Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 226

1 1

1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2 7
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3 10

i
ii

3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

4 17
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5 23
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

6 25
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.6 , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
iii

6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

7 31
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

8 34
8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

9 36
9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

10 42
10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
10.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
iv

10.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
10.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
10.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
10.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

11 48
11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.5.1 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.5.5 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
11.8 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
11.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
11.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
11.9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
11.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
11.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
11.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

12 54
12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
12.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
12.2.2 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
12.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
12.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
12.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
12.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
12.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
12.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
v

12.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
12.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
12.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
12.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
12.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
12.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
12.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
12.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
12.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
12.7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
12.7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
12.7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
12.7.7 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
12.7.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
12.7.9 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
12.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
12.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
12.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
12.9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
12.9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
12.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

13 77
13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
13.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
13.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
13.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
13.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
13.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

14 81
14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
14.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
14.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
14.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
vi

14.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
14.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
14.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
14.2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
14.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
14.3.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
14.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
14.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
14.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
14.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
14.4.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
14.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
14.6 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
14.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
14.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
14.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
14.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

15 94
15.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
15.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
15.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
15.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
15.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
15.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
15.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
15.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
15.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
15.7 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
15.7.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
15.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
15.8 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
15.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
15.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
15.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
15.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

16 103
16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
16.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
16.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
vii

16.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
16.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
16.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
16.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
16.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
16.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
16.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
16.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
16.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

17 107
17.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
17.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
17.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
17.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
17.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
17.2.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.2.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.2.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
17.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
17.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
17.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
17.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
17.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
17.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

18 114
18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
18.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
18.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
18.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
18.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
18.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
18.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
18.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
18.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
18.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
viii

19 119
19.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
19.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
19.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
19.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
19.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
19.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
19.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
19.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

20 121
20.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
20.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
20.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
20.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

21 123
21.1 - , -, - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
21.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
21.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
21.3.1 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
21.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
21.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
21.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
21.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
21.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
21.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
21.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
21.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

22 128
22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
22.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
22.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
22.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
22.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
22.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
22.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
22.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
22.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
ix

22.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
22.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
22.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
22.2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
22.2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
22.2.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
22.2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
22.2.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
22.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
22.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
22.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
22.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
22.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
22.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
22.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

23 137
23.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
23.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
23.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
23.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
23.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
23.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
23.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
23.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
23.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
23.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
23.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
23.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

24 141
24.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
24.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
24.2.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
24.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
24.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
24.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
24.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
24.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
24.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
24.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
24.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
x

24.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
24.4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
24.4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
24.4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
24.4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
24.4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
24.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
24.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
24.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
24.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
24.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

25 152
25.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
25.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
25.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
25.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
25.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
25.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
25.8 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
25.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
25.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
25.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
25.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

26 158
26.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
26.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
26.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
26.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

27 160
27.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
27.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
27.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
27.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
27.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
27.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
27.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
xi

28 162
28.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
28.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
28.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
28.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
28.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
28.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
28.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
28.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
28.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
28.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
28.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
28.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
28.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
28.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
28.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
28.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

29 170
29.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
29.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
29.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
29.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
29.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
29.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
29.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
29.2.6 XX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
29.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
29.3.1 . . . . . . . . . 174
29.3.2 . . . 174
29.3.3 . . . . . . 175
29.3.4 . . . . 175
29.3.5 . . . . . . . . . 176
29.3.6 . . . . . . . . . 176
29.3.7 . . . . . 176
29.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
29.4.1 s- - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
29.4.2 d- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
29.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
29.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
29.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
29.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
xii

29.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

30 181
30.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
30.1.1 1. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
30.1.2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
30.1.3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
30.1.4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
30.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
30.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
30.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
30.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
30.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

31 185
31.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
31.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
31.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
31.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
31.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
31.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
31.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
31.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
31.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
31.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
31.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
31.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
31.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

32 190
32.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
32.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
32.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
32.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
32.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
32.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
32.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
32.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
32.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
32.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
32.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
xiii

33 196
33.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
33.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
33.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
33.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

34 197
34.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
34.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
34.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
34.4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
34.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
34.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
34.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
1

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. -
, -
;
4.


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. .: . . -, 1975.
224 .
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1932 ( -
) (.).

3.9.
: -


4

( .-. ) ,
, . - (
, ),
, -
. ( -
, ),
. (
),
, -
, - ( -
, ( , ).
), -
.
, 4.1.
. . ,
-
Fungi seu Mycota. , -
, . .
, , . 1940 -
, , . , , -
, - , XIX ,
: -
, -
: . -
. . , -
-
( , . , -
, , ), XIX . -
, -
, - , .
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, , -
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, - . .
. , -
, -
, -
,
-
, .
:
,
, ,
, 1860- ,
,
. , XIX XX [1] .

17
18 4.

1953 . . - fungi, , -
4 . - (fungi esculenti) (fungi noxici et
, - perniciosi).
XVIII (fungus porosus),
, - (fungus ramosus),
, - (fungus sambuci), (fungus pulverulentus),
(tubera terrae), (pezicae Plinii), -
, - (fungus laricis, agaricum).
.
, - , -
XIX . - , -
- [3][6] .
, .
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. ,
-
boletus,
- ( V). -
. , - , -
, 1860- 1920- , ,
. .
, - ,
, - [6] .
,
-
[2] . 4.1.2.

-
4.1.1. , ,
.
, -
[3] . . -
, - . -
, , - -
, - -
. , , -
, , -
[7] .
. mycetes, - 1378 (-
. , ), -
(. erysiphe) XVI
. - ,
, , - [8] .
,
.[4] . 150 . . , -
4.1.3.
, -
[3] .
- -
.
De materia medica. - , . -
, - XVI -
- , (. Herbal).
agaricus, - (. Kruterbuch)
( , (14981554) 5 , -
. agaricus ocinalis). 10 -
, - , , ,
, - -
[5][6] . .
[9] . -
4.1. 19

(. Cruydeboeck, Cruijdeboeck, Cruydt- XVIII


Boeck) , ,
- , , -
, - 1672 -
, : 1705 -
, , [7] . <> -
<> 1674<>.
-
, -
-
. De Plantis libri XVI - , . 1672
-
-
: . -
, , -
Tuber,
Tartufi ; Pezicae - , II
; Fungi - III . , ,
. 16 - ,
, - [15] .
. , -
, ,
, Suilli, Porcini XVIIXVIII ,
. Suillus -
. .
-
1601 - , XVIII
, . , , -

Fungorum in Pannoniis observatorum brevis historia, . . (16691722)
Rariorum plantarum ,
historia, De plantes, 1727 ,
. 47 105 . -
, - ,
, . .
, , - -
. , , -
, , ,
[10][11] . . -
1664 , ,
- ,
.
.
Phragmidium, - , , , , -
, , Aspergillus sp., - , , . 1729
, . . , -
. - , -
, - , . -
- [12] .
- , ,
. - .
. , , -
1675 , ,
Gymnosporangium clavariiforme[13] .
(Aspergillus, Botrytis, Mucor),
, Sphaerobolus stellatus, -
- .
[14] , - ,
1671 . [16] . 1778 . -
, , , -
, . XVII
20 4.

.[17][13] . .
- , -
. , . . , . . ,
, - . . , . . , . . , . . -
, . . , . . , . .
. - . , -
. , :
-
- Plantarum minus cognitarum centuria complectens
. - plantas circa Bysantium et in Oriente observatarum
, - . . , 17281740
. ,
(Fungi), -
(17541755) . .
10 86 , -
,
, , -
Index plantarum circa Petropolin sponte
. crescentia et a 1749 observatorum Flora ingrica
, - contines plantas inter Petropolin, Novogradium et
, - Narvam urbe sponte nascentes ( -
, . - , 1861 -
, . Flora ingrica
- ex schedis St. Kraschrninnikov confecta et propriis
[18] . observationibus aucta),
, -
Flora sibirica sive historia plantarum Sibiriae
, , -
(17471759) . . (, -
. .
, 4 , ,
. 1793
, -
( ), -
),
. . 1798
1814 Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen
- Reichs (17711773) . . ,
[19] . . . -
- Beytrage zur topographischen Kenntniss des
18241825 4- - Russischen Reichs (1786) . . ,
Species plantarum
[18] . , - Reisen durch Russland und Caucasischen Gebirge
, - (1787) . . ,
. . , -
(1794) .
(Regnum Intermedium), 1795 . - ,
[20] . -
. . . . Bemerkungen einer Reise
, 1836 . in Russischen Reich (1775) Geographisch-
, 1860 physikalische und naturhistorische Beschreibung des
[21] . . - Russischen Reichs (1800)[22] .
1816
(Regnum Mycetoideum), , ,
[20] . -
, (1800) 200.
4.1.4. , -
, -
1724 XVIII
, - ,
, .
. - , -
, -
,
4.2. 21

430 [23] . . , - . 18551856 -


. . Florae Rossicae Mycologia Petropolitana,
fontes. , , - 200 , ,
, - [29] .
, -
[24] . ,
. , - 4.1.5.
40 , -
- 4.2.

[25] .
-
- , , -
( , , . -
), , -
, -
, .
. . -

. - 4.3. .
. , (
) 1780
: -
1789 ,


, -
, ,
, 4.4.
(-
, Elaphomyces granulatus)[26] . [1] , 1940.

XVIII XIX [2] , 1953.


-
[3] , 2007, . 7.
, -
. [4] , 1940, . 416.
, , -
, [5] , 2007, . 8.
. 1850- [6] , 1940, . 417.
, -
, , , - [7] , 2007, . 9.
, , . - [8] , 1953, . 1314.
. . Hymeno et
Gasteromycetes hujusque in imperio Rossico observatas [9] , 1940, . 417418.
recensuit (- , -
[10] , 2007, . 10.
), 1836 .
- [11] , 1940, . 418.
, 1132 -
, - [12] , 2007, . 11.
. - [13] , 1940, . 423.
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years. Illustrated with many copper plates. London,
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1671. 144 p.
5 ,
[15] , 1953, . 16.
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[16] , 2007, . 1213.

, - [17] , 2007, . 21.
, - , -
[18] , 1940, . 419.
22 4.

[19] , 2007, . 14.


[20] , 2007, . 15.
[21] Ainsworth, 2009, . 2.
[22] , 1953, . 2529.
[23] Enumerationem ad 430 specierum Fungorum prope
Petropolin crescentium conscripsit, quae nunquam typis
excusa est et jam non existat
[24] , 1953, . 31.
[25] , 1953, . 35.
[26] , 1953, . 3538.
[27] , 1953, . 4142.
[28] , 1940, . 453.
[29] , 1953, . 45.

4.5.
. . -
. , 1968.
. . //
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. .
: - .
..: . , 1953. 192 .
., . / . .
. . . .: , 1995. 343 .
ISBN 5-03-002999-0.
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Mycology. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
376 p. ISBN 9780521112956. (.)
( . . -
)
. ., . . -
: .
: , 2007. . 192206.
ISBN 978-966-495-040-1. (.) ( -
: )
. 7 ./. . .
(. .) . . 2. / . . . -
. 2- ., . .: ,
1991. 475 .

4.6.
(.)
British Mycological Society (.)
(.)
5

(. -
.
, ) , -1674 , -
, , , -
, ,
, , -
. -
. .
, 100 .
(. cell biology). 1830- , -
.
18381839
5.1. -
. .
-
. -


.
,
,
.
-
-
,
.
1870-
,
. 10 -

. , -
-
, -
-
. -
, () -
,
,
, -
. , , -

-
, - , .
( Micrographia, 1664 )
.

1665 , -

23
24 5.

5.2.
-
.
, -
,
.

5.3. .

()
6

(. , . bios ,
) , - . -
, -
(), - ,
- .
, . -
, -
, , , , . ,
, 1892 ,
. ,
: , , , ,
. . - -
, - .
,
, -
- 6.1.2.
, -
, , (),
, ,
.

6.1.
-
, -
,
, , -
, -
, , .

6.1.1.

, -
,
, . -
-

. (460377 . . .) - .
, -
. -
- .
(14781553), , - 1610 .

25
26 6.

1665 - . .
. 30- (18221887), -
, , -
. . .
, .
, -
(16011680), - .
, - , -

- . . (1744
. 1805) , -
- , -
, 24 1676 -
, . 1827
, . - . -
-
- . . . . . . -
, - ,
. - ,
. 1697 . . .
- , , -
, 1698 I. . . - -
, - . 1830- .
. - , . .
.
-
, , . -
1648 , , , -
, , ,
.
-
, . , -
, (1839)
.
, -
, 17661776 . , ,
,
, - ,
. .
100150 -
.
- 6.1.3. -
-
, 1789
379 .
- ,
. , 1823 - , -
, Serratia .
marcescens ( Monas prodigiosa). , -
- ,
, (16261697).
, , -
( )
, - - ,
. - ,
- .
Trichodesmium erythraeum. , , - , XVIII

- ,
,
6.1. 27

.
, . XIX -
, , -
, . , -
, , .
, (, ,
. ) ( -
). 1930-
.
. -
,
-
. , -

. -

, ,
-.
.

6.1.4.

1880- 1890-
. -
.
, -
1870- 1880-
-
.

-
, , -
-
. , -
, -
, . , -
, -
, -
. ,
( ),
,

1854 -
. 1883 . -
, 1860
, -
1861 , -
. -
,
, -
,
.
.
-
omne vivum ex vivo ( ) -
1868/69 , 1881
.
-
,
. 1887
1860- ,
.
,
. , - :
, -
, -
-
.
;
-
. XIX ;
.
1866 - -
Protista. . 1875, ,
, .
28 6.

, -
. . , . .
. - . . , -
( - , .
) . -
, - , -
. - . . . . , 1930 -
, 1884 - -
. -
( ), . . - , -
1891 - . . . . ,
. 1920- -
, , -
, - .
, - . . -
. -
, 1934
.
. . . . -

-
(18221895). . . .
(18431910) , . . -
-
. .
-
, -
-
. , -
- , , , -
(18511931) ; -
. . (18561953). , , -
; -
;
-
. . -
6.1.5. - :
-
, , -
6.1.6. , , , , -
, , . .

-
, 6.2. -
-
: , , , -
, .

:
: . . (1845
1916), . . (18631920), . . - : ( -
(18591949), . . (18221887), , , )
. . (18561953), . . - ;
(18671928), . . (18661929),
. . (18721972), . . (1877 (, -
1931), . . (18821953), . . - );
(18841968), . . (18961973),
. . (19051992) . (
6.4. . 29

, -
); , -

- (, -
- .); [1] .

().
6.4. .

, - . . .
-
, -
-
, , -
,
, -
.
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[1] ... , -
6.3. - . , 2005. . 154156.
ISBN 5-89481-278-X.

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, , , 6.6.
, , .
. ., . .
- . .: . -
, - , 1988. ISBN 5-10-000191-7
: , ,
, . . . ., . ., . ., -
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: , 5-225-04411-5
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, 1403-5

- . ., . . :
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445 . ( ). ISBN 5-358-
- 00443-2.
30 6.

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. , -
, -
, .
.: - , 1996. 302 . ISBN 5-211-
03644-1
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: , 2007. 426 . ISBN 985-485-
709-3

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ISBN 5-354-00010-6

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. . : , 1948. 356 .
. . -
. .: , 1965. 50 .

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, , , , -
. - .
.
, - 1901 -
,
. -
,
, -
. .
.
1911
( 1966 , 55
- ,
. , 20 ).
-
. , , -
,
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-.
, -
,
7.1.
.
( - ,
) 1892 - :
. . . -
, , -
1892 , . . 1. -
, .
, -
, , , - 2. -
. - .
,
: - 3. -
, - .
, -
4. ,
, -
().
.
. . -,
5. -
,
.
,
.
, -
, , 7.3.
.
1898 , . -

31
32 7.

. -
, ,
-, -
. - , , -
- .
, - 1974
, -
, , , .
, .
.


7.4. , -
-
, -

. Poxviridae ()

Iridoviridae ()

Herpesviridae ()
1962 . -
, - Adenoviridae ()
.
- Papovaviridae ()
: , , -
. Hepadnaviridae (,
. B)
, - Parvoviridae ()
, -
. Reoviridae ()
.
, , Birnaviridae ( -
, - , )
. -
. Togaviridae ()

50- , Coronaviridae ()
, -
- Paramyxoviridae ()
,
. , - Rhabdoviridae ()
,
Filoviridae ()
, -
. Orthomyxoviridae ( )
-
, Hantaviridae ()
. -
Nairoviridae
, -
, Peribunyaviridae
.
. Phenuiviridae
60-
Arenaviridae ()
-
, 80- Retroviridae ()
-
- Picornaviridae ()
, -
, Caliciviridae ()
7.6. 33

7.5. .

7.6.
.. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. . -
-
. , 2012. 624 .
. ., . ., -
. . . -
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. . . .: -
, 1986. 336 .

: 3- . . 1: . . / .
. , . , . , .
, . , . . .: ,
1989. 492 . ISBN 5-03-000283-9

: 3- . . 2: . . / .
. , . , . , .
, . , . . .: ,
1989. 496 . ISBN 5-03-000284-7

: 3- . . 3: . . / .
. , . , . , .
, . , . . .: ,
1989. 452 . ISBN 5-03-000285-5
8


, -
, .
, 1928 ,
( ). -
-
. -
8.1. -
, , ,
, . -
, - , ,
- -
, .
. , ,
, , 50- XX ,
. - -
, -
, , . ,
, - ,
, - .
- -
. , XX ,
, . -

. - . -
. -
, - ,
, -
: , . -
. ,
. , -
- -
.
8.2. : .

,
. ,
1953 , (. -
Nature . ,
. - 1980 ),
.
- (. ). XXI
, -
. . , -
. ,

34
8.5. 35

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:
, .

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EMBO -

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8.5.
-

. .
. ,

( , -
)
,
. -
-
XIX , -
1903 -
[1] .
,
[2] .

9.1.

XIX [2] ,
, -
, -
,
, .
,
-
[3] . -
, -



.
- , ,
, , , , . -
, -
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[4] .
-
.
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9.2. , [5]

- X -
100 , -
[6] .
, , , - XVII -
. -
- [7] .

36
9.3. 37

XVIII . . - ,
. . . -
. 1926 . -
, - , ,
, [11] .
[8] . -
-
, ,
, ,

-[12] .
1928 . ,
-
-
. -
-
, , , -
, .
,
,
. 1953
. . -
. . -

. -

- [13] .

1958
1827 . - -
-
, . - [14] . 1988
, -
[9] . 1828 . , -
: - , -
( - , -
), [15] .
. - -
, -
,
. - -
, - [16][17] .
-
[8] .
-
( 1854 9.3.
. , )
(1861 . . , ). - -
, ,
[10] . . -

, XX ; -
. 1897 . , - , . .
1903 .[18] , (. ,
, 1923 ., 1926 .)
, [4] . (. , 1937 .,
XIX XX - 1948 .)[19][20] .
. . - .
38 9.

, - , -
19
(. : , , , , , ,
, ). , , , , , , , ,
- , , , [22] , -
- 2014 , [23] .
, -
XXI -
. , - 9.5.

, -
, -

, - , ,
. -
, -
XX -
, , ,
,
. . .
.
-
, -
,
.
[24] .

-
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. -
,
-
[21] . -
-
. -
,
( ) -
. -
, -
,
-
, , - ( + ),
, [20] .

,
, (C6 H12 O6 ),
9.4. (C6 H12 O6 )[25] , (C5 H10 O4 ).

.

90 , - ( , )
, ( -
. -
,
( ,
). (
,
. )[26] .
-
. ,
. 9.5.2.
, - (
). (), -
( - , - -
, ) ()
99% . , () . -
, , , .
9.5. 39

. -
,
.
, -
-
. (
-
) -
.
: , - [29] .

( 9.5.4.
). -
.
, -
Thymine
Adenine
-
5 end
[27] . O
P
O
3 end NH 2
O

N OH
O HN
O N
N
O N
N O O

9.5.3. O O
O NH 2 O P O
O N
P O
O
O
N HN N
O N
N
O
O H2N

O O
Phosphate- O O H2N
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[30]

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- -
. . -
- .
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40 9.

), [16] Andrew Fire, Siqun Xu, Mary K. Montgomery, Steven


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, .. : . /
. .. . , 2003.
779 . ISBN 5-9231-0254-4.
. ., . . -
: . , 1998. 704 .
ISBN 5-225-02709-1.

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, - , -

Berg et al. Biochemistry

Lodish et al. Molecular Cell Biology


Gerhard Michal, Dietmar Schombur. Biochemical


Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular
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401 . ISBN 9780470146842.
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,
. - Julian N. Kanfer and Sen-itiroh Hakomori, Sphingolipid
3- Biochemistry, vol. 3 of Handbook of Lipid Research
: (EPA) - (1983)
(DHA)[6] .
, - Dennis E. Vance and Jean E. Vance (eds.), Biochemistry
[9] . of Lipids and Membranes (1985).

6\3- Donald M. Small, The Physical Chemistry of Lipids, vol.


: - 4 of Handbook of Lipid Research (1986).
1:1 4:1. -
, Robert B. Gennis, Biomembranes: Molecular Structure
10-30 6 - and Function (1989)
, 3. -
- . Gunstone, F. D., John L. Harwood, and Fred B. Padley
(eds.), The Lipid Handbook (1994).
, 3- Charles R. Scriver, Arthur L. Beaudet, William S. Sly,
, - and David Valle, The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of
( ), , , Inherited Disease (1995).
, . -
, 3, - Gunstone, F. D. Fatty acids and lipid chemistry.
[6][9] . London: Blackie Academic and Professional, 1996. 252
pp.

Robert M. Bell, John H. Exton, and Stephen M. Prescott


11.8. - - (eds.), Lipid Second Messengers, vol. 8 of Handbook of
Lipid Research (1996).

Christopher K. Mathews, K.E. van Holde, and Kevin G.


-
Ahern, Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (2000).
-
. , , Chapter 12 in Biochemistry by Jeremy M. Berg, John
, L. Tymoczko and Lubert Stryer (2002) W. H. Freeman
. - and Co.
,
- Alberts, B., et al. (2004) Essential Cell Biology, 2nd
, - Edition. Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3480-X
.
Solomon, Eldra P., et. al. (2005) Biology, 7th Edition.
- Thomson, Brooks/Cole.
-
- Advanced Biology Principles and Applications. C.J.
. - Clegg and D.G. Mackean. ISBN 0-7195-7670-9
11.12. 53

Georg Lffler, Petro E. Petrides: Biochemie und [6] Nelson D.L., Cox M.M. Lehninger Principles of
Pathobiochemie. Springer, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-540- Biochemistry. 5th. W. H. Freeman, 2008. ISBN
42295-1 978-0-7167-7108-1.

Florian Horn, Isabelle Moc, Nadine Schneider: [7] Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter
P. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th. Garland
Biochemie des Menschen. Thieme, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN
Science, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8153-4105-5.
3-13-130883-4
[8] Marieb EN, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology.
Charles E. Mortimer, Ulrich Mller: Chemie. Thieme, 7th. Benjamin Cummings, 2006. ISBN 978-
Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-13-484308-0 0805359091.

Fahy E. et al. A comprehensive classification system for [9] Omega-3 fatty acids
lipids // J. Lipid. Res. 2005. V. 46, 5. P. 839861.

11.9.2.
11.12.

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- ), -
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- .
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, .
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154 25.

( = ) - : ,
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, . .

. -
, -
,
25.3.
(
, ). -
-
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.
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, - 1927
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.
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25.1.2. - -
. -

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, .
() -
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.
25.2.
p- -
.

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. -
( -
. . -). . -
-
. p-, s- , -
. .

, , - .
,
, - (, ,
. - CH3 ), ,
, . -
-
- .
25.6. 155

25.4. - .

-
- , -
- .
. - -
-
. .
. -
-
-
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. - ,
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, -
.
- 25.6. -

. -

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- -
, : , . ()

, - -
, . - .
, - , -
- , . -
.
- (, NO -
- ), , -
. , - (
, . .). -
, - , -
. -
- .
. ,
, -
- 25.7. -
.

25.5. - , ,

. -

- .
-
- , -
. .
,
-
( ). .
, , -
H2 , , .
156 25.

- 25.10.
-
. , [1] -
, .
, -
. , - [2] IUPAC Gold Book internet edition: (1994) "molecule".
, ; [3] Pauling, Linus. General Chemistry. New York: Dover
- Publications, Inc., 1970. ISBN 0-486-65622-5.
.
[4] Ebbin, Darrell, D. General Chemistry, 3rd Ed.. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1990. ISBN 0-395-43302-9.

[5] Brown, T.L. Chemistry the Central Science, 9th Ed..


25.8. , New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003. ISBN 0-13-066997-
0.

[6] Chang, Raymond. Chemistry, 6th Ed.. New York:
McGraw Hill, 1998. ISBN 0-07-115221-0.
,
- [7] Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.. Boston:
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, , [8] .. :
, . - .. .: , 1989.
. 181. 238 .

, - [9] macromolecule (polymer molecule) // IUPAC Gold Book
. - [10] . . -
, . .: - , 1965. 162 .
. -
, ,
. . -

25.11.

1906 . . .
. .: - , 1965.
- 162 .
-
, - . . .
- .: , 2001. 532 c. ISBN 5-03-003363-7

. . ., . ., . .
. .: , 1979.
, 408 .
,
, ., .
- . . .: , 2012.
. 256. ISBN 978-5-91559-096-9

25.12.
25.9. .
// -
: 86 . (82 . 4 .). .,
18901907.

(, 7 )

Molecule // IUPAC Gold Book



Molecular entity // IUPAC Gold Book

:
25.12. 157

. -
. 1927

26

, . -
-
; , - , ,
, . . (
( )
) , - -
, .
. , , -
( ),
-
, . . ,
-
, -
, -
. () -
, -
substantia[1] . () .
.
-
26.1. , -
,
, , -
, . ( ).
, . ( -
) -
, ,
- .

.
- 26.2.
, ,
, , -
, 26.3. .
.


-
, . , , -
, -
-

H2 O. ,
- -
, -
,

158
26.4. 159

26.4.
[1] ., , . . ,
1751 .
27

(.-. ) , 27.2.
-
. , - -
, - .
. , -
()
.
. ()
.
: ( - -
, ), ( . - -
), ( , - -
). .
- - -
.
- - -
[2]

27.1.
27.3.
1834 -
, , .
, , - , ( 99,9%)
, -
. - . -
, , -
(), , -
, - .. .
() .
, . -
, - n -
. - -
. n = 1,2,3,4... -
. K, L, M, N... -
, -
, - n 2 ( K), 8 ( L), 18
, , Na+ - ( M), 32 ( N)... .
, , , -
Fe2+ (II)-. , -
- .
- -
, , F- -[1] . . -

160
27.5. . 161

-
,
.
-
. -
-
. ,
, -
. -
, -
-
. - -
-
. .[3]

- .
..
.[4]
27.5. .

27.4. 27.6.
- [1] //
- . 2- . / . . . ,
. . . . .: , 1990. . 161164.
, - ISBN 5-7155-0292-6.
. [2] . :
, 1983. 792 .
( - [3] . . ,
). - : , 1947. 440 .
, , -
. [4] .. . . : , 1960.

-
-
. - 27.7.
.
.
(H+ )
, - XuMuk.ru
p ( p+ );

.
13,595 .

24,581 54,403 -
.
(He2+ ) -. -
-
, 88 Ra226 .


.

,
. -
28

,

. -

( ).

[1] .
, , .

28.1.

28.1.1. .1. (ra ) -


(d)

28.1.2. - .
-
-
28.1.3.
.
.

28.2. -
: H2 + , Li2 + , Na2 + , K2 + , Rb2 + ,
Cs2 +[2] :

-
, -
, -
. -

-- -
. -
-
, -
(.1).

28.2.1. 28.2.2.


- . -
. - ( , -
, , -

162
28.2. 163

-
, -

(.2). d

.

-

.
-

, ,
-
.2. .
-
(.3). -
-

.[4]
-
d -

.[5]


[3]

.3.


() (.4).
-
-
. , ,
, -
l
:
= lq

28.2.3.

.4.

,
)
. .5.sp2 -
.
164 28.

-
-
,
[7] . . -
:
, -
,- -

-
.6.sp-
. , ,- -
,
, -
- .[7]
, - -
. -
- , . -
. - -, -
. -
S- p- - ., .
-
, - -
. . -
Sp3 - , -
p-
, .
-. Sp2 -

120 , , 28.2.4.
(.5).
-

( ) S-
.,
p-, Sp-
-
, 180 -
, -
.

p- -
().
,
- (.6).
. -
. -

[6] ,
H3 + -
. 1954
.
.
-
-
.
-
, -
-
, -
.
-
, .7.

-
. - B-H -
, - (.7). -
(, 1958 ), . - B-H -
28.2. 165

1,19 ,
B-H-B 1,31 .
B-H-B () 830 . -

-
dB-B = 2 1,31 sin /2 = 1,736 . -
, -

B-H, h = 1,31 cos /2 = 0,981 .


, ,
( B5 H9 , -
B10 H4 .). -
()
() -
.[8]

-

. ,
,

.
. -
. .9.
-
1976 -
" (-
), ).

28.2.5.

.10.

. -

- -
.
. . -
.8.
-
1951 . . , , ,
- (.8). -
166 28.

.
(, .). -
.
(zehn ).[8] .
(C-Fe) - , -
, Fe-C , -
2,04 . -
, -
C-C 1,40 1,41 ( , .
C-C 1,39 ). - .
36- .[8] -
1973 - .[3][11]
- -
, -
, -
, .
. , -
, -
, , -
28.3.1.
,
,
,
.
-
. -

, . -
, , -
[8] . La, Ce, Pr, Nd
, , -
.
- .11. -
(.9). - re d
[8] . -
-
. 12
- .

[()],
(.10).
16 - . - .12. -
UCl4 -

300 C.[9]
( ) -
-
28.3. - -
.
- -
-
. , - -
,
- -
. - .
-
.[10]
28.3. 167

. -
-
. -
-
, -
, -
-
aw (.13).
aw
.13. -
-
, , -
:
, -
( 3,6-5,8 - , -
) , -
. , -
- , [15]

.
re -
d (.11). - 7
. . 10
(): 6
10
0,6 ;
,

4
10
0,75 ;

3
0,75 ; 10

0,8 [12] 2
10
re d

- 10
1

-
0
- 10
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
, 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
,
.
- . 14.

( --).
-
-
, -
, -
, , -
. -
. , -
-
-
. , -
, -

, -
. - .
-

-
: -
(.12).
, .
, 1935
-
- . , ,
,
. .
(.14).
168 28.

28.3.2.
,
,
. -

- .
-

.[13]

,
-
-
.
-
. -

-
.15.
,
+ -
(Na Cl ).

, , - Na+ Cl Cs+ Cl -
- , -
. () ( -
- ) -
- ( ).
- .
. - -
- .
. -
-
. 28.4.

( ).[3] [1] / .: ..
.. .: , 1998.
- . 5. 783 . ISBN 5-85270-310-9.

.4. [2] .., .., .. -
. -

. .: , 1987. . 124.
() 320 .
,
. - [3] .., .., .. -
, - . -
. .: , 1987. . 132-136.
. 320 .
-
[4] .., .. -
.
. .:
. "", 2007. 320 . ISBN 978-
(.15). - 5-94691296-9.
-
( [5] . . . .: -
).[11] , 1962. . 88. 976 .

[6] . / -
... . . ... .-
(2 X2 )( ).[11] .: , 1947. 440 .
28.6. 169

[7] / . . .
... . . ... .: . .: - , 1965. 162 .
. , 1963. 365 . ( 30-31)
[8] .., .. - . . -
( - . .: , 2001. 532 c. ISBN 5-03-003363-7
. ..). 2000. . XLIV,
7. .
.6. . 63-86.

[9] / . .
... .: . , 1983. . 28.6.
607. 792 .

[10] . . . .: - . . , . . , --
, 1962. . 679. 976 .

[11] .., .., .. -
. - . . ,
. .: , 1987. . 155-161. , 1998.
320 .

[12] . / . . .. -
.. , . . .
.: , 1975. . 49. 278 .

[13] . 2- ., . . .-
.: , 1962. . 1.
. 402-513. 1072 .

[14] .., .., .. -


. -
.. .: , 1987. . 132
136. 320 .

[15] . (
). ..
1962. . 78, .2. 291 .

28.5.
., ., .
. .: , 1980. 384 .

., . -
. . . .:
, 1973. 332 .

.
. .: , 1964. 164 c.

. . .: .
, 2008. 248 . ISBN 978-5-
94774-760-7, ISBN 978-5-03-003847-6, ISBN 0-
471-97129-4

. ., . .
. : , 1975. 304 c.

. . . 2-
. : , 1984. 295 .

. . . .: ,
1977. 512 ( VIII.
)
29


.
: -
. . , -

. () -

.
[2] -
( ,
, . .).

29.2.

-
-
(), . . -
. ,
, -
,
, . . 1869 - : -
XIX -
. ,
.

29.1. 29.2.1.

. . -
(1869):
1829 -
- -
[3] . , -
. .
(1897), . -- (1913), . - , -
(1913) - :
() . -

- -
, -
-
( -

) -
(. , . , . , . .).
. , -
. . -
- -
: ,
. -
, , -

170
29.2. 171

, ,

. - -
- . -
,
: P, As, Sb, Bi. -
.
, , ,
, -
. , 29.2.3.
,

.
-
, , , -

.
(1866)
-
.
-
-
, - [5] . -
, - , , -
, -
. 1843 . -
,
- .
() . -
, - -
( ), , ( -
)
. -
1850- .
, -
-
,

.
60- XIX
, -
.

, , -
29.2.2. , -
, -
-
- -
- . ,
, -
45 - , () -
( (vis tellurique))[4] . 7 , , 7,
-
, , , -
, - . -
. , - ,
, , ; , , ; , . -
, , , . . ,
172 29.

-
. ,
-
; , -
;
.

29.2.4.

1864 ,

,
, , - -
.
1864 -
; 28
,
[6] . -
, -
( ) -
.
1870 , -
. . (1861)
,
. -
;
. -
-
, -
,
,
.

. . 1871 .
29.2.5. -

[8] .
1869 -
- , (. .
).
[7] . ,
- -
, -
. 1870 , -
- . -
, -
, - ,
- -
.
. -
1871 - , -
- -
: - -
, - (
, - )
, - ( ) (. . ).
29.2. 173



-
.
-

,
, -
. .
1909 , ,

,
. 1911
. -
, -
() .
1913 . ,
-
()
(Z),
-
1891 . :
. ( )
= R(Z )2 m12 n12 , R
,
. . .
; -
, -

: -

, ,
.
( , 1875), (
, 1879) ( , 1886). , ,
1880- 1911 . , -
- , -
. . 1920
. -
;
29.2.6. -
XX .
: -
,
XX
- -
.
. . .
. - 19211923 , -
- -, -
, [9] . - -
, , , - , .
- . -
. . - , , -
, - -
1902 ; - .
- (. )
, , , , -
, , - (),
. -
- (s, p, d f). s-
: - ,
174 29.

d , f
, p .
XX . .
, -
-
.
, -
.

29.3.
. 1 -
.

, -
-
, - , -
, - -
, - , -
. - . [11] .
-
, -, -
, -, . - 29.3.2. -
- -


[10] . -
,

:

;
;
;
( ) ;

;
.

29.3.1. -
- . 2 -
( -
, )
-
(. 1) -
. , ,
, - , -
, - (.
, - ).
. - p-
VII . -
, , s2 (Be, Mg, Zn)
, . s2 p6 (Ne, Ar) p-
(N, P, As)[12] :
29.3. 175

29.3.3. -
-

. 4 -
.

29.3.4. -


. 3 -
. -
, -
-
. -
, - ()
. - ,
, - .
, -
, , , -
, -
, . ( -
- ) ,
.
, , , -
, , , -
, , - . [14] .
-
, -
, , -- . --
. ,
-
- ;
,
,
-
,
(, Ar
, N N2 -
, . . ), - -
- .
- , , -
, -
, , - ( ) -
-
.
[13] . . -
-
, - -
. s- (. . 4),
I , p- VII , -
. ,
176 29.

, . - -
-
,
() , -
LiNe, , -
- [16] .
(- , -
) . , , -
d- f- -
-
, - ,
-
, -
. .
.
,
. , -
1 +7, -
29.3.5. - , +2 +7. -
-
,
. -
- -
, -
[15] . +1 (RbF) +8 (Xe4 ).

. (Kr+4 F4 ), -
(Br+7 4 ). -
: -
( - -
84 /) - , -
, , ( -
, ). LiNe,
(63126 /) , , (F), -
- (Ne) -
, , , , -
- ;
. - LiNe
- .
() - -
, -
. , LiNe -
(718,2 , -
/), KKr CsRn - .
- ,
: (516,6 /) (844,2 RbXe +1 +8 ,
/). - , -
- , +6 (Mo3 ), +7 (Tc2 7 ),
- +8 (RuO4 ).
,
.
29.3.7. -
-
29.3.6. -
-
-
-
- , -
( - -
, , - , -
). - [17] . -
29.4. 177

- , , , -
- . ,
. 4 Be 5 B,
, - , -
, - :
.

-
.
-
- . 5 , 9.32
. , () , 8,29 ()
-
- , 2-
(Na+ (aq) . . - -
): 2s-.
- , -
- . -
. - s- - -

, [19] (. . 1).
. -
7 N -
-
8 (. . 1) -
.
:

29.4.

. 6 , 14,53
29.4.1. s- - () , 13,62 ()

-


-
, ,

, -
(. . 4).
, ,
,
.
-
,
-
.
,
( .
. 1915 ).
, s- I -
VIII

[18] (. . 1,
2, 4).
-
. -
. 7 -
-
p-
.
- s- -
178 29.


-
L- .
( -
) -
s-,
-, d-
. . , n = 3 -
3s>3p>3d
(. . 10).

. 10 -
( ) r

,
. -
s-
, -,
. 8 , d-, . .
-
, -
. -
CSiGeSnPb -
(. . 4, 7).
.
Si Ge -
3d--

. 6p-
Pb 5- Sn -
6p- -
5d- 4f-.

CPb
Pb Sn (.
. 9 . 1).

-
29.4.2. d-
(. 7).
. d- ( -
9, - Pd) 12 (ns-).
, - (n
. , - 1)d-, .
. -
9, 3s- d-
29.5. 179

[20] . , ,
s-.
. 1,

d- , 29.5. -
s- p-. d-
III d- II -
. ,
(. 1) ,
,
d- 29.6. .
. 3d-
Mn (3d5 4s2 ),

4s2 - - -
2 5
4s - 3d -.
Zn
(3d10 4s2 ),
d- -

3d10 -.
d- -
29.7.
. -
[1] . . . -
-
. .: - , 1958, . 111
. , d- 4- 4s-
3d-, [2] . . , . . , .
6- 6s- - 1982 (. 26) , 400.
5d- 4f-. [3] -
:
[4]
d- 6- s-
, - [5]
, ,
[6]
d- 4- .
[7] . . -
d- - (6 (18) 1869 .) // , 04 (699), 16-
s- p- - 28.02.2006
. -
, s- p-. [8] . . . -
. .: - , 1958, . 111
d-
. - [9] . (.)
: - [10] -
d-
4- 5- . -
d- 5- 6- [11]
- [12] ,
. ,

[13]
5- 6- f-
, 4f- [14]
f- 6- .
[15]
f- . -
[16]

[17]
d- 5- 6-
. [18] . .
- [19]
. -
[20] d-
180 29.

29.8.
1. . . -
. .: , 1991.
224 ISBN 5-09-002630-0

2. . . .
.: , 1982. 271 .

3. . . , . 2. .: -
, 1947. 389 c.
4. .. -
// -
: 86 . (82 . 4 .).
., 18901907.

29.9.
. . : 3 .

. .

-

30

30.1.
()
, , , -
.
, .
, -
30.1.1. 1. -
.


-
, ,
(), ( - , -
), ( - , -
), (- . , -
), , -
( ), - . -
( ) ,
. . - .
: -[1] .
, -
, , -
, - . , -
- (
) -
. ( -
). - -
, , - , -
, - [2] . -
. :

( ),
- (). -
.
, -
( ) - . -
- ,
, - , -
. - :
-
.
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2 O

,
. . -
, -
,
, . -

181
182 30.

-
:
BaCl2 + Na2 SO4 BaSO4 +2NaCl
C2 H4 + H2 C2 H6

. - 30.1.3. 3. -

, -
-
. -
- . -
. ,

. . -
- ,
, .
. - :
-
. -
, -
()
, ( -
:
) , -
MgCO + 2HCl MgCl + CO +H O
3 2 2 2
-
( -
30.1.2. 2. - ) .

( , r H),

, -
, -
- ,
. -
()
-
,
(r H < 0) , -
,
(r H > 0) .
() , -
. -
- 30.1.4. 4. -
,


, : 2Cu + O2 2CuO
.
: 2HgO 2Hg + O2
-
() : Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu
() : ( .. -):
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2 O

2H2 + O2 2H2 O
-
- :
. ,
(+5) . -
, (3) - .
: - , -
-
.
NH4 NO3 N2 O +2H2 O (< 250 C) ,
- - .
, - , -
, :
30.2. 183

. 30.2.
, -
,
- , - ,
, , ,
, ,
. - ,
, - ,
, . . -
, -
- ,
, .
-
, -

-
5. - -
-
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(" - -
"), -
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. . ? . 1.
// XXI . 2009. 5.
. 49-52.

.. .
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, .
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[1] . [5]:6 ( -
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. 32.7.
(). [1] . .
,
[2] . //
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, Michaello, Luckas-bot, VSGI, Chabrez, Rubinbot, Glagolev, Sz-iwbot, ArthurBot, Sensor~ruwiki, Xqbot, U-bot, ChenzwBot,
Dmitry89, , RedBot, Dinamik-bot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Mullanur, WikitanvirBot, KrBot, , MerlIwBot,
MBHbot, Draa kul, Minsbot, Zhanyl90, ElCaballero55, Addbot, McSIM97, VladXe, TemirovBot, StivenLi, :
23
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%83%
D0%BB%D1%8F%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%
D1%8F?oldid=70746120 : Shizhao, , Kaganer, St0rm, Pr., GranD, YurikBot, Umklid, BioUnit, AKA
MBG, Sirozha, Gruzd, Lite, GBuilder, Edwardspec TalkBot, Helgus, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Nw, BetBot~ruwiki, Jemand,
VolkovBot, Travkin Vladimir, Daniil naumoff, Aibot, Cantor, SieBot, DragonBot, Cycneavox, LatitudeBot, Lankier, Pavel92, Engineer
gena, CarsracBot, Zorrobot, Luckas-bot, Kuimov, Nallimbot, Ptbotgourou, ArthurBot, Xqbot, LucienBOT, TobeBot, TjBot, EmausBot,
Zh.Andreeva, ChuispastonBot, Lbozhenok, Tatewaki, MerlIwBot, Gipoza, Oleg-ch, : 10
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B8%D0%BE%D1%85%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%8F?
oldid=85827445 : Maximaximax, Torin, Dodonov, Dorinem, Ornil, Pr., YurikBot, Egor, KokoBot~ruwiki, ,
Solon, Zwobot, OckhamTheFox, JaroslavleffBot, Sirozha, A5b, V1adis1av, Mor, GBuilder, Evgen2, I1481, VPliousnine, Escarbot,
Dipsy, ZsergheiBot, , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, S Levchenkov, Sir Shurf, , DorganBot, VolkovBot, Denisqua,
, Travkin Vladimir, Daniil naumoff, Antonov86, TXiKiBoT, Elek, ShinePhantom, Cantor, SieBot, Gerakibot, AlleborgoBot,
VVVBot, PipepBot, DragonBot, LA2-bot, Unocito, Shcootsn, Akkit, SilvonenBot, Gastro, Pavel92, Fractaler, Fastboy, Akim Dubrow,
MelancholieBot, Track13, Lmnsff, Luckas-bot, Kuimov, Ptbotgourou, 70, Sz-iwbot, Obersachsebot, TaBOT-zerem, Xqbot,
Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, GAndy, Baz.77.243.99.32, Lemarlou, Sigwald, Angstorm, Artem Korzhimanov, TjBot, EmausBot,
ZroBot, SEA99, , , Crassostrea, El-chupanebrej, MBH, Wikifido, Homk, Sam Emerchronium, MBHbot, -
, Draa kul, Sergey.prokopenko, Liliya Yu, Golart, Shal.george, Grottes, Vladvasiliev84, Gulzat05, Unbeknown, DvoreBot,
Addbot, IMDJack, : 50
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A3%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%8B?
oldid=85606881 : Nashev, Maximaximax, Torin, YurikBot, A.I., PuzzletChung, Valentin~ruwiki, Umklid, , Solon,
Sirozha, Gruzd, Alexandrov, Snioo, Aqui, Y~ruwiki, RB Vic, Kcmamu, ZsergheiBot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Rps5, Alex Smotrov, Rei-bot,
Shureg, VolkovBot, Victoria, Idioma-bot, , Travkin Vladimir, TXiKiBoT, SieBot, , Loveless, BotMultichill, Rew,
Alt-sysrq, 1e0nid, AlleborgoBot, Vlsergey, , Worobiew, Gatling, DragonBot, Marhorr, PixelBot, Wladuszka, OKBot,
, Alexbot, , BOTarate, SilvonenBot, Serejs, Andreykor, Zorrobot, Alchemist90, Luckas-bot, Nallimbot,
Fibonachi, Rubinbot, Glagolev, Yonidebot, Obersachsebot, Shcha, TaBOT-zerem, XZeroBot, Berillium, Xqbot, Yurakum, -
, RN3AOC, Pliskin, Sigwald, -changeable-, , Sabunero, Pheles, TobeBot, Sergeisemenoff, EmausBot, Vanjka-ivanych, Irina
klubkova, Rinby, GrouchoBot, Helgi-S, OneLittleMouse, Dillene, El-chupanebrej, Boorateena, Wikifido, ChuispastonBot, AfroBrazilian,
WikitanvirBot, Cthuttdbx, Stas000D, WebCite Archiver, Sam Emerchronium, MerlIwBot, Lesless, MBHbot, -, AvicBot,
AvocatoBot, OpossumK, MrLambdaMu, 762bot, Stas1995, LEANSER, Djem92, RotlinkBot, Artpopistdima, Addbot, Illustr, -
, Andreyadamenko1982, Sm1024sm, Q-bit array, 33991999 : 119
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0%B8%D0%B4%D1%8B?oldid=85685321 -
: YurikBot, Mr. Bot, Umklid, , Solon, Chobot, AKA MBG, Zimin.V.G., Sirozha, Alex Ex, Alexandrov, Zhurakovskyi,
Katpyxa, Maksim-bot, Altes, IOException, RB Vic, Escarbot, Movses, , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Simulacrum, Alex Smotrov, Rei-
bot, VolkovBot, KleverI, Victoria, Idioma-bot, Theslash, Travkin Vladimir, Artm PoYu, TXiKiBoT, SieBot, Loveless, DragonBot,
LA2-bot, SilvonenBot, Gastro, Fractaler, MelancholieBot, Andreykor, Goga312, Leszek Jaczuk, , AmphBot, Luckas-
bot, Nallimbot, Fibonachi, Rubinbot, Glagolev, Berillium, Evacat, Xqbot, LucienBOT, Alexoba, TheStrayCat, Valdis72, EmausBot,
Roman Klymenko, Aveni, OneLittleMouse, , Silver7487, ChuispastonBot, Stas000D, Zooro-Patriot, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot,
1yurok, W2Bot, , Stas1995, Sh. Fanuel, Khazarsk, Robiteria, Dimaniznik, Addbot, Glovacki, Q-bit array, Alex NB IT,
Pchelovek1205, TextworkerBot, Pavellevchenko : 100
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%BA%D0%B8?oldid=85662040 : Drbug,
Nashev, Wind, Ctac, Dorinem, Panther, Kurgus, Snch, Ustas, YurikBot, A.I., Roboto de Ajvol, KokoBot~ruwiki, . ., ,
Solon, BioUnit, OckhamTheFox, GolerGkA, Lt-wiki-bot~ruwiki, Zimin.V.G., Sirozha, A5b, Gruzd, Gpvos, Alex Ex, Vald, Alexandrov,
Katpyxa, Sasha Krotov, Siliconov~ruwiki, DR, I1481, Edwardspec TalkBot, Alexei Kouprianov, Levg, APL, Optimizm, , Aqui,
Maxxicum, RB Vic, Ghoort, CopperKettle, Afinogenoff, AIR, Escarbot, Kcmamu, ZsergheiBot, Lazil, , Typhoonbreath,
Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Claymore, S Levchenkov, Ashkarik, Ldv1970, YuriPopoff, Sir Shurf, Vicpeters, Wybot, R13, CommonsDelinker,
Jazz, Arachn0, , Claim, Kacaban, Chiva, Rave, Snushka, , DorganBot, Shureg, VolkovBot, Latitude, Victoria, Glossologist,
Zip501, Idioma-bot, , Zimak, Shuvaev, Travkin Vladimir, Daniil naumoff, Aibot, TXiKiBoT, Wikiwide, 231-567, Samvlamix,
Elmor, MoRdasT, 1, Synthebot, VVVBot-temp, SieBot, YonaBot, Dreamer.mas, Berserkerus, Amd628, NBS, Divine Moments
Of Truth, Yakiv Gluck, AlleborgoBot, Sk741, Andrijko Z., VVVBot, Dmitry Rozhkov, Curtis~ruwiki, Vahmurk, DragonBot, DENker,
, Alexbot, , Cmx~ruwiki, 4epenOK, SergeyJ, BOTarate, Ev-Ch, BodhisattvaBot, LatitudeBot, SilvonenBot, Hamlett,
Engineer gena, MelancholieBot, CarsracBot, Aidik23, DirlBot, Zorrobot, Luckas-bot, VSGI, Rubinbot, , Lascorz, Glagolev,
Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, 4th-otaku, Sensor~ruwiki, DEDMOZAI, Valeryns, Berillium, DerLetzteRegenbogen, Almabot, Xqbot,
LimeHat, , Brox, Nena-san^^, GhalyBot, Aeverandi, Ole Frsten, Ghuron, Delovar, Evatutin, RaySys, Jim Fitzgerald,
Maksa, IlyaMart, TobeBot, , 8, Antonio56, Olkol, Ripchip Bot, EmausBot, Arbnos, Alpunin, Max1234~ruwiki,
Roboconvallaria, Kristian Larsen, Vanjka-ivanych, Liberalismens, A.s.matveyev, Gerard, GrouchoBot, HRoestBot, 67, Arventur,
Meddoc13, AbiyoyoBot, LankLinkBot, , , H2Bot, --, WikitanvirBot, Tookser, 22,
Movses-bot, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, ADDvokat, Minina, SpaceRu, MerlIwBot, 1yurok, MBHbot, Sl2va, Vlassover, ,
Morfey1313, HiW-Bot, Dutcman, , Grottes, OpossumK, Vetaswind, Beanz07, Gulzat05, AnimusVox, Tihon Asdop, Isrusin,
MarinaVladivostok, Illustr, Russula, Citing Bot, Andreyadamenko1982, Pavel izofatov, , ,
, Biosurgeon : 95
200 34.

: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B8%D0%
BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B0?oldid=85601690
: Torin, . ., LyXX, Solon, Sirozha, Vald, VanHelsing.16, Mashiah Davidson, Alexei Kouprianov, Maxxicum, ZsergheiBot,
, Jemand, Alex Smotrov, VolkovBot, Victoria, Travkin Vladimir, TXiKiBoT, SieBot, BotMultichill, AlleborgoBot, Aessone,
, Fractaler, Goga312, Zorrobot, AVB, Fibonachi, Gvozdet, Almabot, Xqbot, LucienBOT, Majuro, , VAP+VYK,
TobeBot, Convallaria majalis, EmausBot, Gerard, ZroBot, IgorPanferov, MBH, Wikifido, ChuispastonBot, Brateevsky, JONYOL,
Maksim Fomich, Zooro-Patriot, Sam Emerchronium, MerlIwBot, Autumn Leaves, , Gulaiym001, Quaerite, Science,
Stannic, ThroatBoor, Wintrexter, Roarbear : 49
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%94%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%
BA%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B8%D0%
BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B0?oldid=85449325
: LA2, Nashev, Robbot, Dims, Ctac, Maximaximax, Ilana, Dionys, Dorinem, Kostik Vento, , Shamlo,
HedgeBot, Kabilov, Vertaler, YurikBot, Stassats, A.I., Phoenix, Rokur, Mr. Bot, . ., Ququ, Softy, Palica, , Solon,
Fuxx, Zwobot, Chobot, OckhamTheFox, Winterheart, Lt-wiki-bot~ruwiki, , Sirozha, Incnis Mrsi, Gruzd, Vald, Alexandrov,
Skabbit, VanHelsing.16, Sasha Krotov, Valodzka, Fireman, Vlad2000Plus, , Yaleks, Mashiah Davidson, I1481, Edwardspec
TalkBot, Alexei Kouprianov, APL, Grain, Aqui, RB Vic, Ring0, AlexPavlenko, KeltRanger, Startreker, User101, Jeron, Escarbot,
Gul~ruwiki, Putnik, Lasius, , Thijs!bot, Donnick, . , JAnDbot, Alex Spade, Ashkarik, Grenadine, Sir Shurf,
CommonsDelinker, , Jemand, Soul Train, , Alex Smotrov, Rave, Bot-Schafter, DorganBot, Shureg,
VolkovBot, KleverI, Victoria, Deerhunter, Idioma-bot, , Shuvaev, Travkin Vladimir, Antonov86, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, -
., Dmalch, Trgl, Liquid-aim-bot, X-romix, Zwyciezca, Cyd2012, Genius of evil, Synthebot, Andreyostr, SieBot, YonaBot,
, Berserkerus, Peni, BotMultichill, Lubir, Yaroslav Blanter, AlleborgoBot, Tatata, Lockalbot, Almir, Starless,
Rubin16, DragonBot, LA2-bot, , Manslay, Xxxl, OKBot, Alexbot, , BodhisattvaBot, LatitudeBot, SilvonenBot,
Bff, VlsergeyBot, BotSottile, Alecs.bot, Fractaler, Qkowlew, V V V, Akim Dubrow, Offshore, Engineer gena, MelancholieBot,
, Zorrobot, Michaello, AVB, Luckas-bot, WikiDreamer Bot, Andy Spb, Nallimbot, Rubinbot, Lascorz, Jotterbot, Glagolev,
Nessy~ruwiki, Yonidebot, Panzerfrost, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Hance, Valeryns, , Berillium, Almabot, Xqbot, ,
Brox, Aeverandi, Alexiurs, Boodjoom85, , RaySys, , Artem Korzhimanov, RedBot, KamikazeBot, DixonDBot,
Dinamik-bot, Convallaria majalis, Leonid, JenVan, EmausBot, , Kalendar, DimaBorger, AndreyIGOSHEV,
HRoestBot, Helgi-S, Arventur, Yegor Osin, Rpngn, Brattarb, AbiyoyoBot, Dnacond, El-chupanebrej, Haffman, Apashenko, MBH,
H2Bot, NomoNest, --, WikitanvirBot, 22, Movses-bot, KlGleb, KrBot, Stas000D, WebCite Archiver,
TotSamyjNiekto, ADDvokat, BorisVM, Autumn Leaves, MBHbot, -, AvocatoBot, DENAMAX, Draa kul, , Dutcman,
Well-Informed Optimist, Gbeznin, Shal.george, Addihockey10 (automated), Leony1, Bierce, OpossumK, Abogomazova, Ibagretsov,
JYBot, MahdiBot, Zidanil, Stas1995, AnimusVox, , Determinist, Cathry, Velikorodnaya24, SHOTHA, Addbot, Isrusin, Poti
Berik, Nickolay zolotarev, , Gennadi, DimaBot, Q-bit array, Sergeyqwertovich, Fractalone, Outstanding astronome, Alex NB
IT, Grain of sand, Maxchist, ?, Xanterol, Alexvirka, , Belliza : 195
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%
83%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%81%
D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B0?oldid=85544994 : Maximaximax, Nikiforov, HedgeBot, Hayk, Mila~ruwiki, YurikBot,
KokoBot~ruwiki, Ququ, , Wassily, Sirozha, Kink, VanHelsing.16, Sasha Krotov, Massarkasch, George Shuklin, Maxxicum,
Escarbot, , Thijs!bot, MSBOT, JAnDbot, Ashkarik, Rei-bot, Yurganoff, Shureg, VolkovBot, Victoria, Idioma-bot, Travkin
Vladimir, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, Liquid-aim-bot, X-romix, Synthebot, SieBot, YonaBot, Berserkerus, BotMultichill, AlleborgoBot,
Moreorless, , , DragonBot, DENker, OKBot, SergeyJ, BodhisattvaBot, Bff, Aquahorsik, Corrector MaRS!,
AlnoktaBOT, Panasonic1, Michaello, , AVB, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, Glagolev, WindEwriX, TaBOT-zerem, Berillium,
Almabot, Xqbot, LucienBOT, Evatutin, RedBot, KamikazeBot, Ripchip Bot, Checat, EmausBot, , Dianar, Gerard,
ZroBot, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, , Mullanur, MBH, Wikifido, AfroBrazilian, Brateevsky, WikitanvirBot, Movses-bot,
Maksim Fomich, WebCite Archiver, Minina, BorisVM, HiW-Bot, , RayIG, OpossumK, Stas1995, Addbot, Nickolay
zolotarev, Yelysavet, IntKecsk, JomoneStail, Ivan Kopenkinse, Biosurgeon : 62
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0?
oldid=85932580 : Robbot, Dims, Maximaximax, Nikiforov, Dodonov, 77K, Maxal, HedgeBot, St0rm, Amikeco, Pr., ,
JaceMkh, Kurgus, Mitrius, YurikBot, Al Silonov, Stassats, A.I., Okman, Bezik, Polzohod, Otets, , Solon, Amakuha, BioUnit,
OckhamTheFox, Winterheart, JaroslavleffBot, Sirozha, Vald, Alexandrov, Neon, MaxSem, Dmitri Lytov, Tnc~ruwiki, DR, GBuilder,
I1481, Edwardspec TalkBot, Alexei Kouprianov, Ablaev, , CopperKettle, Helgus, Escarbot, Ilia Yasny, Lasius, Dan zamir,
Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Nw, BetBot~ruwiki, , Alex Smotrov, Rei-bot, DorganBot, Shureg, VolkovBot, Victoria, Idioma-
bot, Travkin Vladimir, Antonov86, Aibot, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, Samvlamix, X-romix, W.-Wanderer1, Ksenia santy, SieBot, YonaBot,
Loveless, NBS, AlleborgoBot, VVVBot, PipepBot, ToePeu.bot, LA2-bot, Konyasha, , , DarkCherry, Rainfan,
Fractaler, MelancholieBot, Elian~ruwiki, , Luckas-bot, 1879542O489876324789, Nallimbot, Rubinbot, Glagolev, ,
Almabot, Xqbot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, Tutaishy, Kalita, DenisKrivosheev, Structor, Sigwald, Sergey Kropotov, Partyzan XXI,
Angstorm, Gizzatullin, , Sabunero, Tpyvvikky, Krassotkin, JenVan, San Sanitsch, Ripchip Bot, Kuzmaka, EmausBot, Alpunin, -
, GrouchoBot, Achetas, Wurzel91, El-chupanebrej, Wikifido, WikitanvirBot, 22, Zooro-Patriot, Sam Emerchronium,
MBHbot, Elgun.babayev, Oleg-ch, Abogomazova, Vlad Konst Anisimov, 762bot, , AnimusVox, NirvanaPyBot,
DvoreBot, Addbot, Ssonya, DimaBot, Sergey.maximovich, Glovacki, Citing Bot, Pavel izofatov, Alex NB IT, Vlad Grad : 97
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B8%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%85%D0%BD%
D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=85640682 : Dorinem, , Obersachse,
YurikBot, Bezik, Umklid, Zwobot, Amakuha, JaroslavleffBot, Messir, AndrejLT, Imrek, Sirozha, Yaleks, Scrub, DR, G.V.Galkina,
I1481, Edwardspec TalkBot, Maxxicum, Escarbot, Dipsy, StraSSenBahn, Idot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Nw, VladimirZarnitsyn, Vicpeters,
Jazz, Tov Me, Victoria, Idioma-bot, Travkin Vladimir, Ashik, TXiKiBoT, Samvlamix, Chath, Tyratam, SieBot, Worrdo, Ariely, Zirnis,
Yuri AzX Chetverikov, Monegasque~ruwiki, , Rubin16, DragonBot, , , Alexbot, Editor,
Wis~ruwiki, Batch2k, Inview~ruwiki, Akim Dubrow, Atoris, Andreykor, CarsracBot, HerculeBot, Luckas-bot, Fibonachi, VSGI,
ILdarKOrotkov, Rubinbot, Harry Tolkiger, Freezeman, ArthurBot, , DSisyphBot, Berillium, BlackHelix, Porohnya, Xqbot,
RN3AOC, D'ohBot, Demetrius60, RaySys, , Sabunero, TobeBot, Krassotkin, Oleum, EmausBot, Kalendar, MishaSysEng,
GrouchoBot, ZroBot, , 4albatross, OneLittleMouse, Mullanur, MBH, Silver7487, Ebrambot, CocuBot, KrBot,
Philip J.1987qazwsx, MerlIwBot, Vagobot, Draa kul, Liliya Yu, , 762bot, Robiteria, DZ, Addbot, Freedomperson,
, GrandMotivator, Vbif-routine, Q-bit array, , Helena C Castro, Bjhddv : 93
34.4. , 201

: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B8%
D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%80%
D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=85656505 : Ramir, Dodonov, Xbo~ruwiki, Pr., Panther, AntonioK, YurikBot, Bezik, PuzzletChung,
, OckhamTheFox, JaroslavleffBot, Skirienko, Messir, AKA MBG, Cheops, Sirozha, A5b, Vald, UNV, Rodion 4000+,
SobakaRU, Ilia Yasny, ZsergheiBot, Idot, , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Claymore, Shureg, VolkovBot, Victoria, Zhitelew, Idioma-bot,
Travkin Vladimir, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, . , Bund~ruwiki, VVVBot-temp, Loveless, Divine Moments Of Truth,
AlleborgoBot, Uokac, Ukkon, , Grebenkov, PixelBot, , Alexbot, LatitudeBot, Engineer
gena, VodoRiz, Pessimist2006, AVB, Kuimov, Valentin 178, Glagolev, Dimabel, PavelSI, Dmitriy Konstantinov, FusionStorm,
, DSisyphBot, Elmariachi, Terlu, Xqbot, , LittleDrakon, Kalita, Alexey Karetnikov, RN3AOC, Sigwald, Princenoire,
Enver62, RedBot, Sandegud, Tarabo, Dinamik-bot, EmausBot, Arventur, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, El-chupanebrej, Mullanur,
Sualohin, Tookser, 22, WebCite Archiver, LifeBeyondTime, Philip J.1987qazwsx, MerlIwBot, BorisVM, MBHbot, Vagobot,
HiW-Bot, Lars78, Qbli2mHd, Robiteria, Dmitry Dzhagarov, Cathry, Addbot, Forest828, Vbif-routine, Pavel izofatov,
, Dgenkens, Ibraibragim, Satcomunatco, Biosurgeon : 68
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D0%BD%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5%
D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=
85377169 : KrBot, Biosurgeon : 1
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%82%
D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%
D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=85335592 : Tempus, , LittleDrakon, VickRomanoff, KrBot, Gipoza, Merdiginn,
Alexsandr210 Biosurgeon
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%
B8%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=85479581 : A5b, Ilya78, Valodzka, VP, GBuilder,
INFOMAN, Faeran, Shureg, VolkovBot, Xizzzy, RussianSpy, Vadim i z, Longbowman, SpBot, Rubinbot, , Artem
Korzhimanov, , SenetM, EmausBot, Oleg Yunakov, Movses-bot, KrBot, MBHbot, Vagobot, Higimo, NicciRicci,
Addbot, Olga Radchuk, Lumaca, Vbif-routine, Biosurgeon : 12
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=85790264 : Suisui,
Kneiphof, HedgeHog, HooftBot~ruwiki, Ramir, Robbot, Monedula, Maximaximax, Torin, Spider, Nikiforov, ChVA, .,
HedgeBot, Ochkarik, Amikeco, , Dmitry Gerasimov, Octavium, Snch, YurikBot, Unwrecker, PCode, Gluschenko,
Egor, Rokur, PuzzletChung, Mr. Bot, . ., CodeMonk, Umklid, Palica, Solon, Zwobot, Lupus~ruwiki, Gabix, OckhamTheFox, -
, Lt-wiki-bot~ruwiki, Volkov, Gruzd, Vald, Alexandrov, KR, Ilyadok, V1adis1av, Mor, Amdf, , The Wrong Man,
, Ogion, Mashiah Davidson, Scrub, 0, BotCat, , Edwardspec TalkBot, Infovarius, Aqui, , Nejron,
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, , 5846, 2.0, Q-bit array, -, , 74, Kadik555, Alex
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Pyppin, Charamel, Artem Korzhimanov, Sabunero, RedBot, KamikazeBot, Ping08, Krassotkin, EmausBot, Arbnos, Nata83, ZroBot,
64X, OneLittleMouse, Hronist, Wikifido, , H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, 22, CocuBot, KrBot, Sam Emerchronium,
MerlIwBot, Vasyaivanov, Illustrator, Flomru, Golart, , Vcohen, JYBot, LioN vlad, Burzuchius, Quaerite, Dimaniznik,
Addbot, IntKecsk, , Gorwikilinkonly, Glovacki, Citing Bot, Dasfeer, RGik, Q-bit array, Alex NB IT, TextworkerBot,
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V1adis1av, Massarkasch, , IvanAxe, Mashiah Davidson, Anderston, Algen, Dstary, Hagen, I1481, Edwardspec TalkBot, Aqui,
VPliousnine, ZsergheiBot, Carn, , Mef inf, JAnDbot, EvgenyGenkin, Yartsew, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Vlad2000PlusBot,
Idioma-bot, Ashik, Kv75, TXiKiBoT, Vizu, FearChild, Synthebot, SieBot, Lafaet, Loveless, INSAR, 1e0nid, Jack who built the house,
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34.4. , 203

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: 4

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Public domain : ? : ?
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domain : : Inkscape.
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