firmness
variety is released.
Seconds Grams CM
500 4.5

460
4.0
420

380
3.5
340

300 3.0
Source: Yield trials 2013-15 crop da io oc
k e ra ld ail a bo ld
za rp bs vid reno ngfie untr opp ka ga da oc
k
io fie ga or
a
ide a il
Al Ca Di Al Tio za bs rp pp kabo untra
Le G rt o M o J Al Le Ca ng Tio Gren Div Jo
years across multiple North Dakota S St
ro Al Mo
locations.

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 19
Montana North Dakota

varietal information
major varieties produced in region Agronomic Factors
Agronomic Description Reaction to Disease2 Average Yield

Agent or Year Straw Foliar Western, North Dakota3


Variety Leaf Rust
Origin1 Released Strength Disease BU/Acre MT/Hect
Alkabo ND 2005 strong R M 61.9 4.16

Alzada WB 2004 med weak R S 47.2 3.17

Carpio ND 2012 medium R M 60.7 4.08

Divide ND 2005 medium R M 63.0 4.24

Grenora ND 2005 medium R M 60.8 4.09

Joppa ND 2013 medium R M 64.3 4.32

Lebsock ND 1999 strong R M 57.7 3.88

Mountrail ND 1998 medium R M 64.0 4.30

Strongfield CAN 2004 med weak R MS 58.0 3.90

Tioga ND 2010 med strong R M 64.6 4.34

grown and tested across north dakota Quality & End-Use Factors
Quality Factors4
Test Test Wheat Wheat Mixogram Pasta Color Gluten Cooked
Weight Wheat Protein Falling # Score (Scale Index Firmness Overall Pasta
Variety LB/BU KG/HL % Seconds (scale 1-12) 1-12) % G CM Quality Rating 5
Alkabo 62.0 80.7 13.2 391 5.6 9.0 44 3.8 good

Alzada 60.0 78.2 13.5 455 7.8 8.4 86 4.2 good

Carpio 61.8 80.5 13.2 452 8.0 8.9 92 4.1 excellent

Divide 61.6 80.2 13.4 431 7.4 8.9 75 3.9 good

Grenora 61.3 79.8 13.2 408 6.4 8.9 64 4.0 good

Joppa 61.9 80.6 12.8 395 7.5 9.2 82 3.9 good

Lebsock 61.7 80.4 13.9 433 5.1 8.5 36 4.2 good

Mountrail 61.2 79.7 13.3 407 4.5 8.4 17 3.6 average

Strongfield 61.0 79.4 13.9 408 7.0 8.6 60 4.1 good

Tioga 61.4 80.0 13.0 390 7.4 8.7 75 4.1 good

Source: 2016 North Dakota Durum Wheat Variety Performance Descriptions


1. NDNorth Dakota State University, WBWestbred and CAN-Canada.
2. Reaction to Disease: resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR), intermediate (M), moderately
susceptible (MS), susceptible (S), very susceptible (VS).
3. Three year average data 2013-15 from four locations across North Dakota.
4. Based on NDSU Durum Quality Lab testing of samples grown at multiple North Dakota locations during
2013-15.
5. Based on kernel attributes, milling and semolina processing, pasta color, and spaghetti cooking
performance. Ratings can be excellent, good, average, fair and poor.

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 20
Montana North Dakota

north dakota
The top five durum varieties lar variety in Montana with a 4.4 North Dakota
planted in North Dakota in 2016 percent share of acres in 2016. Varieties share of
are Divide, Carpio, Alkabo, Joppa Alkabo is the leading variety in the Planted Acres3
and Tioga. On a combined basis southwest district of North Da-
Variety 2016%1 2015%1
they account for two-thirds of the kota. It is a 2005 NDSU release
planted acres. Carpio and Joppa, with improved yield potential and Divide 21.5 29.5
both recent releases from NDSU, relatively stronger straw properties Carpio 17.0 2.2
made the top five list for the first when compared to other popular Alkabo 11.2 20.9
time, replacing long time popular varieties. Alkabo possesses good Joppa 10.3 0.9
varieties Mountrail and Lebsock. end-use quality traits, especially for Tioga 8.0 10.1
pasta color. Lebsock 7.8 4.9

DIVIDE is the top variety planted Mountrail 5.5 7.6


in North Dakota and Montana, JOPPA is the fourth most popular Grenora 3.8 4.3
accounting for 21.5 percent and variety in North Dakota in 2016 VT Peak 1.9 0.6
27 percent of the acreage, re- with 10 percent of the acres, up Pierce 1.4 0.7
spectively. Compared to 2015, its from just 1 percent last year. It also Other 2
11.6 18.3
share of acres fell in North Dakota made marginal gains in Montana. 1. Percentage may not add to 100 due to
rounding.
but increased in Montana. It has Joppa was released from NDSU 2. Includes varieties with less than 1% of
been the leading variety in North in 2013 and ranks near the top for acreage in 2016 and unknown varieties.
3. 1,000 acres (1 acre = 0.405 hectares)
Dakota for eight consecutive years. yield potential of current varieties, 2016 - 1,460,000 acres
2015 - 1,090,000 acres
A 2005 release from North Dakota although protein content is slightly
State University, Divide remains lower. It possesses high end-use
popular with producers for its high quality traits with especially high
yield potential and tolerance to pasta color scores.
disease. It is rated as good for
end-use quality.

CARPIO, a 2012 NDSU release,


made the most significant acreage
gains of any variety in 2016. It
advanced into second in North Da-
kota with 17 percent of the acres,
up from just 2 percent in 2015.
Carpio has high yield potential and
improved quality over other vari-
eties. It is rated as excellent for
end-use quality with strong gluten
properties, and high color and
cooked firmness scores.

ALKABO fell to third place in


North Dakota with 11 percent of
the acres, down from 21 percent
in 2015. It is the sixth most popu-

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 21
Montana North Dakota

North Dakota 2016 TOP TWO


VARIETIES BY DISTRICT (% of acres)

Divide 21.5
Carpio 18.9 Divide 23.9
Carpio 18.7
Divide 32.0
Tioga 16.6
North Dakota Varieties share of 2016
Planted Acres by crop district Alkabo 20.5
North West South Combined Total Carpio 12.1
Variety West Central West Districts1 State
percentage (%)2
Divide 21.5 32.0 11.3 23.9 21.5
Carpio 18.9 8.8 12.1 18.7 17.0
Alkabo 10.5 7.3 20.5 8.6 11.2
Joppa 10.0 4.1 10.1 16.3 10.3
Tioga 7.2 16.6 10.7 3.1 8.0
Lebsock 8.9 11.7 5.5 1.3 7.8
Mountrail 8.5 0 0 0 5.5
Grenora 4.7 1.7 1.0 3.3 3.8
VT Peak 0 0 9.2 6.2 1.9
Pierce 1.6 1.4 1.1 0.3 1.4
Other3 8.2 16.6 18.6 18.6 11.6 North Dakota 2016 share of
1,000 acres (1 acre = 0.4 hectares) planted acres by nass districts
Total Acres3 850 125 165 160 1,3004
1. Data from North Central, Northeast, Central, East Central, South Central and
Southeast districts are combined to avoid disclosure of individual operations. Northwest Combined Districts
2. Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.
3. Includes varieties with less than 1% acreage in 2016 and unknown varieties.
65% 12%
4. September 30, 2016 small grain estimates was 1,460,000 acres.

West Central
10%

Southwest
13%

Regional Quality Report 2016


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 22
Montana North Dakota

montana
The top five durum varieties plant- potential, strong straw and very montana Varieties share of 2016
ed across Montana in 2016 are Di- balanced end-use quality traits. Planted Acres by crop district
vide, Mountrail, Alzada, Tioga and North North Other Total
KYLE is the fifth most popular Variety Central East Districts1 State
Kyle, combining for three-fourths variety in Montana in 2016 with a 6 percentage (%)2
of the total durum acres. Com- percent share, down from 9 per- Divide 0.0 35.7 0.0 27.1
pared to 2015, Divide, Alzada and cent in 2015. It tends to tolerate Mountrail 0.0 27.2 0.0 20.7
Tioga made gains, while Mountrail prolonged, wet harvest conditions Alzada 60.6 0.0 2.0 15.2
and Kyle declined in share. better than other varieties, but is
Tioga 2.2 10.7 0.0 8.6
Kyle 4.0 6.6 0.0 5.9
weaker in straw strength. Kyle is Alkabo 0.0 5.4 0.0 4.4

MOUNTRAIL is the second most a 1984 release from Agriculture Joppa 2.1 1.8 0.0 1.8

popular variety in Montana in Canada. Strongfield 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7


Other3 31.1 10.6 98.0 14.6
2016 with 21 percent of the acres,
down from 27 percent, and the top Montana Varieties 1,000 acres (1 acre = 0.4 hectares)
spot in 2015. In North Dakota, it
share of Planted Total Acres3 6804
ranks seventh with 5.5 percent. 1. Other district varieties were combined to avoid disclosure of

Released by NDSU in 1998, it Acres3 individual information.


2. Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.
remains one of the elite yielding Variety 2016%1 2015%1 3. Includes varieties with less than 1% acreage in 2016 and
unknown varieties.
varieties with positive agronomic Divide 27.1 21.3 4. September 30, 2016 small grain estimates was 780,000 acres.

traits, but ranks lower than other Mountrail 20.7 27.0


varieties for disease resistance.
Alzada 15.2 14.2
Mountrail is rated as average for
end-use quality. Tioga 8.6 5.5
montana 2016 top two varieties
Kyle 5.9 9.0 by crop district (% of ACRES)

ALZADA remained the third most Alkabo 4.4 2.2 Alzada 60.6 Divide 35.7
Kyle 4.0 Mountrail 27.2
popular variety in Montana with a Joppa 1.8 0.0
15 percent share of acres, hold- Strongfield 1.7 4.6
ing steady with the previous year. Other 2
14.6 16.2
It is the dominant variety in the
1. Percentage may not total 100 due to rounding.
north central district of the state 2. Includes varieties with less than 1% of
acreage in 2015 and unknown varieties.
where nearly all of its production is 3. 1,000 acres (1 acre = 0.405 hectares)
contract produced for its uniquely 2016 - 780,000 planted acres Alzada 66.7
2015 - 620,000 planted acres
strong gluten properties and excel-
lent cooking properties. Alzada
is a 2004 release from Westbred
(Monsanto).
montana share of planted
acres by nass district
TIOGA moved into fourth place in North Central
10% Northeast
Montana in 2016 with 8.6 percent 88%
of the acres, up from 5.5 percent
last year. In North Dakota, it fell
to fifth place with 8 percent of
the acres, down from 10 percent.
Tioga was released in 2010 and
is popular for its balance of yield

2016 Regional Quality Report


U.S. DURUM WHEAT 23
Montana North Dakota

handling & transportation


The durum wheat growing region Burlington Northern Santa Fe, fol- can capitalize on, especially as
in the Northern Plains has a vast lowed by the Canadian Pacific. their demand heightens for more
network of country elevators to A growing number of elevators in precise quality specifications and
facilitate efficient and precise the region are investing to ship consistency between shipments.
movement to domestic and ex- 100-110 car units in shuttle trains. Buyers are encouraged to explore
port markets. On average, nearly Each rail car holds approximately origin-specific shipments to opti-
80 percent of the regions wheat 3,500 bushels (95 metric tons) of mize quality and value.
moves to markets by rail. Duluth is wheat. Shuttle-equipped facilities The rail and elevator network in the
the only export market easily ser- receive the lowest rates, sharing U.S. northern grown durum re-
viced by trucks. Shipments to the volume and transaction efficiencies gion is well suited for meeting the
Pacific Northwest and Gulf export with the railroad. increasing quality demands of both
markets are almost entirely by rail, domestic and international custom-
with some barge movement to the The diverse rail shipping capaci-
ties and widespread network of ers.
Gulf. The dominant railroad is the
elevators are strengths buyers

Track for 50 to 99 rail cars


Track for 100 or more cars
Source: Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute

Grain Handling and


Transportation Facilities in
the Two-State Region

PNW
14%
LAKES 2012-15 U.S. Durum
46%
Domestic Use and exports
MILLION TONS Domestic Use Exports MILLION BUSHELS
3.0 110
GULF
39%
2.4 88

1.8 66

1.2 44

0.6 22
Average Share of U.S.
durum exports by port 0.0
0
12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16
(2012-2015)
Marketing Years (June - May)

Regional Quality Report 2016


16
U.S. DURUM
Wheat
Regional Quality Report

funding & support PROVIDED BY


U.S. Wheat Associates
North Dakota Wheat Commission
Montana Wheat and Barley Committee
North Dakota State University Plant Sciences Department