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Probability Theory

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[1] . (Bohlmann G.) Die Grundbegriffe der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung in ihrer Anwendung auf die Lebensversicherung // Atti del
IV Congresso internazionale dei Matematici. Roma, 6-11 Aprile. 1908. V.III. Sezione IIb. Roma: Accademia dei Lincei, 1909.
[2] .. // . . . -, 1917, . 15,
.209-274.
[3] (Mises R. von) Grunflagen der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung // Math. Ztschr., 1919, v.5, p.52-99.
[4] .(Lomnicki A.) Nouveaux fondements du calcul des probabilities // Fund. Math., 1923, v.4, p.34-71.
[5] (Borel E.) Sur les probabilities denombrables et leurs applications arithmetiques // Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo, 1909, 26, p.247-271.

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Computerworld QuickStudy: Bayesian Logic And Filters [1](.)
International Society for Bayesian Analysis [2](.) Simpler explanation of Bayesian analysis
On-line textbook: Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms [3](.), by David MacKay, has
many chapters on Bayesian methods, including introductory examples; arguments in favour of Bayesian methods
(in the style of Edwin Jaynes); state-of-the-art Monte Carlo methods, message-passing methods, and variational
methods; and examples illustrating the intimate connections between Bayesian inference and data compression.
A nice on-line introductory tutorial to Bayesian probability [4](.) from Queen Mary University of London
An Intuitive Explanation of Bayesian Reasoning [5](.) A very gentle introduction by Eliezer Yudkowsky
Jaynes, E.T. (1998) Probability Theory : The Logic of Science [6] (.).
Bretthorst, G. Larry, 1988, Bayesian Spectrum Analysis and Parameter Estimation [7] in Lecture Notes in
Statistics, 48, Springer-Verlag, New York, New York;
http://www-groups.dcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Ramsey.html
David Howie: Interpreting Probability, Controversies and Developments in the Early Twentieth Century,
Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-81251-8
Colin Howson and Peter Urbach: Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach, Open Court Publishing, 2nd
edition, 1993, ISBN 0-8126-9235-7, focuses on the philosophical underpinnings of Bayesian and frequentist
statistics. Argues for the subjective interpretation of probability.
Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann: Bayesian Epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2003. Extends the
Bayesian program to more complex decision scenarios (e.g. dependent and partially reliable witnesses and
measurement instruments) using Bayesian Network models. The book also proofs an impossibility theorem for
coherence orderings over information sets and offers a measure that induces a partial coherence ordering.
Jeff Miller Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics (B) [8]
James Franklin The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal [9], history from a Bayesian
point of view.
Paul Graham Bayesian spam filtering [10]
novomind AG Outlook categorizing tool based on Bayesian filtering [11]
Howard Raiffa Decision Analysis: Introductory Lectures on Choices under Uncertainty. McGraw Hill, College
Custom Series. (1997) ISBN 0-07-052579-X
Devender Sivia, Data Analysis: A Bayesian Tutorial. Oxford: Clarendon Press (1996), pp. 7-8. ISBN
0-19-851889-7
Henk Tijms: Understanding Probability, Cambridge University Press, 2004
Is the portrait of Thomas Bayes authentic? Who Is this gentleman? When and where was he born? [12] The IMS
Bulletin, Vol. 17 (1988), No. 3, pp. 276278
Bayesian Spam Filter [13] for Microsoft Outlook
Ask the experts [14] on Bayess Theorem, from Scientific American [15]
There is a continuing debate among statisticians over the proper definition of probability. [16]
20


[1] http:/ / www. computerworld. com/ action/ article. do?command=viewArticleBasic& articleId=99476
[2] http:/ / www. bayesian. org
[3] http:/ / www. inference. phy. cam. ac. uk/ mackay/ itila/ book. html
[4] http:/ / www. dcs. qmw. ac. uk/ %7Enorman/ BBNs/ BBNs. htm
[5] http:/ / yudkowsky. net/ bayes/ bayes. html
[6] http:/ / www-biba. inrialpes. fr/ Jaynes/ prob. html
[7] http:/ / bayes. wustl. edu/ glb/ book. pdf
[8] http:/ / members. aol. com/ jeff570/ b. html
[9] http:/ / www. press. jhu. edu/ books/ title_pages/ 2844. html
[10] http:/ / www. paulgraham. com/ better. html
[11] http:/ / www. imaillight. com/
[12] http:/ / www. york. ac. uk/ depts/ maths/ histstat/ bayespic. htm
[13] http:/ / www. spam-reader. com
[14] http:/ / www. sciam. com/ askexpert_question. cfm?articleID=3A86E7BA-E7F2-99DF-3F475245D8E9C780& catID=3& chanID=sa005
[15] http:/ / sciam. com/
[16] http:/ / www. statisticalengineering. com/ frequentists_and_bayesians. htm


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Jensen, Finn An introduction to Bayesian networks. Berlin: Springer, 1996. ISBN 0-387-91502-8
Cowell, Robert G. Probabilistic networks and expert systems. Berlin: Springer, 1999. ISBN MR1697175
[1]
0-387-98767-3 A more advanced and statistically oriented book
Pearl Judea Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems. 2nd revised. San Mateo, CA: Morgan
Kaufmann, 1988. ISBN MR0965765 [2]1558604790 A computational reasoning approach, where the
relationships between graphs and probabilities were formally introduced.
Bishop Christopher M. Chapter 8. Graphical Models // Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning [3].
Springer. P.359422. ISBN MR2247587 [4]0-387-31073-8
A Brief Introduction to Graphical Models and Bayesian Networks [5]
Heckerman's Bayes Net Learning Tutorial [6]
Edoardo M. Airoldi (2007). Getting Started in Probabilistic Graphical Models. PLoS Computational Biology 3
(12): e252. DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030252 [7].
40


[1] http:/ / www. ams. org/ mathscinet-getitem?mr=1697175
[2] http:/ / www. ams. org/ mathscinet-getitem?mr=0965765
[3] http:/ / research. microsoft. com/ ~cmbishop/ PRML/
[4] http:/ / www. ams. org/ mathscinet-getitem?mr=2247587
[5] http:/ / www. cs. ubc. ca/ ~murphyk/ Bayes/ bnintro. html
[6] ftp:/ / ftp. research. microsoft. com/ pub/ tr/ tr-95-06. pdf
[7] http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1371%2Fjournal. pcbi. 0030252

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[1] M. G. Bulmer. Francis Galton: pioneer of heredity and biometry (http:/ / books. google. ru/ books?id=vL0hq80XXqMC& pg=PA182)


, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUSKTk9ENzg)(.)
(http://www.ms.uky.edu/~mai/java/stat/GaltonMachine.html)(.)
(http://www.jcu.edu/math/isep/Quincunx/Quincunx.
html)(.)
Quincunx and its relationship to normal distribution (http://www.mathsisfun.com/probability/
quincunx-explained.html)(.)
(http://animation.yihui.name/prob:bean_machine)(.)
(http://physics.nad.ru/Physics/Cyrillic/max_txt.htm)(.)
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( -)
MATLAB.
,
:

(getXI)
n = 100; % The length of \xi_i series
U = rand(n,1); % Generate 100 random uniform
[0;1] values
XI = zeros(n,1); % Reserve memory for 100 modified
Bernoulli
q = 0.55; % Reverse probability
p = 1 - q; % Averse probability

% The following cycle creates a


Bernoulli distribution based on uniform [0;1]
for i = 1:n % This cycle divides the [0;1]
array into 2 parts: lengths q and p, q+p=1
if (U(i,1) < q)
XI(i,1) = -1; % If a uniform random value falls
into q then \xi=-1
else XI(i,1) = 1; % If a uniform random value falls
into p then \xi=+1
end
end

x = 10; % Initial 1st player's budget


offset

S = zeros(n,1); % Reserve memory for 100


S_1...S_100

for i = 1:n % Make S_k series according to


rule S_{k+1} = S_k + \xi_{k+1}
S(i,1) = x + sum(XI(1:i, 1)); % considering the initial welfare
offset x
end

getS(n, q, x), , ,
, , ,
. .
52

(getS function)
function [S] = getS(n, q, x) % This function depends on n, q
and x --- 3 variables
U = rand(n,1);
XI = zeros(n,1);

for i = 2:n % Uniform->Bernoulli distribution


transformation
if (U(i,1) < q)
XI(i,1) = -1;
else XI(i,1) = 1;
end
end

S = zeros(n,1); % Reserve memory for n S_1...S_n

for i = 2:n % Calculate the S_1...S_n series


S(i,1) = sum(XI(1:i, 1)); % Sums the \xi's
end
S = x + S; % Adds initial welfare to each S_k
of the whole matrix

: , (for i = 2:n)? ,
.
, for i = 1:n,
, .
( ,
, ), -
.
, .

(graphS)

100 . ,
10 . .
53

10000 .

,
. ,
. ,
( )
.

(Monte_Carlo)
N = 3000; % Number of games played
n = 3000; % Number of tosses
q = 0.5; % Chance 1st player loses 1
rouble
p = 1-q; % Chance 1st player wins 1
rouble
A = -10; % 1st player budget
B = 10; % 2nd player budget
x = 0; % Budget offset towards 1st
player
Bs = 0; % amount of cases particle
hits B (it will change soon)
As = 0; % amount of cases particle
hits A (it will change soon)

matrS = zeros(N, n); % Reserve memory for N rows n


cols matrix
TAU1 = n * ones(N, n); % Fill another N rows n cols
matrix with n's
for i = 1:N % This loop makes up N
trajectories of S_k relying on input q, x, n
matrS(i,:) = getS(n, q, x)';
for j = 1:n
if (matrS(i,j) == A)||(matrS(i,j) == B) % If a particle exceeds A
or B, then
TAU1(i,j) = j; % put the number of step
into the table
end
end
plot(matrS(i,:)); % Displays a figure
grid on;
54

hold on; % Simultaneous plots within


same axes
end
hold off; % Clears axes for a new plot

TAU = (min(TAU1'))'; % TAU = earliest step of


[A;B] corridor overrun

% As [min] affects columns and gives row then we transpose TAU1,


% minimize it by rows and make it a column again
for i = 1:N % Our S_n series are ready;
they nest in matrS
for j=1:TAU(i) % Scan only till we encounter
the escape step!
if (matrS(i,j) == A); % If a particle escaped
through A (1st player busted)
As = As+1; % then add +1 to 1st player's
failures
elseif (matrS(i,j) == B) % Otherwise if its first
threshold was B
Bs = Bs+1; % then add +1 to 1st player's
wins
end % If n is not large enough,
then
end % As + Bs may not make up N
end
ALPHA = As/(As+Bs) % Match alphas with their
theoretical values
if (q == p)
THEORALPHA = (B-x)/(B-A)
else THEORALPHA = ((q/p)^B - (q/p)^x)/((q/p)^B - (q/p)^A)
end
BETA = 1-ALPHA % Same for betas
if (q == p)
THEORBETA = (x-A)/(B-A)
else THEORBETA = 1-THEORALPHA
end
meanTAU = mean(TAU) % Law of large numbers for
great N's
if (q == p)
THEORTAU = (B-x)*(x-A)
else THEORTAU = 1/(p-q)*(B*THEORBETA+A*THEORALPHA-x)
end

, , ,
: .
55


, .

ALPHA BETA meanTAU

2 3 : ,
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9 0 0,0% 2 3,5%
59



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[1] [[The Economist (http:/ / www. economist. com/ node/ 21548933)]: Election fraud. How to steal an election]


Weisstein, Eric W. Benford's Law (http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BenfordsLaw.html)(.)
Wolfram MathWorld.
, . . (http://kvant.
mirror1.mccme.ru/pdf/1998/01/kv0198arnold.pdf).
( 2011) (http://testingbenfordslaw.com/
2011-russian-parlimentary-elections-united-russia)
Benfords Law and Zipfs Law (http://www.cut-the-knot.org/do_you_know/zipfLaw.shtml)
Benfords Law (http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath302/kmath302.htm)
In nature, number one dominates (http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/44063)


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[1] X . ., Fundam. math., 1924, v. 6, p. 9-20;
[2] . . .,1932. (http:/ / lib. mexmat. ru/ books/ 47427)
[3] . ., Math. Ann., 1929, Bd 101, S. 126-35;
[4] W. Feller, "The general form of the so-called law of the iterated logarithm" Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. , 54 (1943) pp. 373402
[5] V. Strassen, "An invariance principle for the law of the iterated logarithm" Z. Wahrsch. Verw. Geb. , 3 (1964) pp. 211226
[6] V. Strassen, "A converse to the law of iterated logarithm" Z. Wahrsch. Verw. Geb. , 4 (19651966) pp. 265268



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(http://kubik.jelaev.ru/kubik-v-2.0/)
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Folland, G.B.; Real Analysis: Modern Techniques and Their Applications, 2nd ed, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. Introduction to Algorithms,
Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN 0-262-03293-7. Section 5.2: Indicator random
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chronos.msu.ru/RREPORTS/korotaev_entropia/korotaev_entropia.htm).
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[1] M. Kac & J. Logan, in Fluctuation Phenomena, eds. E.W. Montroll & J.L. Lebowitz, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976
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[1] Bayes, Thomas, and Price, Richard (1763). An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chance. By the late Rev. Mr. Bayes,
communicated by Mr. Price, in a letter to John Canton, M. A. and F. R. S.. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 53:
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. . , .: . 2005
. (http://old.computerra.ru/online/jack/12150/). //
, 24 2001.
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. (http://schegl2g.bget.ru/bayes/
YudkowskyBayes.html)
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[1] Using the Hamlet text from gutenberg (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ dirs/ etext99/ 1ws2611. txt), there are 132680 alphabetical letters and
199749 characters overall
[2] Aristotle, De Generatione et Corruptione, 315b14.
[3] Marcus Tullius Cicero, De natura deorum, 2.37. Translation from Ciceros Tusculan Disputations; Also, Treatises On The Nature Of The
Gods, And On The Commonwealth, C. D. Yonge, principal translator, New York, Harper & Brothers Publishers, Franklin Square. (1877).
Downloadable text (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ etext/ 14988).
[4] . . . I. . :-
. 2000 .
[5] Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker. W.W. Norton & Co.. pp. 46-50. ISBN 0-393-31570-3.


(Doomsday argument, DA,
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236


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239


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.
241


.
, . ,
DA.


.
,
. Homo sapiens , Homo erectus (
), DA Homo futurus (
).


[1] DA , .
2002 ( (http:/ / xxx. lanl. gov/ abs/ gr-qc/ 0208038)) ,
, DA
,
.
[2] DA DA , A refutation of the Doomsday
Argument by Korb and Oliver (http:/ / www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m2346/ is_n426_v107/ ai_20550244)
[3] , :
Pr(N) , - , , ,
Pr(N) = k/N.
Pr(n|N) , Pr(n|N) = 1/N.
DA N n ,
P(n). N, ,
n ( , N > n):

UNIQ-math-0-bb2cc0f1c23613ac-QINU
UNIQ-math-1-bb2cc0f1c23613ac-QINU

, n N P(N) = k/N'.
[4] ., : . . : , . (http:/ / www. i-u.
ru/ biblio/ archive/ capica_skolko/ ) .: , 1999; . ., . ., . . .
-. , , . (http:/ / cliodynamics. ru/ index. php?option=com_content&
task=view& id=65& Itemid=37) 2- . .: , 2007.
[5] 1949, , , ,
, 50 .
[6] 15 2010. (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ russian/ international/ 2010/ 01/
100115_doomsday_clock. shtml)
[7] Observation Selection Theory and Cosmological Fine-tuning (http:/ / anthropic-principle. com/ preprints/ self-location. html)


John Leslie, The End of the World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction, Routledge, 1998, ISBN
0-415-18447-9.
J. R. Gott III, Future Prospects Discussed, Nature, vol. 368, p.108, 1994.
This argument plays a central role in Stephen Baxter's science fiction book, Manifold: Time, Del Rey Books,
2000, ISBN 0-345-43076-X.
242


. (http://www.proza.ru/texts/2007/04/13-34.
html)
. Doomsday argument (http://www.proza.ru/texts/2007/05/20-267.html)
A non-mathematical, unpartisan introduction to the DA (http://flatrock.org.nz/topics/environment/
doom_soon.htm)
A compelling lecture from the University of Colorado-Boulder (http://youtube.com/watch?v=F-QA2rkpBSY)
Nick Bostroms response to Korb and Oliver (http://www.anthropic-principle.com/preprints/ali/alive.html)
Nick Bostroms summary version of the argument (http://www.anthropic-principle.com/primer1.html)
Nick Bostroms annotated collection of references (http://www.anthropic-principle.com/preprints.
html#doomsday)
Kopf, Krtou & Pages early (1994) refutation (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/gr-qc/pdf/9407/9407002.pdf)
based on the SIA, which they called Assumption 2.
The Doomsday Argument, Consciousness and Many Worlds by John Eastmond (http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/gr-qc/
0208038)
The Doomsday argument and the number of possible observers by Ken Olum (http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/gr-qc/
0009081) In 1993 J. Richard Gott used his Copernicus method to predict the lifetime of Broadway shows. One
part of this paper uses the same reference class as an empirical counter-example to Gotts method.
A Critique of the Doomsday Argument by Robin Hanson (http://hanson.gmu.edu/nodoom.html)
A third route to the doomsday argument by Paul Franceschi (http://cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/archive/
00002990/)
Chambers' Ussherian Corollary Objection (http://journals.cambridge.org/action/
displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=82931)
Caves' Bayesian critique of Gotts argument. C. M. Caves, Predicting future duration from present age: A critical
assessment, Contemporary Physics 41, 143153 (2000). (http://info.phys.unm.edu/papers/2000/
Caves2000a.pdf) ( 13-05-2013 (310) (http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://
info.phys.unm.edu/papers/2000/Caves2000a.pdf))
Mark Greenberg, Apocalypse Not Just Now in London Review of Books (http://www.lrb.co.uk/v21/n13/
gree04_.html)
Laster (http://pthbb.org/manual/services/grim/laster.html): A simple webpage applet giving the min & max
survival times of anything with 50% and 95% confidence requiring only that you input how old it is. It is
designed to use the same mathematics as J. Richard Gott's form of the DA, and was programmed by sustainable
development researcher Jerrad Pierce.
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[DE68] Dempster, Arthur P.; A generalization of Bayesian inference, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society,
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[SH76] Shafer, Glenn; A Mathematical Theory of Evidence, Princeton University Press, 1976
[SH02] Shafer, Glenn; Dempster-Shafer theory [1], 2002


[1] http:/ / www. glennshafer. com/ assets/ downloads/ articles/ article48. pdf


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A.Bunde, S.Havlin, Percolation I (pp.5195), Percolation II (pp.97149), in: Fractals and disordered systems,
eds. A.Bunde, S.Havlin, Springer, Berlin, 1996.
V.K.S.Shante and S.Kirkpatrick, Adv.Phys. 20, 325 (1971).
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: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53304773 : Infovarius,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53297857 : A5b, Andreyiv, CaesarIII, DVD R W, , , , 7


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61478541 : Ain92, Antihrist evil, CaesarIII, Coffee dude, CommonsDelinker, Draa kul,
Emaus, Fifis, Headrd, Insider, Jukier, Obersachse, Osman-pasha, Pyclanmap, Raise-the-Sail, Serebr, SolitaryDreamer, Sunpriat, Torin, Vkulikov, Yury 4500, , 59

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61895776 : Ghossen, KleverI, Prijutme4ty, RReverser, VictJava, , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60569266 : Babina, Devyatkov, Ghossen, MaxSem, OckhamTheFox, Tosha, Valdis72, VictJava, Yms, ,
12

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53302176 : AlexandreCam, BigFX, Christoffer, Gosh, Ilya78, , ,


, 7

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60621064 : Bosik GN, Burivykh, Fireman, Iamckesc, MDA, Mashiah Davidson,


Mikhail Kravchenko, Mousy, OckhamTheFox, Rasim, Red-fox0, Reddle, Rokur, Sergey Cepblu, , , , , 61

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=59847869 : Biathlon, Danneks,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60728335 : AlekseyP, Alex Smotrov, Alilensax, Bosik GN, CYCC, Dims, El-pako,
Evdokim.Kovach, Helgus, In digma, Inc ru, Infovarius, KPu3uC B Poccuu, Konan-kim, LGB, Maxim Razin, Maximaximax, Mercury, Mousy, Murskovme, Nente, Nikiforov, Paul Pogonyshev,
Prijutme4ty, Pyclanmap, Raise-the-Sail, Tosha, Yurka spb, , , , , 93

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=54815211 : A5b, AlekseyP, I1481, , 6

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=59891520 : AlekseyP, CaesarIII, Decemberster, Emaus, Infovarius, MPI3, Mashiah


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( ) : http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=54950729 : Butko, George Shuklin, Helgus, KleverI, Loveless, Michaello,


Prijutme4ty, Tretyak, X7q, , 13

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53722049 : Structor, Vovchyck, X7q

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=17473228 : Aleksandrit, FLashM, Grebenkov, Incnis Mrsi, Pyclanmap, ,


4

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: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61323097 : Erud, Fire Wire, Fractaler, Infovarius, July13, Kkk2007, Loveless, MPI3, Quijote,
micier Dzikaski, , , , , 13

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=55145878 : CYCC, Cheops, Golden Bell, Halyavin, Kkk2007, Loveless, Mercury, Monedula, Paul
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: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61366085 : Mir76, Robiteria, Vanjka-ivanych, 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=58494692 : AlexBystrikov, Andreyiv, CodeMonk, Demiurgsage, Goodrone,


Halyavin, Hashar, Infovarius, KleverI, Loveless, MPI3, Mir76, Nikiforov, Oscar 6, Paul Pogonyshev, RMA, Rasim, Roundabout, Shureg, Sl, Tauraloke, Tosha, V1adis1av, VladimirGurovic, W2,
X7q, Yatsutko, Yozh, , 39

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61364513 : Axs, Iamfullofspam, Igoresp, Kays666, Mashiah Davidson, Mir76, Mr.Yurka,


OneLittleMouse, Philip PV, Robiteria, Tosha, Udalov, , 23

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53285953 : Arbnos, Infovarius, Laurentius, Loveless, , , 12

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61366063 : Robiteria, StanTRC, 5

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61697365 : Al99999, Andreyiv, Arachn0, Babina, Exlevan, Fifis, Gchoul, Iaroslav79,


OneLittleMouse, Quijote, Tosha, Valdis72, , 18

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=55852069 : ACrush, Ain92, OKr, Rasim, Tosha, , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=44010317 : Butko, ManN, MaxSem, Maxal, , , 3

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53606637 : Letzte*Spieler, Melirius, , 2

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53322960 : A5b, CaesarIII, Chath, Infovarius, Nzeemin, Satan,


, 5

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61168104 : 1Xela, Altes, Bopsulai, Cemenarist, Dsund, Dulat K, Fifis, Fuseau, IaZheVika,
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: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61122647 : A.I., ALE!, AMXS52, Alex Smotrov, Amakuha, Ams, Anatoly Makarovsky, AndreiK,
AstroNomer, Aurelliana, BRKV, Bihaqo, Bogdanov-62, Bopsulai, BurykinD, Butko, Cyr, Dark Magus, Destroyer ru, Dims, Dreamer.mas, Drknn, DrozhkoSerzh, Eugene Petrov, Evgen2, Gato,
288

Guy-duke, Halyavin, Hamilyon, Himself, I1481, IImonarchII, Ifomichev, Infovarius, Ivan Pozdeev, IvanKesson, Jack who built the house, Jetsnake, Koluch, Luch4, Lukin63, Lvova, ManN,
Mark Ekimov, Maxzhurkin, Mercury, Michael-13, Mikhail Kravchenko, Nashev, Newtricker, Nitai4andra, NorStream, OckhamTheFox, Perez, Rasim, RocksAndStones, SergV, Sergeydavydov,
Skiffm, Snch, Starless, Tookser, Tosha, V.Nikul, VAP+VYK, VNPetroFF, Valodzka, Victor Korniyenko, Wesha, Wind, WindEwriX, Wissenstein, X7q, Yuri Petrushin, ,
, , , , , , , , , , , 247

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60688202 : A5b, Alexandrov, Evatutin, Prijutme4ty, Tretyak, , , 21


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=25302691 : A5b, Alexandrov, Evatutin, Prijutme4ty, Tretyak, , , 21


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60741070 : Fenya, Kink, Maximaximax, Msangel, Nikiforov, OKr, Obersachse, Rasim, Tosha,
W2, , 9

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=56316101 : Iaroslav79, KnightMirko, Maxal, Pashech, Princenoire, Tosha, Tovstun, , ,


, 22

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=54399799 : Alexged, CaesarIII, Gizzatullin, Krassotkin, Letzte*Spieler, 9

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60310186 : DmitTrix, Longbowman, 5

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=54960436 : Melirius, , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=59305190 : -), FeelUs, KleverI,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60634388 : A5b, AVB, Bosik GN, Michaello, Prijutme4ty, , , 6


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=58669938 : AVB, Abyr, Burivykh, CrazyMe, Ecce femina, Fractaler,


Gruznov, Homk, Igoresp, Infovarius, Maxal, Mhym, Mousy, Nikiforov, OneLittleMouse, Prijutme4ty, Theambient, Tosha, , 23

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=1347830 : AlexDed, Helgus, KleverI, NickShaforostoff, Tosha, , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=56339032 : Ariely, Fireman, Grey horse, GunVan, Helgus, Lvova, Mackseem,


Nzeemin, Plohich, Raise-the-Sail, Rasim, Satan, Tretyak, , 2

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60224105 : AVB, Ace, Alexander Mikhalenko, Alexandrov, Alexei Zverev, AntonR, Carn, Cartwheel, Cheops,
Dikobraz Grey, Fractaler, Godligift, Helgus, Hq3473, InaVal, Jeka3000, Kovani, LLImbIrA, Lite, Lvova, Maksa, Maximaximax, Melirius, MikeSol, Mrozen, Ned Kelly, Novosyolov,
OckhamTheFox, PITON8888, Pavel.nps, Pr.Anastasia, Raise-the-Sail, Renatg2009, Sasha Krotov, Sergei Kazantsev, ShadyUSA, ShinePhantom, Slavarik, Small Bug, The Wrong Man, Torin,
Ufim, Vasily Likhoy, Victor-435, Voltol, Vs64vs, W2, Wikifido, X7q, , , 1967, , . ., , ,
1515, , , , ., , , , , , 129

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=1478978 : AVB, Bezik, Dipsy, Dstary, Fire Wire, Gvozdet, Infarh, Infovarius, Jaro.p, Loveless,
M40, Mashiah Davidson, Michaello, OZH, Payalnik, Peni, Roundabout, Softy, Tosha, Tretyak, WebCite Archiver, , , 72

- : http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=4603170 : AlexBystrikov, Annigilator, CYCC, Fifis, Fun, Grue, Helgus, Loveless, Maximaximax,
Mousy, NLab, Nikiforov, Prijutme4ty, Rasim, Romanm, Suisui, Teufel, Tosha, Tretyak, Zenixan, , 18

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=59203614 : AlekseyP, Alt-sysrq, BioUnit, Bredyuk, CYCC, Dima125, Doff, Dorinem, Fedyakov,
Fractaler, Gkhan, Maxim Razin, Maximaximax, McSaks, Naroto-sait, Nicedim, Overrider, Prijutme4ty, Ps ttf, Raise-the-Sail, Rasim, The Wrong Man, Tosha, Trolzen, Uieoa, Yurka spb,
, , 49

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=55247920 : , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53297109 : A5b, Helgus, Lockal, Lvova, ,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=33089538 : Exlex, Exxxxxcel, Helgus, Michaello

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=54602115 : Artiyom, Fractaler, Helgus, Hlopetz, Indicatrissa, Kink, Kovani, NBS, Nikiforov, OKr,
Obersachse, Prijutme4ty, Raise-the-Sail, Rave, Satan, Tosha, 1e0nid, , , 9

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=55979611 : GoldenFILL, Jumpow

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=54958559 : A5b, BattlePeasant, Helgus, Prijutme4ty, ,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53302212 : A.I., A5b, Helgus, Infovarius, Maxal, Pyclanmap, Yuriy75, , ,


, , , , 5

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61975154 : Ain92, Alex Smotrov, Almi92, Andrey Sozykin, Ayvengo21, Biathlon,


Bums, CaesarIII, Gemini1980, Ghossen, Grossu, INKERMAN, Inc ru, KleverI, Krassotkin, LRyazantsev, Laim, Lawgiver, Losty, Loveless, Nickst, Olexa Riznyk, OneLittleMouse, Pyclanmap,
Qdinar, Sabunero, SergV, Teufel, Tonn222, V1adis1av, WASD, X7q, Yaleks, 1e0nid, , , , , , .. ,
, , , 60

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53440403 : Artem Korzhimanov, Burivykh, 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60755983 : Vkulikov

( ) : http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60748379 : ArtTrapeza, Fifis, Messir, W2,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61094990 : , , 8

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53304332 : El barroco, Ghuron, Infovarius, Tretyak, Urutseg, Yozh 88, , ,


4

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60745592 : Arventur, MPI3, Plf57, 11

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53439202 : AlexandreCam, Arventur, KleverI, Musicien, Pasteurizer, Source, Vald,


, 8

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=54463443 : A Veselova, Amphian, MrXaK, Outmind, Pavel017, W2, WebCite Archiver, Yuswiki,
, , 6

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61728689 : Darthrevenge, Fifis, J.Malkovich, Ko she lek, Numitus, OneLittleMouse, 22


Lp : http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60713690 : CYCC, Infovarius, KleverI, Tretyak, , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=1431748 : A.I., Ivan Pozdeev, KleverI, MPI3, Vaker, , 7


289

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=58232424 : A.I., Ivan Pozdeev, KleverI, MPI3, Vaker, , 7

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53308417 : Infovarius, Krassotkin, Mashiah Davidson, Serebr, Smartass2006, , 3


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=1204250 : A5b, Fractaler, MaxBioHazard, Monstr321, Tretyak, , , 11


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=59407411 : Temirov1960, Vkulikov

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61184252 : A.I., AKA MBG, Alex Smotrov, Daryona, David.s.kats, Decemberster, DianaR, Fibonachi,
Gluk64, Gribozavr, Homo Computeris, Ilya Voyager, Iriso4ka, Ivan Pozdeev, IvanKesson, Ivanhoe, Kseeker, MPI3, Maxim Razin, Maximaximax, Mikhail Kravchenko, Nikiforov, Odyssey,
Oksana Gimmel, Partyzan XXI, Politov, Qkowlew, R6I9, Salexey, SergV, SiMM, Sigwald, Snch, Sskz, Teufel, Tosha, Tucvbif, UNV, V1adis1av, Vego, VictJava, Wikiator7089, X7q,
, , , 12, , , 69

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61004668 : Fifis, Kalmetev, MPI3, W 4 4 -(5) -(8) 7, , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60952276 : Dipsy, Halyavin, Infovarius, KleverI, MPI3, Tosha, , 11


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60981957 : Babina, In digma, Jura05, MPI3, PaulSeV, Smartass2006, Tretyak,


VictJava, . , , 2

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61004679 : A5b, MPI3, Smartass2006, Tretyak, , 17

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61004684 : Bourreau, KnightMirko, Lvova, MPI3, Mashiah Davidson, Tosha, VictJava, ,


, , 6

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61678725 : A.I., A.Skromnitsky, Alex6122, Alexanderwdark, Alexey Petrov,


AndyVolykhov, Araneusssss, Bogdan Yurov, Butko, Carn, Cycneavox, Dhrmikatva, Dp23, Ds02006, El-chupanebrej, Fractaler, Generous, Glagolev, Gribozavr, Heller2007, INS Pirat,
Inctructor, Infovarius, Kneiphof, LoKi, Loveless, MPI3, Maximaximax, Mr Soika, Pentusha, Pershin2010, Philip J.1987qazwsx, Phoenix13, Potekhin, Prime Minister, Prosto defka, PtQa,
RN3AOC, Redmond Barry, Renessaince, Road1, RusCommie, Sabunero, Secretary, Svetlovanton, Terlu, TheVovaNik, Truelz, V1adis1av, VPliousnine, Valodzka, VictJava, Vizu, Vladimir
Ivanov, WebCite Archiver, Wesha, Zwyciezca, , , , . , , 81

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61004724 : 20AVA10, A5b, Arbnos, Cantor, Cheops, DanielSedoff, DarkCherry, Divik, Drakosh,
FRL, Fractaler, Homk, Icelore, Infovarius, Joltd, LittleDrakon, MPI3, Mikhail Ryazanov, Mind abuse, Obersachse, Plopfe, Rlu, Salas, Shureg, Snch, Tamanrasset444, Turchin, Vs64vs,
Winterheart, Zimak, , , , , 48

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61297136 : Antrubler, Homk, MPI3, 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60952338 : Ascoltatore Suoni, CYCC, Infovarius, KleverI, Loveless, MPI3, Prijutme4ty,


Tosha, , , 3

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61004742 : Brattarb, MPI3, W2, , 2

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60952384 : Aydin1884, Brainy, Danneks, Ilya Voyager, KleverI, MPI3, Mousy, Qdrgsm,
Snushka, Tosha, VictJava, , , 6

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60398991 : AlexDed, AndyVolykhov, Dstary, El-chupanebrej, Eserge, Gizzatullin, Helgus,


NBS, Panther, Redline, Solon, User101, Vego, Vs64vs, Zenixan, , , , , 14

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=58810558 : A5b, Ecce femina, Gizzatullin, Infovarius, Katpyxa, Lawgiver, Lvova, Obersachse,
Structor, Vs64vs, Yura15cbx, , 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60877728 : Begemotv2718, Burivykh, Helgus, Incnis Mrsi, Infovarius, Lady Lovelace, Mousy,
Teretalexev, ,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53438439 : In digma, Kidar2, Longbowman, Peni,

- : http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60538813 : Arventur

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=56702719 : Dipsy, KleverI, Monedula, Rasim, Roundabout, Yaleks, 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=23300307 : Cantor, Esp, Infovarius, Mir76, Tosha, User101, , 6

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60131971 : Albedo, Alex Smotrov, BurykinD, Incnis Mrsi, Ivan Pozdeev, Loveless, Petsandr,
Smartass2006, Tosha, Vorteil, Zofo, , 18

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=1372251 : Mackseem, Rasim, ,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=1372248 : Mackseem, Rasim, ,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53305588 : Amishaa, Dryakhlovk, Fifis, Inc ru, Jekus, Loveless, Mihaild,


Safinaskar, , , 5

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53305045 : Mackseem, Rasim, ,

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60713937 : Pyclanmap, Yurka spb, 1, , 4

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60538801 : Arventur

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53762613 : Burivykh, Fizik1987, Glebiy, 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=57600995 : Burivykh, Danneks, Mutari-Dirk, WebCite Archiver, 1

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=25302640 : Arventur, , , 2

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=25302656 : Pyclanmap, Yurka spb, 1, , 4


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=60172163 : Homk, IhorLviv, Ll0l00l, Mor ntt, Overrider, Polina22, Sabunero, Volkov,
X7q, Xerpp, Yurka spb, , , 22

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53297799 : A5b, Mashiah Davidson, Raise-the-Sail, Volechy, , , 3


: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=10349950 : Musicien, Randomath, Tosha,


290

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=53194631 : -), A.I., Akim Dubrow, Bunyk, CYCC, Convallaria majalis, Frantony, Helgus, Jukier,
Killer Joe, Maximaximax, Mercury, Paul Pogonyshev, Pavel Sutyrin, Prijutme4ty, Shamin Roman, Skleppi pkm, Tatata, Tosha, Vj, X7q, , , 55

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=59196404 : A.I., A5b, Arventur, Bff, Ghossen, Loveless, MPI3,


Malek, Michaello, Tretyak, Yurka spb, , , 21

: http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=61010726 : A.s.matveyev, Aervin, Alexsmail, Borisbikbov, Bosik GN, Dstary, Evgeny


Kurbatov, Infarh, Infovarius, Jukier, KIzyurov, MPI3, Staspablo, Veikia, VictJava, Wikiwide, 12, , 32
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