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Mass and Energy Balance Lecture

Series

Dr. Raja Razuan Raja Deris


Faculty of Applied Science, UiTM, Shah Alam

Office: 03-55444604 email: cmt435massnengybal@gmail.com; razuan@salam.uitm.edu.my


Education is the kindling of a flame, not
the filling of a vessel - Socrates.

Learning is not a spectator sport.


You do not learn much just sitting in classes
listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged
assignments, and spitting out answers. You
must talk about what you are learning, write
reflectively about it, relate it to past experiences,
and apply it to your daily lives. You must make
what you learn part of yourselves.

-Source:"Implementing the Seven


Principles: Technology as Lever" by Arthur
W. Chickering and Stephen C. Ehrmann

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Learning
Objectives/Intended Learning Outcome:

1. State and discuss the systems of units (SI, CGS, and


American Engineering units) and perform the conversion
between them.
2. Perform material balance calculations for single and
multiple unit processes for nonreactive processes.
3. Solve material and energy balances for reactive
processes.
4. State and apply energy balance concept to solve problem
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Copyright Dr.RR 2013 3
CHAPTER
2

PROCESS &
PROCESS VARIABLES
Definitions
A process- any operation or series of operations by
which a particular objective is accomplished.
E.g.: making a cake, budu, masi lemak, etc.
Input or feed- the material or raw material that
enters a process units.
Output- the material that leaves the process units
or product.
process unit- is a step in a series of a process.
E.g.: drying process
Process streams- is a set of input and output.

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Mass, Volume & Density
The density- is the mass [kg, g, Ibm] per unit volume
[m3, cm3, ft3] of the substance [kg/m3, g/cm3, Ibm/ft3,
etc.]
The specific volume- is the volume occupied by a unit
mass of the substance (inverse density [m3/kg, cm3/g,
ft3/Ibm, etc.)
Densities of pure solids and liquids are independent of
pressure and vary relatively with temperature.
The density of a substance can also be used as a
conversion factor to relate the mass and the volume of
a quantity of the substance.

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Mass, Volume & Density
E.g.: the density of carbon tetrachloride is 1.595
g/cm3. The mass of 20 cm3 of carbon tetrachloride is.

The specific gravity- is the ratio of the density [ ] of


the substance to the reference density [ ref] normally
water at 4 C and 1 atm pressure:

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Mass, Volume & Density
Density of water at reference state is as follows:

= 1.000 g/cm3
= 1000 kg/m3
= 62.43 Ibm/ft3

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Mass, Volume & Density
note that:
The density of a liquid or solid in g/cm3 is numerically equal to the
specific gravity of that substance.
Specific gravity of a substance at 20 C with reference to water at 4 C is
0.6.

Mean that the SG of a substance at 20 C with reference


to water at 4 C is 0.6
E.g.: SG of a liquid is 2.00- its density would be:
2.00 x 1000kg/m3 = 2000 kg/m3
2.00 x 1g/cm3 = 2 g/cm3
2.00 x 62.43 Ibm/ft3.
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Mass, Volume & Density
Example:
Calculate the density of mercury in (
a) from a tabulated SG
b) The volume in ft3 occupied by 215 kg
of mercury
(given: SGHg@20 C = 13.546)

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Mass, Volume & Density
Solution:
a) = (13.546)(62.43Ib /ft3) = 845.7 Ib /ft3
Hg m m

b) 215 kg 1Ibm 1ft3


V= = 0.560 ft3
0.454 kg 845.7 Ibm

Effect of temperature and pressure on the


densities of solid and liquid are very small.

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Mass, Volume & Density
We consider force to be a derived unit from
Newtons second law:
Force = mass x acceleration
F = ma

In SI system, the force unit is the newton(N):


defined as the force required to accelerate a mass of
1 kg at a rate of 1 m/s2:

1 N = 1 kg(1 m/s2)

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Mass, Volume & Density

The term weight is often misused to express mass.


Weight(Wt) is a force: the gravitational force applied
to a body, and its magnitude is determined from
Newtons second law.
Wt = mg

Where;
m = mass of the body
g = local gravitational acceleration(9.807 m/s2
At sea level and 450 latitude)
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Mass, Volume & Density
Specific weight(w): the weight per unit volume, can
be determine from w = g, where is density.
Newtons second law is often written as:

F = ma
gc
Where: gc = is the gravitational constant which obtained
from the force definition. It is used to
denote the conversion factor from natural
to derived forces units.

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Mass, Volume & Density

gc = ma = (1 kg)(1 m/s2) kg m
= 1
F 1N N s2

gc = ma = (1 lbm)(32.2 ft/s2) lbm ft


= 32.2
F 1 lbf lbf s2

gc = ma = (1 g)(1 cm/s2) g cm
= 1
F 1 dyne dyne s2
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Mass, Volume & Density
Example 1.1
i. An object at sea level has a mass of 400 kg.
a. What is the weight of this object on earth.?
b. What is the weight of this object on the moon
where the local gravitational acceleration is one-
sixth that of earth?

Example 1.2
An object has a mass of 180 lbm. Find the
weight of this object at a location where the
local gravitational acceleration is 30 ft/s2.
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Mass, Volume & Density
Solution for example: 1.1
a) Wt = mg

= 400 kg (9.807 m/s2 )

= 3922.8 N
b) Wt = mg

= 400 kg ( )

= 653.8 N
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Mass, Volume & Density
Solution for example:1.2
Wt = mg

= 180 lbm ( 30 ft/s2 ) ( )


= 167.7 Ibf

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Dimensional analysis and its application
Quantities can only be added or subtracted if their
units are the same.
If the units are the same, the dimension of each
term also must be the same.
Rule: Every valid equation must be dimensionally
homogeneous:- that is, all additive terms on both
sides of the equation must have the same
dimensions.
Consider the equation below:
u(m/s) = u0(m/s) + g(m/s2)t(s)
This equation is dimensionally homogeneous or not?
Why?
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Dimensional analysis and its application
u = u0 + g This equation valid or not? Why?
If the unit are not consistent, we need to apply the
appropriate conversion factors.
For example: in the equation u = u0 + gt instead of t
measured in second, now we express in minutes.
u(m/s) = u0(m/s) + g(m/s2)t(min)(60s/min)
= u0 + 60gt

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Dimensional analysis and its application
Example 1
Given this equation:
D(ft) = 3t(s) + 4

i. If the equation is valid, what are the dimensions of the


constant 3 and 4?
ii. If the equation is consistent in its units, what are the units
of 3 and 4?
iii. Derive an equation for distance in meters in terms of time
in minutes.

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Dimensional analysis and its application
Solution:
i. Valid equation should be dimensionally homogeneous,
therefore each term must have the dimension of length.
For that reason, the constant 3 must have the dimension
Length/time , and 4 must have the dimension length

ii. For consistency, the constant must be 3 ft/s and


4 ft

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Dimensional analysis and its application
iii. We need to define new variables D(m) and t(min).
D(m) 3.2808 ft
D(ft) = = 3.28D(m)
1m

t(min) 60 s
t(s) = = 60t(min)
1 min

Substitute these expressions in the given equation

3.28D = 3(60t) + 4 Simplify, dividing by 3.28

D(m) = 55t(min) + 1.22


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Flow Rate
Mass & Volumetric Flow rate:

Fluid

Fig. 1: Fluid in motion

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Flow Rate
Mass & Volumatric Flow rate:

Any processes involve the movement of


material fr. one pt. to another.

Flow rate- is the rate of a raw mat. or reactant


transported through a process line.

Can be expressed as:


1) Mass flow rate [mass/time]
2) Volumetric flow rate [volume/time]
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Flow Rate
Mass & Volumetric Flow rate:

Fluid (gas or liquid) flows in a cylindrical pipe


(Fig 1.) perpendicular to the direction of flow.

Relationship:

= = (eq: 1.1)

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Flow Rate
Mass & Volumetric Flow rate:

Measurement:
Rotameter
Orifice meter

Rotameter
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Orifice meter
Examples- flow rate

1. the mass flow rates of a solvent is 6.59


g/s. Calculate the volumetric flow rate if
the density of the solvent is 0.659 g/cm3.

Solution:
Examples- flow rate

1. The volumetric flow rate of a stream (SG


= 1.595) is measured 100.0 cm3/min. What
is the mass flow rate of that stream?

Solution:
Chemical Composition
Chemical composition:
in chemical process systems, most
materials are mixtures of various species.

the physical properties of a mixture


strongly depend on the mixture
composition.

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Chemical Composition
Moles and Molecular Weight
the atomic weight- is the mass of an atom
compare to the 12C whose mass is exactly 12.

the molecular weight- is the sum of the


atomic weights of the atom that constitute
a molecule of the compound.
e.g.: atomic O has an atomic weight of approx.
16. therefore , molecular O2 has a molecular
weight around 32.

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Chemical Composition
Moles and Molecular Weight
gram-mole (g-mole, mol)- is the amount of that
species whose mass in grams is numerically
equal to its molecular weight. (However, for
atomic species, it is technically correct to refer
them as gram-atom rather than a gram-mole).

sometime we refer to other types of moles such


as:
1. kg-moles
2. Kmol
E.g.: Carbon monoxide (CO) has a MW 28
3. Ib-moles 1 mol of CO contains 28 g
4. ton-moles 1 Ib-mol CO contains 28 Ibm
5. mm-moles
1 Ton-mole CO contains 28 tons
6. moles
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Chemical Composition
Moles and Molecular Weight
if the MW of a species is M, then there are M
kg/kmol, M g/mol, M Ibm/Ib-mole, M Ton/Ton-
mol.
the MW can also be used as conversion factor
between the mass and the number of moles:
E.g.:
34 kg of ammonia (NH3: M=17) is equivalent to:

34 kg NH3 1 kmol NH3


= 2.0 kmol NH3
17 kg NH3
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Chemical Composition
Moles and Molecular Weight
Important:
the same factors used to convert
masses unit can be used to convert the
equivalent molar units:
1 Ibm = 454 g or 454 g/Ibm
so we can use 1 Ib-mole = 454 mol or
454 mol/Ib-mole of any substance.
1 gmol of any species contain
approximately 6.02 x 1023 (Avogadros
number) molecules of that species.
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Conversion between Mass & Moles
Examples:
1. how many of each of the following are
contained in 100 g of CO2 (M = 44.01)?
a) mol CO2
b) Ib-moles CO2
c) mol C
d) mol O
e) Mol O2
f) gO
g) g O2
h) Molecules of CO2

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Conversion between Mass & Moles
Solution:

100.0 g CO2 1 mol CO2


a) = 2.272 mol CO2
44.01 g CO2

2.272 mol CO2 1 Ib-mol


b) = 5.011 x 10-3 Ib-mole CO2
453.6 mol

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Conversion between Mass & Moles
Each molecules of CO2 contain: Each 6.02 x 1023 molecules of CO2
o 1 atom C (1 mol) contains:
o 1 molecule of O2 1 mol C
o 2 atoms of O 1 mol O2
2 mol O

2.273 mol CO2 1 mol C


c) = 2.273 mol C
1 mol CO2

d) 2.272 mol CO2 2 mol O


= 4.546 mole O
1 mol CO2
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Conversion between Mass & Moles

2.273 mol CO2 1 mol O2


e) = 2.273 mol O2
1 mol CO2

4.546 mol O 16.0 g O


f) = 72.7 g O
1 mol O

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Conversion between Mass & Moles

2.273 mol CO2 32.0 g O2


g) = 72.7 g O2
1 mol O2

Or
We can use the molecular formula to solve this
problem:
Each 44.0 g of CO2 contains 32.0 g of O2 or O.

100.0 g CO2 32.0 g O2


= 72.7 g O2
44.0 g CO2
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Conversion between Mass & Moles

h) 2.273 mol CO2 6.02 x 1023 molecules


= 1.37 x 1024 molecules
1 mol

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Conversion between Mass & Moles
Remember that!!!
the MW of a species can be used to convert the mass flow rate
to molar flow rate of a continuous stream.

Example 1:
o What is the molar flow rate of CO2 in a pipeline if it is
flows at a rate of 100 kg/h? (CO2: M = 44.0)

100 kg CO2 1 kmol CO2


= 2.27 kmol CO2/h
h 44.0 kg CO2

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Conversion between Mass & Moles

Example 2:
o What is the mass flow rate of CO2 in a pipeline if it is
flows at a rate of 850 Ib-moles/min? (CO2: M = 44.0)

850 Ib-moles CO2 44.0 Ibm CO2


= 37,400 IbmCO2/min
min 1 Ib-moles CO2

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Conversion between Mass & Moles
Do It Yourself (DIY):
1. What is a mol of a species of molecular weight M in
terms of:
a) number of molecules?
b) a mass?
2. define to-mole of a species
3. how many Ib-moles and Ibm of:
a) H2
b) H contained in 1 Ib-mole water?
4. how many g-moles of C3H8 are contained in 2 kmol of
this substance?
5. What is the molar flow rate of molecular H2 flows in a
pipeline if the mass flow rate of this species is 100 kg/h?

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Process stream normally contain a mixtures of
liquids, gas or solutions of one or more solutes in a
liquid solvent.
We used the following terms to define the
composition of a mixture of substances.
Example a species A:

Mass fraction:

Mole fraction:

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

The percent by mass of species A =

The mole percent of A =

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Example:
1. A solution contains 15% A by mass and 20
mole% B .
Calculate:
a) the mass of species A in 175 kg of the solution.
b) The mass flow rate of species A in a stream of solution
flowing at a rate of 53 Ibm/h.
c) The molar flow rate of species B in a stream flowing a rate of
1000 mol/min.
d) The total solution flow rate that corresponds to a molar flow
rate of 28 kmol B/s.
e) The mass of the solution that contains 300 Ibm of species A.

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Solutions:

175 kg solution 0.15 kg A


a) = 26 kg A
kg solution

53 Ibm 0.15 Ibm A


b) = 8.0 Ibm A/h
h Ibm

If the mass or molar units w/out a species name on


it, the unit should be referred to the total mixture or
solution.
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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Solutions:

1000 mol stream 0.20 mol B


c) = 200 mol B/min
min mol stream

28 kmol B 1 kmol solution


d) = 140 kmol solution/s
s 0.20 kmol B

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Solutions:

300 Ibm A 1 Ibm solution


e) = 2000 Ibm solution
0.15 Ibm A

Important!!!
The numerical value of a mass or a mole fraction
does not depend on the mass units in the
numerator or denominator provided that both
units are the same.
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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Basis of calculations
The mass fractions can be converted to the mole
fractions via:
By assuming a basis of calculation, a mass of a
mixture such as 100 kg, 1g, 100 Ibm etc.

Using the known mass fractions to calculate the


mass of each component in the basis quantity, then
convert these masses to moles.

Taking the ratio of the moles of each component to


the total number of moles e.g. 100 mol, 100 Ib-moles
is taken as a basis of calculation.
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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Example:
1. An analysis of a combustion gases gives the
following composition by mass:
Component (i) Mass %
O2 16

CO 4.0

CO2 17

N2 63

Calculate the molar composition.


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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Solution:
Component Mass Mass (g) Molecular Moles
(i) fraction Weight

O2 0.16 16 32 0.500 y

CO 0.04 4 28 0.143 y

CO2 0.17 17 44 0.386 y

N2 0.63 63 28 2.250 y

Total 1.00 100 3.279 1.00


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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
The Average Molecular Weight
Also known as mean molecular weight
is the ratio of the mass of a sample of the mixture
to the number of moles of all species in the sample.
If is the mole fraction of the component of the
mixture and is the molecular weight of this
component, then:

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Example:

Calculate the average MW of air:


1. Use molar composition of air 79% N2, 21% O2.
2. Use approximate composition by mass of 76.7% N2,
23.3% O2.

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Solutions:
From eq:

Also

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Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW
Solutions:
From eq:

33

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Pressure

Pressure is defined as a normal force


exerted by a fluid per unit area.
Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called
a pascal (Pa).
Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures
encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa
= 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106
Pa) are commonly used.
Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2,
lbf/in2=psi.
ME33 : Fluid Flow 57 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

Actual pressure at a give point is called


the absolute pressure.
Most pressure-measuring devices are
calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,
and therefore indicate gage pressure,
Pgage=Pabs - Patm.
Pressure below atmospheric pressure are
called vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 58 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

ME33 : Fluid Flow 59 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Pressure at a Point

Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same


in all directions.
Pressure has a magnitude, but not a
specific direction, and thus it is a scalar
quantity.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 60 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Variation of Pressure with Depth

In the presence of a gravitational


field, pressure increases with
depth because more fluid rests
on deeper layers.
To obtain a relation for the
variation of pressure with depth,
consider rectangular element
Force balance in z-direction gives

Dividing by x and rearranging


gives

ME33 : Fluid Flow 61 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Variation of Pressure with Depth

Pressure in a fluid at rest is independent of the


shape of the container.
Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal
plane in a given fluid.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 62 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

ME33 : Fluid Flow 63 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

Pressure on diver at
1
100 ft?

100 ft

Danger of emergency
2 ascent?
Boyles law

If you hold your breath on ascent, your lung


volume would increase by a factor of 4, which
would result in embolism and/or death.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 64 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


The Manometer
An elevation change of
z in a fluid at rest
corresponds to P/ g.
A device based on this is
called a manometer.
A manometer consists of
a U-tube containing one
or more fluids such as
mercury, water, alcohol,
or oil.
Heavy fluids such as
mercury are used if large
pressure differences are
anticipated.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 65 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Mutlifluid Manometer

For multi-fluid systems


Pressure change across a fluid
column of height h is P = gh.
Pressure increases downward, and
decreases upward.
Two points at the same elevation in a
continuous fluid are at the same
pressure.
Pressure can be determined by
adding and subtracting gh terms.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 66 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Measuring Pressure Drops
Manometers are well--
suited to measure
pressure drops across
valves, pipes, heat
exchangers, etc.
Relation for pressure
drop P1-P2 is obtained by
starting at point 1 and
adding or subtracting gh
terms until we reach point
2.
If fluid in pipe is a gas,
2>> 1 and P1-P2= gh

ME33 : Fluid Flow 67 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


The Barometer
Atmospheric pressure is
measured by a device called a
barometer; thus, atmospheric
pressure is often referred to as
the barometric pressure.
PC can be taken to be zero
since there is only Hg vapor
above point C, and it is very
low relative to Patm.
Change in atmospheric
pressure due to elevation has
many effects: Cooking, nose
bleeds, engine performance,
aircraft performance.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 68 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Fluid Statics
Fluid Statics deals with problems associated
with fluids at rest.
In fluid statics, there is no relative motion
between adjacent fluid layers.
Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid
trying to deform it.
The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress
Normal stress is due to pressure
Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the
fluid fluid statics is only relevant in presence of
gravity fields.
Applications: Floating or submerged bodies,
water dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.
ME33 : Fluid Flow 69 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 151
Absolute, gage, and
vacuum pressures.

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 155
The pressure is the same at all
points on a horizontal plane in a
given fluid regardless of
geometry, provided that the
points are interconnected by the
same fluid.

1-15
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 157
The basic manometer.

1-16
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 161
Schematic for Example 1
8.

1-17
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 163
The basic barometer.

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 147
Comparison of
temperature scales.

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