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00Bearing NTG R3 v22.

xmcd [Pg 1 / 7]
STANDARD SI units: ( m ) ( N ) ( Pa ) A414

Rolling Contact Bearings (pg 570)

This note is only a guideline for using the text book. Detailed explaination and
tables are found in Shigley Mechanical Engineering Design text book.

a) single row deep groove


f) tapered roller
b) double row deep groove
bearing (for thrust
c) angular contact
load)
d) roller or needle
e) self-aligning

Bearing types

a) deep groove ball bearing

b) angular contact ball bearing

c) roller bearing
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Bearing Load Pg 573

Ball bearings are designed to support radial load and axial load.
Roller bearings, however, support extremely high radial load but no axial load.
All thrust bearing support only axial load.

Bearing Life

The objective of this analysis is to determine the life of a bearing before the first tangible evidence of fatigue.
Common life measures are
1. Number of revolutions of the inner ring (outer ring stationary) or
2. Number of hours of use at a standard angular speed

AFBMA standard states that the first evidence of fatigue is the spalling or pitting of an area of 0.01 in2 (by
Timken Company laboratories).

The AFBMA (and most other manufactures) states that the rating life of a group of nominally identical ball or
roller bearings is defined as the number of revolutions (or hours at a constant speed) that 90 percent of a
group of bearings will achieve or exceed before the failure criterion develops. This is also termed as minimum
life, L10 life.
Hence a catalog load rating is defined as the radial load that causes 10 percent of a group of bearing to fail at
the bearing manufacturers rating life.

Bearing Load-life trade-off at constant reliability

For 0.90 reliability, the regression equation form is

1 This is the basic load-rating eqn for bearing where


a F is steady radial load
From FL constant L is the desired life

for ball bearing a3

10
for roller bearings a
3

a
Ld Fr
where Lr , Fr refer to RATED specs provided by manufacturers and
Lr Fd Ld , Fd are the DESIGNER/Engineer values.

From the equation above, an empirical equation is formulated to represent the standard 90% reliability
bearings (10th percentile rating life where the reliability R = 0.90 ) and the result is a catalog load rating known
as C10 .
00Bearing NTG R3 v22.xmcd [Pg 3 / 7]
1

Hence the catalog rating a


LD nD 60 N.B: If reliability is not
(unit: kN) is given by C10 Fr
mentioned, then the standard
LR nR 60
value of R = 0.90 is assumed.

The value (LR x nR)


Fr - radial load (in kN) applied to the bearing
provide the rated life in
LD - designed life (in hours) --> the expected life of the bearing revolutions for 1 minute.
nD - designed rotational speed of the bearing in RPM Most bearing
Af - application (safety) factor of the bearing system manufacturer chooses a
LR - rated life (in hours) provided by manufacturer of the bearing rated cycles value of
1,000,000 revolutions in a
nR - rated rotational speed of the bearing (RPM)
1 hr period to correspond
to a basic load rating in the
1
catalog. Hence for most
a class of bearing where R
LD nD 60
The catalog rating (unit: kN) C10 Af Fr = 0.90, the catalog rating
6 is given by:
10

Sample 1
A ball bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 6.5 kN. The designed life is 5000 hr
with a rotation rate of 900 rpm. For a bearing reliability of 0.90, find the suitable bearing.

Designed load (radial), Fr 6.5kN Ball bearing, a 3

Designed life, LD 5000 Application factor, Af 1.15

Inner ring rotates, nD 900rpm

1
Refer to Table 11-2 pg 571 , column for
a Deep Groove Load Ratings. The next
LD nD 60
C10 Af Fr
48.313 kN higher C rating C10 55.9 kN
6
10 corresponding to Bore 65mm.

The selected bearing is 65mm 02-series deep groove ball bearing !

If roller bearing is to be used, find the appropriate roller bearing size?


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Reliability of the Bearings


The Reliability-Life Trade-Off : Reliability R > 0.9

Empirical of Reliability

Empirical formulaes had been used for higher accuracy of the calculation for Bearing Life based on
reliability analysis. The formula below is the most accurate for bearing analysis. Based on experimental
data, the equation above had been refined and finally for academic purposes, it was simplified further. The
final equation for load rating of reliability R 0.9 is shown below:

1
a
multiple of rating life
Xd LD nD 60
C10 Af Fr
1 Xd
10 6
1.483
0.02 4.439 ( 1 R)

If Application factor (safety factor ) if not mentioned, Af 1.0

Sample 2
If reliability in Sample 1A is R 0.95 , and safety factor Af 1.15 , find the new load rating
and the correct bearing? Find the suitable bearing if it is to be mounted on a 65mm round shaft.
1
a
Xd
C10 3
1.15 6.5 10
1
1.483
0.02 4.439 ( 1 0.95 )
Answer: C10 57.003 kN

The next higher C load rating is ( C10 61.8 kN) for a 70mm bore deep groove ball bearing.

However the shaft diameter is only 65mm. It will be rocking within the bearing bore because of the generous
tolerance (i.e. the bearing is too big for the shaft)
Comments: 70mm ball-bearing - Not recommended

Solution: Use the alternative:- Angular Contact bearing.


The next higher Angular Contact C rating (C10 63.7 kN) corresponding to a 65mm bearing. This
bearing will slip perfectly on the 65mm shaft.
Recommended: 65mm Angular Contact ball bearing
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Overall Reliability (or combined reliability) for multi-bearings system

Most shaft are supported by at least 2 bearings. Hence if the intended reliability of the bearings system
supporting the shaft is rated as R' , then

reliability of the individual bearing, n where n is the number of bearings supporting the shaft.
R R'
(used at least 2 more decimal points)

For a 3 bearings system with overall reliability R' 0.90 then the individual reliability is
given by R 3 0.90 0.965

Combined radial & thrust loading for BALL BEARINGS only

A ball bearing is capable of resisting radial loading, Fr and thrust loading, Fa. To consider both loads, an
equivalent radial load, Fe is obtained that does the same damage as combined radial and thrust load. The
equation is given below: 1
a
LD nD 60
Fe X1 V Fr Y1 Fa or Fe X2 V Fr Y2 Fa C10 Fe

6
10
To correct for various rotating-ring The X and Y factors depends on several conditions
conditions, a rotation factor, V is used. including number of balls and its diameter.
V 1 inner ring rotates The Equivalent Radial load factors for ball-bearing
V 1.2 outer ring rotates is shown in Table 11-1.
The Y = 0 for straight and cylindrical roller
Fa bearings because it does not take any axial load.
Use X and Y in Table 11-1 if e
1 1 V Fr
Fa For accurate value of e & Y2, tabulation may be needed.
Use X and Y in Table 11-1 if e
2 2 V Fr Fe X2 V Fr Y2 Fa

REVISION
Ball bearings can carry both radial and thrust (axial) loads: a 3
10
Roller bearing can only carry radial loads: a
3
For inner ring rotation, V 1 , for outer ring rotation, V 1.2
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Sample 3
An ball bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 4 kN and thrust load of 2 kN. The desired life LD
is to be 5000 h with an inner-ring rotation rate of 900 rpm What is the basic load rating that should be
used in selecting a bearing for reliability of 0.995?

Exercise 1
Solve Question 11-1 & 11-2 on pg 608

Exercise 2
A bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 5.0 kN. The designed life is 2500 hrs with a rotation
rate of 500 rpm. For a bearing reliability of 0.99, find the suitable bearing if it is to be mounted on a 35mm
round shaft. Application factor = 1.15

Exercise 3
Solve Question 11-14

Exercise 4
The shaft depicted in Figure below carries a helical gear with a tangential force of 3980 N, a radial force of
1770 N, and a thrust force of 1690 N at the pitch cylinder with directions shown. The pitch diameter of the
gear is 200 mm. The shaft runs at a speed of 800 rev/min, and the span (effective spread) between the
direct-mount bearings is 150 mm. The design life is to be 5000 h and an application factor of 1 is appropriate.
If the reliability of the bearing set is to be 0.90, select suitable bearings.
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Exercise 5 Pulley System (From Static problem)

The figure is a schematic drawing of a countershaft that supports two V-belt pulleys. The countershaft runs at
1500 rev/min and the bearings are to have a life of 60 kh at a combined reliability

of 0.90. The belt tension on the loose side of pulley A is 15 percent of the tension on the tight side. An axial
force of 250N acts on the shaft affecting the two bearings. If bearing E must be roller bearing, select suitable
deep-groove bearings from Table 112 and 11-3 for use at O and E, using an application factor of unity.