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INSTRUCTIONAL PROJECT-4 LESSON PLAN

6/18/2017

AHMET ONAL

LESSON PLAN TYPE: INQUIRY BASED LEARNING, DISCOVERY LEARNING AND DISCUSSION

8TH GRADE SCIENCE: CHEMICAL REACTIONS

CLASS PERIOD: 90 MIN

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)


Science
8.5E Investigate how evidence of chemical reactions indicates that new substances with
different properties are formed. (Readiness Standard.)
Prior Grade(s): Science Connection
6.5.D Identify the formation of a new substance by using the evidence of a possible chemical
change, such as production of a gas, change in temperature, production of a precipitate, or
color change.

6.6.A Compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties, such as luster,
conductivity or malleability.
6.6.C Test the physical properties of minerals including hardness, color, luster, and streak.
7.6.B Distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter in the digestive system.
Reading/English Language Arts
8.2.C Complete analogies that describe a function or its description (e.g., pen:paper as
chalk:____ or soft:kitten as hard:____).
8.10.A Summarize the main ideas, supporting details, and relationships among ideas in text
succinctly in ways that maintain meaning and logical order.
Math
8.4C use data from a table or graph to determine the rate of change or slope and y-intercept in
mathematical and real-world problems;
8.5B represent linear non-proportional situations with tables, graphs, and equations in the form
of y = mx + b, where b 0;
8.5I write an equation in the form y = mx + b to model a linear relationship between two
quantities using verbal, numerical, tabular, and graphical representations; and
8.11A construct a scatter plot and describe the observed data to address questions of
association such as linear, non-linear, and no association between bivariate data.
8.1A Apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.
Technology
C.6.A Determine and employ methods to evaluate the electronic information for accuracy and
validity.
C.6.B Resolve information conflicts and validate information through accessing, researching,
and comparing data.
C.6.C Demonstrate the ability to identify the source, location, media type, relevancy, and
content validity of available information.
College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS)
VII.A.1 Know that physical and chemical properties can be used to describe and classify matter.
VII.E.1 Classify chemical reactions by type. Describe the evidence that a chemical reaction has
occurred.
I.A.4.a Know how to keep and have experience in keeping a journal or other record that
accurately describes observations; that distinguishes actual observations from ideas,
speculations, and opinions about what was observed; and that is understandable weeks or
months later.
I.B.1.c Identify appropriate controls and variables in a scientific investigation.
LESSON OBJECTIVES:

Students answer five multiple choice questions drawing on general prior knowledge.
Student will learn components of chemical reactions and evidence of chemical reactions
In the activity students observe two demonstrations of chemical reactions that provide
evidence that a reaction occurred.

Students analyze the effect of using different foods to remove tarnish from a penny.
MATERIALS
Printed Material
Teacher Printout: none
Student Reference Sheet: none
Engage Student Handout: none
Engage Slideshow: none
Reusable
1 Tray, plastic, wide (per class)
1 Graduated cylinder, 100 mL (per class)
1 Container, small, for mixing (per class)
2 Cups, plastic, clear (per class)
Consumable
1 Yeast, fast acting, packet (per teacher)
15 Food coloring, green, drops (per teacher)
Hydrogen Peroxide, 6%, 50 mL (per teacher)
Soap, 5 mL (per teacher)
Water, warm, 50 mL (per teacher)
Magnesium sulfate, 50 grams (per teacher)
Sodium carbonate, 50 grams (per teacher)
Water, 240 mL (per teacher)

Introduction

ESSENTIALS
Pre-Assessment
Students answer five multiple choice questions drawing on general prior knowledge.

ENGAGE
Teacher completes two demonstrations of chemical reactions that provide evidence that a
reaction occurred.

Starters
Introductory activities designed to get students thinking about chemical reactions by creating a
concept map, and balancing equations using jelly beans.

EXPLORE
Students observe the characteristics of a powdered solid when it is mixed with two known
liquids.
EXPLAIN
Question Prompts
Question ideas and example student responses for each level of Blooms Taxonomy related to
the Explore activity.

Vocabulary
Picture Vocabulary with a Scope Vocabulary Game to learn and review key vocabulary for
chemical reactions.

Progress Monitoring Assessment

A multiple choice assessment with dual-coded questions to address key concepts in this scope.

Instructional Activities and Procedures:


Description
In this activity, students will observe the characteristics of a powdered solid when it is mixed
with two known liquids. There will be four solids. Each student in the group will get a different
solid to practice making observations to detect signs of a chemical change. Unknown
combinations of the solids will then be distributed. Students will make experimental
observations to identify their unknown combinations of reactants.
Procedures and Facilitation
Part I: Chemical Reactions and Equations
1. Have students review and follow the instructions in Part I of their Student Guide.
2. Students should answer the questions in Part I of their Student Journal.

Student Guide
A chemical reaction is a process by which one or more substances change to produce one or
more new substances with different properties. In the last lesson you learned that chemical
reactions are represented by chemical equations. A chemical equation uses chemical formulas
and chemical symbols to represent the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. A
chemical equation is balanced when the same number and type of atoms appear on each side
of the equation.
Chemical reactions that are used in this investigation are as follows:

CaCl2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaCl


Na2CO3 + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2CO3
Na2CO3 + 2CH3COOH 2NaCH3COO + H2CO3

The names for each of the products and reactants are as follows:
CaCl2 = Calcium Chloride
CaCO3 = Calcium Carbonate
NaCl = Sodium Chloride
Na2CO3 = Sodium Carbonate
NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide
CH3COOH = Acetic Acid
H2O = Water
H2CO3 = Carbonic Acid
NaCH3COO = Sodium Acetate
The three equations are listed in Part I of the Student Journal. For each equation:
3. Count the number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation to determine
if each equation is balanced.
4. Identify the reactants and products by circling the reactants and placing a box around
the products.
5. Use the names listed for the reactants and products to write a sentence form of the
equation. The first one has been completed as an example.
6. Identifying balanced equations is good practice for students. Explain that putting a
chemical reaction in sentence form is similar to converting 2 + 2 = 4 to two plus two
equals four. Note: These three chemical equations have been included for student
practice and do not represent all of the chemical reactions in this investigation.

When a chemical reaction occurs, new substances with different properties form. Sometimes it
is difficult to determine if a new substance(s) formed, so observations such as the following
provide evidence that a chemical reaction occurred.
A gas is produced Observe bubbling, smoke, fizzing, foaming, expanding container,
change in odor.
A precipitate is formed Observe a solid forming in a liquid.
A change in energy Observe a temperature change or light released.
An unexpected color change Observe a color change that is not expected.
Student Journal
7. (see example given in the Student Guide)

Equation: CaCl2 + Na2CO3 -> CaCO3 + 2NaCl


a. Is this equation balanced? Yes, this equation is balanced.
b. Circle the reactants and place a box around the products.
c. Write the equation as a sentence. One molecule of calcium chloride reacts with one molecule
of sodium carbonate to make one molecule of calcium carbonate and two molecules of sodium
chloride.
8.

Equation: Na2CO3 + 2H2O -> 2NaOH + H2CO3

a. Is this equation balanced? Yes, this equation is balanced.


b. Circle the reactants and place a box around the products.
c. Write the equation as a sentence. One molecule of sodium carbonate reacts with two
molecules of water to make two molecules of sodium hydroxide and one molecule of carbonic
acid.
9.

Na2CO3 + 2CH3COOH -> 2NaCH3COO + H2CO3


a. Is this equation balanced? Yes, this equation is balanced.
b. Circle the reactants and place a box around the products.
c. Write the equation as a sentence. One molecule of sodium carbonate reacts with two
molecules of acetic acid to make two molecules of sodium acetate and one molecule of
carbonic acid.
10. What are the four signs of a chemical reaction?
Formation of a gas
Change in energy (production of light, temperature) change
Formation of a precipitate
Change of color
Part II: Signs of a Chemical Reaction Using Known Reactants
11. Have students review and follow the instructions in Part II of their Student Guide.
12. Students should answer the questions in Part II of their Student Journal.

Student Guide
Safety Information: Review the lab safety rules as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards.
Personal safety equipment is required for all students during laboratory activities.

Safety Goggles: Your eye protection should cover the area around your eyes and prevent any
splashed chemicals from getting near your eyes. They are also necessary for preventing any
foreign objects from damaging your eyes.

Laboratory Apron: The rubber apron will protect your clothes and skin from any splashed or
spilled chemicals.

Protective Gloves: Gloves protect your hands from corrosive chemicals and volatile solvents.
The gloves should be close fitting so the wearer can perform suitable activities requiring
dexterity.

The following safety equipment is present in all school science laboratories and should be used
only in case of an emergency situation

Eye/Face Wash: If any hazardous material should be splashed on the face or eye area, the
eyewash station should be used to flush the affected area. Proper use of the eyewash station
will be demonstrated by the instructor.

Fire Blanket: A fire blanket should be used to wrap a student if any part of the students
clothing catches on fire. The fire blanket is stored in a marked container on the wall.

Fire Extinguisher: A fire extinguisher is necessary in case of an accidental laboratory fire. The
fire extinguisher is mounted on the wall near the exit of the laboratory classroom.

Students will observe the properties of the known solids in Part II and share findings with their
lab group.

The visual observations include a description of the solid before it is mixed with the liquid. The
student places some of the solid on the wax paper and examines it with the hand lens.
Encourage students to make all possible observations. Temperature change can be detected by
feeling the outside of the bag. Students may be able hear sounds during a reaction. Various
visual observations may include gas production, color change, dissolve, and formation of a
precipitant. Introduce the activity by going over the different detection methods, emphasizing
the fact that, while tasting and smelling are also ways of detecting changes, those two means of
observing are never appropriate in a chemistry experiment.

Remind students to keep the spoons and knifes used to measure the solids separate from
others in their lab group and keep them dry. The experiment is designed to use a level plastic
teaspoon of the solid, not a heaping teaspoon. Demonstrate how to level the amount of solid
with a plastic knife to control the amount used by each student in the investigation. Again,
emphasize the importance of keeping the labeled items (matching cups, spoons, and knives)
together as a set to avoid cross-contamination of the solids.

Assign each student in the group a known solid.


13. Your teacher will assign one of the following solids to you:
Calcium Chloride
Magnesium Sulfate
Sodium Carbonate
Citric Acid

14. First go to the chart in Part II of your Student Journal and circle your assigned solid.
15. Place a small amount of your assigned solid on the wax paper. Examine with the hand
lens and write down your observations in your Student Journal.
16. Have students refer to the student reference sheet: Possible Observations if they need
the scaffolding to make sure they did not miss any physical properties.
17. Each student labels two plastic zip top bags as follows: #1 and #2.

18. Add one leveled teaspoon of your assigned solid to bag #1.
19. Take the covered condiment cup labeled 1-Water and place it in the bag.
20. Press as much air out as possible and seal the bag.
21. Use your fingers to take the top of the condiment cup and mix the solid with the liquid
(WITHOUT opening the bag).
22. Make sure you keep your hand at the bottom of the bag to check whether the mixture
shows any temperature change. Note any other signs of a chemical change taking place.

23. Record your observations on the chart in your Student Journal where you circled your
assigned solid earlier.
24. Again, have your students refer to the student reference sheet: Possible Observations to
make sure they did not miss any signs of a chemical reaction if needed.
25. Repeat this process using bag #2, your assigned solid, and the liquid in the condiment
cup labeled 2-Vinegar.

26. What did your lab group members observe when they combined their reactants? Share
physical properties of the solids and observations of the reactions within your lab group.
Record all shared group information on the chart in your Student Journal.

Students should notice a temperature change (an increase or decrease), the disappearance of
the crystals as they dissolve in the liquid, the possible production of a gas (carbon dioxide), and
a possible color change, depending on whether it is getting more acidic or basic. Discuss these
observations before going on to the next part of the experiment.
####Student Journal 1. Fill in your own information first, and then collect the rest of the data
from your lab group (and share your own).
Calcium chloride + water temperature increase, crystals dissolve, cloudy white to gray
Calcium chloride + vinegar slight temperature increase, crystals dissolve, slightly cloudy
yellow
Magnesium sulfate + water slight temperature decrease, crystals dissolve no color change
Magnesium sulfate + vinegar slight temperature decrease, crystals dissolve, clear yellow
Sodium carbonate + water temperature increase, crystals dissolve, cloudy white
Sodium carbonate + vinegar temperature increase, color change to hot pink, gas produced
Citric acid + water temperature decrease, crystals dissolve no color change
Citric acid + vinegar temperature decrease, crystals dissolve, clear yellow
Students should gather the experimental data from the rest of the lab group and fill in the chart
provided in the Student Journal. Check to make sure this is complete before proceeding to Part
III.
Part III: Identifying Unknown Reactants
27. Have students review and follow the instructions in Part III of their Student Guide.
28. Students should answer the questions in Part III of their Student Journal.

Student Guide
Demonstrate how to level the amount of solid with a plastic knife to control the amount used
by each student in the investigation. Emphasize the importance of keeping the labeled items
(matching cups, spoons, and knives) together as a set to avoid cross-contaminating the solids,
which would result in experimental error.
Assign each student in the group a different mixture. Have students conduct the same
experiment with the liquids, noting the signs of chemical change.
29. Your teacher will give you a mixture that contains two of the solids from the previous
investigation. Your mixture will be labeled Mixture A, Mixture B, Mixture C, or Mixture
D. You will try to determine which two solids are in your mixture.
30. First go to the chart in Part III of your Student Journal and circle your unknown mixture
(A, B, C or D).
31. Place a small amount of your unknown mixture on the wax paper. Examine with the
hand lens and write down your observations in your Student Journal. Does this step
bring you any closer to identifying your unknown mixture?
32. Have students refer to the student reference sheet: Possible Observations if they need
the scaffolding to make sure they did not miss any physical properties.
33. Each student labels two plastic zip top bags as follows: #1 and #2
34. Add one leveled teaspoon of your unknown mixture to bag #1.
35. Take the covered condiment cup labeled 1-Water and place it in the bag.
36. Press as much air out as possible and seal the bag.
37. Use your fingers to take the top off the condiment cup and mix the solid with the liquid
(WITHOUT opening the bag).
38. Make sure you keep your hand at the bottom of the bag to check whether the mixture
shows any temperature change. Be sure to note any other signs of a chemical change
taking place.

39. Repeat this process using bag #2, your unknown mixture, and the liquid labeled 2-
Vinegar.

40. Write your observations in the chart in your Student Journal where you circled your
unknown mixture.
41. Share your information with the members of your group.
42. Use what you learned in the previous experiment to determine which two solids your
mixture contained.
43. If your students need the scaffolding or cannot identify the mixtures, have the students
refer to the student reference sheet: Possible Observations to review the expected
observations for the different combinations of solids, water, and vinegar.

44. Answer the Reflections and Conclusions questions in your Student Journal.
45. Clean up your area by disposing of all used plastic bags with the contents in a plastic
lined trash bin. Place the waxed paper and your disposable gloves in the trash bin. Rinse
all plastic spoons and knives to be reused. Return all cups of chemicals to the designated
area for reuse.
Modifications/Differentiated Instruction
Learning Strategies: 1D
Speak using learning strategies, such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and
using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact
English words are not known.)

Listening: 2D
Monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and
seek clarification as needed.
Speaking: 3F
Ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need,
concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in
academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended
speaking assignments.

Evaluation (Formative and/or Summative Assessment


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS
Question 1
1.Give an example of a chemical reaction.

2.What classifies something as a chemical reaction?


3.List two observations that could be evidence of a chemical reaction.
Writing assignment: Look at the following picture. People often confuse physical and chemical
reactions. Think of examples of both physical and chemical reactions. Explain how evidence of a
chemical reaction
may determine if a new substance has been formed.
Be sure to address the prompt, provide support, and conclude your thoughts. Write legibly and
concisely.
SUMMATIVE ASSSESMENT
1 I. Vocabulary Matching II. Identification 1. ____ A process that leads to the
transformation of one set of chemical substances to another 2. ____ Elements or
compounds that can only be separated or combined to make substances with
new properties by means of a chemical reaction 3. ____The substances initially
involved in a chemical reaction 4. ____The substance that is yielded from a
chemical reaction A. Reactants B. Chemical reaction C. Substance D. Products 1. In
a chemical reaction, _____________________ react to form new substances with
different properties. 2. A _____________________ increase or decrease and the
production of light are both signs that a chemical reaction may have occurred. 3.
A _____________________ is a solid substance that forms and separates from a
solution and may indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 4. An
unexpected change in _____________________ is a sign that a chemical reaction
may have occurred. Chemical Reactions Matter and Energy Match the term in the
box to the correct definition. Use the clues provided to fill in the blanks. Word
Bank color substances precipitate temperature gas evidence 2 III. Open-Ended
Response 1. What is a chemical reaction?
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_ 2. How can you tell when a chemical reaction has occurred?
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Closure - Optional/Bonus Points:
Instant cold packs consist of ammonium nitrate and water. When the two are mixed, the
temperature changes and becomes colder. This process is described using the following
chemical equation:

NH4NO3(s) NH4+(aq) + NO3(aq)


Is this an example of an endothermic or exothermic reaction? Why?