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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

REPORT ON APPAREL INTERNSHIP


AT ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED
( 9K UNIT)

MENTORED BY: SUBMITTED BY:


MR.ANKUR SAXENA RIDDHI MALVIYA
ASST.PROFESSOR (B.F.TECH VII)

TABLE OF

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015
SERIAL NUMBER TITLE PAGE NUMBER

1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 4

2 CERTIFICATE 3

3 INTRODUCTION 5

4 COMPANY PROFILE 6

5 MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT 11

6 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL 25

7 FABRIC SOURCING 28

8 TRIMS AND ACCESSORIES STORE 45

9 CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT (IED) 54

10 SAMPLING DEPARTMENT 64

11 CUTTING DEPARTMENT 73

12 SEWING DEPARTMENT 86

13 FINISHING & PACKING 97

14 TESTING LABORATORY 104

15 WASHING DEPARTMENT 111

16 PROJECT 117

17 CONCLUSION 136

17 REFERENCES 137

18 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 138

CERTIFICATE:

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Riddhi Malviya, NIFT Jodhpur Page 3
Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Apart from my efforts, the success of this whole internship and projects depended largely on the
encouragement and guidance of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to
the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of the project and whose
contribution in assorted ways to the internship project deserves special mention.
I would like to express my immense gratitude and sincere appreciation to Orient Craft , UNIT
9K, Gurgaon for giving me an opportunity to pursue my apparel internship at their highly
esteemed organization.
In the first place, I would like to record my deepest sense of gratitude to Mr. Sandeep Mall, from
the industrial engineering department of Orient craft, for his supervision, advice, valuable
support and guidance from the very early stage of the course of my internship, which enabled me
to proceed in the right direction and accomplish the mission of my visit. I am thereby thankful to
him for taking the pain to go through the project and make necessary corrections as and when
needed.
Also, I would like to thank my college mentor, Mr. Ankur Saxena, for always being available to
address any doubts I might have concerning the internship and guiding me along the way. . It is
because of his guidance and constant supervision that I have been able to collect and learn the
required information regarding my project.
I would also express my sincere thanks to Mr. Nobhonil and Mr. Hitesh Vashishta, HR for their
co-operation and precious inputs on each and every step of my internship. I am delighted to
express my heartfelt thankfulness to Mr. Manoj Tiwari (Assistant Professor, NIFT, Bangalore),
who constantly inspired me to work hard and learn more on this project, and also provided me
with required information.
I also thank Mr.Dinesh (Cutting); Mr.Lalit Mahani (Sewing); Mr.Vikram (Merchandising) and
my merchandising mentors Ms. Tripti Gupta and Ms Janhavi Bhalerao. Words are inadequate in
offering thanks to my parents and the Almighty God for their encouragement in successful
completion of the project. It would not have been possible without the kind support and help of
many individuals in the organization. Finally, I would like to thank everybody who was
important to the successful realization of this internship, as well as expressing an apology that I
could not mention everyone here. Thank You!

INTRODUCTION:
Garment Industry is a well-organized enterprise and is amongst the best in the world. It
constitutes of designers, manufacturers, exporters, suppliers, stockiest, and wholesalers. Indian
Garment Industry has carved out a niche in the global markets and earned a reputation for its
durability, quality and beauty. Today's changing consumer preferences - buying branded apparel
and fashion accessories, major boom in retail industry, people shopping at department and
discount stores, shopping malls, with rising disposable incomes, government policy focused on
fast-track textile export growth, and ambitious goals have created several investment
opportunities in India.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

My training at Orient Craft Limited,Gurgaon helped me to gain knowledge in garment


manufacturing process in and out fully in detail manner. I have gone through various
departments starting from the fabric sourcing to the shipment delivery to the buyer.

This report is a brief of the processes of apparel manufacturing that I observed and learnt during
the internship.

1.2 STATEMENT OF STUDY:

To study about the garment manufacturing process in the Industry.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:

This study will provide an in-depth knowledge of the production of garment from the fabric and
trims procuring to the final dispatch by using technology and also the management process of
manufacturing.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY:

To study the organizational structure of the garment manufacturing company.


To study about the various departments in the organization.
To study in detail about the spreading, cutting and finishing departments.
To carry out minor projects in the assigned departments.
To work in a specialised area chosen according to personal preference.

COMPANY PROFILE

Company name: Orient craft limited

Plot No.12-13, Sector-37,

Phase-6, Gurgaon-122012.

Haryana (INDIA) Ph.0124-4093800

Email address : Orient@orientcraft.com


Telephone numbers : (+91-124) 2343262
2342043 upto 47
Fax numbers : (+91-124) 2342042 and 2341110

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Year established: 1997


Type of company : Privately held ( Deemed public limited)
Owners/ Directors : Mr. Sudhir Dhingra
Mr. K.K. Kohli
Mr. Anoop Thatai
Annual Turnover: FOB US$ 225 Million for 2014-15
Major products: Blouses
Skirts
Outwear
Mens shirts
Pants &shorts
Kids wear
Dresses
Jackets
Knitted shirts/ Tshirts
Production capacity : 100000 Dozen per month ( woven)
150000 dozen per month (knits)
Major export markets: USA, EEC, Canada
Major customers: Dillards stores
Ann Taylor
Loft
Banana Republic
Gap-kids-women-Old navy
Limited
J.G. Hook
Tommy Hilfiger-men- boys-women- sportswear
And jeans
J-crew
Ralph Lauren- Lauren polo jeans
Liz Claiborne- Liz dresses- Liz wear- Liz sports
Jones of New York
Susan Bristol
Abarcrombie & Fitch
Next retail ltd.
Oasis stores
Nike
Levis
Dockers
Lands end
Minimum order quantity: 200 doz per style
No. of people employed: 8000 in-house

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

DEPARTMENT HEIRARCHY:

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

1. MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT:
1. Receipt of Inspiration/Mood-Board/Tech-pack/GSS/Garment from the buyer:
Merchandising team works on seasons which are set according to buyers calendar.
Merchandising & design team may get inspiration or theme/trends from the buyer before the start
of the season in the form of design, mood board, new fabric quality, different processed
inspirations (wash/ embroidery/ print/ sequence etc), and colour forecasts. Merchandising team
passes this inspiration to the design-development team for design creation based on the buyers
input.
Merchandising usually receives the buyers requirements in the form of a tech-pack or garment
specification sheet (GSS) which has the details about technical aspects of garments and all
specifications pertaining to the particular style like fabric details, trim details, value additions etc.
This document acts as a bible for the merchandising department.
Merchandisers sometimes also receive the GSS with only technical specifications of the
garments like seam length, sleeve length and other measurements. This can be precursor to the
tech-pack which also has details about the quality & kind of fabric, trims, special elements etc.
The buyer sometimes might provide physical garment along with tech-pack so that the
merchandiser can get a clear understanding of the buyers requirements. This is usually done if
the design of the garment is complex and tricky, or the garment has a lot of special elements in it.

2. Feasibility Checking and Analysis with Central Planning:

Merchandisers checks with the Central Planning about the capacity of the factory whether
availability is there for taking up a new order or not. Apart from checking feasibility of the
factory in terms of manpower-days, the merchandiser also checks the feasibility of the style with
the sampling department. If the style doesnt proves to be feasible, the buyer is suggested for
reconsidering the quantity or style according to the capacity and if that doesnt works the style is
dropped.

3. Checking availability of fabric with the stores:

One of the most important pre-production activities of the merchandising department is to make
the samples. Sample is a prelude to the order confirmation. For this purpose, first the fabric
availability is checked with stores. If the fabric is available, the Inter office memo (IOM) is
issued to the stores department. The stores issue the fabric to the sampling department,

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

keeping the IOM with them. In case when the IOM is forwarded, a copy of the IOM is
maintained in the stores.
In case the fabric is not available in the stores, the fabric sourcing department procures the fabric
after receipt of work order from the merchandiser. The merchandiser follows up with the
sourcing department for the fabric availability.

4. Sample Indent:

Once the merchandiser receives the fabric, sample indent is raised and sent along with the fabric
and physical copy of the tech-pack signed by the merchandiser to the sampling department. The
sample prepared at this pre-production stage is called Proto Sample.

5. Proto Sample:

Proto sample is the first stage of the sampling process. It is considered to be a critical phase as it
provides the first impressions of the product to the buyer. Proto sample is prepared from the most
similar substitute fabric available in the store. This is usually done in the base size (suggested by
the buyer).

6. Approval by internal sampling Quality Audit (QA):

Proto sample is reviewed by the internal Sampling QA with respect to the tech-pack which the
merchandiser sends along with the sampling indent. In case of any differences and variations, the
proto sample is revised and remade by the sampling department. It is re-submitted to the internal
QA for approval. Only if the QA approves, the sample, it is handed over to the merchandiser for
further actions. In case of any minor comments, the QA informs the merchandiser over the mail.
The merchandiser submits the sample along with these comments to the buyer QA for further
approval.

7. Approval of buyer:

Most of the buyers have their representatives in the exporting countries called buying house.
They act as mediator between the buyer and the exporting company. Buying house is authorized
by the buyer for approval and rejection of samples. The proto sample is sent to the buyer
nominated QA in the buying house for further approval. The Buyer QA reviews the sample with
respect to the tech-pack. If the deviations are within the allowance, sample gets approved. The
updated tech-pack with approval & signature of the buyer QA is sent to the merchandiser via
mail but if the deviations are above the allowance level the sample gets rejected and the reasons
for rejection are updated in the form of comments in the tech-pack which is sent to the
merchandiser for further actions. This process happens repeatedly until the sample gets
approved.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

8. Sales Man Sample (SMS):

Sales man sample is the final sample submitted to the buyer in the pre-order process. The buyer
requests for the SMS samples to check on the sales of the garment before placing the final order
quantity. The buyer sends the SMS to each and every retail store for obtaining the number of
pieces required in each of those stores. The buyer places the order quantity depending upon the
feedbacks from the retail stores which are obtained on the basis of end customers reactions. It is
made with original fabric as mentioned in the tech-pack. The manufacturing process of salesman
sample is similar to the proto sample. It is made in the base size with all colors. The quantity of
salesman sample depends upon the number of retail stores to which the buyer supplies the final
garments. This sample is chargeable as the buyer incurs profit on it.

9. Approval by internal QA:

Salesman sample is reviewed by the internal Sampling QA with respect to the tech-pack which
the merchandiser sends along with sampling indent. It is reviewed keeping in consideration,
whether comments made during proto-sample are incorporated or not. In case they are not
incorporated then the sample will not be approved and rework takes place. Only when the
internal QA is satisfied, the sample is sent to the buyer for further approval.

10. Approval of buyer:

Buyer QA reviews whether all the comments made during the proto sample are incorporated in
the salesman sample or not. If changes are not up to the mark, the sample gets rejected and is
sent again with comments in the tech-pack. If the sample is as per the buyer expectation then the
sample is approved.

11. Tentative cost sheet is prepared:

Meanwhile the tentative cost sheet is prepared by the merchandiser and sent to the buyer along
with the salesman sample. The salesman sample is usually charged 1.5 times the cost of the
garment. This is done to compensate the scale of production that cannot be achieved. The cost
sheet includes fabric cost, trim cost, cut to make cost or manufacturing cost, overheads cost,
rejection cost, value addition cost, commission costs etc. and the profit margin.

12. Approval of buyer :

The buyer may agree to the price quoted or he may negotiate the price with the merchandiser.
This process happens until an agreement is arrived between the merchandiser and the buyer. The
buyer confirms the order via mail through a PO number. This is an indication for the
merchandiser to proceed further.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

13. Entry is done in the ERP:

The merchandisers make corresponding entries like style no., PO no., item creation no. of the
order in the ERP (CRM) in requisite fields and the CO (customer order no.) gets generated.
When the approval request is given, the message is sent to the approver system that is monitored
by the Business Intelligence (BI). A stipulated time is given for the approver to approve. Once he
approves the status of CO changes and the CO gets locked. The merchandiser is not able to make
any further changes on the CO. But in case any changes have to be made, the request has to be
sent to the approver again. After getting the approval the status of the CO changes and changes
can be made further. Finally the BI locks the cost sheet in Movex (ERP).

14. Authorization of the physical copy of cost sheet by the VP & CEO:

The physical printout of the cost sheet is sent to the VP & CEO for authorization.

15. Physical copy sent to BI for reference:

The same copy of the cost sheet is sent to the BI for their reference and record keeping.

16. Order Confirmation

3.2 Post Order Processes

1. Order confirmation mail is sent to concerned departments:

Order confirmation mail has details about style, item code, fabric quality & quantity of garments
which is sent by the buyer to the merchandiser. On this basis, the Order Confirmation chart
(OCM chart) is prepared by the merchandiser. The OCM (chart) is a consolidated chart which
has details about the fabric quality, item no., colour, country, total quantity, fabric consumption,
details of trim etc. It also has details about trims quality, kind and quantity, process details like
panel wash, embroidery ,printing etc., tentative time and action plan, Buyer PO, size ratio etc.
This information is sent to the fabric sourcing department, trim sourcing department, sampling,
and central IED and Central Planning so that they plan their production activities accordingly.

2. Work orders are sent to fabric sourcing and trim sourcing:

OCM chart is the prelude step for procuring fabric. The merchandiser gets the consumption of
the fabric from the Sampling department. In case of solid dyed fabric the OCM chart and tech-
pack are sufficient for the fabric sourcing department to procure fabric but in case of yarn dyed
fabrics the merchandiser tries and reduces the consumption by working on the fabric layout
prepared by the sampling department. This renewed fabric layout is sent to the buyer for his
approval. Once the buyer approves it, the merchandiser sends this to the fabric sourcing
department. The OCM chart and the fabric layout are the prerequisites for the fabric sourcing

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

to procure fabric. The Trim sourcing department also sources the trims on receipt of the OCM
chart.

3. Indent is issued to sampling for fit sample development:

The merchandiser raises Indent to sampling for development of fit sample. The physical copy of
the indent is kept with the sampling department for their reference. The fit sample can be made
with a similar substitute of the fabric or the same fabric. The merchandiser checks the
availability of the fabric with the stores and if available then an IOM is issued and handed over
to the sampling department. The sampling coordinator gives the IOM to the stores and collects
the required fabric. The stores keep the physical IOM with them for their reference.

4. Fit Sample Development:

The need to make a fit sample is to check the fitting of the garment on the required body/dress
forms. Fit sample is made with a lot of accuracy in the base size with original fabric or substitute
fabric with similar quality. If the fit sample is approved grading is done to obtain other sizes.

5. Approval by internal QA:

Fit sample is reviewed by the internal Sampling QA with respect to the specification mentioned
in the tech-pack. Usually the fitting is tested by putting the garment on a dress form. In case of
any variations or major comments by the QA, the fit sample is revised and remade by the
sampling department. It is re-submitted to the internal QA for approval. Only if the QA approves
the sample, it is handed over to the merchandiser for further action.

6. Approval of buyer:

The Buyer QA reviews the sample with respect to the tech-pack. In case of any comments the
tech-pack is updated and sent to the merchandiser via e-mail. Until the fit sample is approved,
the whole process is repeated. In case the buyer QA is satisfied with the fit sample, he signs the
fit sample section in the tech pack and sends it to merchandiser.

7. Indent issued to sampling for PP sample:

Pre production sample (PP sample) is a crucial sample as PP sample becomes as a guideline for
the production departments to follow. This sample is made with the original fabric and trims. The
merchandiser arranges for the fabric from the store by issuing an IOM. The store usually gets the
1st lot of the bulk. The PP sample is made from this 1st lot. The IOM is kept with the stores and
the fabric is issued for PP sample.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

8. Pre Production sample:

PP sample is made in the base size and few other sizes & colours if required as per buyers
requirement. Any issues in terms of fabric or trims are brought to the notice of sourcing
department as corresponding changes can be made in bulk.

9. Approval by internal QA:

PP sample is reviewed by the internal Sampling QA with respect to the specifications mentioned
in the tech-pack. In case of any variations or major comments by the QA, the PP sample is
revised and remade by the sampling department. It is re-submitted to the internal QA for
approval. Only if the QA approves the sample, it is handed over to the merchandiser for further
action.

10. Approval of buyer QA:

The Buyer QA reviews the sample. In case of any comments the tech pack is updated and sent to
the merchandiser via mail. This process will happen until the buyer QA approves the sample. In
case the buyer QA is satisfied with the PP sample, he signs the PP sample section in the tech-
pack and sends it to merchandiser.

11. Release of production file:

The merchandiser hands over the PP sample to the PPE department. The PPE department makes
a style analysis report. This is also called risk analysis report. It is sent to the merchandiser via e-
mail. The production department gets consolidated information in the form of a production file.
The production file has the following documents:

a) Tech-pack signed by merchandiser.

b) Pattern signed by pattern master.

c) PP sample approved comments from buyer.

d) Order confirmation chart signed by merchant.

e) Consumption chart by sampling department signed by merchant & pattern master.

f) Process route given by merchandiser.

g) Swatch card of fabric, Swatch card of thread, shade no & tex no. and swatch card of trims.

h) PO sheet

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

12. Pre production meeting (PPM):


Pre Production meeting is called by the central planning department. It is attended by Cutting,
Sewing, Finishing, R & D, merchandising, fabric audit and factory planning & Quality personnel
departments. All the issues pertaining to the fabric & production are discussed in PP meeting.
This is done so that all these departments have a clear understanding on fabric and any other
production pertaining issues. The PP file is then handed over to the cutting department in the
production floor. The minutes of the meeting are circulated to all the attendees.

13. Production monitoring:


Once the production starts (PCD Production Cut Date), the merchandiser closely monitors the
daily production by referring daily production report (DPR). This is to ensure the delivery as per
committed delivery date. In case of any issues, merchandiser visits the factory and tries to
resolve the issues.

14. Shipment:
The merchandiser sends the shipping details to the logistics department 10 days before the
shipping date. The shipping details have the PO no., buyer name, style, agent office address, the
size ratio, colour assortment, carton dimension, net weight etc. The documentation department
coordinates with logistics to book the vessel as per the buyers requirement. The shipment may
happen through the forwarder, or buying office. Once the consignment is dispatched the buyer is
informed.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Section Sub- Activity Objec Procedure Performed by Respon Work Reports,


Secti tive/ sible aid/ References
on Purp person Equipm
ose ent

Product Developing To Two types


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ment samples op developme
new nt takes
sampl place:
es as Product Design Product
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buyer develop Report
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duri ng Sheet
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the
desig e/Merc

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

n handise
and r
prod
uct
and
sam
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deve
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stage
.

Sam
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for
thes
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supe
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on.

Thes
e
sam
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are
sent
to
the
buye
r for
selec

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

tion,
alon
g
with
the
costi
ng
and
prod
uct
detai
ls.

2. Sample
based
and
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/sample.

Sam
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com
plete
ly in
acco
rdan
ce to
the
buye
rs
sam
ple /
chan
ges
are

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

mad
e to
mak
e the
sam
ple
prod
uctio
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frien
dly.

After
deve
lopm
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the
cost
shee
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sam
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revie
w
shee
t.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

PRE ORDER PROCESS FLOW CHART

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

POST ORDER PROCESS FLOW CHART

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND


The basic process
CONTROL includes the
following stages:

1. Order clarity meeting with marketing team

2. Receive the order

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

3. Plan to check if there is available capacity in sewing to achieve the delivery date required

4. Plan to check the available capacity in non-sewing areas (cut, embroidery; print, wash and
pack)

5. Plan to check sufficient lead time to order and receive fabric, trims, approve sample, carry out
lab tests

6. Confirm delivery date to customer and reserve capacity

7. Plan Cut Date (PCD) follow-up

8. Communicate plan to sampling, cutting, sewing and finishing

9. Monitor progress against plan and doing the follow-up

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

FUNCTIONS
Making a calendar of production by booking the capacity as per order quantity.
Keeping a track on the per day production to check if it is meeting the targets or not.
Arrangement of balance requirements based on thread and fabric consumption.
Preparation of capacity statement on every 15 days and send to GM, VP, CEO, FM.

CAPACITY CALCULATIONS
Working hours per day = 480 minutes
45 operators per line
Factory running time = 480 minutes per day
Absenteeism = 10%
Efficiency consideration

Lead time is the tame taken from PCD to x-factory (shipment) date.
Available minutes per day per line: = (Factory running time) * (Number of operators in
the line) * (100 - Absenteeism) % * (Blocked Efficiency %)
Batch setting time or Change over time = 8 hours
Production planning starts from planning the PCD - Proposed Cut date.
The PCD is proposed at least 5 days before batch setting starts.
Generally 1 day is kept for batch setting for the style.
Within 4 days of introduction of a new style in particular line, the production team had to
meet the average production target
Always the 5th day of production is taken as the peak production day
The production (sewing) should be accomplished at least 4 days before x- factory
Double line concept: Two lines are merged for a large order so as to reduce the number of
helpers and non-skilled operators. And thus increase the productivity.

PLANNING EFFICIENCY

The planning is done efficiently so that the PCD date is met and the shipment is done on
time. In case the production target is not being met, the following options are called for:
Generally the slide in covered up in the next days production
X-factory extension is requested from the buyer.
Overtime or working on holidays by the operators
Out-sourcing from outside unit, when the slide is beyond the capacity of the unit
PPC needs to keep a check on:
Daily production
Utilization of full capacity
One order affecting next order due to delay, this needs to be highlighted
Reverse Planning is done for the Shipment activities while forward planning is done for
the pre-production activities.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Pre-production Time:-7-10 days


Trim Order Time: - 5-7 days
Production Time: - 30 days
Planning revision and line planning is done on every 2 months.
Daily meeting is conducted by the Planning Department, Cutting Department,
Production Manager and the Finishing In-charge

DOCUMENTS

Batch plan
Operation bulletin- from IED for planning the target production per day
PO sheet- for referring to the x-factory date
Fabric flow (DC)
Trims flow (DC)
Daily production reports- from the sewing floor

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

DEPARTMENT HIERARCHY

FABRIC SOURCING
Procurement of fabrics (finished) from the supplier, based on buyer requirement.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR SOURCING

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Research:

Develop fabric swatches based on buyer requirement specified in the form of boards,
CAD design, fabric swatches.
-The design team of the industry also develops swatch cards for some buyers based on
the forecasted trend.

Product development

-The CAD designs from the buyer provides specification based on the color, weave
pattern, yarn count, GSM etc.,
-The PD team has several standards for colour like Pantone Book and CSI - Color
Solution International Standard.
-Quotation for developing the fabric is received from several mills with sample.
-The best suited vendor is selected based on price, quality, quantity, capacity, lead time,
terms with SEPL by the sourcing team.
-On approval of the vendor the supplier is asked to develop fabric for sampling.

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Sampling

-On receiving the sample yardage with an average lead time of 10 days the fabric is tested
for buyer requirements.
o Solid -Lab dips
o Yarn dyed -Desk loom
o Print -Strike off
-The test reports are sent to the merchant and then to buyer for approval.
-On approval of the merchant it is sent to BI team for approval.
-on approval the sourcing team is informed to release the PO through mail.
-On rejection of the fabric /comments received on the fabric from merchant or buyer the
supplier is requested to rework on the fabric and send it back for approval, this continues
until the merchant and buyer approves on the fabric.
-Once approved the sourcing team is advised to release the cost for sampling to the
supplier.
-Sample yardage costs one and a half times bulk fabric cost or flat 250-300

Bulk purchase

-On order confirmation, Fabric Sourcing receives Order Confirmation Meeting details from
marketing via email which includes fabric quality, color, quantity, fabric content, count,
construction, fabric weight and any special instructions, plan cut date(PCD), garment delivery
additional processes, item no, style no.

- Fabric Sourcing team will Receives PI from supplier via e-mail and Fabric sourcing team will
review PI if it is as per the requirement same will be forwarded to marketing , If PI Is not as per
the requirement information will be sent to supplier to rework on PI

-Merchant provide item-wise details to the fabric sourcing team and Update FOB( First o Bulk)
submission date and finalize bulk flow

FOB (First of Bulk) submission

- The supplier will forward First of bulk to Sourcing and Sourcing team will verify the initial
quality and color, if it meets the requirement ,it will be forwarded to marketing.If it is not
meeting the requirement ,sourcing team will request supplier to resubmit the First of bulk

- Supplier will provide 100mtrs fabric in each color for size set and other preproduction activities
to the merchant along with a card which has all the information from Location to the Quantity
received.

-After bulk dyeing gets complete, QC review will happen in supplier place where ever possible
wherein the Fabric is checked by different parameters. Once QC is approved the Supplier
prepares the packaging list for the final goods.

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-If QC review dint happen in supplier place then inspection report is sent from supplier to the
fabric sourcing team.

-Once the packaging list is ready OC receives the invoice from supplier for the goods, which are
ready for dispatch. Fabric sourcing team takes the delivery of the fabric once the payment issues
are cleared.

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PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR BUYER NOMINATED SUPPLIER:

Buyer directly advices the Color standards to the mill with the information to marketing
team who in turn will inform our Fabric Sourcing team via email.
Once Fabric Sourcing receives information from Suppliers through email /phone, the
Sourcing team will inform supplier to start development for the sampling purpose
Supplier will Start fabric sample development as per requirement and Sourcing team will
ask for the sample in time
Fabric sourcing team does fabric cost negotiation with supplier (with projected numbers)
and gets sampling fabric simultaneously

FABRIC STORE & FABRIC AUDIT

Fabric store is a place where the fabric received from supplier/processor is stored. Before issuing
the fabric to any further process, inspection is carried out for the received lot of fabric to judge
whether the quality of received fabric is as per the approved standard or not. Only approved
quality fabric is issued to the next process.

STAFF CADER

1. General Manager 1

2. Assistant manager- 2

3. Sr. executive-3

4. Executive-2

5. Jr. Executive-4

Total= 11

NON STAFF:

1. Quality Auditor- 1

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2. Data entry-5

3. Co-ordinator- 1

4. Store assistant- 2

5. Supervisor- 5

6. Writers -5

7. Track operator- 2

8. Helpers- 10

Total 10

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

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PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR FABRIC AUDIT

FLOW CHART FOR FABRIC AUDITS

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

1.FABRIC RECEIPT

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2.BULK FABRIC INSPECTION

SHADING

Checked against hanger swatches received from the merchandiser on the basis of colour/
quantity/design.
Spectra light- it is a visual colour evaluation. it provides five light sources:
o Stimulated day light (D65)
o Horizon (Early morning sunrise/afternoon sunset)
o Illuminant a (Incandescent home light)
o Cool white fluorescent (CWF)
o Ultraviolet (UV)
o Custom fluorescent (TL-84/u30)

3.FOUR POINT SYSTEM

10-15% bulk fabric is checked for the quality parameters.


Inspected on the inspection table with sufficient light.
Each visible defect is noted down in the inspection report and is penalized with a point
value as below.

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POWER LOOM FABRIC:


Shipment points = 32 pts/100sq yards
Actual points
40/100sq yards Pass
60/100sq yards- Seconds
>60 /100sq yards-Rejected

MILLMADE FABRIC:
Shipment points 16 points/100yards
Actual points
20 points/100 yards Pass
30 point /100 yards Seconds
>30 points/100 yards Rejected

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4.FABRIC STORAGE AFTER INSPECTION

5.BULK FABRIC TESTING

The fabric is tested against following parameters:

fabric construction
fabric weight
dimensional stability
warp and weft shrinkage
shade of the fabric

The inhouse lab has following apparatus for testing:

1.FABRIC CONSTRUCTION

Pick glass( EPI,PPI) FOR 10% fabric.

2. FABRIC WEIGHT:

GSM cutter (gm/sq mt)

3. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY:

Warp and weft shrinkage before wash and after wash.

% shrinkage = Before wash width after wash width

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Before wash width * 100

INTERNAL TEST REPORT


Sent to merchandiser, CAD and production units
Checked against the test report from the nominated lab like MTL/SGS/ITL Submitted by
the supplier.
If there is any deviation, supplier will take steps.

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6.FABRIC ISSUE TO FACTORY

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7.FABRIC ISSUE TO PROCESS HOUSE

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

8.FACTORY RETURNS AND OCR

On the shipment of a particular style, the factory would be sending back the remains of
production, cut bits and the balance fabric, which could not be used or consumed.
Based on this receipt an order completion report is (OCR) generated which includes:
o complete purchase
issue
return
stock summary
sale order details
o Purchase
PO number
date
buyer
style
total order quantity
o Issue and returns
Quality issued against lot no./colorwise
o Stock
Quantity consumed by factory
o Summary
Total receipts
issues-balance stock

The order completion report will be sent to the merchandiser/merchant manager for sign
off/approval.

9.FABRIC STOCK AND CLEARANCE

Stock fabric is leftover/ excess fabric after production/shipment sampling, remains etc. all the
warehouse. Stock can be catagorised as:

Dead stock

Current stock

Assorted stock

DEAD STOCK

- Production left overs

- Disposed at best prices based on market survey

- Handled as per head office/management

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

CURRENT STOCK

- Fabric received from supplier which is not yet issued to production

ASSORTED FABRIC STOCK

- Stock quantity less than 100 metres.

- Used for sampling

PROCESS FLOW FOR FABRIC STORE

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

FABRIC DEFECTS

- Double stitch

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

- Down stitch

- Open stitch

- Abrasion marks

- Stop marks

- Double pick

- Box alignment

- Puckering

- Stains

- Embroidery fault

- Un trimmed thread

- Uneven print

- Print streaks

- Out print

- Miss print

- Double end

- Double pick

- Slub

- Floats

- Miss pick

- Dye spot

- Damage

- Double end

- Water mark

- Contamination

- Oil stain

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

TRIMS AND ACCESSORIES STORE Trims


and accessories store is the centralized place where the trims and accessories required for
manufacturing a garment is collected upon the merchandiser advice. All the trim materials are
stored at one place in a rack with certain identification numbers, which will be easy to find out
what and where, is being kept. Let us see about the completed process flow of this store.

HEIRARCHY

PROCESS FLOW CHART

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PROCESS CARRIED OUT IN STORE


1. GOOD RECEIVED AT GATE

When the goods reach the gate, inward seal is put on the invoice document and the goods are
allowed inside.

2. RECEIVING GOODS AT STORES

Date and time are entered in the inward seal.


No. of boxes and weight are checked and cross verified and a seal is put-up.
If it is not matched, then the transporter document is kept held and informed to the
concerned merchant.

3. ENTRY DONE IN EXCEL SHEET

Entries with details in excel sheet

TRIM APPROVAL CARD

It is the standard card available at the store.

It is used for getting approval from the concerned merchandiser, whether the received
goods are correct or not.

It takes 1 or 2 days of approval, until then the quality check is being carried out.

It contains the following details

o PO number

o Style Number

o Item Number

o Date

o Buyer

o Supplier

o Merchant

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o Quantity

o Swatch

QUANTITY & QUALITY CHECK


QUANTITY
- Here quantity is being checked 100 %
- The poly-bag is opened and counted and weighted.
- Again it is being put-up in another bag and the details are mentioned.

QUALITY

- Quality is checked according to the Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) 2.5


- Depending upon the good received for that invoice, it is being checked.
- Again it is checked by the supervisor.
- In case the quality is not met, it is being informed to the concerned merchandiser and the
purchase department for approval.
- If is it approved, then the rejected sticker (Pink color) is stuck on that consignment and
kept separately.
- It is informed to the supplier and to deliver quality goods.
- After inspection, the GRN number is 65.
- For rejected good, the GRN number is 69.

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CHECKING PARAMETERS:

Cords/ Tapes/ Lace

- Color
- Width / Length / Height
- Thickness
- Wearing
- Designs
- Tipping / Wordings
- Shrinkage
- Metal contamination

Labels / Stickers / Tickets / Tags

- Contents and Layouts


- Color of the ground and lettering
- Size Length / Width
- Fonts / Wordings Type / Size
- Weavings / Damage on ground / Lettering
- Placement of wordings / Alignment
- Printing clarity
- UPC# - Unit Product Code
- Metal contamination

Buttons / Zippers

- Colors / Zip tape / Teeth / Sliders

- Size Width / Thickness / Length

- Teeth and Slider size

- Movement of the slider

- End closers / Openers

- Metal contamination

- Finish

- Wordings if embossed / engraved buttons

- Scratches

- Chippings / Brockens

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Threads - One spool of total lot is inspected.

DEFECTS:

Labels

- Shade variation ( background / print)


- Printing defects
- Light and dark print
- Side burning problem
- Color variation
- Weaving defects
- White line stain marks

Lace

- Color variation
- Size variation
- Stain marks

Buttons

- Shade variation within the button


- Shade variation within the packet
- Cracking , broken , Scratches
- Damage button

Hook

- Rust on the hook

Poly Cover

- Ceiling Problem

- Printing Problem

Zipper

- Operability problems

- Shade variation

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- Metal rusting

-
EXCEL ENTRY

All the entries are stored in a file in excel.

CENTRAL PLANNING

- After the goods are placed in the respective place, the central planning department tells where
the goods need to be issued and in which date.

- They plan for every goods and inform the store about it.

FACTORY PLANNING

- It determines the required number and type of trims and accessories.

- It places the information to central store regarding the requirement of goods to their factories.

REQUISTION TO SUBSTORE

- The requisition is placed from the factory to their respective sub-stores

- The sub-store request for goods in the main store.

ISSUE DEPARTMENT

- Once the requisition is done by the sub-store, the issue department will list the trims based on
the requisition.

- And they will prepare the Delivery Challan (DC) for respective units.

- And finally the material is issued to the sub-store.

VISUAL IDENTIFICATIONS IN THE STORES:

Various Stages of Accessories in inspection and stock are denoted by different color stickers.

Green sticker Re-ordered goods

Pink sticker Rejected goods

Orange sticker - Hold

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRIMS:

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Labels (main , core , additional)

Buttons

Stickers

Hand tag

Poly bag (low density , polypropylene )

Hanger poly bag

Headpin

Back support

Hand tag

Tag bullet

Clips ( plastic , glossy)

Threads

Sizes

Draw cords

Price stickers

Sensor label or tag

Button hole elastic

Velcro

Zippers

Carton box

Cello tape

Interlinings

Beads

CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL
IED
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT (IED)
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Industrial engineering proves itself to be an indispensable part of the garment industry. It plays
its the role from order receiving to the production- end.

Industrial Engineering is concerned with design, improvement and installation of integrated


system of people, material, equipment and energy. It draws specialized knowledge in
mathematical, physical and social science together with principles and methods of engineering
analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.

DEPARTMENT HEIRARCHY

SAMPLING PROCESS

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OPERATION BULLETIN

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

It is prepared in the excel format where in all the operations involved in that garment making are
listed out along with SAM of the operation and machines required for those operation. Operation
bulletin also contains some other parameters as follows:

Output (pieces per day)


Target efficiency
Manual operation Minute.
Machine operation minute.
Total standard time
Total no of work stations.
No of individual machines required.
Types of folder used.
Needle size.

With total calculation this operation bulletin gives the duration to stitch the garment with 100%
efficiency SAM (Standard allowed Minute), then this SAM (100% efficiency) is multiplied
with the efficiency slab (based on order quantity) to calculate the run time for the order.

OB format contains:

Operation bulletin contains following information.

a. Daily working hours

b. Target output per day or per hour

c. Total SAM (Sewing SAM and Non-sewing SAM)

d. OB prepared by (Name of the Engineer)

e. Job code

f. Operation description

g. Machine description

h. SAM @ 100% Efficiency

i. SAM @ target efficiency%

j. Calculated production per hour

k. Name of the Folder and attachment if used

l. Calculated no. of machines

m. Actual no. of machines

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n. Estimated production per unit hours

o. Any remarks

p. Machine summary list

OB PREPARATION:
Step 1: Prepare the operation breakdown for the garment.

Step 2: Identify the machine type required along with folders, guides or attachments based on the
seams needed to produce the required style.

Step 3: Enter the SAM value of the operation from the GSD software available.

Step 4: calculate production / hr @ 100 and target efficiency from the formula:

-Calculated Production/Hour @ 100 % efficiency = 60/Operation SAM @ 100 % Efficiency

-Calculated Production/Hour @ target efficiency = 60/Operation SAM @ target Efficiency

Step 5: Calculate theoretical number of machines required

-Calculated Machine number = (SAM @ target efficiency * Daily production target/Total


minutes in a shift day)

Step 6: The actual no of machines required is determined by rounding off the theoretical no of
machines.

Step 7: Calculate estimated production per hour:

-Estimated Production/Hour = (No. of machine assigned * Hourly target qty.)/Calculated no. of


machines.

Step 8: Create a machine summary table. This table will help you to quickly find how many
actual machines are required for each machine types.

CALCULATING RUN TIME FOR THE GARMENTS BASED ON ORDER QUANTITY

Based on the SAM and efficiency slab, would calculate the RUN TIME (RUN TIME is SAM
with percentage efficiency it is the calculated time in which a garment process can be

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

effectively completed). The calculated RUN TIME for each process is used to calculate the CM
(cut to make cost).

ON ORDER CONFIRMATION:

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Formulas Chart
Formula#1: Daily Line Target = (Total working minutes in a day X No. of
operators in a line X Line efficiency %) /Garment SAM

Formula#2: Individual operator target = (Total working minutes in a day


X line efficiency %) /Operation SAM

Formula#3: Individual operator Efficiency% = (units produced X operation SAM X


100)/Total minutes worked

Formula#4: Line Efficiency% = (Line output X garment SAM X 100)/(Number of


operators X minute worked in day)

Formula#5: Machine Productivity: Line output / No. of machine used

Formula#6: Labor Productivity = Line output / No. of total manpower (operators


+helpers)

Formula#7: Line WIP (work in process) = Total pieces lie on the line for a particular
order line

Formula#8: Standard Time = (Observed time X observed rating) + Allowances


Allowances Relaxation allowance, contingency allowance

Formula#9: Machine utilization% = (Actual Machine running Time X 100) / Time


available

Formula#10: Cost per minute = Total cost incurred in labor / Total available
working minutes in a day X no. of labors

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Formula#11: Production Cost pet unit = Total cost incurred in production in a day/
no. of garment produced in a day

Formula#12: Man to Machine ratio = Total manpower of the factory / Total no. of
sewing machines (utilized

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

SAMPLING DEPARTMENT
SAMPLING

It is the first section of garment manufacturing process. This section is used for making sample
garment for approval and pattern sets for bulk production when needed. The main objective of
this department to book consumption fabric, create samples, sizes set and check whether the bulk
production of the particular style is possible in-house or not.

Lead time for sampling is 7 days from the day of receiving of tech pack.
The sampling section follows the make through system for producing the garments.
There are different pattern masters for different buyers.
The sampling process till the sealer sample is done at the central sampling department.

WORKFORCE

Pattern master: - 5

Supervisor: -3

Tailors: - 62

RELATED DEPARTMENTS

The sampling department has communication and interchange of data with the following
department:

Merchandising
Sewing
IED
Planning

MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE SAMPLING DEPARTMENT



Planning for sample production

Coordinating with merchandiser and other departments

Pattern making

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Cutting

Sample production

Quality checking of samples produced

STAGES OF SAMPLING

1. Proto Sample

a) It is made for style approval and checking the feasibility of the production.

b) Same types of materials are used, with same quality. However, substitute materials of same
quality can be used like fabric and trims.

c) Pattern is made in the CAD.

d) 3 pieces are made as proto sample.

e) One piece is sent to merchandiser and another one to the buyer.

f) The comments are receiver by the merchandiser from the buyer.

2. Fit Sample

a) It is made to check for fit and construction.

b) 3 to 6 samples are made at this stage.

c) Internal quality auditing is done.

3. Pre-Production Sample

a) It is made by using actual fabrics and trims.

b) It has accurate dimensions.

c) Three pieces are made for any size.

d) One piece is sent to buyer for approval.

4. GPT Sample

a) Garment Processing Test is done to check the seam strength.

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b) Three samples are made for this purpose.

c) Internal testing is done for all the samples, if passed then the samples are sent in Nominated
Laboratory as per requirement of International Buyer.

5.Sealer Sample

a) This is the final stage of sampling before size set.

b) Three pieces are made in which one is sent to buyer for final approval.

c) This sample is used as a reference for bulk production.

d) The sample is sealed and referred afterwards in case of any doubts or confusion.

6. Size Set

a) Five pieces in each size are made except for JC Penny whose requirement is one piece per
size.

b) This is done after grading of pattern.

c) Size set goes for internal inspection by nominated Quality Auditor d. Approval for pilot run is
done after comments of buyer

7. Pilot Run

a) This is the first sample produced in the batch.

b) Cutting for the pilot run is done in cutting section.

c) Five pieces in each size and each colour are made in pilot.

d) After pilot is approved bulk cutting starts.

Common Sampling Defects


Loose stitch, uneven width of stitch, down stitch, damaged piece (cut), uneven piping width,
uneven gathering, wrong check matching, smoking defects, elastic defects, uneven neck
bounding, bottom roping etc.

Sample Development Process


Sealer sample and tech pack coming from buyer.

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Then the fabric is send for shrinkage test (70 X 70 cm).


Patterns come from buyer or developed in-house.
Checking of patterns.
Trial Piece (1) is made at 0 shrinkage.
The trial piece is matched with the buyers sample.
Then the sample is washed.
After washing, the measurement of the garment is checked before steam iron.
Steam iron and measurement.
Approval of the sample, if not then corrections is made.
After the approval Size-set samples (1pc for all sizes and 5 pcs. for base size) are made
along with GPT samples (2-3 pcs).
Then sewing is done along with button hole, button sewing and bar tack.
The sample Q.C. checks the samples before washing.
Washing
Measurement by Q.C.
Steam

Measurement according to the spec. sheet of the buyer.


Then the report is generated for that style.
Quality Manager approves the samples and report is generated.
Then the buyer nominated Q.A approval is done for the samples.
After that, Pre-production meeting is called between the sampling department, IED, PM,
Quality in charge, Q.A, Merchandiser etc.
Then the buyer approval report is send to the cutting department for pilot cutting.
Batch setting is done and sewing and washing is done.
Approval by the Quality Manager.
Approval by nominated Q.A.
Approval by buyer Q.A.

Documents related with Sampling Department


Buyer File: - Tech pack, Purchase order, Style analysis, comments, etc.
Shrinkage report
Pattern production report
Size set report
Trial piece report
Issued sample report
Cutting report- daily/ monthly
Daily batch-wise production report
Monthly buyer-wise production report
Sample delivery details monthly
Delivery challan for garments
Sample audit sheeT

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Indent by merchants: Sample indent contains garment details, style details, trims details,
size details etc.

Sampling Process Flow Chart

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DEPARTMENT HEIRARCHY

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Sampling Department Process & Responsibility Description

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CUTTING DEPARTMENT
SPREADING AND CUTTING
The cutting department makes the marker plan according to fabric consumption is planned
and requested from the fabric store.

The marker plan has the following details which gives the fabric consumption per marker:

Nap direction

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Way( number of garments per lay)


Lay length
Lay height; number of plies

Marker plan is prepared as per the shipment date of the size wise order ratio.

Marker making software- Optitex

The marker efficiency achieved for basic styles is 80-90%

The number of pieces that need to be shipped first are cut first and bundled accordingly.

MARKER PLANNING AND MARKER MAKING


After cut order plan is done by planning department, marker planning and lay planning is done in
the cutting department. Optimum use of material and cutting systems are two important
considerations during planning of cutting. The purpose of marker planning is to determine the
most efficient combination of sizes and shades for each order and to produce the best fabric yield
and equipment utilization. One cutting order requires several markers to achieve optimum
efficiency. This depends on the size ratio given by the buyers.

Marker making is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a
specified style, fabric, and distribution of sizes. The process of arranging pattern pieces in the
most efficient manner requires time, skill, and concentration. Markers are made in CAD. Patterns
made in CAD are received by the cutting department from sampling. Based on these patterns
marker is made.

The type of marker depends on the following factors: -

1. The order quantity

2. The size ratio

The efficiency of the marker is usually: -

1. Checks Fabric: - 87%

2. Stripes Fabric: - 89%

3. Plain Fabric: - 90-91%

Computerized marker making is more accurate and provides the greatest opportunity for pattern
manipulation, marker efficiency, reuse of previously made patterns, and shortest response time.
Production markers are developed on the computer. In addition, parameters for markers are
entered into the computer from cutting orders. These include style numbers, size distribution and
fabric width. CAD technicians manipulate pattern images on computer screens and increase

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marker efficiency by experimenting with various configurations to determine the best fabric
utilization for the marker. Maximum marker length is 10 meters.

PLOTTING
Plotting is the process of printing the markers on paper so they can be reviewed or cut.
Computer-driven plotters are used to draw pattern pieces, graded nests of patterns and markers
with complete annotation, as needed.

SPREADING
Spreading is the process of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table, cutting table, or
specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process. Lay planning is done and
spreading is done accordingly. Spreading is done by :

Manual Spreading:

The fabric roll is fixed on a clamp just before the spreading table. One helper is there to draw the
fabric from the roll and pass on the table. The other two operators spread the fabric to other end
of the table and while returning back to the starting point edge matching is done manually and
the layer is straightened with the help of a big scale. End cutters or scissors are used to cut the
fabric.

Basic spreading equipment consists of: -

1. Spreading surfaces,

2. Fabric cutting devices.

In case of manual cutting end-cutters or scissors are used. The fabric is spread on the smooth
table surface and spreading is controlled manually. Papers are used after certain layers of spread.
The repetition in insertion of paper depends on the type of fabric.

1. White Paper: To provide the stability to the lay while cutting and avoid them from sliding.

2. Colour Paper: To differentiate the shade variation.

CHECKS AND STRIPES MATCHING


Checks and stripes fabric are spread manually. Horizontal stripes matching are done with the
help of threads tied end to end with the use of clamp. These clamps are separated from each other
at distances 1-1.5 meters. Vertical stripes matching are done at the time of relaying. The process
is same for check fabrics.

CUTTING
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Pattern verification is done by QC before cutting. Cutting of the spread lay is done by : -

Band Knife Cutting: One cutter and a helper are required in cutting by band knife. Cutting
clamps are used to keep the cut parts together in lay.

For stripes and checks block cutting is done. After that relaying is done.

RELAYING
Stripes and checks matching are done for the block cut fabric. After this the block goes for
cutting again.

The marker is planned with a relaying allowance around all pieces that must be matched. The
fabric is spread as through it were plain, and cut up into blocks. The blocks requiring matching
are then relayed, manually, so that all the superimposed plies are correctly positioned. The
relayed blocks are then cut in the normal way. This method is useful if there are relatively few
pieces requiring matching, as it can reduce spreading times considerably and permit longer
markers.

POSITION MARKING
This operation marks components with guides for sewing and other operations. Drill marker is
used for marking the pocket placement positions, dart lengths etc. The mark itself is a very small
hole.

SHADE MARKING
This operation ensures that the components cut from different shades of the same colour do not
get mixed up during the assembly process. Every component for one garment is marked with a
unique number, printed on a small ticket which is stuck on the component.

BUNDLE PREPARATION
Bundles of cut work are prepared according to the size, colour and quantities, their actual
composition determined by the requirements of the sewing room. Generally the bundle size
varies from 60-100 pieces as required.

BUNDLE TICKETS
These tickets identify each bundle and in themselves play an important role on production
planning and control for sewing and finishing sections.

Each component of the garment is given 1 number

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The sticker has the following details:

Number
Size
There are two ways of ticketing followed here: -
Paper ticketing
Stamp ticketing

There are ten colours used for ticketing. This colour is decided by the quality in- charge based on
the shade variation.

COMMON CUTTING AND SPREADING DEFECTS


Mismatch

Shape out

Ragged cutting

Size variation

FUSING
Fusing is done on continuous fusing bed machine. The objective of fusing is: -

1. TO make sewing easier and increase production

2. Pertaining shape and improving materials appearance

3. Making a functional, lasting ,easy to wear product

Two types of fusing are commonly used for this purpose: -

1. Microdot fusing: - FS- 1008, RF-712 & AF- 407 are some common microdot fusing.

2. Woven fusing

Colour: - White and Charcoal

Temperature: - According to buyer requirement, varies from 140 C to 160 C.

Pressure: - 2 KgF, 3 KgF, 4 KgF

Time: - 10-12 sec, 14-16 sec, 16-18 sec

Fusing Strength: - Testing of fusing strength is done in testing lab.

Fusing Machine Details: -

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Feeding Width: - 35
Machine Length: - 60
Feed Length: - 157
Feed Out Cooling Length: - 75
Table Height: - 37
Source of Light: - 60 up from table

10.14 CHECK POINTS

1. Consumption Checking:

a) In pilot run stage checking consumption per garment of all sizes as per the Purchase Order.

b) Cross check with merchant consumption approval

c) Checking with fabric width

2. Lay length Checking: - Check the lay length as lay record issued by fabric section

3. Marker Checking: - Check the marker length and width as per length issued to make marker in
CAD section

4. Parts Checking: - Check all the parts size wise with top sticker present in the marker

5. Cut Quality Checking: - Check top, middle and bottom pieces of all the components

6. Shade Checking: - Check any shade difference of all components

7. Check Matching: - Check if the checks are matching and the mirror image is balanced

8. Fusing Bubble Checking: - After fusing check if any bubble is present in any component or
not

9. Fusing Strength Checking: - After fusing, check breaking strength of fused components

WORKFORCE
Workers: 65

Cutters: 10

Spreaders: 18

Capacity: 10,000 garment pieces per day

DOCUMENTS
Fusing Test Report

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Spreading Report- QC Report after marker placement


Folder from Planning
Size set
Fabric swatch
Style details
Pre-production comments
Measurement chart
Size set comments
Pilot run comments

DEPARTMENT HEIRARCHY

PROCESS FLOW

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CUTTING PROCESS : RESPONSIBILITY CHART

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SEWING DEPARTMENT
SEWING

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The process flow of sewing department starts as the cut parts are received with the notes, reports
and other details. Sewing department manages the batch setting for a particular style of garment.
This is the first step taken by the sewing department. After the batch setting, pilot run is done for
a certain number of garments. Report of pilot run is checked and accordingly line balancing is
done for that particular style. There are other processes which are controlled by sewing
department such as production system, quality control, pre-production meeting, documentation,
work-force, controlling absenteeism.

WIP CONTROL
Work in progress (WIP) control comes under the responsibility of the line manager and the
supervisor. They keep an eye on the batch setting process and if there comes any flaw, they
immediately take preventive and corrective measures.

A pre-production planning is done based on the OB and the pilot run and if by current batch
setting the required output is not coming then they control WIP by line balancing and introducing
the helpers and floaters.

PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Production system is any method of transformation of various resources into useful finished
goods and services. The transformation process typically requires common resources like man-
power, capital investment for equipments and machineries, space (land and building) and other
resource to effect a change.

These are called as factors of production which includes man, machine and land. According to
production managers production system stands for five Ms i.e. Man, Machine, Money, Methods
and Materials.

BATCH SETTING
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Batch setting is process of setting up of man and machine in such a way to give required output
in given period of time. Batch setting is done after the sewing department receives the cut parts
from cutting department with the bundle numbers and ticketing on cut parts. Batch setting
primarily done on the basis of OB produced but Central IED department and is revised as per as
requirement and efficiency of operator on sewing floor.

The batch setting is the responsibility of IED department and accordingly based on time study,
work study and method study, line balancing is done.

QUALITY CONTROL
Quality control is a set of procedure and inspection level which each and every finished garment
has to pass through. It is a set standard for inspection process which meets the requirements of
the customers. In order to implement any quality control measure, the industry should be aware
of the quality which a final product should meet. Then the extent of quality control action should
be determined i.e. percentage of the goods and services to be inspected from the total units
produced. Then the reports of fail percentage and passed percentage should be given to
management personnel.

After that corrective action must be taken according to the defect level and whether the final
product should be accepted or rejected should be decided by the management. And if there is too
many units which fails then there is the need to change the setup on production floor.

Finally, Quality control is ongoing process top ensure that remedial efforts, if required, have
produced satisfactory results and top immediately detect recurrences or new instance of trouble.

There are various types of defects found in finished garment that are as follows:

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PRE-PRODUCTION MEETING
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Pre-production meeting is the most important expect of the production process.

WORKFORCE
Workforce is the labour pool in the employment. This is the workforce only who converts the
various resources into useful goods and services. Workforce at OC is divided into two main
categories, namely:

Contracted labour.

Permanent labours employed by OC.

Contracted labour: These labours are hired for a particular style and after that when the target
is met, they may or may not be allotted to some other style. They have a line supervisor who
makes sure that there is smooth material flow and neither machine nor the operators are sitting
ideal. No training is given by the company to these labours as they are contracted based on their
skills.

Permanent Labor: These labors are recruited and trained by the company itself. They are
divided into the following categories:

Low skilled

Semi-skilled

High skilled

Multi skilled

Floaters

According to their skill level, they are graded and their salaries are decided. The work allotted to
them is based on the style and the skill required for the operations involved. Floaters are the most
skilful operators among all since they are the experts in carrying out almost all the necessary
operations. They are paid highest among all the operators.

DOCUMENTS
Documents which are maintained in sewing department are as follows:

Cutting inspection report

Measurement checking report

End line inspection report

100% inline inspection report

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QC (quality control) audit report

Daily production report

Technical package

Revised operation bulletin.

BUTTONING SECTION
Once the garments are produced they are sent to washing department then they are forwarded to
finishing department where buttons are attached. Before attaching the buttons, the button placket
and the cuff placket are ironed. Buttoning is not done during production because during washing
it may get damaged.

BUTTON HOLE AND BAR TACKING


Button hole and bar tacking is done on production floor after the whole garment is ready and all
its parts are attached together. Bar tacking is done at the areas which undergo huge tension when
becomes operational, such as at the zippers, belt loops, back pocket, pocket line and side seam
attachment.

DEPARTMENT HEIRARCHY

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SEWING DEPARTMENT PROCESS FLOW CHART

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PROCESS-RESPONSIBILITY CHART :

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FINISHING & PACKING


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The finishing department is the final part of the production department which comes after all the
departments and it plays an equally important role in the final appearance of the garment to the
buyer.

The department has a process layout performing similar functions.

PROCESS FLOW CHART:

Tagging

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STEPS INVOLVED:
This department includes majorly of the following steps,

1 TRIMMING:

This involves the removal of the extra threads from the garment at the seams.

2 SEMI PRESSING:

This happens when a garment is difficult to inspect in the crushes manner as it comes from the
washing department hence, they do a partial pressing for the garments and then inspect it and
trim it and then send it to the complete pressing process.

3 INSPECTION:
The inspection carried out here is according to the AQL 2.5 system and sometimes it depends on
the buyer also i.e., if the buyer emphasizes for a 100% inspection then the company has to do as
specified.

4 PRESSING:
The pressing is done after the garment has been completely inspected and the garments are
pressed on the basis of how they will be folded during packing.

5 TAGGING SECTION:
Once the garments are been done with the inspection and complete pressing then they are sent
for tagging the labels and the labels include the size labels, price tags and miscellaneous labels if
any required by the buyer. Once the tagging is done the garments are folded according to the
buyers specification and also they are either folded plainly or sometimes they are folded after
they are put to the hangers as per the buyers specifications again.

The packing material, PCB details, number of size ratios that are supposed to be put in are all
suggested by the buyer and the packing is done according to these specifications.

6 PACKING:
The packing is always done in the carton boxes and there are several criteria for the packing of
the garments they are as follows,

There are generally two kinds of packing the garment,

1. The garment is individually packed/wrapped in the poly bag whose design will be specified by
the buyer i.e., either with the hanger attached or plain poly bag packing and then the entire
garments (as per the packing criteria) is arranged in the carton box.

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2. The other method is that the garments are just folded and arranged in the carton boxes without
putting them in the poly bag.

The packing criteria followed in each carton box as already mentioned is done in different ways
which is as follows,

SOLID PACKING:

In this method of packing, the carton box will include garments of single colour and same size.

For example, 20 shirts of a similar colour say navy blue and the size say S will be put in one
carton box.

RATIO PACKING:

In this method the carton box includes garments of same colour but of different sizes according
to the ratio.

For example, S : M : L : XL = 5 : 7 : 7 : 5.

7 PRODUCT SAFETY AUDIT (NEEDLE DETECTOR MACHINE): The


purpose
of this is to detect the presence of a broken needle in the garment and ensure the product safety.
All garments (except the garments with the RFID tags) must undergo a compulsory needle
detection check. In case if the presence of a needle is detected, the garment is held at that point.
The hand needle detector is used to then detect the parts of the garment thoroughly. If the needle
is found (rectifiable corrective action), it is removed, the garment packed again and passed
through the needle detector machine. If no needle is found even using the hand needle detector
(non rectifiable), the garment is rejected and not sent for cartooning.

8 SCANNING:
After the garments have been packed into the cartons, the garments pieces must be scanned (as
per buyer requirements). Scanning process for different buyers is different.

9 100% CARTON AUDIT


100 % carton audit is now done for these cartons. This is done by the packing auditor. The EDI
stickers are cross verified with the carton marking.

10 PRE-FINAL AUDIT
The pre-final audit is done by the NQA as per the AQL. If the garments pass the specified AQL,
after inspection, they are offered to the buyer QA, if not then they are sent for re-screening.

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11 FINAL AUDIT
The final audit is done by the Buyer QA in the same manner as the Pre Final audit is explained
above. The Buyer QA will mark the cartons to be checked and they will be checked 100% for
packing and trim accuracy as per the specified AQL. After the audit is complete, the audit report
is filled up.

12 REPACKING
The opened cartons are 100% audited and have to be repacked for the shipment. Once the buyer
confirms the shipment, the cartons are sealed with the BUYERS TAPE. The operator will
arrange the cartons boxes into the lot according to the PO and style.

The cartons now will be trucked out, while the packing auditor monitors the number of cartons in
the particular PO.

TESTING LABORATORY
Laboratory in an apparel industry is used in testing the raw materials like fabric, trims,
accessories for their physical and chemical properties based on buyers requirement. SEPL has a
centralized laboratory for woven at Sarjapur unit with different testing facilities like physical,
wet and chemical testing.

1 STANDARDS FOLLOWED:

AATCC: American Association of Textile Color and Chemicals.

ISO: International Organisation for Standardization.

ASTMD: American Society of Testing Material Designation.

2 HIERARCHY OF LABORATORY:

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PROCESS FLOWCHART

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ACTIVITY CHART

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EXTERNAL LAB

EXTERNAL LABS:
1. SGS

2. ATS

3. Intertek

TYPES OF TESTS:
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DRY LAB-PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL LAB:


1 Instron tensile strength

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Temperature 1 1 C, RH 652%

Used to test:

Tensile strength
Seam opening
Tearing strength.

Ex: ASTMD 5034-08 Tensile strength

Specimen size- 300x50mm


Gauge length- 100mm
Pressure- 5kPa

2 Crock meter

Traverse length- 1043mm


Weight- 9N
Finger diameter- 16mm
Normal cycles- 10
Wet pickup- AATC 655%
ISO 95-100%
Maximum acceptance level 3 and above.

3 Bursting strength tester (for carton strength)

Specimen size- 10x10in

Average weight- 14kg

Display- kgf/cm

4 Tearing tester

No of machines- 2

I. Machine 1

Weight of ring- 3200g


Specimen size- 10x7cm.

II. Machine 2

Weight- 12800g (upper range).

5 GSM cutter

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Diameter- 111mm
Purpose- Costing of the fabric
No of warp and weft threads are calculated.

6 Twist tester

Purpose- To calculate twists/inch.


S-twist- Side seam and other stitches.
Z-twist- Buttons.

7 Mechanical shaker

ISO method- 307


Specimen- 6g
Cut into 2g each.
Cut 5mm each.
Prepare solution:
o 7.46g/l KCl.
o 100ml KCl in each conical flask.
o 30 rpm for 2 hrs.

8 Darkroom (Color Matching Cabinet)

Six different modes are:

Daylight
Cool white
Horizon
UV
TLB4-U30 (tube light)
A (defect checking)

Steel plate at 45 degree angle.

1. Button/snap pull tester.

2. Pilling tester.

WET LAB
Electrolyte washing m/c front loading- 2 m/c.
Whirlpool washing machine- 4.
Standard detergent is used- 1993 std.
Incubator (saliva test- 4 hrs, perspiration test)
Launder o meter- 2 m/c.

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WASHING DEPARTMENT
WASHING DEPARTMENT

Goods are received with a DC


Followed by colour-wise segregation of the lot
Before bulk wash, sample wash is done which is approved from the buyer through the
merchandiser for the hand-feel or effect.
The recipe for the wash is set during the sampling run
Garments are sent for re-wash if any comments come from the buyer
The normal rewash quantity is 0.5%.

QUALITY PARAMETERS IN WASHING

After washing, inspection is done for garments.

1st lot goes 100% quality inspection after washing.


Checking sampling plan

o Before wash

Non denim wash: - 10%


Denim wash: - 10 %
Dyeing wash: - 10%

o After wash

Non denim wash: - 10%


Denim wash: - 100 %
Dyeing wash: - 100%

3 CHECKPOINTS FOR AFTER WASHING INSPECTION


Shade
Hand feel
Damages & stains
Patches
Pilling
Abrasion effect
Tinting
Odour

NUMBER OF MACHINES
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There are 18 washing machines in the washing unit of capacity varying from 10-30 kg for
sampling purpose and 100-500 kg for bulk washing.
Washing machines has in-built hydro extractor having capacity of 50 kg and100 kg.
Dryers are of capacity 100 kg and 200 kg.

TYPES OF WASH
Softener wash
Enzyme wash
Stone wash
Bleach
Denim wash-Medium/Dark
Tinting
Rubber ball wash

WASHING TIME
Medium Wash/Softener Wash 10-12 hrs

Heavey Wash 24 hrs Enzyme Wash 2 hrs Normal Wash 1-2 hrs

WORKFORCE AND ORGANIZATION CHART


There are 150 workers are working in the washing unit with 10% absenteeism.

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MACHINERY

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PROCESS RESPONSIBILITY CHART

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PROCESS FLOW

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PROJECT:
DECREASING ALTERATIONS IN THE SEWING ROOM:
The sewing room is perhaps the most important department in the industry. The fast changing
economic conditions such as global competition, declining profit margin, customer demand for
high quality product, product variety and reduced lead-time etc. have a major impact on
manufacturing industries. The demand for higher value at lower price is increasing and to
survive, apparel manufacturers need to improve their operations through producing right first
time quality and waste reduction. It is important to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of
variation in an operational process, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain
process performance with well-executed control plans. The industry can gain higher productivity
and profitability with improved quality product by minimizing the need for reworks. It also
minimizes cost and improves internal throughout time.

The fast changing economic conditions such as global competition, declining profit margin,
customer demand for high quality product, product variety and reduced lead-time etc. have a
major impact on manufacturing industries. The demand for higher value at lower price is
increasing and to survive, apparel manufacturers need to improve their operations through
producing right first time quality and waste reduction. It is important to identify, quantify and
eliminate sources of variation in an operational process, to optimize the operation variables,
improve and sustain process performance with well-executed control plans. The industry can
gain higher productivity and profitability with improved quality product by minimizing the need
for reworks. It also minimizes cost and improves internal throughout time.

In garment business, it is quite usual that few rejected garments are left after shipment due to the
unacceptable, and sometimes unrepairable, defects that occur during the manufacturing process.
This may happen due to low quality raw materials or faulty process or employee's casual
behavior (machine and/or human error). It is important, therefore, that the factory has evolved
well defined check points to control the quality and reduce the rejection percentage. Reworks in
the garments industry are quite common but they hamper the smooth normal production.

We see a lot of rejected garment after shipment. Most of the organization termed these garments
as rejected because those garments cant be repaired by any means. Reworks in the garments
industry is a common works that hampers the smooth production rate and focus poor quality

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products having an impact on overall factory economy. Minimization of reworks is a must in


quality and productivity improvement. Rework is a vital issue for poor quality product and low
production rate. Reworks are the non -productive activities focusing on any activity that
customer are not willing to pay for. Non-productive activities describe that the customer does not
consider as adding value to his product. By reacting quicker in minimization of reworks to make
a product as per customer demand with expected quality, the company can invest less money and
more costs savings.

OBJECTIVES
o To estimate the alteration percentage to get a quantitative prospective of problems
o To detect the major defects and its causes
o To improve the quality standard from the current status
o To increase the profits which is the major area of concern for any organization

PROCESS FLOW :
DETECT THE SEWING LINES HAVING MAXIMUM ALTERATION

o Comparing data from inspection table

IDENTIFY THE MAJOR CAUSES OF DEFECTS

o Discussing with line managers, using own knowledge

SUGGEST POSSIBLE MEASURES TO REDUCE DEFECTS

o After analysing the cost effectiveness

TRAIN OPERATORS TO THE NEW WAY OF WORKING

o Sustaining is as important as implementing

OBSERVATIONS:

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2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
Total garments
produced
800
Number of
alterations
600
400
200
0
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PART 1
Location
o Wovens Sewing room
o Line 2
Style number
o 558015
Buyer
o Banana Republic
Order quantity
o 10000 pieces

THE PROBLEM

o Uneven placket width

o Problem of puckering, roping

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Time required for alteration


o 8-10 minutes per garment ( opening stitch, stitching again with increased focus
and time)
Number of workers involved in alteration
o 2 workers
o Salary = 6000*2 = 12000

THE SOLUTION:
Anti puckering kit

o Contains needle plates and feed dogs.

o Has a transparent glass guide.

o Training provided to the operator on how to use the guide and needle plate

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

FINAL VIEW OF PLACKET STITCHED USING ANTI PUCKERING KIT

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

PART 2
Location
o Wovens Sewing room
Line
o 3
Style number
o 289221
Buyer
o Banana Republic
Order quantity

5000 pieces

THE PROBLEM
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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

o Roping and puckering at the bottom hem


o Causing unevenness
o Causing difference in measurement

THE SOLUTION

o Add a stay-stitch at the hem before doing the final hemming

o Add one operator to the line and train him to do the stay stitch

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

300

250

200
Total garments
150 produced
Number of alterations
100

50

0
Day 3 Day 4 Day 11

PART 3
New correct method to sew main label for clean finish from front &
back.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Traditional method of attaching main


label

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

In traditional method back side is not very neat


after attaching main label and may result in
alteration if tried to finish.

Step 1

Keep needle thread up with


hand before starting the
operation.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Step 2

Start the operation and end


with keeping the needle
thread up.

Step 3

Same on other side of the


label with keeping the
needle thread up.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Back side

Step 4

Finish the label by trimming


the extra threads visible on
front & back

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

Back.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

CONCLUSION
The industry internship proved to be a fruitful experience for me. The three months exposure to
the organization was a good learning curve in my career. It helped me to learn the practical
manufacturing and processing techniques in garments right from the fabric stage to the finished
and packed garment stage.

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Apparel internship report on Orient Craft 9K, Gurgaon; 2015

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
SR. NAME DESIGNATION PHONE EMAIL ID
NO.
1 KAMAL GM 9818835570 KAMALNATH002@GMAIL.COM
NATH FINISHING DEPT
2 SANDEEP INDUSTRIAL 9899279464 sandeepkmall15@gmail.com
MALL ENGINEER
3 TRIPTI PD 9999829811 TRIPTI.GUPTA@ORIENTKNITS.COM
GUPTA MERCHANDISER
4 HITESHWAR CAD MANAGER 8230230222 HITESHWAR.SHARMA@OCKNITS.CO
SHARMA M
5 PRIYA GM , CAD 9811706119 PRIYABHITESH@GMAIL.COM
ABHITESH
During my course of internship, I tried to grasp the concepts of apparel manufacturing, including
cut to pack techniques. I also observed the process flow of various departments in one of the
largest export house of the company .I also noted the different quality aspects that are checked
throughout the production of apparels by the quality Auditors of the respective departments.

I tried to imply the knowledge I have gained through various apparel related subjects such as
Spreading Cutting and Planning(SCAP), Sewn Equipments products and Machineries, Fabric
and garment finishing , Apparel Production Planning and control, Enterprise resource planning ,
Apparel Quality Management , Maintenance
REFERENCES: Management , Work study, Fashion Merchandising ,
Human resource Management and AutoCAD. And from
all the knowledge I have gained from my institute and here in Orient Craft., I have tried to
document it here with my best efforts.

I was allotted a project to improve the sewing process by decreasing the alterations in the sewing
room. I also specialized in merchandising in detail.

I was exposed to the daily corporate life and had a thorough understanding of the working
environment and management system. All the staff and employees in the unit were very friendly
and cooperative and strictly followed the company rules and regulations.

http://eaasjournal.org/survey/userfiles/files/Minimization%20of%20Reworks%20in%20the
%20apparel%20industry.pdf

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