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# (1)

, I(t) Q(t)
.
:
1) I(t) Q(t) ( - baseband-
);
2) (1) ( (IQ) ).
(IQ)

IQ-
.

I(t) Q(t)
baseband-, baseband-
.
,
.
(2)

: x(t) y(t)
: , h(t) , ak, bk
, .

: - :
; ;

,
( ). .
, , .
.

1 . fs,
fN= fs/2 ,
.

2 .

. Y()
( )

-
f N.
,
,
,
,
0 1.
,
,
.
=0
f N.
=1 2 f N

.
=0.35.

:
1) :
- On-Off Keying ();
2) :
- Binary Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK);
- Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK);
- M-ary Phase-Shift Keying (M-PSK);
3) :
- Frequency Shift Keying (FSK);
- Minimal Shift Keying (MSK);
- M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (M-FSK);
- , Gaussian Frequency-Shift
Keying (GFSK);
- Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
(GMSK);
4) :
- - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM);
- - trellis coded modulation (TCM);
- PSK QAM .

, ,
,
s(t) = A(t) cos( (t)t +(t))
.
:
c(t) , A, B 0 , B 0 , .
c(t)={0,1}, B=0.
s(t) = A(t) cos( (t) +0).
0 c(t)=0 A c(t)=1. OOK
(On-Off Keying, ),
.

B=1.

A c(t)=0 2A c(t)=1.
, B 0 ,
).
B=0.

:
- ,
;
- ,
( ).
(baseband)
, . ,
, .
.
OOK
:

: :
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 ,
3 3 .
I(t) Q(t)
baseband-.

, : I (t) =A(c(t) + B) , Q(t) =0 .
, OOK- -
, .

I(t) Q(t)
. ,
I(t), Q(t).
(x,y) , x,
y. ,
.

.
, c(t) . {00, 01, 10, 11}.
{0, A, 2A, 3A}.
( , ).
M = log2k, k .
, .

VB =VS. ,
VS= VB/k
8
.
,

{0,1,2...M-1}.
,
Tb Ts=Tb log2M.

-:

,
:
- (
);
- .

:
- ;
;
- -
;
-
;
- ;
- ;
- - .
(BPSK, QPSK, M-PSK)
:

A 0 , . (t).
sc(t)=Acos(t+0),
(t) . (t)
c(t).
(BPSK)
{0,1}
{0, }.
180. BPSK

BPSK
, {-1,1}.
baseband-

BPSK
OOK
:

BPSK

-
-

BPSK

() (DBPSK)
,

, / 2. ,
.
/ 2 ,
.
3 / 2 3 / 2 . ,
,
.
,
() BPSK (DBPSK). ,
, . DBPSK

(QPSK)
(M=4),
4 , /2 .
{ / 4,3 / 4}
() {00, 01, 10, 11}

QPSK-

.
. , ,
, ( )
. , .
.
QPSK

baseband-,

I(t) Q(t)
. baseband-

I(t) Q(t) .
M=4 TS = 2TB
QPSK-

,
(VB=10 /, f0=100 ):
- QPSK-
BPSK ( ,
VB_QPSK=2VS, VB_BPSK=VS);
- QPSK BPSK .
QPSK (DQPSK)
(OQPSK Offset QPSK).
DQPSK, DBPSK, - ,
/2 . DBPSK,
.
OQPSK , QPSK, . ,
baseband- ()
. .

## I(t)=0, Q(t)=0, QPSK

a(t ) I (t )2 Q(t ) 2 0,
.
I(t) Q(t)

,
, QPS
.
,
.

.
,
. OQPSK /2.
OQPSK 30% 100%
QPSK. OQPSK I(t) Q(t)
, .
(M-PSK)

M-PSK , QPSK:
- k=log2M ;
- -

.

.
, 8-PSK

{/4, /2, 3/4, 0 }
{000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101,
110, 111}
- (QAM)

.
.
.
. .
,
2 .
,
- .
.
(QAM).
QAM . M=4 QPSK,
QAM M 8 (.. k=log2M, kN , M
2: 2, 4, 8, 16 ..). 16-QAM .
> 1024 .
,
,
.
QAM :
- I(t) Q(t),
;
- ,
;
-
;
- baseband- I(t) Q(t).
(FSK, MSK, M-FSK, GFSK, GMSK)
( )
(t) . :

, d () , c(t)
, 0 .

2 ,
(FSK).
, ..
{-1,1}, -1
() 0, 1 .

{0,1}

{cd, c+d}.

## I(t) Q(t) : I(t)=Acos(dc(t)t),

Q(t)=Asin(dc(t)t). sin cos
[-1..1],
FSK A.
FSK FM

cos( )
I(t)

b(t) - cos(0t)
s(t)
/2
c(t) ci(t)

Q(t)
Sin( )

b(t) Vb (
T=1/Vb).
(t) 1 .
(t) FM .
FM , (t)
i(t) .
=T=1/Vb.
i(t) , FM
.
.
.
d=2mVB/2, =2VB
m FSK ,
,
FSK . FSK sL(t) sH(t)
s(t)=sH(t)+sL(t),
sH(t)=cH(t)cos(0-d)t,
sL(t)=cL(t)cos(0+d)t.

FSK
S()=SH()+SL(),
sH(t) sL(t)
cH(t) cL(t), -
T=1/Vb.
(CPFSK)
,
CPFSK
m. CPFSK m=1 m=2 (
FSK ).

, :
- 6..8 ;
- .
CPFSK (
) , .
(MSK)
MSK CPFSK s0(t)
s1(t), 0 1 ( ),
T.
s0(t) s1(t) () T :
T T
s0 (t ) s1 (t )dt cos(0 )t cos(0 )tdt
0 0
T T
cos(20t )tdt cos(2t )tdt 0
0 0
T 20,
T 1
cos(20t )tdt 0 sin(2T ) 0 , 2T k , k 0, 1, 2...
0 2

## , =2mVB/2 VB=1, 2 m k , k 0, 1, 2...

m 0, m k=1,
.. m=0,5 CPFSK,
.

m<0,5 , ,
s0(t) s1(t).
: =m. m=0,5
=/2.

MSK

MSK

VB=1/ f0=16 .
,
MSK 1,5VB,

.
MSK MSK
(GMSK),
GSM.
MSK (GMSK)

.
, , MSK 0(t)
,
. 0(t),
g(t), g(t), .

2 2VT 2 2
2 t
VT 2 T ln 2
g (t ) e
T ln 2

VT - VT=V-3, V-3
VB, T=1/VB -
, VB.
1 VT.
c f=fT .
f=1 VB=1/T .
-3
V
BT .

g=1/V-3 VT=T/Tg.
VT

g(t).

g(t) -kT +kT,
k
.
k=3.
b(t)
, 0(t)
cos( ) .
I(t)
GMSK
0(t)
b(t) - cos(0t)
s(t)
G(),

G() /2 cg(t).
c0(t) cg(t)
.
Q(t)
Sin( )
MSK =VB/2.
, VT.

MSK GMSK
VT

VT=1 VT=0,3

, VT I(t) Q(t) .
GMSK VT .
.
GMSK VT=0,3 15 MSK ,
, .
(M-FSK)
.
.
,
.

:
s1(t)=cos(1)t, s2(t)=cos(2)t, .., sn(t)=cos(n)t,
s1 ; s2
; sn N- .

.
(Double Frequency Shift
Keying, DFSK), .
.
.
:

1. . . . .// . . . . .:
, 2000. 800 . ISBN 5-5459-0497.
2. . . . .
. .: , 20031104 . ISBN 5-8459-0497.
3. . : . . .//. .
. .: , 2000. 520 .