Objectives/Intended Learning Outcome:
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Explain in your own word the meaning of the following terms: batch, semi batch, continuous, transient and steady-state processes.
2. Explain the following process terms: recycle, purge, by- pass, limiting reactant and combustion reaction.
3. Draw and fully label a flowchart based on given process description.
4. Solve a simple material balance calculations.

© All Rights Reserved

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Objectives/Intended Learning Outcome:
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Explain in your own word the meaning of the following terms: batch, semi batch, continuous, transient and steady-state processes.
2. Explain the following process terms: recycle, purge, by- pass, limiting reactant and combustion reaction.
3. Draw and fully label a flowchart based on given process description.
4. Solve a simple material balance calculations.

© All Rights Reserved

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Series

Faculty of Applied Science, UiTM, Shah Alam

Education is the kindling of a flame, not

the filling of a vessel - Socrates.

You do not learn much just sitting in classes

listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged

assignments, and spitting out answers. You

must talk about what you are learning, write

reflectively about it, relate it to past experiences,

and apply it to your daily lives. You must make

what you learn part of yourselves.

Principles: Technology as Lever" by Arthur

W. Chickering and Stephen C. Ehrmann

Learning

Objectives/Intended Learning Outcome:

American Engineering units) and perform the conversion

between them.

2. Perform material balance calculations for single and

multiple unit processes for nonreactive processes.

3. Solve material and energy balances for reactive

processes.

4. State and apply energy balance concept to solve problem

12/14/2013 involving closed system.

Copyright Dr.RR 2013 3

CHAPTER

2

PROCESS &

PROCESS VARIABLES

Definitions

A process- any operation or series of operations by

which a particular objective is accomplished.

E.g.: making a cake, budu, masi lemak, etc.

Input or feed- the material or raw material that

enters a process units.

Output- the material that leaves the process units

or product.

process unit- is a step in a series of a process.

E.g.: drying process

Process streams- is a set of input and output.

Mass, Volume & Density

The density- is the mass [kg, g, Ibm] per unit volume

[m3, cm3, ft3] of the substance [kg/m3, g/cm3, Ibm/ft3,

etc.]

The specific volume- is the volume occupied by a unit

mass of the substance (inverse density [m3/kg, cm3/g,

ft3/Ibm, etc.)

Densities of pure solids and liquids are independent of

pressure and vary relatively with temperature.

The density of a substance can also be used as a

conversion factor to relate the mass and the volume of

a quantity of the substance.

Mass, Volume & Density

E.g.: the density of carbon tetrachloride is 1.595

g/cm3. The mass of 20 cm3 of carbon tetrachloride is.

the substance to the reference density [ ref] normally

water at 4 C and 1 atm pressure:

Mass, Volume & Density

Density of water at reference state is as follows:

= 1.000 g/cm3

= 1000 kg/m3

= 62.43 Ibm/ft3

Mass, Volume & Density

note that:

The density of a liquid or solid in g/cm3 is numerically equal to the

specific gravity of that substance.

Specific gravity of a substance at 20 C with reference to water at 4 C is

0.6.

to water at 4 C is 0.6

E.g.: SG of a liquid is 2.00- its density would be:

2.00 x 1000kg/m3 = 2000 kg/m3

2.00 x 1g/cm3 = 2 g/cm3

2.00 x 62.43 Ibm/ft3.

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Mass, Volume & Density

Example:

Calculate the density of mercury in (

a) from a tabulated SG

b) The volume in ft3 occupied by 215 kg

of mercury

(given: SGHg@20 C = 13.546)

Mass, Volume & Density

Solution:

a) = (13.546)(62.43Ib /ft3) = 845.7 Ib /ft3

Hg m m

V= = 0.560 ft3

0.454 kg 845.7 Ibm

densities of solid and liquid are very small.

Mass, Volume & Density

We consider force to be a derived unit from

Newtons second law:

Force = mass x acceleration

F = ma

defined as the force required to accelerate a mass of

1 kg at a rate of 1 m/s2:

1 N = 1 kg(1 m/s2)

Mass, Volume & Density

Weight(Wt) is a force: the gravitational force applied

to a body, and its magnitude is determined from

Newtons second law.

Wt = mg

Where;

m = mass of the body

g = local gravitational acceleration(9.807 m/s2

At sea level and 450 latitude)

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Mass, Volume & Density

Specific weight(w): the weight per unit volume, can

be determine from w = g, where is density.

Newtons second law is often written as:

F = ma

gc

Where: gc = is the gravitational constant which obtained

from the force definition. It is used to

denote the conversion factor from natural

to derived forces units.

Mass, Volume & Density

gc = ma = (1 kg)(1 m/s2) kg m

= 1

F 1N N s2

= 32.2

F 1 lbf lbf s2

gc = ma = (1 g)(1 cm/s2) g cm

= 1

F 1 dyne dyne s2

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Mass, Volume & Density

Example 1.1

i. An object at sea level has a mass of 400 kg.

a. What is the weight of this object on earth.?

b. What is the weight of this object on the moon

where the local gravitational acceleration is one-

sixth that of earth?

Example 1.2

An object has a mass of 180 lbm. Find the

weight of this object at a location where the

local gravitational acceleration is 30 ft/s2.

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Mass, Volume & Density

Solution for example: 1.1

a) Wt = mg

= 3922.8 N

b) Wt = mg

= 400 kg ( )

= 653.8 N

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Mass, Volume & Density

Solution for example:1.2

Wt = mg

= 167.7 Ibf

Dimensional analysis and its application

Quantities can only be added or subtracted if their

units are the same.

If the units are the same, the dimension of each

term also must be the same.

Rule: Every valid equation must be dimensionally

homogeneous:- that is, all additive terms on both

sides of the equation must have the same

dimensions.

Consider the equation below:

u(m/s) = u0(m/s) + g(m/s2)t(s)

This equation is dimensionally homogeneous or not?

Why?

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Dimensional analysis and its application

u = u0 + g This equation valid or not? Why?

If the unit are not consistent, we need to apply the

appropriate conversion factors.

For example: in the equation u = u0 + gt instead of t

measured in second, now we express in minutes.

u(m/s) = u0(m/s) + g(m/s2)t(min)(60s/min)

= u0 + 60gt

Dimensional analysis and its application

Example 1

Given this equation:

D(ft) = 3t(s) + 4

constant 3 and 4?

ii. If the equation is consistent in its units, what are the units

of 3 and 4?

iii. Derive an equation for distance in meters in terms of time

in minutes.

Dimensional analysis and its application

Solution:

i. Valid equation should be dimensionally homogeneous,

therefore each term must have the dimension of length.

For that reason, the constant 3 must have the dimension

Length/time , and 4 must have the dimension length

4 ft

Dimensional analysis and its application

iii. We need to define new variables D(m) and t(min).

D(m) 3.2808 ft

D(ft) = = 3.28D(m)

1m

t(min) 60 s

t(s) = = 60t(min)

1 min

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Flow Rate

Mass & Volumetric Flow rate:

Fluid

Flow Rate

Mass & Volumatric Flow rate:

material fr. one pt. to another.

transported through a process line.

1) Mass flow rate [mass/time]

2) Volumetric flow rate [volume/time]

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Flow Rate

Mass & Volumetric Flow rate:

(Fig 1.) perpendicular to the direction of flow.

Relationship:

= = (eq: 1.1)

Flow Rate

Mass & Volumetric Flow rate:

Measurement:

Rotameter

Orifice meter

Rotameter

12/14/2013 Copyright Dr.RR 2013

Orifice meter

Examples- flow rate

g/s. Calculate the volumetric flow rate if

the density of the solvent is 0.659 g/cm3.

Solution:

Examples- flow rate

= 1.595) is measured 100.0 cm3/min. What

is the mass flow rate of that stream?

Solution:

Chemical Composition

Chemical composition:

in chemical process systems, most

materials are mixtures of various species.

strongly depend on the mixture

composition.

12/14/2013

Chemical Composition

Moles and Molecular Weight

the atomic weight- is the mass of an atom

compare to the 12C whose mass is exactly 12.

atomic weights of the atom that constitute

a molecule of the compound.

e.g.: atomic O has an atomic weight of approx.

16. therefore , molecular O2 has a molecular

weight around 32.

12/14/2013

Chemical Composition

Moles and Molecular Weight

gram-mole (g-mole, mol)- is the amount of that

species whose mass in grams is numerically

equal to its molecular weight. (However, for

atomic species, it is technically correct to refer

them as gram-atom rather than a gram-mole).

as:

1. kg-moles

2. Kmol

E.g.: Carbon monoxide (CO) has a MW 28

3. Ib-moles 1 mol of CO contains 28 g

4. ton-moles 1 Ib-mol CO contains 28 Ibm

5. mm-moles

1 Ton-mole CO contains 28 tons

6. moles

12/14/2013

Chemical Composition

Moles and Molecular Weight

if the MW of a species is M, then there are M

kg/kmol, M g/mol, M Ibm/Ib-mole, M Ton/Ton-

mol.

the MW can also be used as conversion factor

between the mass and the number of moles:

E.g.:

34 kg of ammonia (NH3: M=17) is equivalent to:

= 2.0 kmol NH3

17 kg NH3

12/14/2013

Chemical Composition

Moles and Molecular Weight

Important:

the same factors used to convert

masses unit can be used to convert the

equivalent molar units:

1 Ibm = 454 g or 454 g/Ibm

so we can use 1 Ib-mole = 454 mol or

454 mol/Ib-mole of any substance.

1 gmol of any species contain

approximately 6.02 x 1023 (Avogadros

number) molecules of that species.

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

Examples:

1. how many of each of the following are

contained in 100 g of CO2 (M = 44.01)?

a) mol CO2

b) Ib-moles CO2

c) mol C

d) mol O

e) Mol O2

f) gO

g) g O2

h) Molecules of CO2

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

Solution:

a) = 2.272 mol CO2

44.01 g CO2

b) = 5.011 x 10-3 Ib-mole CO2

453.6 mol

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

Each molecules of CO2 contain: Each 6.02 x 1023 molecules of CO2

o 1 atom C (1 mol) contains:

o 1 molecule of O2 1 mol C

o 2 atoms of O 1 mol O2

2 mol O

c) = 2.273 mol C

1 mol CO2

= 4.546 mole O

1 mol CO2

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

e) = 2.273 mol O2

1 mol CO2

f) = 72.7 g O

1 mol O

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

g) = 72.7 g O2

1 mol O2

Or

We can use the molecular formula to solve this

problem:

Each 44.0 g of CO2 contains 32.0 g of O2 or O.

= 72.7 g O2

44.0 g CO2

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

= 1.37 x 1024 molecules

1 mol

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

Remember that!!!

the MW of a species can be used to convert the mass flow rate

to molar flow rate of a continuous stream.

Example 1:

o What is the molar flow rate of CO2 in a pipeline if it is

flows at a rate of 100 kg/h? (CO2: M = 44.0)

= 2.27 kmol CO2/h

h 44.0 kg CO2

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

Example 2:

o What is the mass flow rate of CO2 in a pipeline if it is

flows at a rate of 850 Ib-moles/min? (CO2: M = 44.0)

= 37,400 IbmCO2/min

min 1 Ib-moles CO2

12/14/2013

Conversion between Mass & Moles

Do It Yourself (DIY):

1. What is a mol of a species of molecular weight M in

terms of:

a) number of molecules?

b) a mass?

2. define to-mole of a species

3. how many Ib-moles and Ibm of:

a) H2

b) H contained in 1 Ib-mole water?

4. how many g-moles of C3H8 are contained in 2 kmol of

this substance?

5. What is the molar flow rate of molecular H2 flows in a

pipeline if the mass flow rate of this species is 100 kg/h?

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Process stream normally contain a mixtures of

liquids, gas or solutions of one or more solutes in a

liquid solvent.

We used the following terms to define the

composition of a mixture of substances.

Example a species A:

Mass fraction:

Mole fraction:

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Example:

1. A solution contains 15% A by mass and 20

mole% B .

Calculate:

a) the mass of species A in 175 kg of the solution.

b) The mass flow rate of species A in a stream of solution

flowing at a rate of 53 Ibm/h.

c) The molar flow rate of species B in a stream flowing a rate of

1000 mol/min.

d) The total solution flow rate that corresponds to a molar flow

rate of 28 kmol B/s.

e) The mass of the solution that contains 300 Ibm of species A.

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Solutions:

a) = 26 kg A

kg solution

b) = 8.0 Ibm A/h

h Ibm

it, the unit should be referred to the total mixture or

solution.

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Solutions:

c) = 200 mol B/min

min mol stream

d) = 140 kmol solution/s

s 0.20 kmol B

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Solutions:

e) = 2000 Ibm solution

0.15 Ibm A

Important!!!

The numerical value of a mass or a mole fraction

does not depend on the mass units in the

numerator or denominator provided that both

units are the same.

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Basis of calculations

The mass fractions can be converted to the mole

fractions via:

By assuming a basis of calculation, a mass of a

mixture such as 100 kg, 1g, 100 Ibm etc.

mass of each component in the basis quantity, then

convert these masses to moles.

the total number of moles e.g. 100 mol, 100 Ib-moles

is taken as a basis of calculation.

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Example:

1. An analysis of a combustion gases gives the

following composition by mass:

Component (i) Mass %

O2 16

CO 4.0

CO2 17

N2 63

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Solution:

Component Mass Mass (g) Molecular Moles

(i) fraction Weight

O2 0.16 16 32 0.500 y

CO 0.04 4 28 0.143 y

N2 0.63 63 28 2.250 y

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

The Average Molecular Weight

Also known as mean molecular weight

is the ratio of the mass of a sample of the mixture

to the number of moles of all species in the sample.

If is the mole fraction of the component of the

mixture and is the molecular weight of this

component, then:

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Example:

1. Use molar composition of air 79% N2, 21% O2.

2. Use approximate composition by mass of 76.7% N2,

23.3% O2.

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Solutions:

From eq:

Also

12/14/2013

Mass & Mole Fractions and Ave. MW

Solutions:

From eq:

33

12/14/2013

Pressure

exerted by a fluid per unit area.

Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called

a pascal (Pa).

Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures

encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa

= 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106

Pa) are commonly used.

Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2,

lbf/in2=psi.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 57 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

the absolute pressure.

Most pressure-measuring devices are

calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,

and therefore indicate gage pressure,

Pgage=Pabs - Patm.

Pressure below atmospheric pressure are

called vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

Pressure at a Point

in all directions.

Pressure has a magnitude, but not a

specific direction, and thus it is a scalar

quantity.

Variation of Pressure with Depth

field, pressure increases with

depth because more fluid rests

on deeper layers.

To obtain a relation for the

variation of pressure with depth,

consider rectangular element

Force balance in z-direction gives

gives

Variation of Pressure with Depth

shape of the container.

Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal

plane in a given fluid.

Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure

Pressure on diver at

1

100 ft?

100 ft

Danger of emergency

2 ascent?

Boyles law

volume would increase by a factor of 4, which

would result in embolism and/or death.

The Manometer

An elevation change of

z in a fluid at rest

corresponds to P/ g.

A device based on this is

called a manometer.

A manometer consists of

a U-tube containing one

or more fluids such as

mercury, water, alcohol,

or oil.

Heavy fluids such as

mercury are used if large

pressure differences are

anticipated.

Mutlifluid Manometer

Pressure change across a fluid

column of height h is P = gh.

Pressure increases downward, and

decreases upward.

Two points at the same elevation in a

continuous fluid are at the same

pressure.

Pressure can be determined by

adding and subtracting gh terms.

Measuring Pressure Drops

Manometers are well--

suited to measure

pressure drops across

valves, pipes, heat

exchangers, etc.

Relation for pressure

drop P1-P2 is obtained by

starting at point 1 and

adding or subtracting gh

terms until we reach point

2.

If fluid in pipe is a gas,

2>> 1 and P1-P2= gh

The Barometer

Atmospheric pressure is

measured by a device called a

barometer; thus, atmospheric

pressure is often referred to as

the barometric pressure.

PC can be taken to be zero

since there is only Hg vapor

above point C, and it is very

low relative to Patm.

Change in atmospheric

pressure due to elevation has

many effects: Cooking, nose

bleeds, engine performance,

aircraft performance.

Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics deals with problems associated

with fluids at rest.

In fluid statics, there is no relative motion

between adjacent fluid layers.

Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid

trying to deform it.

The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress

Normal stress is due to pressure

Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the

fluid fluid statics is only relevant in presence of

gravity fields.

Applications: Floating or submerged bodies,

water dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.

ME33 : Fluid Flow 69 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 151

Absolute, gage, and

vacuum pressures.

1-14

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 155

The pressure is the same at all

points on a horizontal plane in a

given fluid regardless of

geometry, provided that the

points are interconnected by the

same fluid.

1-15

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 157

The basic manometer.

1-16

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 161

Schematic for Example 1

8.

1-17

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 163

The basic barometer.

1-18

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 147

Comparison of

temperature scales.

1-13

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