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NEW EDITION Gad Pocket Book OXFORD near Deer en Liz Taylor OXFORD CaaS Pocket Book INEW EDITION) INTERNATIONAL EXPRESS PRE-INTERMEDIATE Pocket Book Liz Taylor OXFORD CONTENTS GRAMMAR Grammar List of grammar terms Student's Book unit List of grammar rerms page An adje describes.a noun —people, places, things, events, etc 6 Comparative and superlative adjectives a beautiful city, an enjoyable holiday 10. Ist Conditional interesting people, terible news 11 2nd Conditional An adverb adds information, for example, about when, where, or how 4, Future: going ¢o + infinitive Se, 4 Furure: Present Continuous log anes ‘She wrote the report yesterday. He's waiting outside. Please drive slowly. xo Future: will + infinitive 347. Irregular verbs 5 Mass and count nouns: some/any.a lot of! lots of, muchfmany, a litle/a fo 7 Anadverb of describes how often something happens 8 Modal verbs frequency 1 always play tonnis inthe summer 12 ThePassive Tn rarely ate for work Past Simple Present Continuous Present Simple Present Simple: frequency adverbs Anauxiliary verb (be, do, and have) is used with other verbs to make tenses and passive forms, She is working in Geneva, Where did you go? Present Perfect Simple ee td, Present Perfect Continuous ; The window has been brok Prepositions: time, place, and direction The infinitive isthe base form of che verh (see, buy, ete.) tis used with or Question words without to. since and for It’s good to meet you. Vid hike to introduce you toa friend. ‘Social and funetional English Tmust go no Asking for information eae Amodal verb isa verb like might, can, and should, We use them to express Atarenur Posi ask permision iv aise Making arrangements Ses ene You should see « doctor. Opinions and suggestions noun isa person, place, thing, or idea. Saying goodbye | eames inca jhe Yes, [he fis 1s she she = ey No, Jit isn't. ‘Activities happening now She's talking 0. visitor atthe moment. Temporary situations and activities Which hotel are you staying at? People are living ln Present Fixed forure arrangements They're arriving at 10 a.m. tomorrow ‘A dictionary tells you when the final consonant doubles (travel, when we leave out the final (make, making). 1" Present Simpl postrive NEGATIVE 1 1 You You We work, YR | don't (do.noe) They ‘They work. He He She | works. She | doesn’t (does not) ie 1 Question SHORT ANSWER 1 1 Xe do, be (208 tow they _ | work? No, ie don’ ie Yes, | he does. Does | she tee ic No, |# doesn't it Long-term situations Ste lives in Brail. Where do you work? Routine activities often make business trips. How often do you play tennis? Feelings and opinions Do you like your job agree with you Frew The journey takes a howr Prices increase every year. Frequency adverbs ©) new a a 2 Present Perfect Simple (Sce Irregular verbs p. 6 and Present Perfec + Simple timelines p, 28.) rosrrive Necarive 1 ] T You |'ve | You | haven’ We | (have) ‘We | (have not) started. started. a e | hasnt oe | thas) | She | thas not) aursrion ston aNsweR. Yes, | have. Have| 7" =. Sey_| eel? No, [4c [havent he Yes [be [hae Has | she the ie No, [ie hasn't Situations and actions that happened in «period of time from the past ro the present Finished experiences in your life until Situations that began in the past and continue up to the present sone to or been to? Ann’s gone to New York, means she's in Ann’s been to New York, means she's not * Contracted forms ‘The company bas grown a lot since 1998. We've recently reduced costs Have you bad a holiday this year? He's worked for two foreign companies. She's never studied 2 foreign language Have you ever lived abroad She's been a doctor or ten years. The family has had the business since 1990. How long have you known ber? New York now, or she's on her way there wtin New York now. Her visit is over. Inspoken English, we usually say I've, you've, he's, er. In formal, written English we normally use I have, you have, he bas, ee For information on the use ofthe Present Perfect Simple/Past Simple in British and American English, see p. 24. a “ Present Perfect Continuous (See Present Perfect Continuous timeline p. 28.) rosinive necarive 1 T You | ve You | haven't We | (have) We | (havenoe) They been working. They been working. He He * hasn't she She Te | thas) Te | (bas not) Question short ANSWER 1 T Yes, have. Havel 2" a" we they __| beenworking? N°: they | haven't. e Yes, hi hs Has | she ee e No, it hasn't. use ExAMPLES Activities that began inthe pastand We've been producing wines for wo continue up to the present hundred years. He's been living in Finland since last How long have you been studying English? Activities that began inthe past and have just stopped He's hot because he's been jogging. You look tired. Have you been working alot? ‘We normally use the continuous form to focus on the activity rather than the result. Tve been writing emails. (haven't finished yet.) ve written tem emails (U've finished now.) ‘We use the Present Perfect Continuous to say how long, He's been talking on the phone all morning. She's been interviewing people since 8 a.m. 4 We use the Present Perfect Simple to say how many. He's made fifteen phone calls. She's done six interviews. Prepositions: time, place, ns of time Preposi + month/season/year/eentury June 1996 the arstcentury + time/mealtime six o'clock day/date Tuesday 6 December Faster Monday (Christmas Day Friday morning, Wednesday evenings Prepositions of place and direction uunder/below across between imo infront of ve # ind direction + part of he day the morning inthe afternoon the evening «+ period of two or three days the weekend ee Deside/next to 4 & 7 through around con the right oon the left 1» Question words Where do they live? What do you do at weokorde? When does he start work? Which newspaper do you read? How do you travel 10 work? How often do you study English? Whose dictionary is this? Who (Whom) do you work with? Who arrives at work frst? In Milan, 1 go eyeing AES aunt The Independent. By car. Twice a week, Tes mine. A team of six people. ‘The manager does. ‘+ Whom is very formal, and is not often used. since and for (See since and for timeline p. 28.) With a point of time for With a period of time 16 EXAMPLES since 7am. today yesterday last week 12 January he left university for tenhours five days amonth along time ages SOCIAL AND FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH Asking for information Asking Pike some information about... (lights to Paris), Pr ike to know .. (bow long it fakes), Do you know ... whem the train arrives)? Can Could Showing understanding I see. Right, I've gor that. Soy... (the next train's in half an hour). Asking for repatition Could you repeat that, please? ‘Could you say that again? Ata restaurant Recommending What do you recommend? The ... (eat) is usually excellent here recommend the ... (beef) Ordering vd (cold ct ber soup) 1 | antennae Could we have .. (a bottle of mineral water)? ‘Thanking and responding ‘Thank you fora really excellent meal. ‘Thank you fora lovely evening. you tell me... (bow often the trains leave)? Checking Let me check. Pook that up. Apologizing Pm afraid I don't have any information about .. (domestic ight), Offering Do have some more... (wine) What about ... (a dessert)? How about ... (some strawberries)? Would you like... a coffee)? Accepting Yes, I'l like that. Yes, that would be very nice Declining ‘Thank you, but I couldn't eat any more. No, thank you. Don't mention it. 1m glad you enjoyed it. Invitations Inviting Accepting like to invite you to .. Thank you. I'd be delighted to accept (have diner with me) Thank you. Pd love to Would you join us... (fora game of Thank you. I'd enjoy that. tennis)? Would you like to... (come stemming)? Declining Why don't you... (bave hunch wrth us)? 1 love to, but. (Pm afd I can How about ... (joining us)? fend Liat ‘Thanks a lot, but... (ve made another arrangement, Making arrangements ‘Making an appointment would be convenient for you? When could we meet? Whattime | are you free? ‘would suit you? Shall we say .. (next Tuesday)? ‘Yess. (Tuesday) suits me fine. Is... (9.30) possible for you? Yes, that's fine. How about... (Friday)? Yes, Lean make iton .. (Friday). What about. the afternoon)? No, P'matfaid I'm busy then. Could wearrange (to have lich)? | No, 'mafraid I've got another appointment then. [look forward to meeting you on ... (Wednesday) See you... (next week). Changing an appointment, {’m very sorty [have to cancel the appointment on .. (Friday). rm afraid I can’t manage our meeting ... (tomorrow). Could we arrange another time? Meeting people Introductions May > My names. James Turner). ‘Gan | 7intFodlice myselES (Monte Brestom) ey introduce a good friend of mine? This is... (Roberto Angelini) Can Excuse me, are you .. (Duncan Ross)? Hello, you must be... (Luigé Bastin) Tate | gtace out (Tory While aN RRS Tan Penelope) 1 Peed ire roe Please call me... (Luigi. Then youmust call me... (Monique) Gr Hello, .. (Roberto. ings Good $004 | see you again How are you? Fine, thanks. And you? How are things? ‘Not too bad, thanks. How's the family? Very well, thank you. morning Good | afternoon evening, ‘= We only say Good night when we ate leaving. We don’t use it as a greeting. Goodbyes Tmust go now. We really must leave now. I muse be off Iwas very nice meeting you. _ —+T realy enjoyed meeting you, too. sip Have a good | journey. Thank you .. (and the same to you). flight. hope to se you again. Thope so, 00. look forward to... (seeing you again). I'm looking forward to... (ourmext meeting). fon the... (x Jub). vood | iP back. Seeyou | next week Havea good | fighe back. 9 20 Offers and requests Offering Accepting Shall... (open the window)? Yes, please Do you want eto... (post the letter Thank you. for you)? That’ very kind of you you like, Lean... give you some help). Thank you. 'd appreciate that. ‘Would you like meto.. (arrange a Benen cet)? Thanks, but please don't bother. Tanks, bat that won't he necessary ‘That’ very kind of you, but (cam manage) Requesting ‘Agreving Can you... (come tomorrow)? Yes of course. Could you ... (write her a letter)? Yes, certainly. ‘Would you ... (book the hotel)? Do you think you could ... (check it)? ‘Would you mind ... (checking it)? Nor arall. Do you mind ... (checking it)? No, of course not. Refusing I chink that will be difficult .. (There ist enough time). Pmatfraid nor... ('m very busy). Tm sorry, but that’s not possible .. (I leaving now) Pm afraid not Opinions and suggestions ‘Asking for opinions Giving opinions What do you think about... (the design)? In my opinion... (is excellent), What's your opinion of . the quality)? think ... i's rather expensive) How do you feel about. (the price)? Agreeing Disagreeing agree. Pmafraid I don’t agree. T certainly agree with that Pmsorry, but disagree. agree completely Asking for suggestions Do you have any suggestions for... (the agenda)? Any ideas on .. (the parking problem)? Making suggestions Accepting suggestions I siggest (ve meet atthe hotel) Yes, that’s a good idea, How about ... (going by plane}? Yes, les do thar. What about... (giing a talk)? why don't we... (havea meeting)? Why nor... (iuish with a party)? Rejecting suggestions Yes, but .. i's t00 far away). ‘We could... arrange a tennis ournannent). Um not save about that Mim afraid I don’t like tha idea ‘Saying goodbye ‘Thanking for hospitality for inviting us. We've hada wondecful time rmank you | for everything leas realy enjoyable very much for yourhospitaity, —tyealy apprecined it Everything was great Thanks. lor. Responding to thanks ‘could come. enjoyed i found it interesting. liked it ranglad you Social responses ‘Thanking ‘Thanks for all your help. Don’t mention it, ‘Thank you for youradvice. | Notarall, ‘You're welcome. (Us) apologizing Sorry Tm late, It doesn’t matter, Ym sorry. I've broken a glass, | Don'tworry, Never mind, ‘asking for repet sorry? ‘Could you repeat that, please? Pardon? I'm sorry, didn't catch... (your mame ‘asking and giving permission May I sit here? ‘Yes, of course, Could Luse your phone? Please do, ‘Yes, certainly, Do you mind if open the window? —* No, not at all. a Rofusing permission Cond Uhorrow your ear? Do you mind if smoke? Giving and passing things Have you got the tickets? ‘Could you pass the bread, please? Expressing surprise ‘They've gotsix children now. Responding to good news ve passed my final examst Responding to bad news I failed my driving test. Responding to good wishes Have a good weekend. Thope you enjoy your holiday. Staying at a hotel Booking ahotel single Td.iketo booka | $8, Arriving at a hotel Thave a reservation, Telephoning Making contact Hello. This is... James Turner). Is that... (Monique Bresson)? Could Welk to speak to | 00m or Ape (Mr Brown). = Sorry, but Ineed it. > Well, Pd rather you didn't, Yes, here they are. = Yes, here you are. > Really! ‘Congratulations! ‘That's great! — Oh, I'm sorry to hear that. Thanks. You too. ‘Thanks, and the same to you. Making requests Td like a room, please. Could Ihave an early morning , at 6.307 Could Thave my bill, please? Can I pay by credit card? > Yes, speaking; > Who's calling, please? Pmalling about... (the letter J sert you) Hold the line, please. (Mr Brown) isin a m the)’ busy at present (she) isn't here Pm sorry, Pm afraid Leaving @ message Can | takea message? leave a message? Could you take a message? eting at the moment. Could you | ask... (her) vo call. (Luigi Bastini)? tell. (bim) that .. (Duencan Ross) called? Could you spell. (your name), please? What's your number, please? Welcoming a visitor The journey here Did you have a good journey? How was your fight? Did you have any problems finding How did you get here? Ate you here on business? Work What do you do? Where do you work? What are you working on currently? The weather What was the: (London ther like in Travel and holidays Do you travel a lor? Which countries do you visit? Where did you spend a. (vor last holiday) ‘The visitor Where do you live? Which part of che country/eiy is that? First impressions What do you think of. (the new airport)? Is this your first visit co... (Barcelona)? How long ate you here for? Sports and leisure What do you do at the weekends? Do you play any sports? News What's the latest news on ... (the election)? Is there any news about... (the conference)? 23 OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION American English This section describes some differences hetween American and British English The differences are not very great, and they may vary between regions across the USA. haverhave got To express possession, British people often say have got. British British/American Pye gota German car. Thave an Italian car. Yes, have No, Thaven't Yes, ldo. Have you got a fax machine? aa i. No, I don't. Do you have any children? The difference is only in the Present Simple. There is no difference in other tenses, ‘When we use the verb have for an action, there is no difference between American and British English. British/American T have an English lesson every week Yes, Ido, Do you have coffe for breaktast? {e100 Present Perfect Simple/Past Simple Where British E Past Simple, ish uses the Pres Perfect, American English often uses the British American I've ust finished the report. 1 just finished che report Have you seen her yer? Did you sce her yet? haven’ finished the work yet. Ididn' finish the work yer We've already met We already met. Propositions British American at the weekend fon the weekend five minutes past two five minutes past/after wo ten minutes to six ten minutes tofof six write ro me write me meet someone meet with someone stay at home stay home Tuesday to Saturday Tuesday through Saturday visit somebody visit with somebody Dates (written) British American 2.11.04 2 November 2004 11/204 November 2.2004 Dates spoken) British American She started work on the second of She started wotk on November second Vocabulary British American flat apartment chemist ieee lift dlevator eet fall fap faucet ponder first floor petrol ss wallet orsdicok railway railroad peveabae fidewat fubefunderground subway holiday ‘ican Asking for help Sorry, 1 don't understand. Idon't know what... ‘aurrentls") means. What docs... (working knowledge’) mean? ‘What do you call this in English? How do you say... (Je eoudrais une chambre’) in English? Could you say that again, please? Could you repeat that, please? Could you speak more slowly, please? Could you spell thar, ple Could you write that down, please? Countries and nationalities Country Nationality Country Nationality America (the USA) American. Ireland Irish Australia Australian Italy Htalian Austria Austrian Japan Japanese Belgium Belgian Mexico Mexican Brazil Brazilian the Netherlands Durch Canada Canadian Norway Norwegian China Chinese Poland Polish the Czech Republic Czech Portugal Portuguese Denmark Danish Romania Romanian, Finland Finnish Russia Russian France French Slovakia SlovakiSlov Germany German Spain Spanish Great Britaivthe UK British Sweden Swedish Greece Greek Switzerland Swiss Hungary Hungarian Thai India Indian Turkish Emails, faxes, and letters Opening Closing Dear Sir/Madam Yours faithfully Dear Mr Murphy/Ms White — Yours sincerely Dear Andrea Best wishes/Best regards/Yours Hi Jon See you soon Starting Following (our today...) In reply to (your fax received ..) Thank you for (your fax of .) Thanks for (your email. Saying why you'te writing Lam writing (to enguire about...) Lam pleased (10 confirm.) This lewer is (to thank you...) This fax is (t0 give you details of...) This emails (to geri toueb ...) Requesting Could you please (reserve...) ‘Would you please (tell me...) Please faxfemail me (your mobile shone no.) 26 Attaching documents (emai Lattach (two files. Enclosing documents (letter) Tenclose (a copy of .) Giving bad news am sorry (to inform you...) Unfortunately (Ill not beable to...) Apolosizing T apologize for (the delay...) Pm sorry about (the mistake Sorry (I didn't get back to you earlier.) Ending Please contact me again ifyow need Look forward ro (welcoming you...) Hoping (to see yom soon), Let me know (ifyou need anything else), See you (i Prague. ‘Sample business letter Tel 01869 201950 Fa: 01869 201800 yw cunningham com ean Pad Leclere Zigdoa SA 4. ue ules Ferry Dear Mr Lele Thank you for your leer of 15 January. lapogize Fer not replying sooner: 1am tng to confi tht wl ben Parison 7 March andl be very happy to meet ‘you for lunch ani vst your factory in the afternoon, a8 yo vl na he able to attend your company diner as am fving to Rome an the even, logue and price Ba as I would ke to show to my Hook forward to meeting you net month. Please Fe me how you would the me bring any samples of merchandise avid Cunningham ‘© When you open the letter with Dear Siror Dear Maclamt, use Yours fathjully When you open the letter with the receiver's family name (e.g. Dear Mr Leclerc) use Yours sincerely Fora close business contact or friend, use Best wishes, Best regards, Yours. + Ms can replace Mrsand Miss. It doesn’t indicate ifa woman is married or not 2 Grammar lines Past Simple Present Perfect Simple 1992 > Fairtrade started in the UK in 1992, She's been 0 years ow) | NT Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous [-~_ Inrecent years the price of ‘coffee has fallen. int-Gobain has been mal ing glass Present Perfect Simple Ly] You've written a lot of books abour the since and for Mathematical terms three plus five is eight twenty divided by two is ten three times/multiplied by three is nine = come plus fou islequals five 75% seventy-five per cent a quarter a third t, three quarters ‘one and a balf Phonetic symbols Vowels i asin see/sis asin situation /.ttu'erfa/ 1 asin sit/si ye asin fur /f3(r)/ © asin 2 asin ago /a'gau/ asin asin ——_page/peids/ ©; asin arm/a:m/ 20 asin home /houm! > asin got igor! a asin fivedfarv/ asin. put/pur at asin join /dsound asin to0/tu ts asin ——_-mear/n(ry/ » asin cup /eap/ e2 asin hair /hea(ey i asin happy/hapi/ v2 asin —_pure /pjoate\ Consonants asin pen/pen/ s s0 /s00 b asin had /ied/ z 1200 [2 t asin tealti! [asin she/fi d asin did fd 3 asin vision 'visn/ k asin cat/k bh asin how /havl asin got/gou m asin man/ment asin chin fm! n asin. no /na0 ds asin June /dsusn asin sing /su/ asin fall foe 1 asin leg leg/ vy asin voice vars! r asin red /ted © asin thin uv i asin ——_-yesses/ asin then (cr w asin wet vet!