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Test Your Grammar and Vocabulary
(with answers)

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( )
Test Your Grammar and Vocabulary
(with answers)

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2009
81.2
49

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( ) = Test Your Grammar and Vocabulary
(with answers) : . I - /
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2009. 233 .
ISBN 978-5-9228-

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81.2

ISBN 978-5-9228-
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, 2009
.., 2009
ontents

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.5
Unit 1
Singular or Plural, Countable or Uncountable Nouns (Ex. 1-5)6
Much many, little few, a little a few (Ex. 6-10).13
Possessive Case (Ex. 11-12)19
Indefinite Pronouns (Ex. 13-16)..23
There is there are (Ex. 17-18)...28
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 19-20)...31
Unit 2
The Indefinite Tense-Forms (Ex. 21-24).35
Adjectives and Adverbs (Ex. 25-33)...40
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 34-36)...50
Unit 3
The Continuous Tense-Forms (Ex. 37-43)......56
Ways of expressing a future action (Ex. 44-47)..66
Reported Statements. Reported Commands (Ex. 48-49).70
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 50-52)...72
Unit 4
The Perfect Tense-Forms (Ex. 53-63).....78
Reported Speech (Ex. 64-65)...92
Tense Revision (Ex. 66-69).....95
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 70-72).100
Unit 5
The Perfect Continuous Tense-Forms (Ex. 73-78)....106
Reported Speech (Ex. 79)..114
Indirect Questions (Ex. 80-82)..115
Tense Revision (Ex. 83-85)...119
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 86-87).123
Unit 6
Tense Forms in the Passive Voice (Ex. 88-96)..127
Tense Revision (Ex. 97-100).140
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 101-103).147
Unit 7
Complex Object (Ex. 104-110)..152

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Tense Revision (Ex. 111-114)...159
Vocabulary Exercises (115-117)..166
Unit 8
Modal Verbs (Ex. 118-127).172
Tense Revision (Ex. 128-130).186
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 131-133)...190
Unit 9
The Infinitive (Ex. 134-143)196
Tense Revision (Ex. 144-146).206
Vocabulary Exercises (Ex. 147-148)...209
Key...214
References...232

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.., .. A Course of
English Intermediate.

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Intermediate.

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Unit 1

Singular or Plural, Countable or Uncountable Nouns

Exercise 1.
Choose the correct word.

1. You cant wear _______ to a job interview.


a. jeanses b. jeans

2. There must be two ______ in the wash.


a. shorts b. pairs of shorts

3. I need _______ to cut this article out.


a. a scissor b. some scissors

4. The ______ stole a picture by Van Gogh which costs millions of


dollars.
a. thieves b. thiefes

5. My aunt lives on the farm. She has a lot of ______ .


a. gooses b. geese

6. I have two bad ______ . I must have them pulled out.


a. tooths b. teeth

7. There are _____ in my country house. I must get rid of them.


a. mouse b. mice

8. Different countries have different ______ .


a. weather b. weathers

9. We have looked at the menu and we would all like ______ .


a. chicken b. chickens

10. Have you got a copy of complete ______ of William Blake?


a. works b. work

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11. None of the passengers has insured their ______ .
a. baggage b. baggages

12. Students must pass their ______ to the front.


a. papers b. paper

13. Id like coffee, ______ and marmalade, please.


a. toasts b. toast

14. Im afraid we cant find cheap ______ for all of you.


a. accommodation b. accommodations

15. They caught several ______ that afternoon.


a. fish b. fishes

16. Would you like some of these ______ ?


a. potatoes b. potatos

17. They have some ______ on their farm.


a. sheep b. sheeps

18. The Smiths have got a lot of _____ at the moment.


a. worries b. worrys

19. The wolves chased the ______ for several miles.


a. deers b. deer

20. Ann has got two ______ .


a. brothers-in-law b. brother-in-laws

Exercise 2.
Choose the correct word.

1. Ancient Greeks drank _____ wine with water.


a. b. a

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2. I like ______ onion soup.
a. an b.

3. Do you eat ______ fish?


a. a b.

4. Mary likes ______ fruit, she simply cant live without it.
a. a b.

5. Could you fetch ______ glass of mineral water for me please?


a. b. a

6. In the morning Tom usually drinks ______ coffee.


a. a b.

7. Its a real disaster! My little daughter does not like ______ milk.
a. b. the

8. My trousers need ironing. Have you got _____ iron?


a. an b.

9. Id like ______ information about trains to London.


a. an b. some

10. Could you give me ______ advice, please?


a. some b. an

11. The fire is going to go out. Can you go and get ______ wood?
a. a b. some

12. When the play ended, there was ______ lengthy applause.
a. a b.

13. I cant come out tonight. I have ______ homework to do.


a. some b. a

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14. There is ______ very beautiful countryside near here.
a. a b.

15. David has just bought ______ new furniture.


a. some b. a

16. Ill have two teas and ______ coffee, please.


a. a b.

17. She has ______ great love for music.


a. a b.

18. Im so glad I visited this place. It was ______ wonderful


experience.
a. a b.

19. The house is built of ______ stone.


a. a b.

20. Thats ______ very unusual fruit. What is it?


a. a b.

Exercise 3.
Choose the correct word.

1. I dont think that phonetics ______ a dull subject.


a. is b. are

2. The stairs leading to the exit ______ steep and dangerous.


a. is b. are

3. In my opinion, billiards ______ a very boring game.


a. is b. are

4. In summer cattle ______ fed on pasture lands.


a. is b. are

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5. The information we were given ______ very useful.
a. was b. were

6. Look at Ritas hair! ______ green!


a. It is b. They are

7. I have called the police and ______ way.


a. they are on their b. its on its

8. I like your new trousers. Where did you buy ______ ?


a. it b. them

9. When the police arrived we were pleased to see ______ .


a. it b. them

10. The contents of the case ______ disappeared.


a. have b. has

11. Darts______ often played in pubs.


a. are b. is

12. The athletics we watched ______ quite exciting.


a. was b. were

13. Carols earnings ______ as much as she would like.


a. isnt b. arent

14. These trousers ______ a bit tight.


a. feels b. feel

15. Well, the glasses ______ all right.


a. fits b. fit

16. The number of women who smoke ______ increased.


a. has b. have

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17. People ______ worried about the high rate of unemployment.
a. is b. are

18. Fish ______ dying because of polluted water.


a. is b. are

19. A number of sheep ______ died from a strange illness.


a. has b. have

20. Local news ______ on TV every night at 8:30.


a. is b. are

Exercise 4.
Choose the correct word.

1. The press ______ all printing stories about this family.


a. is b. are

2. My friend thinks that any press ______ biased.


a. is b. are

3. The staff of this company ______ skilful.


a. is b. are

4. All staff ______ expected to attend the meeting tomorrow


afternoon.
a. is b. are

5. The orchestra ______ of forty eight musicians.


a. consists b. consist

6. The orchestra ______ rehearsing now.


a. is b. are

7. Statistics ______ a difficult course for Nick to understand.


a. is b. are

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8. Statistics ______that approximately 40 percent of all marriages in
the US end in divorce.
a. show b. shows

9. Politics ______ an art of compromising.


a. is b. are

10. Johns politics ______ changed considerably since he joined this


party.
a. have b. has

11. The United Nations ______ a very important political


organization.
a. is b. are

12. The United Nations ______ in disagreement on this issue.


a. is b. are

13. The Xiao family ______ large.


a. is b. are

14. The family ______ gathering here for Christmas.


a. is b. are

15. The police ______ investigating his accusation of fraud.


a. is b. are

16. A large number of police officers ______ present at the


demonstration last week in case of trouble.
a. was b. were

17. A jury usually ______ of twelve people, who are ordinary


members of the public.
a. consists b. consist

18. The jury ______ still thinking over the verdict.


a. is b. are

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19. This football team ______ the best in the county this season.
a. has been b. have been

20. The team ______ practising hard lately, and ______ confident of
victory.
a. has been it is b. have been they are

Review Test 5.
Fill in the spaces in the following text with one appropriate word,
or put if no word is needed.

THE CHANCE OF A JOB


David had been buying ______(1) paper every day for months
though he wasnt interested in ______ (2) news about the latest
disasters around the world. It was ______ (3) work he wanted.
David had been out of ______ (4) work for ages and when he got
the chance of ______ (5) job in the local youth centre he applied at
once. He rang and asked them for ______ (6) information about
______ (7) job and they told him he needed to have ______ (8)
experience of working with ______(9) children and if possible
______(10) training in counselling techniques. David had quite a lot
of ______(11) knowledge of counselling because he had
______(12) degree in psychology from ______ (13) Edinburgh
University and at one time he had seriously considered doing
______ (14) research in educational psychology. Before going to the
interview, he asked his mum for ______(15) advice about what he
should wear, and she told him to wear a suit and get his hair cut.

Much many, little few, a little a few.

Exercise 6.
Complete each sentence with the most suitable word.

1. How ______ potatoes shall I buy?


a. much b. many c. few

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2. We didnt take ______ food with us, we hoped to buy some on
the way.
a. much b. many c. few

3. I cant give you ______ advice, Im quite ignorant of the


situation.
a. much b. many c. few

4. This car costs ______ .


a. much b. a lot of c. a lot

5. There were ______ people at the party that I didnt know.


a. much b. little c. a few

6. There are ______ apples left. We dont need any more.


a. a little b. a lot of c. few

7. We saw ______ people on the beach yesterday.


a. many b. a lot of c. much

8. Mr. Mannings would like ______ brandy with his coffee.


a. a little b. a few c. much

9. We have got too ______ petrol, we must have the car filled at the
nearest gas station.
a. a little b. little c. few

10. Is there enough flour for the cake? No, there is very______
left, Im afraid.
a. a little b. little c. few

11. There was so ______ snow last winter.


a. a lot of b. much c. plenty of

12. How ______ spaghetti have we got?


a. much b. many c. few

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13. I have never seen so ______ money.
a. much b. many c. few

14. Im sorry, but we do not have ______ knowledge about the new
transit system.
a. much b. many c. few

15. Im looking for ______ equipment for my office.


a. a little b. a few c. many

16. You are taking too ______ luggage on this vacation.


a. much b. many c. a lot of

17. I dont hear ______news about Mr. Yates these days.


a. many b. a lot c. much

18. I hope I didnt cause you too ______ trouble.


a. much b. many c. little

19. Henry was not able to give us ______ information.


a. much b. many c. a lot

20. How ______ fish are there in the bowl?


a. much b. many c. a little

Exercise 7.
Complete each sentence with the most suitable word.

1. Do you take sugar with your tea? Yes, just ______ .


a. little b. a few c. a little

2. Would you like some more biscuits? No, thanks, I have eaten so
______ already.
a. a lot b. many c. much

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3. Nancy, would you like some more cake? Yes, just ______ ,
please.
a. a few b. a bit c. little

4. Weve got ______ work to do by the end of the month.


a. many b. a great deal of c. much

5. The meeting was postponed because ______ people arrived.


a. a large amount of b. a few c. few

6. In conclusion I would like to say ______ words about our plans.


a. a few b. few c. large number of

7. We spent such ______time on this work.


a. much b. a few c. a little

8. Very ______ people were flying because of terrorist activities.


a. few b. little c. a few

9. Im having ______ trouble fixing the shelf Peter, can you help
me please?
a. a few b. a little c. plenty of

10. He was asked such ______ questions at the exam!


a. many b. few c. a few

11. Oh, you have bought some milk too! Now we have ______
milk.
a. much b. a lot of c. plenty of

12. We spent ______ money on this Bentley car.


a. much b. a large number of c. a large amount of

13. Dont worry, Mrs. Parker, we have ______ room to


accommodate 30 people.
a. plenty of b. much c. many

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14. Its only 10 oclock. We have ______ time to walk to the station.
a. a large number of b. plenty of c. much

15. There are ______ books on this issue in the Royal Library of
Toledo.
a. plenty b. a large number of c. a great deal of

16. Kate started feeling ill only ______ days before the exam.
a. a few b. few c. many

17. ______ of Alexanders friends arrived before the party started.


a. plenty of b. a lot of c. many

18. Would you like some milk in your coffee?


Yes, thank you, only ______ .
a. a few b. little c. a little

19. Grimes hasnt seen ______of his brother lately.


a. many b. little c. much

20. There was ______ a lot of food left after the party, that we ate it
for three days.
a. so b. such c. too

Review Test 8.
Put in many, few, much or little.

The capital town of this island is very small and does not have many
important buildings. The islanders do not have ______ (1) money,
and they have ______ (2) contact with the outside world. There is
not ______ (3) chance of the place attracting tourists. The roads
arent very good. There are lots of bicycles but not ______ (4) cars.
There are ______ (5) shops, and there is ______ (6) cultural life.

Review Test 9.

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Put in a lot of, many or much.

A: There are a lot of athletes taking part in these Students Olympics,


arent there? And theres been ______ (1) interest.

B: Our runners havent won ______ (2) medals, have they?

A: Well, not as ______ (3) medals as last time. But there are still
______ (4) events to come.

B: Unfortunately I havent got ______ (5) time for watching sport at


the moment. Im rather busy.

A: Well, Im hoping to get a ticket for the weekend. But there arent
______ (6) seats left, I hear.

B: I heard the cheapest ticket is 25. Thats too ______ (7) in my


opinion.

Review Test 10.


Choose the correct form of the noun.

COOKERY CORNER

In todays Cookery Corner Id like to address a request from


Mrs. Parkinson for ______ (1 an information/information) about
which of ______ (2 chocolate/chocolates) to use in cooking. Well,
Mrs. Parkinson, my ______ (3 advice is/advices are) always to use
the best possible chocolate you can find. It is the same principle as
with ______ (4 wines/wine): in cooking always use ______(5 an
equivalent quality/equivalent quality) to what you eat or drink. With
______ (6 a chocolate/chocolate), the reason for this is that higher
quality chocolate will always give your cakes and sweets ______ (7
better/a better) taste. To judge the quality of chocolate, look at
______ (8 the amount of/the number of) cocoa in the chocolate.
Good quality chocolate has more cocoa solids and ______ (9 less

19
sugar/fewer sugars). For the best taste choose chocolate with a high
cocoa ______ (10 contents/content) never ______ (11 fewer
than/less than) 70 ______ (12 per cent/per cents) if possible. It
goes without saying that you should also use other ______ (13
ingredient/ingredients) of the highest quality, too. If, for example,
you are using ______ (14 a coffee/coffee) in your chocolate
recipe, always use ______(15 a strong/strong) fresh coffee. If you
are making ______ (16 a cake/cake), use the right kind of ______
(17 flours/flour), and always weigh the ingredients on you kitchen
______ (18 scale/scales). Believe me, if you follow ______ (19
these/this) simple rules, the next time you bake a chocolate cake,
there wont be a slice left over!

Possessive Case

Exercise 11.
Complete each sentence with the most suitable word.

1. ______ laptop has been stolen.


a. Ben b. Bens c. Bens

2. When the teacher had called out the ______ names, they all
stepped forward.
a. girls b. girls c. girls

3. They are my ______ favourite books.


a. mother-in-laws b. mothers-in-law c. mother-in-laws

4. I went to the ______ to buy a newspaper.


a. newsagent b. newsagents c. newsagentss

5. We studied Charles ______ early novels at school.


a. Dickens b. Dickens c. Dickens

6. This mobile phone is not mine, it is ______ phone.

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a. someones else b. someone elses c.someones elses

7. I was surprised by ______ announcement.


a. yesterday b. yesterdays c. the yesterdays

8. ______ playing has improved enormously.


a. Allans guitar b. Allan guitar c. Allan guitars

9. I was shocked by ______ .


a. Alice opinion b. Alices opinion c. the opinion of Alice

10. They are ______ children.


a. Anns and Toms b. Ann and Tom c. Ann and Toms

11. I must go to ______ this morning.


a. the butchers b. butchers c. the butcher

12. We had ______ holiday in Italy.


a. a two weeks b. a two-week c. two weeks

13. We are going to stay ______ this week-end.


a. at my aunts b. at my aunt c. with my aunts

14. ______ children dont go to University yet.


a. Browns b. The Browns c. The Brownss

15. Usually I leave my car at ______ .


a. Leagany car park b. Leagany cars park
c. Leagany cars park

16. ______ Library has one of the richest book collections in


Russia.
a. the Lenins b. the Lenin c. Lenin

17. Mrs Black is a friend of my ______ .


a. mothers b. mother c. mothers

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18. People left their homes because of ______ .
a. the extension of the airport b. the airports extension
c. the airport extension

19. That isnt much use, it is the ______ .


a. calendar of last year b. last years calendar
c. last year calendar

20. My sister is ______ girl and she doesnt go to school yet.


a. a three years old b. a three years old
c. a three-year-old

Exercise 12.
Choose the correct word. In some cases both options are correct.

1. What did you do ______ ?


a. at the courses end b. at the end of the course

2. Have you met ______ ?


a. Sams new girlfriend b. the new girlfriend of Sam

3. ______ is a constant source of inspiration.


a. Barcelonas architecture b. the architecture of Barcelona

4. I need to visit ______ .


a. the doctors surgery b. the surgery of the doctor

5. Some debris got caught under ______ .


a. the conveyor belts wheels b. the wheels of the conveyor belt

6. Our organization strives towards ______ .


a. povertys elimination b. the elimination of poverty

7. The Ninth Symphony is arguably ______ .


a. Beethovens greatest work b. the greatest work of Beethoven
8. ______ is the search for personal fulfilment in a hostile world.

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a. the novels theme b. the theme of the novel

9. Hes taking ______ from his job at the university.


a. a years sabbatical b. a sabbatical of a year

10. ______ sometimes drives me up the wall.


a. my husbands impatience b. the impatience of my husband

11. Throughout the flight we had to put up with ______ .


a. the children sitting in the back rows antics
b. the antics of the children sitting in the back row

12. The most senior clergyman in the Church of England is ______ .


a. Canterburys Archbishop b. the Archbishop of Canterbury

13. Were going to hold the party at ______ .


a. Michaels place b. the place of Michael

14. ______ was an important turning point in French history.


a. 1789s revolution b. The revolution of 1789

15. Researchers have been amazed by the ______ to mutate when


attacked.
a. viruss ability b. ability of the virus

16. The vet wasnt very pleased with ______ .


a. Fidos progress b. the progress of Fido

17. Her doctoral thesis investigates ______ in medieval China.


a. Confucianisms spread b. the spread of Confucianism

18. The blessing will take place at the ______ .


a. Twelve Apostles Churchb. Church of the Twelve Apostles

19. Why cant you just hand in your notice, ______ !


a. for heavens sake b. for the sake of heaven

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20. ______ are generating a lot of excitement at the Paris fashion
shows.
a. Gallianos latest designs b. the latest designs of Galliano

Indefinite Pronouns

Exercise 13.
Complete each sentence with the most suitable word.

1. Shall we have ______ ice-cream for dessert?


a. any b. some c. a few

2. Id like ______ mineral water. Im terribly thirsty.


a. some b. any c. no

3. Put ______ Cheddar cheese in the omelette. It will add some


flavour.
a. some b. any c. little

4. I dont want ______ help! Ill do everything myself.


a. some b. any c. no

5. Do we have ______ food left from yesterdays party? Im terribly


hungry.
a. some b. any c. no

6. Gina has bought ______ rolls for breakfast.


a. some b. many c. no

7. Would you like ______ wine to start with, sir?


a. some b. any c. a few

8. We did not find ______ sour cream in the fridge.


a. some b. any c. no

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9. There werent ______ people in the street when the accident
happened.
a. some b. any c. no

10. Can I have a beer from your fridge? Yes, of course. Take
______ you like.
a. some b. any c. no

11. Mrs. Ripley is going on holiday with ______ friends in August.


a. some b. any c. a

12. Im sure he doesnt have ______ evidence for his accusations.


a. any b. an c. some

13. There is seldom ______ world news in the Daily Star.


a. some b. any `c. no

14. There was never ______ question that Eleanor Rigby will return
home.
a. some b. no c. any

15. ______ of the money collected will go to helping children with


heart disease.
a. any b. no c. some

16. If you have ______ old books that you dont want you can bring
them into school.
a. any b. many c. some

17. We have bought a lot of things today. There is hardly ______


money left.
a. no b. some c. any

18. If you have ______ questions, Ill be pleased to answer them.


a. some b. few c. any

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19. Im too tired to write ______ letters tonight. Lets do it
tomorrow.
a. any b. some c. no

20. Wasnt there ______ problem about you work? I remember you
telling me about it.
a. any b. some c. many

Exercise 14.
Complete each sentence with the most suitable word.

1. Where is that naughty cat? We cant find him ______ .


a. somewhere ` b. nowhere c. anywhere

2. Linda has done ______ she could, but all in vain.


a. anything b. something c. nothing

3. I couldnt see ______ in the dark.


a. nothing b. something c. anything

4. Can I do ______ to improve the situation?


a. everything b. something c. anything

5. ______ who was present at the shareholders meeting was


questioned by the police.
a. everybody b. somebody c. anybody

6. There was ______ so odd about his behaviour that I was taken
aback.
a. something b. everything c. nothing

7. Do you remember putting the keys ______ in the room?


a. somewhere b. elsewhere c. anywhere

8. She was too exhausted to go ______ .


a. somewhere b. everywhere c. anywhere

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9. You look so upset. Has ______ happened?
a. anything b. nothing c. something

10. Where can I get the money you ask for? _____ , I dont care.
a. anywhere b. somewhere c. nowhere

11. Nobody told me ____ about it.


a. anything b. nothing c. something

12. Hardly ______ knew how to operate the device. It was


completely new.
a. anybody b. somebody c. nobody

13. If you want good advice, ask ______ else.


a. anybody b. everybody c. somebody

14. Nobody ______ that Alex has committed this crime.


a. believe b. believes c. have believed

15. If ______ asks for the reference book, tell ______ I have taken
it.
a. somebody her b. anybody them c. everybody... it

16. After hard work Sarah was too tired to go ______ .


a. somewhere b. nowhere c. anywhere

17. Everybody saw the missing boy the other day, didnt ______ ?
a. he b. it c. they

18. In Holland you can see beautiful flowers ______ .


a. somewhere b. everywhere c. nowhere

19. Nick felt that something ______ bothering him.


a. was b. were c. be

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20. ______ cant understand that it is impossible to work 12 hours a
day on end!
a. nobody b. anybody c. somebody

Review Test 15.


Complete what the radio disc jockey is saying. Put in some or any.

That beautiful song was I cant find any love by Arlene Black.
Now Ive had ______(1) letters asking for a record by Express. One
listener says she hasnt heard ______(2) records by Express on this
programme for months. Well, Im going to put that right straight
away. And this will be our last record because there isnt ______(3)
more time left. Weve had ______(4) great records tonight, and Ill
be here next week to play ______(5) more. Now heres ______(6)
music from Express, with I never have ______(7) luck. And this
is Justin Cooper saying goodbye and goodnight.

Exercise 16.
Complete each sentence with the most appropriate word.

1. You cant have lost the tickets. Theyve got to be ______ .


a. anywhere b. somewhere c. nowhere

2. I havent got a clue where I am! Isnt there ______ here who
could direct me to the Stakis Hotel?
a. anyone b. no one c. someone

3. ______ everyone here now? Well start the tour straight away
then.
a. is b. are c. does

4. There is hardly ______ to be seen on the streets of the centre after


dark.
a. anybody b. nobody c. somebody

28
5. Peter decided that he needed to do ______ with his life.
a. constructive something b. something constructive
c. everything constructive

6. The kidnap victims were blindfolded, driven into the country and
thrown from the car miles from ______ .
a. somewhere b. anywhere c. nowhere

7. The mayor is caught in the city traffic. Weve ______ got to find
a way to get her here fast.
a. somehow b. anyhow c. nohow

8. What would you like to drink?


Oh, ______. Whatever youre having will be fine.
a. something b. anything c. nothing

9. That new chess champion from Elista is amazing. ______ can


beat him!
a. anyone b. no one c. someone

10. The ball can bounce ______ between the inner tramlines, but if
it bounces outside them, you lose the point.
a. anywhere b. somewhere c. nowhere

There is there are

Exercise 17.
Choose the correct word.

1. ______ time to finish our discussion after classes.


a. there will be b. it will be

2. Why ______ so many police there?


a. are there b. is it

3. ______ going to be a bus strike next week.

29
a. there is b. it is

4. ______ time to go to bed?


a. is it b. is there

5. Look! The sky is cloudy. ______ going to rain.


a. it is b. there is

6. ______ no point in doing this work.


a. there is b. it is

7. You do this work at the expense of your health. ______ not worth
it!
a. it is b. there is

8. Is ______ the eighteenth today? No, the seventeenth.


a. it b. there

9. Someone is injured. ______ an accident.


a. there has been b. it has been

10. ______ a picture on the wall. ______ an abstract painting.


a. there is... it is b. it is... there is

11. Take a taxi. ______ a long way to the station.


a. there is b. it is

12. ______ any truth at all in that newspaper article.


a. there wasnt b. it wasnt

13. ______ several accidents this week.


a. there have been b. it has been

14. ______ raining since Monday.


a. there has been b. it has been

15. ______ any problem with my ticket?

30
a. will there be b. will be there

16. ______ seems to be a traffic jam downtown on Old Hope Road.


a. it b. there

17. ______ an honour that Professor Alexander Belov is attending


the conference.
a. it is b. there is

18. ______ surprising if the two countries dont reach an agreement


soon.
a. it will be b. there will be

19. ______ hope of getting money for the research.


a. there is no b. it is no

20. ______ no good getting annoyed. That wont help solve the
problem.
a. it is b. there is

21. ______ no reason to be pessimistic. Everything ended well.


a. there was b. it was

22. ______ seems to me that you are right.


a. it b. its

23. ______ true that Marjorie has passed her exam for the ACCA
certificate?
a. is it b. is there

24. ______ no use going there so late.


a. it is b. there is

25. ______ no chance of finding a cure if we dont fund more


research.
a. it is b. there is

31
Review Test 18.
Fill each space in the paragraph below with it or there.

A CHANGE IN THE WEATHER


______(1) has always been a disadvantage for visitors to Britain
that the weather is very changeable and that ______(2) is always
raining, even in summer. ______(3) are countless jokes about
English weather and no doubt ______(4) is a good reason for their
popularity. ______(5) is no smoke without fire. ______(6) doesnt
however seem to be the case anymore that Britain does not have a
summer. In fact, ______(7) seems to be less and less rainfall
nowadays, which is a worldwide phenomenon. What has happened
is that ______(8) has been a rise in the temperature of the planet as
a whole.______(9) is getting hotter every year to such an extent that
______(10) is no longer necessary to go abroad if you want to get a
suntan. ______(11) will be much quicker and cheaper to go to
Brighton or Bournemouth. ______(12) is thought that global
warming is having both positive and negative effects in different
parts of the world. ______(13) have been several conferences to
find a solution to the problem but ______(14) has become obvious
that ______(15) is no simple answer to the problem.

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 19.
Choose the correct variant.

1. When was the University of Bologna ______ ?


a. found b. founded c. made

2. Julia ______ Yale University and is a well-educated girl.


a. graduated from b. left from c. finished

3. What is the governments ______ on immigration?

32
a. politic b. politics c. policy

4. The students of the Faculty of International Economic Relations


have quite a number of ______ classes a week.
a. economic b. economy c. economics

5. The ______ of Southeast Asia has been growing rapidly lately.


a. economics b. economy c. economical development

6. Who ______ the delegation of the Russian Ministry of Finance to


Angola?
a. headed b. led c. attended

7. The problem of the war in Iraq was discussed at the US State


______ .
a. Office b. Department c. Ministry

8. Students are not supposed to chat ______ .


a. at class b. in class c. in the class

9. The allowance will ______ the children till the end of the month.
a. last b. be enough c. continue

10. The Guggenheim Museum in New York has a rich collection of


______ art.
a. fashionable b. new c. modern

11. Quite ______ of students of the University of West Indies have


part-time jobs.
a. the number b. a number c. a lot of

12. ______ of schoolchildren willing to receive a higher education


in the UK is growing every year.
a. the number b. a number c. the amount

13. Many people like to try lots of different ______ of food.


a. kinds b. sorts c. variations

33
14. Im so sorry, Uncle Albert, but I cant help you as I have no
______ to these confidential documents.
a. approach b. access c. way

15. You are quite right that you have ______ him a lesson.
a. given b. read c. taught

16. The workers at Mechel Steel Plant have a good opportunity to


have a snack at the plant ______ .
a. caf b. canteen c. restaurant

17. After the examinations at the University my ______ and I went


to Finland for the winter vacation.
a. fellow-students b. classmates c. fellow-travellers

18. Jane was upset because she ______ the exam in maths, though
trigonometry was always her favourite.
a. had failed b. had passed c. had taken

19. The American Lady ______ the canarys cage with a cloth so
that it could sleep.
a. covered b. put c. laid

20. My mother enjoys ______ to classical music, best of all Verdi.


a. listening b. to listen c. to be listening

Exercise 20.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Successful job ______ will be notified by telephone.


a. applicants b. participants c. students

2. Being away from home Cecilia ______ it almost every night.


a. dreamt of b. dreamt about c. told about

34
3. From her childhood Nancy has dreamt ______ to John Hopkins
University.
a. to go b. about going c. of going

4. Let me ______ my new friend to you.


a. acquaint b. introduce c. get acquainted

5. Many shops nowadays are not closed for ______ .


a. lunch interruption b. lunch interval c. lunch break

6. One can find the latest copies of this magazine in the ______
department.
a. reference b. information c. inquiry

7. Very often the students have to study in the reading ______ after
classes.
a. hall b. room c. auditorium

8. Margaret Thatcher majored ______ chemistry at University.


a. in b. at c. about

9. Hercule Poirot was ______ to be a detective.


a. cut out b. made out c. born out

10. If you dont work regularly you can feel ______ before the
exams.
a. hurried for time b. pressed for time c. urgent

11. The students looked forward ______ part in the contest.


a. to taking b. to take c. taking

12. At the University students are encouraged ______ sports.


a. to do b. to make c. to go

13. The official home of the UK Prime Minister in London is


______ No.10 Downing Street.
a. at b. on c. in

35
14. In London School of Economics students have lectures ______
economics five times a week.
a. at b. of c. in

15. Susan is a bright girl. She is already ______ the alphabet.


a. exploring b. learning c. teaching

16. Alex is going to Egypt and he ______ a camera from his friend.
a. lent b. let c. borrowed

17. The narrow land ______ abruptly at the farm yard.


a. was over b. finished c. ended

18. All the team were there ______ Ben Johnson who was ill.
a. beside b. besides c. except

19. The book was ______ for Judy to read in the original.
a. easy enough b. enough easy c. too easy

20. Mrs. Parker is ______ to talk to anybody right now. You will
have to wait.
a. too busy b. busy enough c. busy at all

Unit 2

The Indefinite Tense-Forms

Exercise 21.
Choose the correct word.

1. I wont send the parcel until I ______ from him.


a. will hear b. hear

2. She will visit her parents before she ______ to Montego Bay.
a. will go b. goes

36
3. I ______ you a postcard when I get to Montserrat.
a. will send b. send

4. I will call you as soon as we ______ the contract.


a. will sign b. sign

5. The moment he ______ Ill tell him the truth.


a. comes b. will come

6. I will explain everything to Morgan on condition he ______ to


me carefully.
a. listens b. will listen

7. My girlfriend ______ 25 next week.


a. is b. will be

8. I expect that you ______ this work in time.


a. do b. will do

9. ______ you lend me this book please?


a. will b. do

10. Margaret does not know when she ______ to the theatre.
a. goes b. will go

11. Whenever his friends ______ , he is glad to see them.


a. call in b. will call in

12. My friend Ian ______ in London for a long time.


a. is b. will be

13. We wonder when we ______ a pay rise.


a. will have b. have

14. Whatever place of interest in London you ______ , you will like
it.
a. visit b. will visit

37
15. The train from Mogadishu ______ at 10 oclock.
a. will arrive b. arrives

16. Probably, Jessica ______ on Friday morning.


a. comes b. will come

17. Perhaps I ______ recognize Julia Andrews. I havent seen her


for ages.
a. wont b. dont

18. Brenda is not convinced that her friend ______ the exam next
Tuesday.
a. passes b. will pass

19. Nancy and Davids wedding ______ place at St. Peters Church
of San Diego on Sunday.
a. will take b. takes

20. The more you ______ , the better your spelling will be.
a. will read b. read

Exercise 22.
Choose the correct word.

1. Mr. Brown ______ jog every morning, but now he is too old to
do it.
a. used to b. didnt

2. There was an eclipse of the sun yesterday. Unfortunately I didnt


even ______ it.
a. use to see b. see

3. He never ______ to Club 13.


a. used to go b. didnt go

38
4. An acquaintance of mine ______ to drink a lot, but now he has
given up this vicious habit.
a. used b. would

5. The Berlinghettis ______ to make scenes in public.


a. didnt used b. didnt use

6. Do you smoke? I ______ , but I quit.


a. used to do b. used to

7. Ben and Vera ______ at the camp for a week.


a. stayed b. used to stay

8. The Earth ______ round the Sun.


a. goes b. used to go

9. ______ to play computer games when you were a child?


a. did you used b. did you use

10. When they went to the seaside last summer they ______ go for a
swim every morning.
a. used to b. would

Review Test 23.


Put in the verbs from the list below. Use the Future Simple or the
Present Simple.
Get, come, remind, make, know, post, receive

A: What about my money?

B: Ill send the cheque to you as soon as I have it.

A: Why cant you write me a cheque now?

39
B: The manager writes the cheques. Hes away until Tuesday. I cant
do anything until he ______(1) back. When he ______(2) in on
Tuesday morning, I ______(3) him about it. I ______(4) sure that he
______(5) you want the money immediately. If I ______(6) the
cheque first class, you ______(7) it on Wednesday.

Exercise 24.
Put the verbs in bracket into the Present Simple or Future Simple.

A teacher is giving some students the details of a forthcoming trip.

The coach leaves (1 leave) here at 9.00 a.m., and we ______ (2


arrive) at the field study centre before lunch. When we ______ (3
get) there, you ______ (4 be shown) to your rooms and ______ (5
be given) time to unpack. Lunch ______ (6 be served) in the
dining-room at 12.30 precisely so make sure you (7 not get) there
late. When lunch ______ (8 finish), it ______ (9 be) time to get
ready for our first activity: a walk down to the beach to look at the
rock pools. Nets, magnifying glasses and containers ______ (10
be provided) by the centre. If the weather ______ (11 be) fine, we
______ (12 stay) on the beach for the whole of the afternoon.
Otherwise, we ______ (13 go back) to the centre after an hour or
two and watch a video on seashore life. You ______ (14 be
expected) to keep a written record of everything that you ______
(15 find) and we ______ (16 look) at all the records when we
______ (17 get back) to school at the end of the week. Mr.
McNeill, the field study supervisor, is very knowledgeable and Im
sure that he ______ (18 help) you to identify anything that you
______ (19 not recognize). Supper ______ (20 be served) at
6.00, and at 8.00 there ______ (21 be) an evening activity. On the
first night, Mr. McNeill ______ (22 plan) to go on a moonlit walk
with us to look for bats. It is important that you ______ (23 stay)
together on this walk. Please dont wander off. It ______ (24 not
be) easy for us to find you if you ______ (25 get lost) in the dark.
Behave sensibly and Im sure you ______ (26 all have) a
wonderful time.

40
Adjectives and Adverbs

Exercise 25.
Complete each sentence with the most suitable word.

1. Who is ______ Jane or Allan?


a. more tall b. taller c. most tall

2. Joe is ______of the students in the group.


a. the cleverest b. the most clever c. more clever

3. Which of these two dogs is ______ ?


a. friendler b. friendlier c. most friendly

4. A Lexus is ______ than a Honda.


a. more expensive b. most expensive c. expensiver

5. The ______ instructions will be given on page 12.


a. further b. farther c. farthest

6. The children were playing in the ______ corner of the garden.


a. farthest b. farther c. farest

7. Connie walks ______ because she has just had an operation.


a. more slow b. more slowly c. slowlier

8. Johns grades are really bad. Yes, but Toms are even ______ .
a. worst b. badder c. worse

9. I think we have ______ money than you.


a. least b. fewer c. less

10. Our new house has ______ space than the old one.
a. a lot more b. more of c. most

41
11. The northern part of Canada generally receives ______ snow
than the southern part.
a. much more b. much most c. so much

12. You should get off at the ______ stop.


a. next b. nearest c. nearer

13. Mrs. Parkinson has got two sons: George and Ronald. The
former already works, the ______ is still a student.
a. latter b. last c. later

14. Have you heard the ______ news? Its awful.


a. last b. latest c. late

15. You can find this place ______ if you have a map.
a. more easily b. easilier c. most easily

16. Today you seem ______ than you were yesterday.


a. more happy b. happier c. happiest

17. These tomatoes are ______ than the ones I saw in Sainsburys.
a. more red b. redder c. little red

18. Now we will have to think of a ______ method.


a. better b. gooder c. best

19. Nowadays people use electric appliances much ______ than


thirty years ago.
a. more oftener b. often c. more often

20. People believe they will live better in the ______ future.
a. nearest b. nearer c. near

42
Exercise 26.
Choose the correct word.

1. More ______ 80 percent of the students passed the test.


a. than b. that

2. Are you ______ Burney?


a. the same age as b. so old as

3. The harder we studied ______ we got.


a. the more confused b. more confused

4. ______ all the cities I have visited, I like London best.


a. of b. from

5. The more it snowed, ______ .


a. the colder it got b. it got colder

6. Belinda is more thorough ______ her co-workers.


a. than b. as

7. The ______ my friend complains the ______ people listen.


a. more less b. much little

8. July is the hottest ______ all the months in Zimbabwe.


a. of b. from

9. Please come ______ soon ______ possible.


a. as as b. as than

10. We have ______ opinion about this film ______ you.


a. the same as b. the same than

11. The coat you are wearing _____ the one you bought last year at
Harrods.
a. is similar to b. is similar with

12. ______ the price ______ reliable the product.

43
a. the higher the more b. a higher a more
13. We cant do crosswords ______ as you do.
a. as quickly b. quicker

14. Toledo is twice______ your city.


a. as old as b. older than

15. Blue Mountain is one hundred feet ______ Machu Picchu.


a. as high as b. higher than

16. To my mind Slaughterhouse 5 by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. is ______


thrilling of his books that I have read.
a. the most b. a most

17. Look Homeward, Angel by Thomas Wolfe is ______ fascinating


book about life in America. You must read it, Emma.
a. most b. a most

18. The previous grammar test was not ______ difficult ______ this
one.
a. so as b. more as

19. The rescue workers did their ______ to help Chinese people
after the earthquake.
a. better b. best

20. What an awful film! It is ______ interesting one by this famous


film director.
a. the least b. less

Review Test 27.


Put in the comparative or superlative form of the adjectives in the
list.

44
Wide, famous, 1. old, 2. big, 3. modern, 4. comfortable,
5. expensive, 6. popular, 7. boring, 8. small, 9. pleasant, 10. helpful,
11. nice, 12. noisy, 13. busy.

There are lots of hotels in the pretty town of Blexham. You get a
wider choice in most places. The Crown is the most famous because
Charles Dickens once stayed there. Its also one of the ______(1).
The Metropole is a ______(2) and a ______(3) hotel. Its also
______(4) than the Crown. The Metropole is the ______(5) hotel in
town, and so its ______(6) with business people than with tourists.
Personally I cant think of anything ______(7) than a big modern
hotel. My own favourite is the Down Court Hotel, which is
______(8) and ______(9) than the Metropole. The staff at Down
Court are ______(10) than at the other hotels. The Down Court is
also in a ______(11) place than the others. The Metropole is the
______(12) hotel in town because its on the main road. The Bristol
has a good restaurant. But you need to book a table because its the
______(13) place in Blexham.

Review Test 28.


Put in the comparative or superlative form of the adjectives in
brackets.

A: Im going to the Lake District next week. Were going earlier


(early) than usual.

B: Id love a holiday in June, but its ______ (1 convenient) for


the children to go in the school holidays.

A: I know. But May and June are the ______ (2 dry) and _______
(3 nice) months. Sometimes we go in September which is the
______ (4 beautiful) time of the year with the leaves on the trees
changing colour.

B: Maybe it would be ______ (5 sensible) to go in winter than in


summer. It would certainly be ______ (6 cheap). It might be

45
______ (7 good) than August. I cant think of a ______ (8 bad)
time to go than August.

Exercise 29.
Choose the correct word.

1. It is ______ that Frank Lloyd Rights building will be destroyed.


a. possible b. possibly

2. After Freddy hit his head, he wasnt thinking ______ .


a. clear b. clearly

3. The disappearance of the millionaire seems really ______ .


a. strange b. strangely

4. I am impressed that you speak English so ______ .


a. well b. good

5. The Customs agent made a ______ inspection of the suitcase.


a. thorough b. thoroughly

6. We are discussing a ______ proved fact.


a. scientific b. scientifically

7. It is ______ that the classes will be called off because of the


snow.
a. certainly b. certain

8. I will ______help you. You can trust me.


a. certainly b. certain

9. Henry drives around the city ______ in this old Cadillac of his.
a. carelessly b. careless

10. Do you know if Jane did ______ at the exam?


a. good b. well

46
11. After your treatment I feel quite ______ , thank you.
a. good b. well

12. The story Kim told us sounded ______ .


a. strange b. strangely

13. The meat you bought the other day tastes ______ .
a. awful b. awfully

14. I am ______ sorry. I kept you waiting.


a. awful b. awfully

15. The lion moved ______ through the grass.


a. slow b. slowly

16. It is ______ that in 100 years gas will be scarce and expensive.
a. probable b. probably

17. Your elder sister is always so ______ dressed.


a. beautifully b. beautiful

18. This perfume is very expensive and it smells exceptionally


______ .
a. good b. well

19. Are you ______ aware that you are not qualified for the job?
a. full b. fully

20. Deborah was in low spirits and greeted her guests ______ .
a. cold b. coldly

Exercise 30.
Choose the correct word.

47
1. I had a hard time taking notes at the lecture as the professor
speaks exceedingly ______ .
a. fastly b. fast

2. Do you know if there are any ______ trains to Barcelona?


a. fastly b. fast

3. I have never met a policeman who behaves ______ .


a. friendly b. in a friendly way

4. I have never met a ______ policeman.


a. friendy b. friendly

5. If this sportsman tries ______ he may succeed in breaking the


world record.
a. hard b. hardly

6. She was so shocked that she could ______ speak.


a. hard b. hardly

7. The dentist asked the patient to open his mouth ______ .


a. wide b. widely

8. The scientists name is ______ known all over the world.


a. wide b. widely

9. The road to Gandolfo isnt ______ enough for the lorry to get
through.
a. wide b. widely

10. It has not rained much ______ .


a. late b. lately

11. Edna is always arriving ______ . We wont wait for her.


a. late b. lately

12. The audience was ______ upset by what they saw.

48
a. right b. rightly

13. The calculations you made last time didnt come out ______ .
a. right b. rightly

14. They sat very ______ to each other to keep warm.


a. close b. closely

15. These two facts are ______ related to each other.


a. close b. closely

16. If you look at the picture ______ you will see that it is a genuine
Monet.
a. close b. closely

17. While getting off the bus Emily ______ fell as it was slippery.
a. near b. nearly

18. My friend lives quite ______ to the station. We can walk there.
a. near b. nearly

19. They say it will be impossible to drive a car in big cities in the
______ future because of the traffic.
a. near b. nearly

20. Everybody wondered why Ben was behaving ______ .


a. so silly b. in such a silly way

Review Test 31.


Put in the correct form.

I had a ______ (1 strange/strangely) dream last night. I was in a


garden. It was getting ______ (2 dark/darkly) and it was ______
(3 terrible/terribly) cold. My head was aching ______ (4
bad/badly). I was walking out of the garden when ______ (5
sudden/suddenly) I saw a girl sitting on a seat. She seemed very

49
______ (6 unhappy/unhappily). She looked up and smiled ______
(7 sad/sadly) at me. I felt ______(8 anxious/anxiously) for some
reason. I wanted to be ______(9 friend/friendly) so I tried ______
(10 hard/hardly) to think of something to say. But I couldnt. I just
stood there ______ (11 foolish/foolishly).

Review Test 32.


Complete this letter with the correct form of the words in brackets.

Dear Jack,

Im staying in a very (1 comfortable/comfortably) hotel in the


south of France, near Sandy Beach. Unfortunately, it has been very
(2 windy/windily), and the hotel itself is very (3
expensive/expensively).

Another problem is that the chef cant cook very (4 good/well).


The food is rather (5 greasy/greasily) and I have been (6
hungry/hungrily) most of the time because I have had great
difficulty in finding anything (7 suitable/suitably) on the menu.

However, I have been impressed by the beauty of the surroundings


and the kindness of the people. It is (8 true/truly) that I have
suffered a bit from boredom but I always do when Im not (9
full/fully) occupied. Sometimes I feel (10 sleepy/sleeply) in the
middle of the day and have a short nap, which I am very (11
thankful/thankfully) for. Unfortunately, I sleep quite (12
bad/badly) at night because the people in the room next to me snore
(13 terrible/terribly).

Anyway, Im leaving this Friday. The drive back will (14


probable/probably) take me two or three days, as long as the traffic
isnt too (15 bad/badly). Ill get in touch (16
immediate/immediately) I get home and may be we can arrange to
meet up for a meal.

50
See you soon,
Grace.

Review Test 33.


Fill in each space with the correct adverb based on a word in the
list. Some words do not need to be changed. Use one word twice.

Long, late, far, high, wide, most, slow, quick, further, wrong, little.

CATCH THAT THIEF!


There have been a number of burglaries in our neighbourhood
______ (1). We are not sure who is to blame but it is ______(2)
believed that the burglaries are ______(3) the work of one gang.
The police have been very ______(4) to act and they still know very
______(5) for certain. The public, rightly or ______(6), blame the
police for not acting more ______(7). Most people do not think very
______(8) of the local police and indeed so ______(9) they have
arrested only one suspect. They say they need more evidence before
they can take the matter ______(10). Whenever they are called in to
investigate a burglary, it takes them so ______(11) to get to the
scene of the crime that it is always too ______(12) to catch the
culprits.

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 34.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Have you heard that Allen ______ Joe Ann?


a. has married b. has got married c. has married on

2. ______ Edgar Allan Poe was a very famous poet and writer.
a. at the age of 25 b. in the age of 25 c. at 25 age

51
3. The treaty ______ the immediate withdrawal of troops from the
area.
a. provides with b. provides c. provides for

4. The ride across the Mohave Desert was awful, but in the end we
got to the destination ______ and sound.
a. healthy b. safe c. fit

5. Try ______ the amount of fat in your diet.


a. to rise b. to reduce c. to reject

6. Ronald was sorry for what had happened but he ______ well.
a. meant b. wanted c. intended

7. Students have ______ between learning French or German as a


second foreign language.
a. an opportunity b. a choice c. a difference

8. Make yourself ______ and I will be back in a minute.


a. convenient b. comfortable c. suitable

9. The most ______ time to start the experiment is on Monday.


a. convenient b. comfortable c. good

10. You have to be at least 18 to ______ the club.


a. join b. become c. come to

11. Berkeley University has been ______ in popularity and now


stands next to Harvard.
a. rising b. expanding c. increasing

12. There was a reception at the US Embassy ______ Independence


Day.
a. on the occasion of b. on the reason of c. because

13. The boys mother insisted ______ the doctor immediately after
the operation.

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a. to see b. on seeing c. about seeing

14. She doesnt ______ much money but she enjoys her work.
a. earn b. provide c. do
15. At the interview Susanne was asked which University she
______ .
a. went b. attended c. learnt

16. Half the worlds rainforests have already been ______ .


a. smashed b. crashed c. destroyed

17. Three more nuclear power stations were built ______


widespread opposition.
a. despite b. in spite c. despite of

18. ______ most actresses Julie Andrews is very shy.


a. in difference to b. unlike c. opposite to

19. The little girl wouldnt ______ her toys with other children.
a. share b. divide c. spread

20. You can ______ your current weight through exercise and
healthy eating.
a. maintain b. hold c. carry

Exercise 35.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Carol and her fellow-workers did ______ on the document.


a. some nice work b. a nice work c. nice works

2. The Sunflowers by Van Gogh is ______ of art.


a. outstanding work b. a piece of outstanding work
c. an outstanding work

3. Where did you learn to play ______ so well?

53
a. a guitar b. the guitar c. guitar

4. The crew of the ship were playing ______ on the deck.


a. a volleyball b. volleyball c. the volleyball

5. Shall we dance?
Ill be ______ .
a. nice b. impressive c. delighted

6. I wonder why George and Nancy are still together. They have
nothing ______ .
a. in general b. in common c. together

7. The foot and mouth disease killed ______ 120 people in England
last year.
a. at least b. at last c. at all

8. Unfortunately many people take their friends help ______ .


a. for granted b. for sure c. for goes without saying

9. The old Jesuits monastery is in the ______ of San Miguel.


a. neighbourhood b. outskirts c. suburbs

10. At school children are fond of buying fast food ______ instead
of having a proper meal.
a. with pocket money b. on pocket money
c. with own money

11. Judith has two small children of ______ .


a. her own b. herself c. hers

12. We were upset that Mr. Parker had divorced ______ his wife.
a. --- b. with c. from

13. You can get married when you are independent ______ your
parents.
a. of b. from c. on

54
14. There is too much ______ on TV nowadays.
a. advertisement b. advertisements c. advertising

15. Did you put an ______ in the newspaper about your missing
dog?
a. advertisement b. advertising c. announcement

16. The manager is responsible ______ the general running of the


theatre.
a. for b. about c. of

17. They say that ______ child in the family is often spoilt.
a. the only b. an only c. a lonely

18. The region continues to suffer ______ serious pollution.


a. of b. out of c. from

19. Sudan ______ into existence at the end of the eighteenth


century.
a. came b. went c. arrived

20. On the one ______ Dr. Frankenstein was too tired to continue
the work but on the other ______ he was willing to finish it as soon
as possible.
a. hand b. side c. point

Exercise 36.
Choose the correct word.

1. Will you ______ and borrow the book from the library?
a. do me a favour b. make me a favour c. owe me a favour

2. You know perfectly well that I cant ______ this material.


a. make without b. do from c. do without

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3. Your guest is sleepy already. Why not ______ for him?
a. make a bed b. do a bed c. set a bed

4. Nancy is always ______ of her son, though he is a grown-up man


already.
a. doing fuss b. making fuss c. creating fuss

5. If you work in the fresh air it will ______ you a lot of good.
a. do b. make c. create

6. Professor Higgins doesnt like ______ people interfering.


a. other b. another c. others

7. Some NASA systems are better than ______ .


a. other b. others c. the others

8. One of the twins is Ray. What is ______ one called?


a. another b. other c. the other

9. We are migrating from one Computerized Banking System (CBS)


to ______ .
a. the other b. another c. other

10. I ______ play cricket, but I dont do it now.


a. used to b. am used to c. got used to

11. At first it was difficult for Dmitry to drive on the left in Jamaica,
but quite soon he ______ to it.
a. got used b. was used c. used

12. The tired horse could ______ after a very long ride.
a. breathe hardly b. hardly breathe c. breathe hard

13. I havent seen anything interesting in the cinema ______ .


a. late b. lately c. last

14. The trees are flowering ______ this year.

56
a. late b. lately c. latest

15. A ______ of police officers were standing at the door.


a. pair b. couple c. few

16. Julian was ______ to panic when he realized that he was trapped
in the cave.
a. near b. nearly c. nearest

17. The name of Harry Potter is _____ to many readers.


a. acquainted b. acquaintance c. familiar

18. Suzy Cue must feel desperately ______ with all her family in
Scotland.
a. lonely b. alone c. by herself

19. Delilah had ______ that she had seen the man somewhere.
a. a sense b. a feeling c. a supposition

20. You must be mistaken. They are two ______ people.


a. different b. various c. acquainted

Unit 3

The Continuous Tense-Forms

Exercise 37.
Choose the correct word.

1. Peter ______ on a business trip to Havana on Monday 31.


a. is going b. goes

2. The plane from Cairo ______ in half an hour.


a. is arriving b. arrives

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3. Look! Someone ______ to get into your car!
a. is trying b. tries

4. What time ______ your friends ______ for dinner tonight?


a. do come b. are coming

5. Catherine is sure her sister ______ the right choice.


a. is making b. makes

6. Dealing with this partner, Apple Computers ______ the risk at the
moment.
a. is running b. runs

7. What time ______ the play ______ ?


a. does begin b. is beginning

8. She likes wearing black clothes. But today she ______ a red
dress.
a. is wearing b. wears

9. The group of tourists ______ in Amsterdam at 8 a.m. They


______ 2 days there and then ______ to Delft.
a. arrives; stay go b. is arriving; are staying are going

10. At present our laboratory ______ on a new project.


a. works b. is working

Exercise 38.
Choose the correct word.

1. Excuse me, but I ______ you. It cant be true.


a. dont believe b. am not believing

2. ______ you ______ Harry on Sunday? Tell him Im waiting for


his call.
a. are seeing b. do see

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3. ______ you ______ a plane in the sky now?
a. are seeing b. do see

4. What ______ the lecturer ______ by mentioning this fact?


a. does mean b. is meaning

5. What ______ you ______ of Oliver Stones new film?


a. are thinking b. do think

6. I ______ of doing a postgraduate degree. ______ you ______ it is


a good idea?
a. am thinking; do think b. think; are thinking

7. My mother ______ taking early retirement.


a. is considering b. considers

8. Right now I ______ what you are talking about.


a. dont understand b. am not understanding

9. ______ you ______ any noise at the moment?


a. do hear b. are hearing

10. Keep silent! The court ______ the case.


a. is hearing b. hears

11. Judith is in the laboratory. She _____ very attentive because the
experiment is dangerous.
a. is b. is being

12. What are you doing? I ______ the room.


a. measure b. am measuring

13. Why ______ your suitcase? I dont want to pay for excess
weight.
a. are you weighing b. do you weigh

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14. How much ______ you baby ______ now?
a. does weigh b. is weighing

15. This juice ______ good. Fetch me some more, please.


a. is tasting b. tastes

16. Why ______ you ______ this milk? I want to check whether it
is sour.
a. do taste b. are tasting

17. The Pattersons ______ a big car now. They sold their old
minivan last year.
a. have b. are having

18. Our company ______ some financial problems at the moment.


a. has b. is having

19. This avocado ______ hard. I wouldnt buy it.


a. feels b. is feeling

20. Please be quiet! The doctor ______ your pulse.


a. is feeling b. feels

Review Test 39.


Complete this letter with the correct form of the Present Simple or
the Present Continuous. Use each verb in the list below once.

Write, stand, seem, be, make, shine, stay, taste, look, cost, feel.

Dear Jill,
I am writing to you from Granada where everything ___________
(1) to be going just fine; we _________ (2) nice and relaxed. We
_________ (3) in a gorgeous hotel just down the road from
Alhambra, which _________ (4) an old fortress built by the Moors.
It _________ (5) at the top of the hill just opposite our hotel and we
can see this wonderful building through our window.

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It _________ (6) absolutely magnificent! The hotel is lovely, but
unfortunately it _________ (7) a lot to stay here! Eating out is great.
Have you heard of gazpacho? Its a cold cucumber and tomato soup,
which they _________ (8) with oil, vinegar and garlic and it
_________ (9) delicious.
Well, outside the sun _________ (10) so Im off to get a bit of
suntan; I hope everythings OK back in Birmingham.

LUCY

Exercise 40.
Choose the correct word.

1. What a naughty girl! She ______ with somebody.


a. always quarrels b. is always quarrelling

2. You ______ about the state of the flat.


a. continually moan b. are continually moaning

3. He _____ people. It is impolite!


a. never greets b. is never greeting

4. This year prices on food ______ all the time.


a. rise b. are rising

5. My neighbours ______ so much noise. I wonder how long they


will have their flat repaired.
a. are constantly making b. constantly make

6. In the first scene we see him getting up, and then he ______ and
______ a strange woman.
a. goes out, meets b. is going out, is meeting

7. This man ______ at people. It is disgusting!


a. is always shouting b. always shouts

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8. He ______ to people in a calm, pleasant manner.
a. always speaks b. is always speaking

9. They ______ parties until the early hours of the morning.


a. are constantly having b. constantly have

10. I ______ to discuss this topic in front of the children.


a. refuse b. am refusing

11. Banks ______ more and more money these days to encourage
small business.
a. lend b. are lending

12. We ______ you that the application should be sent before May.
a. inform b. are informing

13. Fletcher ______ to Coles who ______ just over the bar.
a. passes shoots b. is passing is shooting

14. I ______ that the suspect is telling the truth now.


a. admit b. am admitting

15. Have you seen this article? It ______ that scientists have found
the brightest star.
a. says b. is saying

16. How swiftly time ______!


a. flies b. is flying

17. British summers ______ hotter and winters ______ wetter.


a. get, get b. are getting, are getting

18. We ______ a lot of rain during the winter in this part of the
Caribbean.
a. get b. are getting

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19. On behalf of the company I ______ for any inconvenience
caused.
a. apologise b. am apologising

20. The Chief Executive is at the head office now. He ______ for
delaying the delivery of the goods.
a. apologises b. is apologising

Exercise 41.
Choose the correct word.

1. We didnt hear the intruder because we ______ on the top floor.


a. slept b. were sleeping

2. During his training Edgar ______ a lot less than his wife.
a. earned b. was earning

3. We ______ the sky and ______ to the birds singing.


a. watched listened b. were watching were listening

4. We ______ back to the camp site, ______ out clothes and ______
to dinner.
a. came changed sat down
b. were coming were changing were sitting down

5. An old man ______ on the bench thinking about life.


a. sat b. was sitting

6. My family _____ in California then.


a. lived b. were living

7. Manoli looked out of the window. The children ______ in the


garden.
a. played b. were playing

8. He wondered if Sandra ______ the next flight to Dublin.

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a. took b. was taking

9. When I was a child I ______ the violin.


a. played b. was playing

10. When mother came home the children ______ their homework.
a. did b. were doing

11. Helen ______ to the children while Benjamin ______ .


a. read washed up b. was reading was washing up

12. Yesterday I _____ the essay for 3 hours!


a. wrote b. was writing

13. She _____ very badly whenever she stayed at her aunts.
a. slept b. was sleeping

14. I _____ trouble with that car the whole of the time I owned it.
a. was having b. had

15. The company ______ trouble with that department at the time.
a. had b. was having

16. Maurice had to get up early as he ______ the 6 oclock train.


a. caught b. was catching

17. As they ______ the mountain it ______ colder.


a. climbed got b. were climbing was getting

18. It was a typical summer afternoon: the sun ______ , the cars
______ slowly round the corner of the park...
a. beat down crept b. was beating down were creeping

19. When Jim entered the room, he saw a piano. It ______ in the
corner.
a. stood b. was standing

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20. As I ______ dinner I cut my finger.
a. cooked b. was cooking

Review Test 42.


Write the verbs in this story in the Past Simple or Past Continuous.

He ______ (1 stop) just before putting his key in the front door.
Something ______ (2 happen) in the back garden Quietly, he
crept around the side of the house and ______ (3 look) around
through the gate. Two men ______ (4 stand) at the back of the
house, holding a ladder. A third man was at the top of the ladder,
and a fourth inside the house: he ______ (5 pass) furniture
through the window to his partner, who ______ (6 give) it to his
friends below. All four ______ (7 work) quietly and efficiently,
and the pile of furniture in the garden ______ (8 get) bigger by the
minute. Derek ______ (9 can not) believe his eyes: the team of
strangers ______ (10 empty) his entire flat, and they ______ (11
behave) as if this was the most normal thing in the world. He
______ (12 cough) loudly, and then ______ (13 say) Excuse
me! and the man at the top of the ladder ______ (14 drop) his
portable TV onto the concrete below.

Exercise 43.
Choose the correct word.

1. This time next Monday I ______ on the Monkey Island beach in


Port Royal (Jamaica).
a. will lie b. will be lying

2. The chairman ______ the proposal at the next meeting.


a. presents b. will be presenting

3. I wont be able to call on you tomorrow, we ______ out.


a. will move b. will be moving

65
4. Constance ______ in Salamanca this time tomorrow.
a. will be b. will be being

5. Lets tell Jordan about it. Im sure he ______ the idea.


a. will like b. will be liking

6. ______ your car tomorrow? Can I borrow it?


a. will you use b. will you be using

7. ______ me a lift to the station? I would appreciate it very much.


a. will you give b. will you be giving

8. ______ to a chemists this morning? Yes, why?


______ me some aspirin, please?
a. will you be going, will you get
b. will you go, will you be getting

9. When the man leaves the building, the police ______ for him.
a. wait b. will be waiting

10. I ______ your house at half past seven. I will call in and see
you.
a. am passing b. will be passing

11. Barbara ______ the flat tomorrow. She always does it on


Saturdays.
a. cleans b. will be cleaning

12. In ten years time people ______ computers even more than
now.
a. are using b. will be using

13. Next Saturday the President ______ 8 years in power.


a. celebrates b. will be celebrating

14. Its odd to think that this time tomorrow we ______ to Madrid.
a. will drive b. will be driving

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15. I wont have time to meet you next weekend. I ______
arrangements for the wedding.
a. will be making b. will make

16. Perhaps John _____ the games at the party, he is good at it.
a. will organise b. will be organising

17. I ______ this dog. It can bite.


a. wont feed b. wont be feeding

18. Dr. Strangelove ______ part in the seminar because he will be


away then.
a. wont take b. wont be taking

19. He says he ______ this wine because it is off.


a. wont drink b. wont be drinking

20. We ______ this question at tomorrows meeting because the


presentation is not ready.
a. wont discuss b. wont be discussing

Ways of expressing a future action

Exercise 44.
Choose the correct word.

1. What newspaper ______ at the agents?


a. will you buy b. are you going to buy

2. There are clouds in the sky. It ______ rain.


a. is going to b. will

3. Ill miss the film on TV because I will be busy. Well, I ______


it on the video then.
a. will record b. am going to record

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4. I expect I ______ back home at some time in the future.
a. will go b. am going

5. At the moment I am trying to revise for the exams. But I dont


know enough. I ______ .
a. am going to fail b. am failing

6. Why have you bought so much paint? ______ paint the whole
house?
a. will you b. are you going to

7. I have bought a book about China. I ______ there next month.


a. am going b. will go

8. The Prime Minister ______ to Brussels tomorrow.


a. will travel b. travels

9. Dont worry about the car, Mrs. Parker. I ______ for a taxi.
a. will phone b. am phoning

10. According to my diary, we ______ at 3 p.m. tomorrow.


a. will meet b. are meeting

11. Clear the area! The bomb ______ !


a. is exploding b. is going to explode

12. The kids are excited. I ______ them to the Zoo this afternoon.
a. am taking b. am going to take

13. These dark clouds mean we ______ a storm.


a. are going to have b. are having

14. You ______ a headache of you dont turn the volume down.
a. are going to get b. are getting

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15. This week we ______ our weekly meeting tomorrow instead of
Tuesday.
a. are having b. are going to have

16. We ______ our weekly meeting tomorrow so I will present your


plan at it.
a. will be having b. are having

17. I ______ my friend at the office tomorrow. I can break this news
to him.
a. will be seeing b. am seeing

18. We ______ The Phantom of the Opera on Broadway next


week. We have already booked the tickets.
a. will see b. see

19. The tour ______ on May 11th for 15 days.


a. departs b. will be departing

20. Have you heard the weather forecast today? Yes, it ______
tomorrow.
a. will snow b. snows

Review Test 45.


Complete the news report. Decide which is the best for the context:
be going to or will. Sometimes either is possible.

We have learnt this week that Brimley Town Council has plans for
Westside Park. The Council is going to sell the land to a builder, A.
Forbes and Son. The plans are all ready. We ______ (1 build)
fifty houses, said Mr. Forbes. In two years everything ______ (2
be) finished. Im sure people ______ (3 like) the houses. Some of
them ______ (4 be) for young families. But people living near the
park are angry. This is a terrible idea. Were against it. We ______
(5 have) a protest march on Saturday, said Mrs. Alice Marsh. I

69
expect everyone in Brimley ______ (6 be) there. We want to make
our intentions clear. We ______ (7 stop) this plan.

Review Test 46.


Complete the conversation. Look at the context and choose the best
form of the verb to express the future.

1. speak, 2. go, 3. leave, 4. visit, 5. be, 6. start, 7. see, 8. tell, 9. get.

A: Hello. Where are you going?

B: To my evening class. Im learning Swedish. And I ______(1) it


for real this time next week. I ______(2) to Sweden for three weeks.
I ______(3) on Friday evening. I ______(4) friends there.

A: Oh, that ______(5) very nice.

B: Oh, its nearly half past seven. My lesson ______(6) in a minute.

A: Well, have a good time. I ______(7) you next month.

B: Thanks. I ______(8) you all about it when I ______(9) back.

Review Test 47.


Use the most suitable form of the future in the following text.

AQUARIUS
All Aquarians this month ______ (1 get off) to a good start with
some good news on the home front. The news ______ (2 help) to
relax recent tensions and give you the chance to make a fresh start.
There ______ (3 be) lots of new things on other fronts this month.
It really ______ (4 be) a time of great opportunity. A special
person ______ (5 come) into your life soon and you mustnt
think this ______ (6 be) just another friendship. At work, you

70
______ (7 need) to rise to new challenges that ______ (8 test)
your character to the utmost. If you ______ (9 make) a wrong
move, you ______ (10 probably regret) it. In short, this is a month
which ______ (11 bring) many opportunities but there ______ (12
be) risks, too, so be careful!
Reported Statements. Reported Commands.

Exercise 48.
Choose the correct word.

1. Cecily never imagined that it ______ so difficult to run for the


Senate.
a. will be b. would be

2. Did he really tell you that he ______ you?


a. loves b. loved

3. The teacher explained to the pupils that the Earth ______ round
the Sun.
a. goes b. went

4. James added that he really ______ the problem.


a. doesnt understand b. didnt understand

5. Alex said that he would meet us ______ again ______ at 6:30.


a. here tomorrow b. there the next day

6. Susanna said she ______ on holiday ______ .


a. is going tomorrow morning
b. was going the next morning

7. We expected that everybody ______ to support ______ candidate.


a. will come this b. would come that

8. Mother said that the children ______ sleeping ______ and asked
us to turn down the music.
a. are now b. were then

71
9. We decided that if the weather ______ fine we ______ go to the
country for a picnic ______ .
a. is will next Saturday
b. was would the following Saturday

10. He said that he ______ the same salary as his friends, but I dont
think he tells the truth.
a. had got b. had

11. The assistant said that Mr. Saroyan ______ busy ______ .
a. was at the time b. is at the moment

12. We thought that the train from Riga ______ at 10:30.


a. arrives b. arrived

13. They announced that the plane ______ in 35 minutes and asked
the passengers ______ their seats.
a. will be taking off took b. would be taking off to take

14. The lawyer advised us ______ the judge about our intentions.
a. to inform b. should inform

15. The secretary ______ to come later.


a. said to us b. told us

16. The doctor warned the patient ______ again.


a. didnt smoke b. not to smoke

17. The trade unions urged the workers ______ peacefully.


a. to demonstrate b. demonstrated

18. Valerie encouraged ______ to take ______ job.


a. her brother that b. to her brother this

19. They asked us ______ the window.


a. not to open b. to not open

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20. The CEO asked the assistant ______ him when the mail ______ .
a. to inform arrived b. inform arrives

Review Test 49.


Open the brackets using the correct form of the verb.

SALLY MARSHALLS HOLIDAY COLUMN


Last week I went to George Grants outdoor holiday centre in North
Wales. George welcomed me himself and told me ______ (1
leave) my luggage while he showed me around.
After that, he led me to a small chalet and left me (2 unpack and
get) settled in. One thing worried me slightly. Id only been there
half an hour, but he advised me ______ (3 get) some rest.
The next morning, before we went for our first climb, George gave
us a talk. Among other things, he reminded us ______ (4 stay)
with the group and he warned us ______ (5 not go off) on our
own.
That first day on the rocks was exciting, but very tiring. George did
everything he could to help everyone. He encouraged me ______ (6
make) it to the top of my first climb mainly by shouting.

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 50.
Choose the correct variant.

1. William Herschel ______ Uranus in 1781.


a. discovered b. opened c. found

2. The performance of the actor was ______ .


a. a great success b. a big success c. in success

3. The musical Jesus Christ Superstar by Lloyd Webber is ______


both young and middle-aged people.

73
a. successful with b. popular with c. popular among

4. Many popular writers ______ their reputations during the war.


a. built up b. created c. constructed

5. Henry Ford ______ his fortune with the Model T.


a. made b. did c. built

6. Economic growth creates both ______ and poverty.


a. wealth b. money c. rich

7. People are full of ______ for Rembrandts talent.


a. excitement b. recognition c. admiration

8. During the Industrial Revolution machines began to be used for


producing goods and many new ______ developed.
a. works b. agricultures c. industries

9. The Mansfields bought a car second-hand ______ .


a. for a moderate price b. at a moderate price
c. at a moderate cost

10. The ______ at the plant get a bonus at the end of the year from
their ______ .
a. employers employees b. employees employers
c. unemployed employed

11. Anns friends wonder how she ______ to run the business and
look after the children.
a. manages b. copes c. can

12. The job requires someone with specialized scientific and ______
knowledge.
a. technical b. technic c. technology

13. The parents asked their children to behave ______ .


a. closely b. properly c. thoroughly

74
14. We believe in investing in ______ research.
a. science b. scientific c. scientifical

15. Nowadays more and more people are ______ for holidays.
a. going aboard b. going abroad c. coming abroad

16. The children were ______ before the beginning of the new
school year.
a. exciting b. excited c. exausting

17. The church tower is under ______ .


a. repair b. repairing c. repairs

18. The emergency services ______ to deal with natural disasters of


this kind.
a. are equipped b. are equipping c. are provided

19. Its no use ______ this work so late.


a. doing b. to do c. in doing

20. Its useless ______ this man. He is not a professional auditor.


a. to consult b. in consulting c. consulting

Exercise 51.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Some theatres give ______ for children.


a. matinee performances b. morning performances
c. matinee plays

2. They could see the airport ______ far below them.


a. burnt b. lit up c. switched on

3. I think you shouldnt take offence. Im sure your brother did it


______ .

75
a. because of fun b. for fun c. for a fun

4. In this company the employees can have a holiday______ .


a. twice a year b. twice in a year c. twice in year

5. We are ______ a partner in a new business venture.


a. looking for b. looking c. looking into

6. Before you get employed it is worth inquiring about the ______


conditions in the company.
a. housing b. living c. working

7. Mrs. Smith has been ______ the marketing department for five
years now.
a. in charge of b. in head of c. in responsibility of

8. We were happy to see the musical. We hadnt ______ so much for


a long time.
a. enjoyed b. glad c. enjoyed ourselves

9. The police asked Fabio ______ his visit to the hotel Alhambra
that night.
a. the reason for b. the cause for c. the reason of

10. John took the opportunity ______ his boss for a pay rise.
a. to ask b. of asking c. about asking

11. All ______ from the sales of the CD will go to the Multiple
Sclerosis Society.
a. profits b. charges c. expenses

12. Is it ______ that Tony has become a student of Oxford


University?
a. true b. truth c. the truth

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13. ______ is used by the government to provide public services
and pay for government institutions.
a. profit b. income tax c. revenue

14. This region of Catalonia ______ some of the best wines in


Spain.
a. produces b. develops c. does

15. Harrods is a shop with a reputation for excellent customer


______ .
a. aid b. service c. attention

16. Max ______ a perfect opportunity to get a promotion having


failed the qualification exam.
a. missed b. took c. gave

17. We have taken all ______ precautions to avoid an accident.


a. profitable b. clever c. reasonable

18. A small donation can help make a childs wish ______ .


a. come to truth b. come to the truth c. come true

19. The ______ of goods for sale in the Far East has decreased
lately.
a. produce b. producing c. production

20. Jack was given a gold watch after 25 years of loyal ______ .
a. service b. help c. duty

Exercise 52.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Read the letter carefully and ______ it in a safe place.


a. hold b. keep c. carry

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2. Most employees will ______ their jobs when the company
changes hands.
a. keep b. hold c. keep with

3. Marion was ______ a catalogue under her arm.


a. holding b. keeping c. raising

4. If you go along a crowded street you had better ______ the left.
a. hold on to b. keep to c. hold to

5. ______ the seat in front when we go round the corner.


a. keep on to b. hold on to c. take on to

6. Are you ______ sure you know what to do?


a. at all b. quite c. to some degree

7. I cant ______ decide which dress to wear tonight.


a. quite b. at all c. fairly

8. The report _____ various ways in which the service could be


improved.
a. suggests b. offers c. claims

9. If there is a mechanical problem with your dishwasher, we


______ contacting the manufacturer directly.
a. offer b. suggest c. announce

10. Police are ______ a reward to anyone with information about


the crime.
a. suggesting b. offering c. letting

11. The newspaper ______ to apologise for the article.


a. suggested b. announced c. offered

12. I ______ that you should phone before you go round there.
a. offer b. suggest c. tell

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13. The street ______ after the famous African leader Chaka Zulu.
a. is named b. is called c. calls

14. The arrow that appears on the screen of the PC monitor ______
a cursor.
a. is named b. is called c. calls

15. Mrs. Bennings works in Moscow Narodny Bank (London). Her


average ______ is 56,000 a year.
a. wage b. salary c. fee

16. My brother is a mechanic at a plant. He earns a good ______ .


a. salary b. wage c. payment

17. We ______ that greenhouse gases can affect the climate.


a. find out b. come to know c. know

18. He ______ about his appointment yesterday. The secretary had


called him.
a. learnt b. found out c. came to know

19. Did you ______ whether there are any seats left?
a. learn b. come to know c. find out

20. When Nicks brother came home on leave we didnt ______ him
in his uniform.
a. know b. find out c. recognise

Unit 4

The Perfect Tense-Forms

Exercise 53.
Choose the correct word.

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1. My sister is a paperback writer. So far she ______ five novels.
a. has written b. wrote

2. ______ this programme before?


a. have you seen b. did you see

3. Gary ______ to China. He went there two years ago.


a. has been b. was

4. The Greggs ______ about Africa last year.


a. travelled b. have travelled

5. Ivy ______ this sport Mustang for years.


a. has had b. has

6. Our neighbours ______ in 2005. And we ______ from them since


then.
a. moved out havent heard b. have moved out didnt hear

7. Kelly buys lots of clothes. I expect she ______ some today.


a. has bought b. buys

8. When ______ the grass? Oh, I ______ it for ages now.


a. did you last cut havent cut b. have you cut didnt cut

9. I ______ the first edition of this rare manuscript not so long ago.
a. bought b. have bought

10. Robert rings every hour to know how his mother is. He ______
six times already now.
a. has called b. called

11. ______ a nice weekend in Dover?


a. did you have b. have you had

12. The questions were easy. I hope you ______ them correctly.
a. have answered b. answered

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13. When you ______ the oral questions, you may start writing the
test.
a. have answered b. answer

14. News is coming in of an incident in Belize. A group of armed


men ______ the Supreme Court building and is holding hostages.
a. seized b. has seized

15. How long ______ in Trinidad and Tobago last year?


a. have you stayed b. did you stay

16. How long ______ for this company now?


a. have you worked b. do you work

17. When ______ the Indian Government ______ a ban on tiger


hunting?
a. did impose b. has imposed

18. How long ago ______ in South East Asia?


a. did you travel b. have you travelled

19. Suzy Cue ______ with the symphony orchestra three times this
season.
a. has played b. played

20. Manchester United perform pretty well. They ______ any match
this season and won in the final with Chelsea in Moscow.
a. did not lose b. havent lost

Exercise 54.
Choose the correct word.

1. It is the first time I ______ this season.


a. skated b. have skated

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2. Its ages since we ______ the Harrissons.
a. saw b. have seen

3. My friend ______ to Madame Tussauds.


a. has never been b. was never
4. My grand-grand father ______ to any country. He lived all his
life in this town.
a. has never travelled b. never travelled

5. Byron ______ a lot of wonderful poems, which are famous all


over the world.
a. has written b. wrote

6. John Grisham ______ some of the most successful legal thrillers.


a. has written b. wrote

7. ______ the question with Sally yet? No, I ______much of her


lately.
a. have you discussed havent seen
b. did you discuss didnt see

8. I ______ the question with Sally last time.


a. havent discussed b. didnt discuss

9. Who ______ the telephone?


a. invented b. has invented

10. ______ writing the essay? You may hand it in.


a. have you already finished b. did you finish

11. It is the worst programme I ______ .


a. have ever seen b. ever saw

12. You ______ really moody ever since that letter ______ .
a. have been, arrived b. are, have arrived

13. The house ______ on this spot for over two hundred years.

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a. stands b. has stood

14. A beautiful cathedral ______ on this spot two hundred years


ago.
a. stood b. has stood

15. NASA ______ probes to various planets in the solar system.


a. has sent b. sent

16. There ______ a serious decline in the number of people


qualifying as teachers in the last decade.
a. has been b. was

17. The prices on petrol ______ considerably the last year.


a. have risen b. rose

18. The prices on food ______ last year.


a. have risen b. rose

19. The film ______ , wed better hurry.


a. has just started b. just started

20. The show ______ just now. Hurry up, take your seat.
a. has started b. started

Review Test 55.


Complete the letter. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present
Perfect or Past Simple.

I (be) was angry and sad to hear that someone plans to knock down
the White Horse Inn in Brickfield. This pub (be) has been the centre
of village life for centuries. It ______ (1 stand) at our crossroads
for about 500 years. It ______ (2 be) famous in the old days, and
Shakespeare once ______ (3 stay) there, they say. I ______ (4
live) in Brickfield all my life, and I know all about it. We ______ (5

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know) for some time of the danger to our pub. There ______ (6
be) some talk a year or two ago about knocking it down. But all the
villagers are against the plan. We will stop it, youll see.

Review Test 56.


Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or Past Simple.

Mel Gibson ______ (1 be) a major film star now for more than
twenty years. In this time he ______ (2 become) one of the most
respected Hollywood actors and he ______ (3 now start) a
successful career in film directing as well.
Gibson ______ (4 be born) in the United States in 1956 but his
family ______ (5 move) to Australia in 1968. He ______ (6
complete) his school education in Sydney and ______ (7 begin)
his acting career there, in the National Institute of Dramatic Art. He
______ (8 appear) in several Australian TV series, but ______ (9
get) his big break in 1979, in a film called Mad Max. He ______ (10
since/make) two more Max films. He ______ (11 go on) to
make several other successful films in Australia, for example,
Gallipoli, before he ______ (12 move) to Hollywood.
Gibson ______ (13 make) more than thirty films, many of which
______ (14 be) great commercial successes. He ______ (15
never/be) afraid to take on challenging roles, such as Hamlet and
The Man without a Face, which also ______ (16 mark) his
directorial debut. He ______ (17 direct) films for the last few
years. To date he ______ (18 direct) three successful films.
Unusually for the turbulent world of Hollywood romance, Gibson
______ (19 live) with the same woman for over twenty years his
wife Robyn, whom he ______ (20 marry) in 1980. Up to the
present time, they have seven children.

Review Test 57.


Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or Past Simple.

Craig: (Hear) Have you heard the news about Cathy?

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Nicola: No, what (1 happen) ?

Craig: She (2 have) an accident. She was running for a bus when
she (3 fall) down and (4 break) her leg.
Nicola: Oh, how awful! When (5 this happen)?

Craig: Yesterday afternoon. Sarah (6 tell) me about it last night.

Nicola: Last night! You (7 know) last night, and you (8 not tell)
me!

Craig: Well, I (9 not see) you last night. And I (10 not see) you
today, until now.

Nicola: I hope shes all right. She (11 have) lots of accidents, you
know. She (12 do) the same thing about two years ago.

Exercise 58.
Choose the correct word.

1. By the end of the seventh day the tourists ______ most of their
rations.
a. exhausted b. had exhausted

2. By 2 oclock the students ______ their tasks.


a. have completed b. had completed

3. By evening everybody in the company ______ the terrible news.


a. knew b. had known

4. By 2005 I ______ this man for five years.


a. knew b. had known

5. Last year we went to Yosemite Park. It was the second time we


______ this wonderful place.

85
a. visited b. had visited

6. We missed the first act of the play because when we arrived at the
theatre the performance ______ .
a. has already started b. had already started

7. Bruce was surprised to find the gas tank empty as he ______ the
truck twice that week.
a. had only used b. only used

8. The young couple were exhausted because they ______ all night
with the baby.
a. had been up b. were up

9. By the time the UN force arrived the rebels ______ the province.
a. have taken b. had taken

10. When we got back we found that our parents ______ at home.
a. were already b. had already been

11. By the time of her trial last year Tracey ______ in prison for 8
months.
a. had been b. was

12. Mother allowed the children to go for a walk as soon as they


______ their homework.
a. did b. had done

13. They ______ to get first prize but the best goalkeeper ______
with a strange disease and was taken to hospital.
a. had hoped, came down b. hoped, had come down

14. The company sacked Dorian before he ______ a chance to


explain his behaviour.
a. had had b. had

15. When Her Majesty ______ , all the present ______ .

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a. came in, stood up b. had come in, had stood up

16. Hardly ______ the room when the telephone rang.


a. had he entered b. he had entered

17. No sooner had he left the house ______ it started raining.


a. when b. than

18. Scarcely ______ the thieves, when he ______ a warning.


a. had Irving seen shouted b. Irving saw had shouted

19. He ______ warm clothes and ______ a cold.


a. didnt put on caught b. hadnt put on caught

20. He ______ a cold because he ______ warm clothes.


a. caught hadnt put on b. had caught didnt put on

Review Test 59.


Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Perfect.

James (1 sit) sat outside the office for the interview. He ______ (2
feel) so nervous that he ______ (3 not know) what to do with
himself. The person who ______ (4 go in) before him ______ (5
be) in there for nearly an hour. And she ______ (6 look) so
confident when she _______ (7 go) in. Not like James. He ______
(8 feel) sure that she ______ (9 already get) the job. The
problem ______ (10 be) that he ______ (11 want) this job so
much. It ______ (12 mean) everything to him. He ______ (13
think) about it such a lot before the day of the interview. He ______
(14 imagine) himself performing brilliantly at the interview and
being offered the job immediately. But now here he ______ (15
be) feeling terrible. He ______ (16 cannot remember) all those
things he ______ (17 plan) to say. At that moment, he ______ (18
almost decide) to get up and live. But no he ______ (19 have to
do) this. He ______ (20 spend) so much time thinking about it that
he ______ (21 cannot give up) like that. His hands ______ (22

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be) hot and sticky and his mouth ______ (23 feel) dry. Finally the
door of the office ______ (24 open). The woman who ______ (25
go in) an hour earlier ______ (26 come out) looking very pleased
with herself. She ______ (27 smile) sympathetically at James. At
that moment James ______ (28 hate) her. The managing director
than ______ (29 appear) at the office door. Would you like to
come in now, Mr. Davis? Im sorry to have kept you waiting. James
______ (30 suddenly wish) that he had gone home after all. He
______ (31 get up), legs shaking and forehead sweating and
______ (32 wonder) whether he ______ (33 look) as terrified as
he ______ (34 feel).

Review Test 60.


Complete the newspaper report below using a suitable form of the
verbs in brackets. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

Maria Campos ______ (1 become) a rising star in the Progressive


Party. She ______ (2 begin) her political career while she ______
(3 study) at Woodsville University. When she first ______ (4
stand) as a candidate for Woodsville, she ______ (5 not win)
many votes Woodsville is a traditional town, and no woman
______ (6 ever be) a candidate there before. They ______ (7
elect) the same man, year after year, she told me, and they ______
(8 just laugh) at me when I ______ (9 get up) to speak. But she
was the winning candidate in the next election, and since then she
______ (10 - show) herself to be a hard-hitting speaker who ______
(11 never be) afraid to say what she thinks.
In recent months she ______ (12 fight) hard to improve the
position of women. She told me the reason. I began this campaign
because women ______ (13 continually write) to me, complaining
of how their husbands ______ (14 treat) them. Sometimes their
husbands ______ (15 throw them out) of the family home and left
them without any possessions. The law ______ (16 always take)
the husbands side in such cases.
When I ______ (17 interview) Maria Campos last week, she
______ (18 plan) a new campaign on this question. She ______

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(19 already persuade) some of the countrys most important legal
experts to support her. The law must be changed, she ______ (20
tell) me.

Exercise 61.
Choose the correct word.

1. Lets hope the volcano eruption ______ before we arrive there.


a. will finish b. will have finished

2. By the time you get home I ______ the house from top to bottom.
a. have cleaned b. will have cleaned

3. When the news is broken to him, he ______ both upset and angry.
a. will feel b. will have felt

4. When this valuable information reaches the Head Quarters they


______ the whole matter with the State Department.
a. will have discussed b. will discuss

5. We are hoping that warm weather ______ by May and well be


able to set off on a trip.
a. will have arrived b. has arrived

6. Im sure that everybody ______ by 6 oclock and we will start the


celebration.
a. will be here b. will have been here

7. The film ______ for 2 weeks by next Saturday. Hurry up, or we


can miss it.
a. will be on b. will have been on

8. Your friends are so noisy! By the time they leave your house all
the neighbours ______ .
a. are awakened b. will have been awakened

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9. By 3 oclock all the staff ______ about the new takeover.
a. will know b. will have known

10. Next month I ______ Boris for 20 years.


a. will know b. will have known

11. By the time the software goes on sale the company ______ 85
million dollars on developing it.
a. is spending b. will have spent

12. Wake me up by 9 oclock. I ______ long enough by then.


a. will sleep b. will have slept

13. I expect she ______ until she gets badly burnt.


a. will sunbathe b. will have sunbathed

14. This time tomorrow Pilar ______ on a beach in Majorca.


a. will be sunbathing b. will have sunbathed

15. We ______ to Australia later this summer. It is a long flight.


a. will be flying b. will have flown

16. Its strange that when we get to Sidney we ______ halfway


round the world.
a. will be flying b. will have flown

17. The contract will be signed after the parties ______ all the issues
in detail.
a. have studied b. will have studied

18. When the Government _____ in power for 4 years, the next
election will be held.
a. have been b. will have been

19. Dont phone them now. They ______ home yet.


a. wont get b. wont have got

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20. If I come and see the film with you on Sunday, I ______ it six
times.
a. will have seen b. will be seeing

Review Test 62.


Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple, the Future
Continuous, the Future Perfect or the Present Continuous.

Rosa: When shall I (come round) come round? Is Thursday still


OK?
Maria: Well, dont come at six I ______ (1 work) then.
Rosa: What time do you think you ______ (2 be) free?
Maria: Lets see, I ______ (3 work) on the manuscript all day as I
told you, and I expect I ______ (4 complete) the second chapter
by about seven. OK?
Rosa: Yes, because I ______ (5 be) quite busy at about six
tomorrow as well. Ive got an appointment with my dentist and I
dont think she ______ (6 finish) much before seven.
Maria: Well, we really must be getting on with the book you
know, by the end of this month we _______ (7 work on) the
project for a whole year. Its taking far too long.
Rosa: Yes, I ______ (8 jump) for joy when its finished.
Maria: Me too. By the way, ______ (9 you/go) near the post
office?
Rosa: Probably. Its not far from the dentist.
Maria: You see, Ive been expecting an important parcel and I think
it ______ (10 arrive) by Thursday. If you ______ (11 go) past
there, could you collect it for me?
Rosa: No problem. So, I ______ (12 see) you later. Bye for now.

Review Test 63.

91
Open the brackets using suitable forms with future meaning.

PAM: Can we fix a time for the next meeting? How about the 12 th?
Thats after the sales conference.

ALEX: I thought something was happening on this day.

PAM: Oh yes, youre right. The people from the Head Office are
coming (come).

JOHN: What time ______ (1 their plane, arrive) at the airport?


Can we have the meeting in the morning?

PAM: No, its all arranged. I ______ (2 meet) them at half past
ten, so I ______ (3 not be) available at all that day.

ALEX: Well, lets have the meeting earlier in June, then. The sales
conference ______ (4 finish) on the third, doesnt it?

PAM: Yes, but we need Johns annual figures for the meeting. How
are they going, John?

JOHN: Im afraid I havent started them yet, but I ______ (5


work) on them next week, gathering information.

PAM: ______ (6 they, be) ready early in June?

JOHN: Well, not really. I ______ (7 finish) them by 10 June, but I


dont think they ______ (8 be) ready before then.

PAM: So, were looking at the week starting the 17th. How about
two oclock on that day?

ALEX: Difficult. I ______ (9 have) lunch with the sales manager


of Bowmans. Could we make it three?

PAM: John?

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JOHN: Yes, but I ______(10 pick up) the children after school that
week, as usual when the nannys away, so I ______(11 have to)
leave here at five thirty. Is that OK?

PAM: I think so. Right, so we ______ (12 meet) at three oclock


on 17 June, in the boardroom.

Reported Speech

Exercise 64.
Choose the correct word.

1. The students admitted that the exam was much more difficult than
they ______ .
a. expected b. had expected

2. He told us that his mobile phone ______ out of action all day.
a. was b. had been

3. Martin replied that he ______ the job ______Monday.


a. already started last b. had already started the previous

4. Fernando claimed that he ______ ten essays ______ .


a. had written the week before b. wrote last week

5. Isabella boasted that she ______ a Bentley for years.


a. had b. had had

6. The doctor said that the operation ______ a resounding success.


a. was b. had been

7. My friend claimed that he ______ with the problem in 2002


already.
a. dealt b. had dealt

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8. The student answered that Kurt Vonnegut ______ in 1922.
a. was born b. had been born

9. Sophie exclaimed that she ______ Leon since they ______ from
University.
a. had known graduated b. knew had graduated

10. The teacher stood up and announced that the party ______ over.
a. was b. had been

11. My friend explained that when they ______ to the theatre, the
play ______ .
a. came had already started b. had come started

12. The Principal mentioned that if the pupils ______ , they ______
from the exam.
a. cheated would be expelled b. cheat will be expelled

13. The student said that he ______ a bad mark because he ______
the material.
a. had got didnt know b. got hadnt known

14. Little Sam grumbled that he ______ very tired because he


______ five exercises.
a. was had written b. had been wrote

15. Liza promised that she ______ the report by the time we ______
there.
a. would have finished got b. will have finished get

16. Katie says that her PC ______ a lot of difference to her.


a. has made b. had made

17. The treasurer told the meeting that the Club 13 ______ a lot of
money ______ .
a. had lost the previous month b. has lost last month

94
18. The statement says that the Conference ______ a considerable
time discussing the world debt crisis ______ .
a. spent the day before yesterday
b. had spent 2 days before

19. The scientist admitted that when he ______ very young, the
Blue Book Project first started.
a. was b. had been

20. She whispered that they ______ have finished their work by 2
oclock and ______ free till ______ Monday.
a. will will be next
b. would would be the following

Review Test 65.


Jim Barnes and Bill Nokes have been interviewed by the police in
connection with a robbery last week.
Open the brackets using the most appropriate verb form.

I.
When I mentioned to Nokes that he ______ (1 be seen) in a local
shop the previous Monday, he protested that he ______ (2 be) at
home all day. He swears that he ______ (3 not own) a blue Ford
Escort. He claimed that he ______ (4 go) to the paint factory two
weeks before to look for work. He alleges that he ______ (5 be) a
good friend of Jim Barnes. He insisted that he ______ (6 not
telephone) Barnes the previous Monday morning. When I pointed
out to Nokes that a large quantity of paint ______ (7 be found) in
his house, he replied that he ______ (8 store) it for a friend.

II.
At the beginning of the interview I reminded Barnes that he ______
(1 be entitled) to have a solicitor present. He denies that he
______ (2 know) anyone by the name of Bill Nokes. Barnes
confirmed that he ______ (3 be) in the vicinity of the paint factory
the previous Monday, but said that he ______ (4 visit) his mother.

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He admitted that he ______ (5 walk) along New Street at around
10.00. He maintains that he ______ (6 be) innocent.

Tense Revision

Exercise 66.
Choose the correct tense form.

1. Your son has been with his girlfriend for a long time. Any sign
of wedding bells?
Well, Im not sure, but I think he ______ her to marry him on their
holiday next week.
a. asks b. will ask c. will have asked

2. Can I have your report this afternoon?


This afternoon? Oh, I dont think I ______ by then.
a. will have finished b. am finishing c. will be finishing

3. Look at the waiter. Hes carrying too much. He ______ all those
plates.
a. is dropping b. is going to drop c. will be dropping

4. Do you want to go to the cinema tonight?


No, Im too tired. I ______ an early night.
a. will have b. will have had c. am going to have

5. Nobody supports my plan to climb Everest. But, believe me, I


______ it!
a. am doing b. will do c. will have done

6. Im really worried about Susan. What do you think has


happened?
Dont worry, Mrs. Parker. Shes probably just caught in traffic.
Im sure she ______ here soon.
a. will be b. is being c. will be being

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7. Heres a letter from our holiday representative. They ______ a
reception in the bar tonight at eight.
a. are holding b. will have held c. hold

8. It ______ all day on Sunday, so the party will be in the house, not
in the garden.
a. will be raining b. is raining c. rains

9. My father is approaching retirement age, so he ______ the


business next year.
a. is probably selling b. will probably sell c. probably sells

10. I have just been to the Council meeting. It looks like they
______ a new shopping centre in town.
a. build b. are going to build c. will have built

Exercise 67.
Read the letter below. Open the brackets using the most appropriate
form expressing the future. Often, more than one answer is possible.

Ned,

Im going to open (open) a disco. Ive been planning this for some
months now. But ______ (1 it take) a lot of money to get it started.
______ (2 you lend) me 50,000? ______ (3 I pay) it back soon
- ______ (4 you not have to) wait long.
Of course, you could join me as a partner. ______ (5 we share) the
profits. This disco ______ (6 be) a great success, because theres
nothing for teenagers in this town at the moment. Every
businessman in town ______ (7 wish) he had thought of it. In six
months ______ (8 we recover) all the money weve put into it.
Look, Ned. ______ (9 you not get) another chance like this! The
thing is, I can buy it at a really low price! Its a nightclub at the
moment. But the owner has had trouble with the police, and _____
(10 he not be able) to continue with the club much longer. He

97
wants to get rid of it, so ______ (11 he sell) it to me cheap. Weve
already agreed matters on the telephone, and ______ (12 I meet)
him tomorrow. The timetable is that ______ 13 we sign) the
agreement tomorrow, and ______ (14 I pay) him the money within
fourteen days. I know that if I dont pay in time, ______ (15 he
send) some of his friends round to see me. So I must get the money,
somehow.

Exercise 68.
Choose the correct tense form.

1. Carina ______ hospital dramas.


a. enjoys b. is enjoying c. has enjoyed.

2. Britney Spears ______ in the Waldorf Astoria on this visit to New


York.
a. stays b. is staying c. will stay

3. We ______ a two-week winter holiday in Gstaad every year.


a. take b. have taken c. are taking

4. I ______ the neighbours cat this week while shes in hospital.


a. feed b. am feeding c. have fed

5. Then you ______ all the ingredients together quickly and ______
the mixture in a hot oven for twenty minutes.
a. mix put b. is mixing is putting
c. will mix will put

6. Julie, listen to this. Its Thursday evening and I ______ home


really late from the club, and she ______ to me
a. get says b. am getting is saying
c. have got has said

7. Sorry, I havent phoned. I lost my address book.

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Oh, you ______ your address book! Why dont you keep
everything on the computer?
a. always lose b. are always losing c. has always lost

8. We cant leave a ten-year-old child on her own. What on earth


______ of?
a. are you thinking b. do you think c. have you
thought

9. Dont ask him! He ______ really difficult at the moment.


a. is b. is being c. was

10. We ______ that you wont be disappointed with the performance


of our new washing machine.
a. are guaranteeing b. guaranteed c. guarantee

11. The thieves ______ out of the bank, ______ into their cars and
______ up the high street.
a. ran jumped sped b. had run jumped sped
c. were running were jumping were speeding

12. Rameses II ______ over ancient Egypt for more than fifty years.
a. was ruling b. ruled c. had ruled

13. Intervention was urgently required the starving children


______ weaker by the day and there ______ little sign of an end to
the drought.
a. grew was b. had grown was being
c. were growing was

14. By the middle of the nineteen sixties many parts of Europe


______ a tremendous economic boom.
a. experienced b. were experiencing
c. had experienced

15. Jim ______ on the early flight the next morning so he made his
excuses and left the party before midnight.

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a. will be leaving b. left c. was leaving

16. Many of the survivors ______ in the fields when the earthquake
struck.
a. were working b. worked c. had worked

17. The early rains were a disappointment as we ______ to reach the


coast before the monsoon set is.
a. expected b. had expected c. were expecting

18. At the time of the take-over the companys shares ______ in


value for several months.
a. had declined b. had been declining
c. would have been declined

19. The staff ______ to be paid weekly but now they receive a
monthly salary.
a. used b. were used c. had used

20. Things have certainly changed there ______ a lot of small


shops around here when I was young.
a. used to be b. were used to be being c. had used to be

Exercise 69.
Choose the most appropriate tense form from the list below.

Harry went back to the camp the following morning, but it was in
some confusion. Soldiers ______ (1) around carrying equipment
from one place to another, but there ______ (2) to be any purpose to
what they ______ (3). Harry ______ (4) in an army camp before,
but it ______ (5) a genius to realize that most of the officers ______
(6) the first opportunity to abandon the men and head for safety. He
______ (7) to phone the newspaper, but something ______ (8) to the
telephone lines. He ______ (9) to find out what exactly ______
(10), when the first plane ______ (11) low over the camp. A wooden

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building a few hundred yards away suddenly ______ (12) in an
explosion of flame. Before long bombs ______ (13) all around him,
and then everything ______ (14) quiet. The planes ______ (15) as
suddenly as they ______ (16). Smoke ______ (17) from burning
buildings. A dead man ______ (18) next to Harry, the first dead
person he ______ (19). And suddenly it ______ (20).

1. a. wandered b. were wandering c. were wandered


2. a. seemed b. hadnt seemed c. didnt seem
3. a. were doing b. did c. would have done
4. a. has never been b. had never been c. never was
5. a. wouldnt take b. hadnt taken c. didnt take
6. a. had taken b. took c. was taking
7. a. tried b. was trying c. had been trying
8. a. happened b. was happening c. had happened
9. a. tried b. was trying c. would be trying
10. a. was going on b. went on c. has been going on
11. a. flew b. was flying c. flies
12. a. disappeared b. was disappearing c. had disappeared
13. a. exploded b. were exploding c. were exploded
14. a. went b. would have gone c. was going
15. a. had vanished b. were vanishing c. vanished
16. a. appeared b. had appeared c. were appearing
17. a. rose b. was raising c. was rising
18. a. laid b. was lying c. was laying
19. a. ever seen b. ever saw c. had ever seen
20. a. had begun b. began c. was beginning

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 70.
Choose the correct variant.

1. A museum should aim to ______ as well as educate.


a. enjoy b. entertain c. make fun of

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2. ______ , men still earn more than women.
a. in medium b. on average c. in the middle

3. He ______ the doctors advice and had no further trouble.


a. followed b. gave c. did

4. The Jury decided that Walker ______ in self-defence.


a. had performed b. had behaved c. had acted

5. Many of our students enjoy outdoor ______ such as hiking or


climbing.
a. actions b. activity c. activities

6. The new equipment in the laboratory gave the chance to the


scientist to put his ideas into ______ .
a. action b. practice c. practise

7. Video classes give students the opportunity ______ their speaking


skills.
a. to perform b. to act c. to practise

8. The Charity Foundation provides financial and ______ help for


disabled children.
a. practice b. practised c. practical

9. My friend Oliver translates books ______ pleasure, not ______


money.
a. in b. because of c. for

10. Though the Ashers house was quite ______ they couldnt
receive so many guests at a time.
a. spacing b. spacious c. spaced

11. He spoke with considerable ______ about the importance of art


and literature.
a. passionate b. passion c. fit of passion

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12. You can ______ your English by reading and listening to the
tapes.
a. improvise b. improve c. excel

13. There has been a big ______ in the childrens behaviour.


a. improve b. improving c. improvement

14. The chief engineer described the process of producing this new
material ______ .
a. detaily b. in detail c. in details

15. The tickets for the performance are ______ from the box office.
a. found b. acceptable c. available

16. Helen ______ to have a Halloween party at her house this year.
a. suggested b. volunteered c. offered

17. The eruption of this volcano ______ states as far away as


Montana with a fine layer of ash.
a. covered b. put c. protected

18. Was there anything ______ that you wanted to talk about?
a. particularly b. in particular c. of particular

19. The ______ rehearsal of the closing ceremony of World Youth


Festival in Moscow attracted a lot of spectators.
a. final b. general c. dress

20. The drug is effective against ______ of bacteria.


a. a range b. a row c. an amount

Exercise 71.
Choose the correct word.

1. The children raised over 300______ .

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a. for fun b. for charity c. in charity

2. His only reason for investing in Apple Computers Company was


to ______ .
a. take it in b. take it on c. take it over

3. Ritas husband is away for the week, so I thought I would go over


and ______ .
a. keep her company b. hold her company
c. keep her a company

4. On Independence Day there were various concerts and shows


______ the town.
a. over b. up and down c. round

5. Poor Angela ______ bed with flu.


a. was confined to b. was attached to c. was confined in

6. Our amateur theatre ______ a new play not so long ago.


a. put up b. put on c. laid

7. The captain wasnt keen ______ having the player in the team.
a. about b. over c. on

8. The children didnt have the courage ______ their mother that
they had broken the window.
a. to tell b. in telling c. of telling

9. After 21 days at sea the sailors sighted ______ .


a. earth b. soil c. land

10. Its fathers birthday and we are going out for a meal ______ .
a. to organize b. to manifest c. to celebrate

11. The tourists were exhausted ______ of the journey to


Kilimanjaro.
a. at the end b. in the end c. on the end

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12. Heikki had tried on several suits and bought a black worsted one
______ .
a. at the end b. in the end c. after all

13. I dont know why you are so concerned, it is not your problem
______ .
a. at the end b. in the end c. after all

14. The climbers ______ to God for help. Seemingly it was all they
could do.
a. asked b. begged c. prayed

15. Kelly, the rear tyres of your Mustang have worn ______ . You
must change them as soon as possible.
a. out b. away c. off

16. Oliver North didnt tell ______ what his role was in arms-for-
hostages deal with Iran.
a. the truth b. true c. a truth

17. This delicious cream sauce is made ______ of milk and flour.
a. most b. mainly c. generally

18. The police wanted to ask the young people ______ a few
questions.
a. for b. about c. ---

19. You can ask ______ this book at the library.


a. of b. for c. ---

20. More than one hundred guests were invited to the marriage
______ on the occasion of Peter and Kates wedding.
a. festival b. feast c. lunch

Exercise 72.

105
Choose the correct word.

1. In summer the children usually ______ at their grandmothers.


a. remain b. stay c. leave

2. Japans low crime rate ______ the envy of the industrialized


world.
a. remains b. stays c. keeps

3. The previous government ______ the economy in ruins.


a. remained b. left c. stayed

4. A few cows ______ on the farm to provide milk, cheese and


cream.
a. are kept b. are remained c. are held

5. It goes without ______ that London is the best city in the world.
a. speaking b. saying c. telling

6. Pollution affects the soil, ______ nothing of the impact on


wildlife.
a. to say b. to speak c. to tell

7. Who ______ : To err is human, to forgive, divine?


a. told b. spoke c. said

8. Frankly ______ Fernandos behaviour at the wedding party was


disgusting.
a. speaking b. saying c. telling

9. Whenever teachers meet they start ______ shop.


a. talking b. speaking c. telling

10. Lolitas hair was ______ damp from her walk in the rain.
a. still b. yet c. else

11. I am amazed that you havent told him anything ______ .

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a. already b. still c. yet

12. There is one ______ question that we need to consider.


a. else b. still c. more

13. You mustnt tell anyone ______ lets keep it a secret between
you and me.
a. more b. else c. still

14. Calvin Klein ______ many of Europes most glamorous women.


a. dresses b. wears c. puts on

15. It was fashionable for men to ______their hair long.


a. put on b. wear c. carry

16. Melanie was ______ her makeup in front of the mirror.


a. having on b. putting on c. covering

17. The organic food is wonderful, but it is ______ expensive.


a. such b. so c. enough

18. How can anyone live on ______ small salary?


a. so b. most c. such a

19. ______ kind of you to say all these nice things about me!
a. what b. which c. how

20. ______ thrilling film we saw yesterday!


a. what a b. so c. how

Unit 5

The Perfect Continuous Tense-Forms

Exercise 73.
Choose the correct word.

107
1. Nick ______ to find a permanent job for a considerable time.
a. have tried b. have been trying

2. Indeed, he ______ for several companies on a temporary basis.


a. has already worked b. has already been working

3. Lewis ______ Spanish a few months ago.


a. started learning b. have been learning

4. Susanne ______ for a reply from the company for several weeks,
but she ______ any answer yet.
a. has been waiting hasnt received
b. waited didnt receive

5. Larry ______ the Encyclopaedia Britannica in the reading room


since 10 oclock.
a. has been reading b. was reading

6. The carrots ______ for an hour. Its high time you took them out
of the pot.
a. have been boiling b. are boiling

7. You look hot. What ______ ?


a. have you been doing b. have you done

8. Margaret ______ Russian for a year with a view of introducing


the products in Russia.
a. has been learning b. is learning

9. Where have you been? I ______ to Jennifer.


a. was talking b. have been talking

10. I ______ you five times this morning. Where have you been?
a. have called b. have been calling

11. Helen ______ a lot of time at the club lately.

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a. has been spending b. spends

12. Im sorry, Mrs. Parker. The room is in such a mess we


________ .
a. have been decorating b. have decorated

13. This country ______ several hundreds refugees from Kosovo in


the last few weeks.
a. has welcomed b. has been welcoming

14. This country ______ political refugees for many years.


a. has been welcoming b. has welcomed

15. Oh, Im so tired! I ______ my accounts all afternoon.


a. have been doing b. was doing

16. Hugh ______ to play chess for three years now.


a. has been learning b. was learning

17. The nurses ______ the patients heart rate continuously.


a. have been monitoring b. have monitored

18. This test result is much better. It is clear that you ______ .
a. have been revising b. revised

19. Microsoft specialists ______ the new software prior to its


release on the open market for several months now.
a. have been trialling b. are trialling

20. We ______ the new software trial and are now ready to release
it.
a. have completed b. have been completing

Review Test 74.


Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Simple or Present
Perfect Continuous.

109
1.
A: Whats the problem? You look a bit preoccupied.

B: Yes, I ______ (1 think) about Helen.

A: Why? Is there something wrong with her?

B: Well, she ______ (2 act) so strangely lately.

A: In what way?

B: Well, some days when she arrives at work, I know that she
______ (3 cry). And she ______ (4 make) private calls when
were all out at lunch. I just think that somethings going on.
A: ______ (5 you/talk) to her about it yet?

B: Yes, a few times, and each time she ______ (6 say) that theres
nothing wrong, but Im not so sure.

2.
A: Where ______ (7 you/be), Simon?

B: I _____ (8 - talk) to Mark on the phone. He says he ______ (9


try) to phone us all day.

A: Well I ______ (10 be) in most of the day but I _______ (11
not hear) the phone.

B: Thats strange. But anyway, he ______ (12 have) a phone call


from Jackies mother and Jackie (13 be) in some kind of accident.
Its nothing very serious but shes got to stay in the hospital
overnight.

A: Oh dear! ______ (14 she/break) any bones?

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B: Im not quite sure how badly she ______ (15 be hurt) but I
think we should go and see her tonight.

Review Test 75.


Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Simple or Present
Perfect Continuous.

Dear Thomas,

______ (1 it be) several weeks since we last had a letter from you.
______ (2 we hope) to hear from you. Why ______ (3 not you
write) to us?
You know how much your letters ______ (4 always mean) to us.
______ (5 I send) a parcel to you with some food and warm
clothes. Your father ______ 6 save) the weekly sports magazines
you like to read, and ______ (7 we put) these in the parcel too.
Life ______ (8 go on) as usual here. Mr. Jones next door, who
______ (9 not enjoy) good health recently, ______ (10 have to)
go into the hospital. ______ (11 he have) an operation and will be
home again soon. Meanwhile, his cat _______ (12 come) to us for
food and milk. I think ______ (13 we manage) to look after it
quite well.
______ (14 you see) anything of Mark Andrews? Apparently
______ (15 he leave) school now and is at the same college as
you. ______ (16 we get) news of him regularly from his mother.
But, of course, hes two years younger than you. ______ (17 he
not say) whether ______ (18 he meet) you or not.
By now your first exams will be over. We hope ______ (19 you
do) well in them.
Do write soon.
Lots of love,

Mum.

111
Exercise 76.
Choose the correct word

1. Steven ______ for over an hour before KPMG auditors turned up.
a. had been working b. had worked

2. The eager Chelsea fans _______ in line for over six hours when
the football star appeared.
a. had been waiting b. were waiting

3. The director ______ to get the film made for more than 5 years
before it was released.
a. had been trying b. tried

4. Gill ______ TV twice that week.


a. had only watched b. had only been watching

5. She found her desk was empty, security ______ everything.


a. had been removing b. had removed

6. The family ______ in New York when their farther was made
redundant.
a. had been living b. were living

7. When we reached the shore our brother ______ for us.


a. was already waiting b. had already been waiting

8. Igor ______ sleepy all day, so he went to bed early.


a. had been feeling b. felt

9. When the children ______ some fruit they went back to the
beach.
a. had picked b. had been picking

10. The climbers ______ to conquer Everest and several had lost
their lives in the attempt.

112
a. had been trying b. tried

11. The sportsmen reached the top of Blue Mountain after they
______ for several days.
a. had been climbing b. climbed

12. The old man ______ on the bench for 2 hours and then went
home.
a. had been sitting b. sat

13. The roads were wet because it ______ all night.


a. had been raining b. was raining

14. Kens hands were covered in oil because he ______ to fix his
Caddy all morning.
a. had been trying b. tried

15. Yesterday my friend ______ to fix his car all morning.


a. had been trying b. tried

16. Although Mr. Morrison had set off early, he got late to the bank,
and everyone ______ for him to start the meeting.
a. had been waiting b. was waiting

17. The chairperson told him that they ______ for him for a whole
hour.
a. had been waiting b. were waiting

18. It was only much later Bill found out that during all the time he
______ to his pen-friend, his mother ______ the replies.
a. wrote read b. had been writing had been reading

19. The whole place was deserted, but it was obvious that someone
______ there. They even hadnt bothered to clear up the mess.
a. had been living b. had lived

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20. By 6 oclock the Executive Board ______ the new credit policy
for 4 hours.
a. had been discussing b. were discussing

Review Test 77.


Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form.

DISASTER!
About 70 years ago, a Dutch ship ______ (1 sail) near the North
Pole; it ______ (2 head) for Blacklead Island. On the ship was a
scientists, Edgar Greenhead, who ______ (3 work) on the island
for many years; he ______ (4 conduct) research into the life of the
local inhabitants, who were Eskimos (Inuits). Greenhead ______ (5
be) away for a long holiday and now he ______ (6 come) back to
the island to continue his work.
At about midnight, Greenhead felt very tired as he ______ (7
write) his journal all day. After he ______ (8 say) goodnight to the
captain, he ______ (9 go) down to his cabin. Outside there ______
(10 be) a strong wind, and the waves ______(11 crash) onto the
side of the ship. Greenhead was just about ready to climb into his
bunk when he suddenly ______ (12 hear) a great crash. He dashed
up on deck and although it was dark he could see that the ship
______ (13 run) onto an iceberg.

Exercise 78.
Choose the correct word.

1. In two years time the scientists ______ the experiment.


a. will have finished b. will have been finishing

2. By the end of the month Gregory ______ for the firm for a year.
a. has been working b. will have been working

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3. The children will be hungry when they get in because they
______ all afternoon.
a. will have been running b. will be running

4. They might be tired when you see them because they


______hard.
a. will have been working b. will work
5. Frida ______ for ten years soon.
a. will have been teaching b. will be teaching

6. Little Oscar will be dirty because he ______ football.


a. will have been playing b. has been playing

7. Richard ______ for seven years when he gets his degree.


a. will have been studying b. will be studying

8. Another million people ______ unemployed by this time next


year.
a. will have become b. will have been becoming

9. When the boss have talked to me, the police ______ everybody in
the office.
a. will have questioned b. will have been questioning

10. They ______ for 24 hours by 12 oclock tomorrow.


a. wont have eaten b. wont have been eating

Reported Speech

Exercise 79.
Choose the correct word.

1. My friend said that she ______ until 10 oclock ______ .


a. was working last night
b. had been working the previous night

115
2. She said that when they arrived mother ______ dinner.
a. had still been cooking b. was still cooking

3. He explained that they ______ to go out but Jane started feeling


sick.
a. had been planning b. were planning

4. The spokesman claimed that the police ______ new allegations of


fraud.
a. have been investigating b. had been investigating

5. They told me that when they ______ ______ organization, they


______ very little money.
a. were setting that had
b. had been setting that had had

6. The Steering Committee claimed that they ______ the question


thoroughly lately.
a. have been studying b. had been studying

7. Martha admits that they ______ at the painting for about half an
hour before they realized who the artist was.
a. had been looking b. have been looking

8. The tenants complained that by May they ______ the authorities


to repair the roof for a year.
a. will have been asking b. would have been asking

9. The nurse reassured the parents that the children ______ in the
garden all ______ time.
a. were playing this b. had been playing the

10. The members of the Security Council assure the refugees that by
the beginning of the new year they ______ with their problems for
six months already, and they ______ to do their best to solve them.
a. will have been dealing are trying
b. would have been dealing were trying

116
Indirect Questions

Exercise 80.
Choose the correct word

1. I dont know if my friends ______ to see me off.


a. come b. will come

2. He wonders ______ help him.


a. will his parents b. if his parents will

3. The Campbells are not sure ______ they will have moved out by
May or by June.
a. if b. whether

4. She doesnt say ______ she was going to tell him the answer or
not.
a. if b. whether

5. The Construction Committee are considering now ____ they will


pull down this building.
a. if b. whether

6. We want to find out where ______ this valuable information.


a. did they take b. they took

7. Tell me when ______ this important question.


a. we will discuss b. we discuss

8. Pamela asked her cousin ______ in Kingston.


a. if she was still living b. was she still living

9. The interviewer wondered ______ to work in the central branch


or in the provinces.
a. would Ingrid like b. whether Ingrid would like

117
10. We didnt remember when the delegation ______ , and tried to
find it out.
a. would arrive b. arrived

11. My friend wanted to know where ______ such an interesting


book.
a. I had bought b. had I bought

12. Aunt Mollie wondered when ______ .


a. the train left b. did the train leave

13. My mother asked who ______ at the presentation.


a. did I see b. I had seen

14. The judge enquired why ______ the crime.


a. the police hadnt reported b. hadnt the police reported

15. The boy demanded to know why his sister ______ him in.
a. wouldnt let b. wont let

16. Nelly asked Tim where he ______ born.


a. was b. had been

17. We didnt know who ______ the Picasso painting.


a. had bought b. did buy

18. The man didnt tell the police where ______ all the time.
a. had he been b. he had been

19. The students wondered what ______ discussing at the next


lesson.
a. they would be b. would they be

20. We tried to find out how far ______ .


a. was the stadium b. the stadium was

118
Review Test 81.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

A JOB INTERVIEW
I think the interview went well. He wanted to know a number of
things about me and what I ______ (1 do) in the last few years.
First he asked me if I ______ (2 have) a nice trip down from
Manchester and how long ______ (3 take) me to get there. He also
wanted to know whether it ______ (4 snow) in Manchester. The
chitchat over, he asked me how old I ______ (5 be) and where I
______ (6 be born) although I had sent him my CV by post. He
then asked how long I ______ (7 live) in Manchester and I told
him. His next question was whether I _______ (8 be married) and
whether I ______ (9 have) a family or not. I explained to him that
I ______ (10 be separated) and that I ______ (11 have) one
daughter. He asked how long I ______ (12 work) as an editor and
how much I ______ (13 earn) in my present job. He asked me
what I ______ (14 like) most about my job and who ______ (15
tell) me about their company. The main questions he asked me were
about the qualities of a good manager. Finally he asked how much I
______ (16 expect) to be paid. I think the interview ______ (17
go) very well.

Review Test 82.


Read the text and choose the correct word or phrase from the list
below which best fits each space.

WORRIES ABOUT INTERNET USE


A recent survey into Internet has thrown up some worrying results.
The Stanford University survey asked respondents to answer a
number of questions about their Internet use. It asked how much
time ______ (1) on the Internet and ______ (2) Internet use had
affected the amount of time they spent with family and friends. It
also enquired whether their Internet use ______ (3) the time

119
respondents spent working, either at home or in the office. The
answers were interesting, but not unexpected. Two-thirds of the
people surveyed responded that ______ (4) fewer than five hours a
week on the Internet. The survey concludes that the behaviour of
these people ______ (5) little. However, a quarter of those people
who do use the Internet for more than five hours a week claimed
that they spent less time with their family and friends. One in four
of the total respondents also said that the time they spent working at
home ______ (6) , benefiting their employers.
Professor of Political Science at Stanford, Norman Nie, ______ (7)
that we are moving from a world where we know and see the
neighbours and friends to one where interaction ______ (8) place at
a distance. He asked rhetorically whether ______ (9) a hug or hear a
warm voice over the Internet. It seems that the results of the survey
prove that the Internet ______ (10) people into solitary beings who
cant bother to call their mother on her birthday.

1. a. did they spend b. had they spent c. they spent


2. a. whether b. what c. if or not
3. a. had increased b. was increased c. have increased
4. a. they still spending b. they still spend c. they still spent
5. a. changed b. had changed c. has changed
6. a. increased b. had increased c. increases
7. a. tells b. says us c. tells us
8. a. takes b. had taken c. take
9. a. or not b. could we get c. we could get
10. a. is turning b. was turning c. had turned

Tense Revision

Exercise 83.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

1. Only halfway through the football season and Manchester United


yet again leads the Premier League. The situation could easily

120
change, however, as most teams ______ only a third of their games
so far.
a. played b. have played c. had played

2. I must remember to call my parents before I go away on


Thursday. I havent even told them about the trip yet.
______ much of them lately, then?
a. didnt you see b. havent you seen c. hadnt you seen

3. We wont be able to move back into our house for a while. Our
tenants ______ there for six months.
a. lived b. have been living c. live

4. Today weve previewing the new album by the top Swedish band
The Cardigans, who, as Im sure you all know, are coming to the
UK on tour next month. The group ______ three albums so far.
a. released b. has released c. has been releasing

5. Another earthquake has hit the north-west of Turkey, bringing


further devastation to the area east of Istanbul, which is still
suffering from the August earthquake. The latest tremor ______ 7.2
on the Richter scale.
a. measured b. has measured c. is measuring

6. Pipeworks regrets the current inconvenience to residents of


Kelvin Close. We ______ the water pressure to allow essential
repairs.
a. have lowered b. lowered c. will have lowered

7. Investigators into the recent air crash have released their findings,
which show a fault in the engine cooling system of the aircraft. All
major airlines ______ aircraft of the same type for thorough checks.
a. grounded b. have grounded c. had grounded

8. The seventeenth-century writer Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra is


often considered the father of the modern novel. Most people only

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connect the name with Don Quixote, though Cervantes ______ a
prolific writer.
a. was b. has been c. is

9. With so much money being poured into medical research every


year, youd think that more breakthroughs would be made.
But breakthroughs are being made. ______ a Colombian scientist
______ a cure for malaria last year?
a. didnt discover b. hasnt discovered
c. wasnt discover

10. Most visitors to Sing Sing prison are pleasantly surprised by the
environment. It is far more open and greener than they ______ .
a. have imagined b. imagined c. were imagining

Exercise 84.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

NATUREWATCH
Mark Rawlings and his team ______ (1) still in the Andes filming
Penny, a puma. They ______ (2) to get quite close to the big cat and
gain her trust over the last summer. In this instalment of Marks
video diary, he ______ (3) how Penny ______ (4) currently
spending a lot of time with a mate, so Mark and his team ______(5)
that she ______ (6) cubs in the spring. If that ______ (7) the case,
they ______ (8) much of her over the winter. In fact, they are
unlikely to see much of her until the winter ______ (9) over
anyway, as pumas , like most of the large cats, ______ (10) to hide
away when the weather ______ (11) bad. If Penny ______ (12)
pregnant, she _______ (13) the cubs by early March and they
______ (14) the den about three months later. Although Mark
doubts whether she ______ (15) out to hunt much in the next few
months, he ______ (16) until she ______ (17) . Once the team
______ (18) filming Penny, they ______ (19) to North America to
track down the grizzly bear, but Mark ______ (20) such a pleasant
assignment.

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1. a. is b. are c. have been
2. a. have managed b. are managed c. are managing
3. a. had described b. describes c. will described
4. a. are b. will c. is
5. a. are sured b. are sure c. were sure
6. a. has b. is going to have c. will have had
7. a. will be b. is being c. is
8. a. will see b. arent seeing c. wont see
9. a. is b. will be c. is being
10. a. are tending b. tend c. tended
11. a. will be b. is being c. is
12. a. will be b. is c. has been
13. is having b. will have had c. will be having
14. a. are leaving b. will leave c. leave
15. a. will come b. is coming c. will have come
16. a. stays b. will have stayed c. is going to stay
17. a. reappears b. will reappear c. is going to reappear
18. a. will finish b. have finished c. will have finished
19. a. are going b. will have gone c. go
20. a. thinks it is b. thought it is c. doesnt think that will be

Exercise 85.
Choose the most appropriate verb and tense form.

A HOLIDAY IN SCOTLAND
Some friends of mine decided to go on holiday to Scotland. They
______ (1) me if I ______ (2) to go too, but I ______ (3) to go to
Italy. I ______ (4) them that I ______ (5) to Scotland before, so they
asked me ______ (6) them some ideas. I ______ (7) them ______
(8) warm clothes and raincoats. If I were you, I would always carry
umbrellas! I ______ (9) them. I doubt whether you ______ (10)
any sunny days. I ______ (11) them again until after their holiday.
They ______ (12) all very sun-tanned, and they ______ (13) me that
they ______ (14) very hot weather.

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If we had taken your advice, we would have made a terrible
mistake, they ______ (15). Luckily we ______ (16) before we left
that it ______ (17) very hot in Scotland.
It is said to ______ (18) the hottest summer ever.

1. a. asked b. said c. questioned


2. a. want b wanted c. will want
3. a. have already arranged b. already c. had already
arranged arranged
4. a. said b. told c. asked
5. a. have been b. had been c. was
6. a. gave b. for give c. to give
7. a. said b. advised c. promised
8. a. to take b. taking c. took
9. a. said b. told c. explained
10. a. will have b. have c. would have
11. a. havent seen b. didnt see c. hadnt seen
12. a. were b. are c. have been
13. a. told to b. told c. said
14. a. had had b. had c. have had
15. a. said me b. told c. said
16. a. had been told b. were told c. had told
17. a. is b. was c. was being
18. a. be b. was c. have been

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 86.
Choose the correct variant.

1. I ______ everyone here has an e-mail address.


a. accept b. assume c. agree with

2. You can ______ a car at the airport.


a. give b. let c. hire

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3. All the crew have come ______ .
a. ashore b. on a shore c. on the shore

4. The famous British resort Brighton is situated on the south


______ of Great Britain.
a. bank b. seaside c. coast

5. When the children were small the Campbells used to go to the


______ every summer.
a. coast b. seaside c. seashore

6. The travellers were caught in a tropical ______ and got wet


through very soon.
a. fog b. drizzle c. shower

7. The Campbells have a six-birth luxury ______ which they often


travel in on holiday.
a. car b. trolley c. caravan

8. Now young people dont ______ as much as before.


a. go camping b. do the camping c. go tenting

9. Billy and his friends ______ around the coast of Ireland.


a. hitchhiked b. swam c. ran

10. This time there are many more holidaymakers in the ______ .
a. tent site b. campsite c. construction site

11. The Labour Dispute Committee of the trade union ______ the
possibility of taking legal action against the company.
a. are thinking b. are exploring c. are finding

12. Donnas family needs a bigger house, but they cant ______ the
rent.
a. afford b. afford themselves c. allow

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13. Lilly had to move to the South because ______ conditions there
were more favourable to her health.
a. climate b. climatical c. climatic

14. Aspen, a ski ______ in Colorado, is overcrowded in high


season.
a. hotel b. resort c. campsite

15. We are looking forward to going on a two-day ______ to Grand


Canyon.
a. tour b. excursion c. voyage

16. The yacht ______ into the harbour of San Diego early in the
morning.
a. swam b. flew `c. sailed

17. The tours to Escorial are very popular, so its best ______ well
in advance.
a. to order b. to book c. to take

18. The town of Gouda is ______ its cheese.


a. famous of b. famous about c. famous for

19. The country was ______ the sportsman who broke a new world
record in marathon.
a. proud of b. proud for c. proud about

20. In the morning the group of Japanese tourists ______ .


a. went to sightsee b. went sightseeing c. made sightseeing

Exercise 87.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Joe has been tired, ______ and depressed lately because of hard
work.
a. badly-tempered b. bad-tempered c. well-tempered

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2. This ______ is always full because it provides its guests with
good service.
a. boarding house b. boarded house c. boarding home

3. Mrs. Johnson was ______ diagnosed as suffering from a chronic


heart condition.
a. at the end b. eventually c. eventfully

4. My sister likes ______ around the city at night.


a. wondering b. wandering c. travelling

5. My secretary is trying ______ a meeting with the sales director of


Gazprom.
a. to organize b. to make c. to arrange

6. All the arrangements for the party were ______ . The lawn had
been floored and tented, the tables had been laid.
a. made b. organized c. done

7. The people who ______ to vote should be aware of that fact.


a. are aimed b. are entitled c. are chosen

8. It is not so easy to ______ a tent without experience.


a. put up b. put on c. lay

9. Most families stay at home ______ Christmas.


a. on b. in c. at

10. ______ Christmas Day people dont work because it is


celebrated as a public holiday in many countries.
a. on b. in c. at

11. It is a three-hour ______from Philadelphia to Washington.


a. trip b. journey c. voyage

12. The boat ______ down the Amazon was great.

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a. trip b. journey c. voyage

13. The ______ across the Atlantic took the traveller two weeks.
a. trip b. journey c. voyage

14. Helen has got a lovely voice, she is a pretty good dancer ______ .
a. too b. either c. also

15. My brother speaks English fluently. He can ______ speak


French.
a. too b. either c. also

16. The scientists tried another method, but that didnt work ______ .
a. too b. either c. also

17. After five-hour hard work Kim decided to ______ for a walk.
a. go b. come c. arrive

18. It ______ to my mind that I had seen that man before.


a. went b. came c. arrived

19. Four police officers suddenly arrived ______ the Parkers house.
a. in b. at c. to

20. Tourists like to visit ______ monuments such as The Tower of


London, Westminster Abbey and Buckingham Palace.
a. historic b. historian c. history

Unit 6

Tense Forms in the Passive Voice

Exercise 88.
Choose the correct word.

1. Bertie ______ a ticket by the police.

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a. was given b. gave

2. The story ______ over and over again.


a. was told b. was telling

3. The table ______ at 2 oclock.


a. is always laid b. always lays

4. The minutes of the meeting ______ at 6 oclock.


a. will be sent b. will send

5. The pictures ______ from California to New York by a courier.


a. will be transported b. will transport

6. The tree ______ by the wind.


a. was blown over b. was fallen

7. The deer ______ by the hunter.


a. was died b. was killed

8. The mail ______ out of the pillar-box twice a day.


a. is taken b. is took

9. The chairs ______ from the ballroom before the dance begins.
a. are removed b. remove

10. The medicine ______ out of reach of children.


a. must be kept b. must kept

11. Be quiet! A very important question ______ now.


a. is being discussed b. is discussed

12. You should wait a little. The documents ______ at the moment.
a. are being printed b. are been printed

13. At present the RF Savings Bank ______ .


a. is reorganizing b. is being reorganized

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14. I cant give you a lift to the station tomorrow. My car ______ .
a. is being serviced b. is serviced

15. When Mr. Brown arrived, the contract ______ .


a. was been signed b. was being signed

16. The new baby-sitter ______ the children closely.


a. was looking at b. was being looked at

17. Very few type-writers ______ these days.


a. are being sold b. are sold

18. Children ______ not to speak to strangers.


a. should be warned b. should be being warned

19. Due to the companys need to increase production, the lunch-


break ______ .
a. will be reduced b. will being reduced

20. The children are excited. They ______ to the ZOO.


a. are being taken b. are taken

Exercise 89.
Choose the correct word.

1. Everybody is pleased. The Annual Development Plan ______


carried out by December.
a. had already been b. was already

2. Ernie ______ a very important task to do.


a. has been given b. was been given

3. Stanley is in jail. He ______ of an armed robbery.


a. has been convicted b. had been convicted

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4. That fortune-teller ______ around here for a long time.
a. hasnt been seen b. wasnt been seen

5. It was announced that the 11:30 flight to Berlin ______ .


a. had been delayed b. has been delayed

6. Gold ______ in California in the nineteenth century, which


caused the golden rush.
a. was found b. has been found

7. All the details of the accident ______ by tomorrow morning.


a. will have been checked b. will be checked

8. The caves of Altamira ______ in northern Spain.


a. were discovered b. have been discovered

9. The telephone ______ by Bell.


a. was invented b. has been invented

10. The most important points of the armistice agreement ______ in


detail by 2 oclock.
a. will have been discussed b. have been discussed

11. The news ______ in the office all morning.


a. has been discussed b. has being discussed

12. Foreign languages ______ at the University of West Indies since


the nineteenth century.
a. are being taught b. have been taught

13. Aubrey ______ for two hours now. She must be exhausted.
a. has been interviewed b. has been interviewing

14. The burglar ______ and ______ by the police.


a. has been arrested is being questioned
b. is arrested has been questioning

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15. A new drug ______ in this laboratory since the eighties.
a. has been developed b. has been developing

16. The accident ______ before I phoned.


a. had already reported b. had already been reported

17. The construction of the hotel ______ by the time you arrive.
a. will have been finished b. will finished

18. An unexploded bomb ______ in Plaza Mayor in Madrid and the


area ______ .
a. has been found is being evacuated
b. is being found was being evacuated

19. All the marking ______ by tomorrow.


a. will have been completed b. will be completed

20. I ______ to play chess for three months before I learnt how to
do it properly.
a. was being taught b. had been taught

Review Test 90.


Put in a passive verb in the correct tense.

BARFORD HALL
The building at the top of the High Street is Barford Hall. It was
built in 1827 and today is ______ (1 regard) as the finest Georgian
building in the country.
A number of changes ______ (2 make) since it was built, but the
front of the building ______ (3 not change). Today the Hall
______ (4 own) by Bardale Council, and for the last ten years it
______ (5 use) as a home for Barford Arts Centre. At the moment
a small art gallery ______ (6 build) behind the Hall.

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Exercise 91.
Choose the correct word.

1. The children ______ about the party.


a. have been told b. have been said

2. The patient ______ a very effective treatment.


a. was recommended b. was promised

3. Our staff ______ useful work skills.


a. are taught b. are explained

4. Company shares ______ to most employees.


a. are offered b. are suggested

5. The passengers ______ that the flight was delayed.


a. were announced b. were told

6. At the next lesson the students ______ the new words from
Lesson 4.
a. will be asked b. will be dictated

7. All employees in the company ______ four weeks holiday.


a. are allowed b. are declared

8. Doris ______ the address several times before she memorized it.
a. had been repeated b. had been told

9. Everybody at the party ______ the instructions how to behave in


the mountains.
a. was given b. was reported

10. Most interesting facts ______ to the students in the lecture.


a. were mentioned b. were taught

11. The newcomers ______ the timetable of the Clubs work.


a. are introduced b. are shown

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12. The children were excited because they ______ a new tricycle.
a. had been bought b. had been given

13. We ______ some of the old Irish dances at St. Patricks Day
festival in Dublin.
a. were shown b. were presented

14. The tourists ______ the most famous pictures of the Dutch
artists in Rijks Museum in Amsterdam.
a. will be described b. will be shown

15. All the tenants of the old house ______ letters saying that the
house would be repaired soon.
a. were written b. were sent

16. The clerks ______ a bonus by the end of the financial year.
a. will have been paid b. will have been proposed

17. The tourists ______ to have sea view rooms.


a. were suggested b. were promised

18. The patient ______ a new medicine for getting his blood
pressure back to normal.
a. was prescribed b. was offered

19. Ernest ______ his talent by some of his fellow students.


a. was envied b. was talked

20. After the test the students ______ all their mistakes which were
discussed at the lesson in detail.
a. were shown b. were pointed out

Exercise 92.
Decide which sentence is correct (sometimes both variants are
correct).

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1. a. The difficult situation was described to the rescue workers.
b. The rescue workers were described the difficult situation.

2. a. The liquidity problem was mentioned to the Executive Board


of the bank by the CBR inspection.
b. The Executive Board of the bank was mentioned the liquidity
problem by the CBR inspection.

3. a. The Black Perl slowly disappeared from view.


b. The Black Perl was slowly disappeared from view.

4. a. The police had been reported the theft before the burglars fled
the scene.
b. The theft had been reported to the police before the burglars fled
the scene.

5. a. The children will be demonstrated the new game at the PT


lesson.
b. The new game will be demonstrated to the children at the PT
lesson.

6. a. The guests are being offered drinks.


b. Drinks are being offered to the guests.

7. a. Tom was bought a new laptop as a birthday present.


b. A new laptop was bought to Tom as a birthday present.

8. a. The charity has been given EUR 2.000.


b. EUR 2.000 has been given to the charity.

9. a. The tourist was explained how to get to the British Museum.


b. It was explained to the tourist how to get to the British Museum.

10. a. Little Peggy was forgiven her bad behaviour and was allowed
to watch TV.

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b. Little Peggys bad behaviour was forgiven to her and she was
allowed to watch TV.

11. a. A report from Kosovo was shown to the local authorities.


b. The local authorities were shown a report from Kosovo.

12. a. The members of the Committee agreed on the main points of


the agenda.
b. The members of the Committee were agreed on the main points
of the agenda.

13. a. The Government is said to be out of touch with public


opinion.
b. The Government says to be out of touch with public opinion.

14. a. Hubert was promised an upgrade to first class.


b. An upgrade to first class was promised to Hubert.

15. a. I was made to open my suitcase.


b. To open my suitcase was made on me.

16. a. We were allowed to park the caravan in a farmers cotton field


overnight.
b. To park the caravan in a farmers cotton field was allowed to us.

17. a. This nylon blouse washes easily.


b. This nylon blouse is washed easily.

18. a. The coat will wear a lifetime.


b. The coat will be worn a lifetime.

19. a. The book reads well. You will swallow it in no time.


b. The book has been read well. You will swallow it in no time.

20. a. All the dictionaries are sold out now. Call on us in a week.
b. All the dictionaries sell out. Call on us in a week.

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Exercise 93.
Choose the correct word.

1. Grandma Moses (Anna Mary Robertson) ______ as one of


Americas greatest primitive artists.
a. is thought of b. is thought

2. The first census ______ during Roman times for the purpose of
taxation.
a. was carried out b. was carried away

3. Most of what the professor said in his lecture ______ .


a. was put down b. was put

4. Peter ______ by his uncle and aunt when he stayed in America.


a. was looked after b. was looked at

5. Pamelas proposed changes in the project ______ by the Steering


Committee.
a. were approved after b. were approved of

6. The famous composer ______ for nearly twelve hours.


a. was operated on b. was being operated

7. I ______ buying a Harley Davidson by my friend.


a. was talked into b. was talked

8. These comfortable loafers are made ______ .


a. by hand b. with hand

9. It was strange the address on the envelope was written ______ .


a. in pencil b. by pencil

10. This material cant be cut ______ .


a. with scissors b. by scissors

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11. Our conversation was interrupted ______ in the corridor.
a. by a noise b. with a noise

12. The marshal insisted that all the documents should be written
______ .
a. in ink b. with ink

13. The favourite actress was greeted ______ .


a. with a storm of applause b. by a storm of applause

14. The sky was covered ______ . Obviously, it was going to rain.
a. with clouds b. by clouds

15. In the vocational training centre the students were warned to be


careful because all the machines were operated ______ electricity.
a. with b. by

16. Such confidential papers mustnt be sent ______ . One should


deliver them personally.
a. by mail b. with mail

17. The police confirmed that the house had been ______ the
previous night.
a. broken into b. broken

18. The new building of the terminal at Heathrow was opened


______ the Queen.
a. by b. with

19. Several small towns in Jamaica and Haiti were destroyed


______ the hurricane Gilbert.
a. by b. with

20. All these accessories are very expensive as they are ______
snake skin.
a. made of b. made with

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Review Test 94.
Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct form of the passive.

A REPORT
This report (produce) has been produced at the request of the Hotel
and Catering Association. The survey on which the report ______ (1
base) was carried out between March 25 and March 30, 1999.
Twenty hotel managers ______ (2 interview) for the purposes of
this report. The majority of the hotels which ______ (3 visit) (all
in the Brighton area) ______ (4 build) in the last twenty years and
______ (5 design) to meet the needs of the modern tourists. One
hotel which ______ (6 consider) unacceptable by the Association
______ (7 close) at the end of the tourist season. Some of the
older ones ______ (8 renovate) recently and also meet the highest
standards. This ______ (9 show) by the fact that all the hotels
______ (10 equip) with modern facilities, from swimming pools
to satellite TV. In addition, the usual services ______ (11 provide)
(room service, laundry service) and the restaurant and bar service
______ (12 consider) satisfactory in most cases. Most of the hotel
staff who ______ (13 interview) were highly qualified or
experienced. Seventy five percent of the hotels in this report ______
(14 award) a three or four star rating by the tourist board.

Review Test 95.


Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct form of the passive.

Acid rain ______ (1 cause) by burning coal or oil. When either


fuel _____ (2 burn), it releases poisonous gases which _____ (3
carry) up into the atmosphere and sometimes ______ (4 transport)
long distances.
Over 3,000 research projects ______ (5 carry) out to look into
acid rain, and a decision to tackle the problem ______ (6 take) in
most of the western European countries. Measures ______ (7
take) in Scandinavia and in Central Europe to stop the pollution

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before it ______ (8 dump) on the environment: and a diplomatic
campaign ______ (9 launch) to convince other countries that the
problem has ______ (10 considered) as a major ecological threat.
Five years ago this issue ______ (11 treat) seriously, says one
leading environmental group, but now that damage ______ (12
report) in large areas of forest and Lakeland, our politicians ______
(13 force) to take action. This problem must ______ (14 solve)
quickly: if governments do nothing, they will ______ (15 face) in
two or three years time with the accusation that they have allowed
our forests to die. A major international initiative to combat acid
rain ______ (16 expect) in the near future.

Review Test 96.


Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct tense form of the
passive or active.

ANIMALS ON THE ROADS


More cars and lorries ______ (1 drive) on our roads every year
and, sadly, as a result of this, more and more wild animals ______
(2 kill) by vehicles. Roads often _____ (3 cross) the routes that
______ (4 take) by animals when they are migrating, breeding or
feeding. Every spring, many thousands of toads ______ (5 kill) as
they ______ (6 make) their way to the traditional breeding ponds.
All over the world, animals are victims of the road and their dead
remains can ______ (7 often see) lying on the roadside. Many
badgers and hedgehogs ______ (8 hit) by cars at night as they
______ (9 move around) in search of food. Rabbits sometimes
seem to ______ (10 hypnotize) by the headlights of cars and
______ (11 not move) quickly out of the way. Birds ______ (12
sometimes hit) too as they ______ (13 fly) low over roads.
______ (14 can anything do) to protect these animals from the
dangers of the road? Well, in 1969 a toad tunnel ______ (15 build)
in Switzerland and was a great success. Since then, other tunnels
______ (16 construct) elsewhere in Europe, not just for toads but
for badgers and salamanders too. In Florida, where the rare Florida

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panther ______ (17 live), panther tunnels ______ (18 build) under
the highway and fencing ______ (19 put up) beside the highway
to guide the animals safely into these underpasses. Road signs
warning drivers to ______ (20 look out) for particular animals
______ (21 often see) in the US and it is to ______ (22 hope)
that they ______ (23 become) a more common sight on the roads
of Europe.

Tense Revision

Exercise 97.
Choose the correct variant.

1. The Marconi family ______ to the United States thirty years ago.
a. has come b. come c. came

2. Im sorry. I ______ my homework yet.


a. hadnt finished b. didnt finish c. havent finished

3. The town _____ two big snowstorms before Christmas last year.
a. has had b. had had c. was having

4. My father ______ for a long time.


a. was smoking b. is smoking c. has smoked

5. Oh, no! It ______ to rain and my clothes are on this line.


a. is starting b. starts c. will start

6. Kay and her boyfriend have been dating ______ four years.
a. through b. since c. for

7. I thought I would get to the restaurant first, but Jim ______


before me.
a. had arrived b. has arrived c. arrived

8. We ______ the rest of the souvenirs by tomorrow.

141
a. will sell b. have sold c. will have sold

9. I ______ reading this book.


a. had finally finished b. have finally finished
c. will have finally finished

10. The swimmers havent completed the race ______ .


a. still b. already c. yet

11. We havent seen each other ______ a long time.


a. since b. for c. at

12. You look confused. ______ you understand what I say?


a. did b. are c. do

13. Last night I came home, cooked dinner, and ______ TV.
a. watched b. was watched c. had watched

14. ______ for a long time before you got a job?


a. were you looking b. have you looked c. had you looked

15. That man ______ money to the hospital for years.


a. has giving b. has been giving c. is giving

16. Does Randy ______ eight brothers and six sisters?


a. have got b. has c. have

17. We ______ John better now that we have classes with him.
a. are knowing b. know c. knew

18. Deer ______ salt and are attracted to blocks of salt people leave
in their yards.
a. are liking b. like c liked

19. I ______ the day with a jog around the block.


a. have begun b. began c. had begun

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20. I ______ the movie before, but I decided to see it again.
a. saw b. had seen c. have seen

Exercise 98.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Are Alice and Tom still living in New York?


No, they ______ to Dallas.
a. had just moved b. have just moved c. will just move

2. Where is the new stove that you bought yesterday?


The colour didnt match, so I ______ to the store.
a. had returned b. have returned c. returned

3. You and Carl seem to be getting along well.


Yes, I ______ him better than before.
a. am liking b. like c. liked

4. How are you feeling?


Ive been feeling better since doctor Robinson ______ .
a. has come b. had come c. came

5. Isnt it hard to drive downtown to work?


Yes, thats why I ______ to work by train.
a. have been going b. have been gone c. going

6. How long have you been with the company?


I ______ there for two years by January.
a. will work b. was working c. will have worked

7. When are you planning to send the memo to the staff?


I ______ it already.
a. send b. had sent c. have sent

8. Betty told me that you have a cottage on Lake Superior.


Yes, we ______ there since we first moved to Michigan.

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a. have been going b. are going c. had been going

9. Can I come by for my check tomorrow?


Yes, by then I ______ time to go to the bank.
a. will have had b. had c. have

10. Where are Ken and Margaret?


They were hungry, so they ______ to the grocery store.
a. had gone b. went c. were gone

11. Did you meet Ann here at the university?


No, we ______ when I started college.
a. have already met b. had already met
c. had already been meeting

12. I took TOEFL. It was really hard.


______ a lot before you took it?
a. have you studied b. did you study c. had you studied

13. Would you like to go to the band concert?


Thanks, but I ______ it already.
a. am seeing b. have been seeing c. have seen

14. What did you do last night?


I watched TV, practiced the violin, and ______ my homework.
a. was doing b. have done c. did

15. Why is Teddy so sad?


Because his bird ______ away.
a. flew b. will fly c. had flown

16. Did you go to Hawaii for vacation?


I ______ to go, but I got sick at the last minute.
a. was planning b. had been planning c. planned

17. I ______ to the same barber since 1950.


a. am going b. have been going c. go

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18. Did you say that you ______ here only three days ago?
a. came b. have come c. had come

19. I havent heard from Maria ______ .


a. since many months before b. for many months
c. since a long time

20. This book is so long that I ______ .


a. havent finished it yet b. havent finished it already
c. still have finished it.

21. Spain ______ at one time a very powerful country.


a. was b. has been c. was being

22. Who ate all the cookies?


Mary Ann ______ .
a. has b. did c. ate

23. Is Tony making dinner?


He ______ to make it.
a. has just begun b. was just begun c. just began

24. You seem to like this restaurant a lot.


I ______ here for many years.
a. have been eaten b. have been eating c. am eating

25. Where was Michael Caine born?


In Britain, but today he ______ in the United States.
a. has lived b. lives c. living

Exercise 99.
Choose the correct tense form.

1. A fire protection device ______ a mechanism that reacts to smoke


and heat.

145
a. has b. is having c. has had

2. It was after the Civil War ended that an assassin named John
Wilkes Booth ______ Abraham Lincoln.
a. has killed b. had killed c. killed

3. Millions of people ______ Disney World in Orlando, Florida,


since it opened.
a. had been visiting b. have visited c. will have visited

4. Gertrude Stein, a well-known American novelist, was born in


1874 and ______ in 1946.
a. had died b. died c. has died

5. Harry S. Truman assumed the presidency of the United States


after F.D. Roosevelt ______ in office.
a. dies b. has died c. died

6. At summer camp last year children swam, rode horses, and


______ baseball.
a. played b. were playing c. had been playing

7. Students who ______ pencils to the test were not allowed to take
it.
a. didnt bring b. havent brought c. dont bring

8. Television ______ very popular in the United States since the


fifties.
a. has been b. had been c. is

9. Elizabeth I ______ as queen of England from 1558 to 1603.


a. has reigned b. had been reigning c. reigned

10. When it touches a cold surface, water vapour ______ .


a. has condensed b. condenses c. is condensing

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Exercise 100.
Choose the most appropriate tense form from the list below.

THE FACTS ABOUT SUGAR


Packet sugar from the supermarket ______ (1) from either sugar
cane of sugar beet. These products ______ (2) with hot water, which
______ (3) their natural sugar. Sugar ______ (4) in fruit some of
which, such as dates and grapes, ______ (5) very high amounts of
sugar. To be a little more scientific, sugar should ______ (6)
sucrose. Sucrose ______ (7) of two substances, glucose, which
______ (8) for instant energy, and fructose, which ______ (9) longer
as a source of energy. The sugar in fruit is mainly fructose. So when
we ______ (10) fruit, we ______ (11) quite large amounts of natural
sugar. Some scientists ______ (12) that too much sugar ______ (13)
in sweets, cakes and biscuits. It _____ (14) to be generally bad for
the health, although nothing definite ______ (15) so far. However, it
______ (16) that sugar ______ (17) tooth decay. As one expert put
it: If other foods damaged our body as much as sugar ______ (18)
out teeth, they would be banned immediately.

1. a. extracts b. is being extracted c. is extracted


2. a. will be mixed b. are mixed c. mix
3. a. dissolves b. is dissolved c. will be dissolved
4. a. was also found b. is also found c. also finds
5. a. contain b. is contained c. is containing
6. a. call b. be called c. called
7. a. is made up b. was made up c. will be made up
8. a. is used b. was used c. is being used
9. a. is last b. is lasted c. lasts
10 a. will eat b. will be eaten c. eat
11. a. also eat b. are also eating c. eat also
12. a. are believing b. believe c. are believed
13. a. will be eaten b. eats c. is eaten
14. a. is said b. says c. is saying
15. a. proves b. has been proved c. has proved
16. a. knows b. has been known c. is known

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17. a. has caused b. is caused c. causes
18. a. damages b. damage c. has damaged

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 101.
Choose the correct variant

1. All I had for lunch was ______ of crisps.


a. a package b. a packet c. a packing

2. Neither Simon nor Sally ______ Spanish yet.


a. speak b. speaks c. dont speak

3. Both Latvia and Lithuania ______ members of the European


Union.
a. is b. are c. are not

4. I dont feel ______ for a stroll in such rainy weather.


a. like going b. as going c. like to go

5. The main ______ on the agenda is the pay-roll dispute.


a. place b. piece c. item

6. We are doing ______ on the Queens visit to China for the


evening news.
a. a point b. a piece c. an item

7. ______ labour is a job which involves physical work using ones


hands.
a. hand b. manual c. arms

8. Children under 12 must be ______ by an adult.


a. followed b. seen off c. accompanied

9. Dont worry, Mrs. Parker, it will all become clear ______ of time.
a. at the course b. in the course c. in a course

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10. They do ______ lunch for 5.
a. two-course b. a two-course c. two-courses

11. The Hapsburgs total ______ income is less than 120 000 a
year.
a. housing b. house members c. household

12. English men go to the pub for a ______ of beer most nights.
a. dozen b. pint c. course

13. Mr. Ashenden is a businessman. He always travels ______ class.


a. first b. by the first c. in the first

14.When I ______ started running I could do a mile in nine minutes.


a. at first b. firstly c. first

15. ______ Bernadette was so shy that she wouldnt even talk to
anybody.
a. at first b. firstly c. first

16. If I were you I wouldnt buy this car, because ______ this car
looks ugly, and ______ its unreliable.
a. at first, then b. firstly, secondly c. at first, in the end

17. When Ned was ______ he did sports.


a. at school b. in the school c. at the school

18. If you go straight ahead you will see a grey building ______ ,
which is the University library you are looking for.
a. in the front of you b. in front of you
c. at the front of you

19. The conference is supposed to finish ______ 6 oclock.


a. at about b. at sharp c. in about

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20. The presentation of Grishams new novel finished ______ a
cocktail party.
a. with b. by c. up

Exercise 102.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Mother has ______ a big chocolate cake for Peters birthday.


a. boiled b. baked c. fried

2. Arvid first tried Irish ______ in a pub in London.


a. beef b. stew c. barbecue

3. ______ pudding is usually served with beef.


a. Yorkshire b. Essex c. Brixton

4. Those who know say that the best fish and ______ are sold on the
pier in Brighton.
a. potatoes b. chips c. crisps

5. Rayon wasnt hungry because he had eaten a packet of ______ .


a. biscuits b. cakes c. tarts

6. During the interval such beverages as Coca Cola, Sprite, 7 Up,


Ting and other ______ were offered.
a. spirits b. soft drinks c. juices

7. Turkey is absolutely delicious when it is cooked ______ with


cinnamon and pepper.
a. in the oven b. in the cooker c. in the toaster

8. The glasses are absolutely clean when washed in a ______ .


a. washer b. washing machine c. dishwasher

9. Ann is fond of frying meat and fish in a ______ .


a. saucepan b. pot c. frying pan

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10. Put ______ on the cooker and wait till the water starts boiling.
a. the teapot b. the kettle c. the coffee mug

11. It looks as if the negotiations with Fabio Vasquez are going


______ .
a. to drop b. to fail c. to fall

12. After Sophie moved to the South her ______ health had greatly
improved.
a. thin b. shabby c. poor

13. The fellow-students didnt like Stephen ______ of tact.


a. for the lack b. for lack c. because of the lack

14. The lesson continued when order had been ______ .


a. restored b. restorated c. started

15. Sophia Loren has both a charming ______ and a great talent.
a. looks b. appearance c. behaviour

16. The suspects were last seen heading ______ La Jolla.


a. in the direction of b. to the direction of
c. in the direction for

17. The house is always full when Vasiliy Lanovoi plays ______ .
a. the leading part b. the main part c. the chief part

18. Mother congratulated her daughter warmly ______ her brilliant


exam results.
a. on b. with c. about

19. I cant help ______ that there has been a mistake and the police
have arrested the wrong guy.
a. to feel b. feeling c. to be feeling

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20. After wandering around, we ______ back at the Palm Rosebeach
hotel.
a. found b. appeared ourselves c. found ourselves

Exercise 103.
Choose the correct variant.

1. This patient should have five ______ a day.


a. dishes b. foods c. meals

2. The famous Scottish ______ haggis is delicious and is quite easy


to cook.
a. dish b. food c. meal

3. Small children should avoid eating canned ______ .


a. courses b. food c. meals

4. For dessert we had some delicious blue Danish cheese with


______ to follow.
a. a fruits dish b. a fruit plate c. a fruit meal

5. Before reaching the verdict you need to examine every ______ of


evidence first.
a. slice b. piece c. sheet

6. For Spanish salad, you should cut tomatoes and cucumbers into
thin ______ and add some olives.
a. slices b. pieces c. sheets

7. A ______ of ice covered the lake.


a. slice b. piece c. sheet

8. While sitting at the fireplace we noticed a burning ______ of coal


on the floor.
a. slice b. sheet c. lump

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9. This dish wont taste plain if you add ______ of salt, pepper and
cinnamon.
a. a slice b. a piece c. a bit

10. Im very hungry. Ive only had ______ of Snickers for lunch
today, thats all.
a. a slice b. a lump c. a bar

Unit 7

Complex Object

Exercise 104.
Choose the correct word.

1. We heard the Executive Board ______ in the conference hall.


a. discussing b. to discuss

2. Abigail saw her brother ______ upstairs.


a. go b. to go

3. My mother didnt notice ______ the door and ______ .


a. me open, go b. I opened, went

4. We saw a man ______ the way to the Sloan Square underground


station.
a. showing b. showed

5. Have you ever heard her ______ a lie?


a. tell b. has told

6. After the sunset the tourists felt the temperature ______ to fall.
a. begin b. began

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7. When Grace was getting on the train she felt somebody ______
her by the shoulder.
a. touch b. touched

8. The children watched the road ______ .


a. being repaired b. repairing

9. Suddenly Bella heard a familiar voice ______ her name.


a. call b. had called

10. The stranger stood on the platform and watched the train _____ .
a. going away b. go away

11. I have heard ______ for a week now.


a. him being ill b. that he has been ill

12. ______ her knock at the door?


a. did you hear b. have you heard

13. ______ Mr. Cox has bought a new house?


a. did you hear b. have you heard

14. I noticed ______ to discuss that confusing situation.


a. my friend not to want b. that my friend didnt want

15. She has often seen an old man ______ along the beach with a
dog.
a. walking b. walked

16. I hear ______ the meeting of Assets and Liabilities Committee


till Monday.
a. they have put off b. them put off

17. We watched the children ______ swans in St. Jamess Park.


a. feeding b. feed

154
18. As soon as the squadron approached the forest they smelled
something ______ .
a. was burning b. burning

19. The teacher saw that the students ______ his explanation.
a. not understand b. didnt understand

20. Mr. Worchester looked at Becky and felt ______ him.


a. that she believed b. her believe

Exercise 105.
Choose the correct word.

1. The hijackers made the hostages ______ in the plane all night.
a. to stay b. stay

2. The HR manager had his secretary ______ the letters in time.


a. send b. sent

3. The local authorities made the tenants ______ the house because
it was dangerous to live in it.
a. leave b. leaving

4. Mother let the children ______ till late.


a. stay out b. have stayed out

5. Suddenly the child let her hand ______ and ran away.
a. go b. went

6. Yesterday I couldnt get my car ______ and had to go by bus.


a. start b. to start

7. Mother wanted her children ______ their homework first.


a. to do b. did

8. The police asked the witnesses of the accident ______ evidence.

155
a. give b. to give

9. The scientists consider this method ______ very effective.


a. to be b. be

10. The Clarks didnt expect their son ______ architecture.


a. to study b. to have studied

11. The young woman asked the porter ______ her suitcases to the
taxi.
a. to take b. took
12. Mr. Cutter wanted his daughter ______ to University.
a. to go b. went

13. Everybody in the city knew him ______ the best general
practitioner.
a. was b. to be

14. Im sure your boss would like you ______ now.


a. to be working b. to have worked

15. I consider your students ______ this work long ago.


a. to have done b. to do

16. Priscilla wanted ______ to break the news to her mother.


a. herself b. her

17. He knew ______ to be treated unfairly in the company.


a. himself b. him

18. Willie supposes his friends ______ him in any predicament.


a. to help b. help

19. My friend advised me ______ that business.


a. not to get into b. didnt get into

20. Anselm hated this question ______ with somebody else.

156
a. to be discussed b. had been discussed

To Have/Get Something Done

Exercise 106.
Choose the correct word.

1. Candy doesnt like the house she has just bought and she is going
______ .
a. to have it torn down b. to tear it down

2. This businessman has lots of suits. He ______ twice a year.


a. has them made b. makes them

3. Lucy ______ at the hairdressers at the moment.


a. is having her hair cut b. is cutting her hair

4. Look at these wonderful snapshots! I ______ at the chemists.


a. have just developed them
b. have just had them developed

5. You can ______ in an hour.


a. have your shoes repaired b. repair your shoes

6. The old lady ______ . She is too old to go shopping.


a. had the food delivered b. delivered the food

7. The young couple ______ their house redecorated for two months
now. They have to live at their parents.
a. have been having b. are having

8. You ought ______ at the doctors.


a. to get your blood pressure checked
b. to check you blood pressure

9. One of these days OHara is going ______ onto the Committee.

157
a. to get himself elected b. to have himself elected

10. While walking in Amsterdam I _____ my wallet stolen in the crowd.


a. had b. got

Review Test 107.


Read the article and write the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.

KIDNAPPER CAUGHT PAYING RANSOM INTO BANK


Six-year-old Kandy Watt, the girl kidnapped two days ago, was
found safe this morning ______ (1 play) near her home. The man
who found her said: I saw Kandy ______ (2 sit) in the park. I
recognised her from photos in the paper. I shouted: Kandy! As
soon as she heard me ______ (3 call) her name, she came running
to me.
Later in the day, a man was caught ______ (4 pay) the ransom of
50,000 into his bank account. Kandys father had agreed to pay
the ransom. The police were on the scene, and had watched him
______ (5 go) into the park and ______ (6 leave) the bag of
money behind a large tree.
But they had not seen anyone ______ (7 collect) the bag, although
they had watched it for hours. Somehow the kidnapper had collected
it unseen.
An old woman was seen ______ (8 approach) the tree, but the
detectives swore they saw her ______ (9 walk) straight past it.
Was the old woman perhaps the kidnapper in disguise?

Review Test 108.


Read what Ida James said about her childhood and write the
correct forms of the verbs in brackets.

Did I have a strict upbringing? No, I dont think so. I remember my


parents made me promise ______ (1 not speak) to strangers, and
they forbade me ______ (2 go) to a friends house straight from

158
school. I always had to go home first. But then my mother usually
let me ______ (3 go out) and ______ (4 see) my friends.
When I was older, they didnt allow me ______ (5 go out) with a
young man of my own, but they let me ______ (6 go out) with a
group of friends. And they never allowed me ______ (7 stay out)
after midnight. But that was accepted at the time.
I think, if you force children ______ (8 do) things all the time,
eventually they will rebel. One of my friends did.

Review Test 109.


Write the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.

READERS LETTERS
Dear Editor,

I would hate you (1 think) that I dont enjoy your magazine, but
could I ask you (2 explain) why you have changed the design? The
old one was excellent, and I for one would like you (3 go back) to it!

Regards,
Mr. Parker

Dear Editor,

You said you wanted readers (4 write in) with comments about the
new design of your magazine. Well, the old design was good, and I
didnt expect you (5 produce) a better one. But the new design is
excellent!
However, I would prefer you (6 include) more photos of the Royal
Family, and I would love you (7 feature) full-length stories about
the Royal princesses.
Now, I dont want you (8 think) Im being critical, but could we
have fewer stories about film stars, and divorce?

159
Review Test 110.
Write the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.

MIKE: Why are you looking so pleased?

TARA: Well, weve got some American visitors today. And the
editor has chosen me ______ (1 give) them a talk.

MIKE: Are you definitely doing it? Has he asked you ______ (2
do) it?

TARA: Yes. Why? Do you want me (3 do) it?

MIKE: No, youre welcome to it. But I hope you are not expecting
me ______ (4 help) you Im busy all day.

TARA: But the editor wants us both ______ (5 welcome) them


when they arrive.

MIKE: OK, a can spare an hour.

TARA: Good. I would prefer you ______ (6 tell) them about the
way we work. Then he would like them ______ (7 have) a tour of
the building - I can do that.

MIKE: What about lunch?

TARA: Well, the editor wants ______ (8 meet) them himself for
lunch.

MIKE: But he has got a meeting in Harrow all morning!

TARA: Well, he expects ______ (9 be back) by 12.30.

160
Tense Revision

Exercise 111.
Choose the correct word.

1. I ______ at the Palm Beach Hotel till they get my flat ready.
a. am staying b. stay c. have stayed

2. The River Amazon ______ into the Atlantic Ocean.


a. is flowing b. flows c. flowed

3. Buying a house nowadays ______ more and more expensive all


the time.
a. has become b. becomes c. is becoming

4. We havent decided yet but we ______ of moving house.


a. had thought b. thought c. are thinking

5. Whether we play cricket on Saturday ______ on the weather.


a. depends b. is depending c. is depended

6. Jazz ______ in the United States around 1900.


a. originated b. has originated c. was originated

7. Tom Hanks ______ an Oscar several times already.


a. had won b. has been winning c. has won

8. Even when we were children our parents ______ family problems


with us.
a. discussed b. were discussing c. had discussed

9. I ______ to fix this pipe since this morning and its still leaking.
a. am trying b. have been trying c. have tried

10. Scientists still ______ a cure for cancer.


a. dont find b. arent finding c. havent found

161
11. About one hundred people ______ outside the theatre for tickets
when we got there.
a. were queuing b. queued c. have queued

12. This time last week we ______ to Tarragona to see our friends
Santaella and Manoli.
a. had driven b. were driving c. had been driving

13. By the time the teacher arrived the classroom was empty: the
students _____ .
a. left b. had left c. were leaving

14. The witness claimed he ______ the accused before.


a. didnt see b. wasnt seeing c. hadnt seen

15. I ______ a shower when the telephone rang.


a. had b. was having c. had been having

16. Im writing in connection with the advertisement which ______


on 3 December.
a. had appeared b. appeared c. was appeared

17. Barnes ______ for several posts this year.


a. applied b. has applied c. was applied

18. When Mrs. Morgan came to the class the pupils ______ around.
a. were running b. ran c. had been running

19. Before Columbus discovered America, people ______ that the


earth was flat.
a. believed b. had believed c. had been believing

20. Newton made his great discovery while he ______ under an


apple tree.
a. was sitting b. sat c. had been sitting

162
Exercise 112.
Choose the most appropriate tense form from the list below.

CAN A FAMOUS ASTRONAUT


ADJUST TO LIFE ON EARTH ?
In 16 July 1969 Apollo 11 set off for the moon. After four days in
space, Neil Armstrong ______ (1) down the ladder to the lunar
module and ______ (2) onto the surface of the moon. It ______ (3)
a historic moment. 30 years later, the three astronauts who made
history ______ (4) any reunion to celebrate the anniversary of mans
first step on the moon. The three spacemen ______ (5) a bit older
and, although their attitude to life ______ (6) over the years, they
______ (7) friends.
Armstrong ______ (8) to give interviews about his private life. After
Apollo 11, he ______ (9) at NASA; he ______ (10) in 1971 to
become an engineering professor at Cincinnati University. In 1979
he ______ (11) teaching, and since then he ______ (12) as a
business consultant.
Andrew Chalkin, a space journalist, ______ (13) the lives of the
Apollo astronauts and ______ (14) unique access to them. He
______ (15) a book on the subject. He says that Armstrong is not a
very easy man to know, although he is very warm once you do get
to know him.

1. a. was walking b. walked c. had walked


2. a. stepped b. was stepping c. steps
3. a. had been b. has been c. was
4. a. have never planned b. had never planned c. never planned
5. a. got b. have got c. were getting
6. a. have changed b. has changed c. changes
7. a. are remaining b. have remained c. were remained
8. a. has refused b. has been refused c. is refusing
9. a. worked b. was working c. had been working
10. a. had left b. has been leaving c. left
11. a. gave up b. was giving up c. had given up
12. a. has been working b. worked c. had worked

163
13. a. researched b. will research c. has been researching
14. a. has had b. has been having c. is having
15. a. had just written b. will have just written
c. has just written

Exercise 113.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

THE WHITE HOUSE


The official residence of the President of the United States, the
White House, ______ (1) by more than one and a half million
tourists. It is the only residence of a head of state which is open to
the public, free of charge, on a regular basis.
The original building dates from 1792 and ______ (2) by an Irish-
born architect, James Hoban. Much of Hobans original design
______ (3), although the mansion had to ______ (4) after the British
______ (5) the house and many of its valuable contents in the war of
1814.
The guided tour ______ (6) most of the state apartments. These
______ (7) the East Room, the Lincoln Bedroom and the State
Dining Room. The private apartments and offices ______ (8) not
open to the public. The tour ______ (9) in the East Wing Lobby, an
extension to the building which ______ (10) in 1942.

1. a. visits b. is visited c. is being visited


2. a. designed b. was designed c. has been designed
3. a. survives b. is surviving c. is survived
4. a. rebuild b. be rebuilt c. rebuilt
5. a. burn b. burnt c. were burnt
6. a. is included b. included c. includes
7. a. are including b. include c. are included
8. a. is b. are c. were
9. a. is begun b. is beginning c. begins
10. a. added b. had added c. was added

164
Exercise 114.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

1. The longest fish in the contest was eighteen inches long. It


______ by Thelma Rivers.
a. was catching b. was caught c. had been caught

2. I hear John has decided to take up tennis.


Yes, he ______ every day.
a. has been playing b. is playing c. plays

3. Are we about to have dinner?


Yes, it ______ in the dining room.
a. is serving b. is being served c. serves

4. The table ______ by the thieves when the watchman arrived.


a. was stolen b. was stealing c. was being
stolen

5. My grandmother was upset because her favourite tree ______


over by the wind.
a. had been blown b. was blown c. was blowing

6. The missing boy ______ yet.


a. hasnt been found b. hasnt found c. didnt find

7. Diana is a wonderful ballet dancer. She ______ since she was


four.
a. is dancing b. has been danced c. has been dancing

8. Those Easter eggs of different colours are very artistic.


Yes, they ______ in Russia.
a. painted b. were painting c. were painted

9. Jack is in jail for using foul language in public. He ______ that it


was against the law.

165
a. told b. was telling c. was told

10. I wanted ______ by the head of the company, but it was


impossible.
a. to see b. to be seen c. to being seen

11. Katherine ______ at Bobs house every night this week.


a. is eating b. is being eaten c. has been eating

12. What happened to the old postman?


He ______ to a new neighbourhood to work.
a. was sent b. had been sent c. has sent

13. It ______ that constant stress can cause serious health problems
for certain people.
a. recognizes b. is recognized c. was being recognized

14. Many of the survivors ______ in the field when the earthquake
______ .
a. were working struck b. worked had struck
c. worked was struck

15. Denise had to leave school early on Wednesday because she


______ her driving test.
a. was taking b. took c. had been taken

16. At midnight Mrs. Rochester ______ the stairs and went into her
bedchamber.
a. had climbed b. was climbing c. climbed

17. On our next wedding anniversary on the 8th of July we ______


for 32 years.
a. will have been married b. will marry c. will be married

18. Sit down and watch TV; I ______ this letter quickly before I join
you.
a. will just finish b. will have just finished

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c. am just finishing

19. I have won the jackpot on the lottery and I ______ it all straight
away!
a. am spending b. will be spending c. am going to spend

20. Mr. Fellows ______ golf tomorrow afternoon, as usual, so you


can catch him on the golf course at Leagany Golf Club.
a. is playing b. will be playing c. plays

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 115.
Choose the correct variant.

1. The house ______ two bedrooms, a kitchen, and a living room


with a fireplace.
a. composes b. consists c. comprises

2. The United Kingdom is situated on the British ______ .


a. Mountains b. Islands c. Isles

3. Thousands of refugees were fleeing across the ______ .


a. earth b. border c. front

4. Research has shown that the weather can ______ peoples


behaviour.
a. influence on b. influence c. affect on

5. Teachers have to be scrupulously ______ in marking examination


papers.
a. reasonable b. honest c. fair

6. Visitors should wait in the reception ______ till somebody comes


to meet them.

167
a. district b. area c. region

7. Washington, the capital of the USA, is situated in ______ .


a. Columbia b. the area of Columbia
c. the District of Columbia

8. Some northern areas of Russia are thinly ______ .


a. crowded b. populated c. full

9. Sugar cane ______ is in decline on the Island of Jamaica now.


a. growth b. development c. cultivation

10. There will be tax increases on a range of ______ and services


next year.
a. goods b. product c. good

11. The total value of all goods and services produced in a country
in a year, except for income received from money invested in other
countries, is called ______ .
a. gross national product b. gross national products
c. gross domestic product

12. ______ goods produced in Great Britain are of very high quality.
a. industrial b. manufactured c. domestic

13. Many local businesses offered ______ to the school rebuilding


fund.
a. to help b. to direct c. to contribute

14. When David came home he found that there were several
messages on the answering ______ for him.
a. engine b. machine c. machinery

15. We aim to give every student the opportunity ______ .


a. to excel b. to excel himself c. to overcome

16. Many of these countries are rich in ______ resources.

168
a. nature b. natural c. useful

17. The government agreed ______ two committees to examine the


proposals.
a. to begin b. to find out c. to establish

18. Apple Macintosh has been trading ______ computers for 20


years and is a great success on the market.
a. in b. with c. by

19. In Finland there are tough penalties for drivers who ______ the
speed limits.
a. overcome b. increase c. exceed

20. In the ______ of Queen Elizabeth II Great Britain has had a


strong political influence in the world.
a. rule b. ruling c. reign

Exercise 116.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Who does ______ power in Russia belong to?


a. execution b. executive c. executing

2. The ruling Social Democratic Party has been ______ for ten
years.
a. at power b. in power c. in rule

3. An election in which every adult in the country can vote for those
who will represent them in parliament is called a ______ election.
a. general b. common c. total

4. His job is to represent the views of the ______ .


a. many b. much c. majority

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5. Some other countries will join the European Union ______
future.
a. in the nearest b. in the nearly c. in the near

6. The majority of the population in this area ______ in farming.


a. is engaged b. is busy c. is occupied

7. The islands western shore is ______ the warm waters of the


Pacific.
a. surrounded by b. washed by c. washed with

8. St. Pauls Cathedral in London is the second ______ in the world.


a. largest b. smallest c. oldest

9. The population of Russia has decreased ______ 14 percent for the


last 8 years.
a. by b. on c. to

10. Local people come to the market every day to sell their ______ .
a. manufactured goods b. agricultural produce c. production

11. The railroad enables distribution across ______ North American


continent.
a. the all b. the total c. the entire

12. The peeks of the Pyrenees could be seen ______ .


a. at a distance b. in the distance c. in the far away

13. That lovely summer in Majorca already felt like a ______


memory.
a. long b. far c. distant

14. The company has recently ______ its range of products offered
for export.
a. raised b. lengthened c. extended

15. This license does not ______ beyond the end of May.

170
a. extend b. serve c. valid

16. If you add a kitchen ______ to you home it will be much more
spacious.
a. continuation b. prolongation c. extension

17. Suzy Cue is in hospital with head injuries after being ______ by
a car.
a. struck b. beaten c. bitten

18. Daniel was panic ______ before the exam because he hadnt
covered all the material before it.
a. shocked b. struck c. stricken

19. The first thing that ______ me about Theophil North was his
amazing self-confidence.
a. struck b. beat c. hit

20. These ______ lands are able to produce good crops.


a. young b. wealthy c. fertile

Exercise 117.
Choose the correct variant.

1. The country has ______ supply of fossil fuels.


a. an abundant b. a wide c. a high

2. The new regulations adopted by the Government recently are


aimed at ______ pollution and minimizing waste.
a. heading b. leading c. controlling

3. She was in the back ______ of the car when the accident happened.
a. sit b. seat c. chair

4. The Green Party won four ______ in the new parliament.


a. sits b. seats c. places

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5. The new stadium will ______ up to 80 000 people.
a. include b. comprise c. seat

6. Car taxes will now ______ according to the amount of carbon


dioxide a particular car emits.
a. differ b. vary c. change

7. After the hurricane the Government were seeking financial


support from ______ sources.
a. differential b. various c. changeable

8. In some cases a diet ______ protein is recommended to


sportsmen.
a. rich of b. rich with c. rich in

9. Congress agreed to ______ the National Patriot Act, which


limited civil rights and guarantees.
a. enact b. follow c. obey

10. Britain spends more ______ on defence than many other


European countries.
a. per person b. per citizen c. per capita

11. My father has always ______ good health and he still does
sports.
a. tried b. experienced c. enjoyed

12. A column of thick black smoke could be seen ______ from the
town television tower.
a. rising b. raising c. arising

13. Bad weather has so far hampered attempts to ______ the vessel.
a. rise b. raise c. arise

14. Emma ______ on her back enjoying the sunshine.


a. laid b. lain c. lay

172
15. During the Great Patriotic War many young men ______ about
their age to get into the Army.
a. lay b. laid c. lied

16. He had taken off his coat and ______ it across the arm of the
chair.
a. lay b. laid c. lied

17. Bruce is very _____ you in a lot of ways.


a. like b. as c. alike

18. Rubens was regarded ______ the greatest artist of his time.
a. like b. as c. to be like

19. The airport in Larnaca was full of anxious relatives ______


nervously ______ news of the missing plane.
a. expecting for b. waiting --- c. waiting for

20. Investors ______ that the rate of inflation will rise.


a. expect b. hope c. wait for

Unit 8

Modal Verbs

Exercise 118.
Choose the correct variant.

1. He is very fit for his age. He ______ run really fast.


a. could b. can c. was able to

2. He ______ climb up to the top: he was too scared.


a. couldnt b. cant c. was able to

3. I love ______ spend.

173
a. being able to b. to can c. was able to

4. You ______ buy any tourist equipment in this sport shop.


a. can b. are able to c. could

5. I would like ______ work with you one day.


a. can ` b. to be able to c. will be able to

6. I think you should go to Mumbai in spring, it ______ crowded


there in summer.
a. could be b. is able to be c. can be

7. Do you know where Nicks glasses are? He ______ see very


much without them.
a. couldnt b. cant c. isnt able to

8. The sea ______ quite warm in October.


a. is able to be b. could be c. can be

9. Nellys phone got broken, but fortunately we ______ get a


message from her.
a. could b. were able to c. couldnt

10. I ______ sleep very well for the last four nights. It has been too
hot.
a. havent been able to b. cant c. couldnt

11. My friend said that he ______ work much faster since he got
that new computer.
a. was able to b. could c. had been able to

12. ______ read text books in Dutch when you have finished the
course?
a. Will you be able to b. Could you c. Are you able to

13. Ian gave me a lift home so I ______ stay at the party till late.
a. was able to b. could c. can

174
14. I ______ ride this bike soon, I just need more time to practise.
a. am able to b. could c. will be able to

15. ______ do me a favour and fetch this book from the library?
a. could you b. will you be able to c. are you able to

16. ______ I ask you how old you are?


a. may b. can c. could

17. Visitors ______ stay in the hospital after 10 p.m.


a. arent able to b. may not c. are able to

18. She ______ angry if you do it.


a. might be b. could be c. will be able to be

19. The children behaved well and ______ watch TV longer than
usual.
a. were allowed to b. might c. can

20. If you do your homework well you ______ go to the cinema,


mother said.
a. might b. could c. will be allowed to

Exercise 119.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Little Sam asked if he ______ have one of those sandwiches.


a. might b. can c. was able to

2. Guests ______ wear casual dress at this informal reception.


a. may b. cant c. are able to

3. The main actor has fallen ill and the show ______ cancelled.
a. might be b. could be c. was able to be

175
4. Exceeding the stated dose of this medicine ______ cause
drowsiness.
a. is able to b. could c. may

5. This butterfly ______ recognized by the orange streaks on its


wings.
a. may be b. can be c. could be

6. With the factory closing next month, quite a number of people


______ lose their jobs.
a. can b. will be able to c. could

7. It ______ true.
a. cant be b. may not c. is not able to be

8. I thought you were on holiday, but I ______ wrong, of course.


a. can be b. might be c. was able to be

9. She ______ sleeping now. Its almost noon.


a. cant be b. may not be c. isnt able to be

10. There ______ be any milk left. I used the last carton yesterday.
a. cant b. cant be able to c. might not

Exercise 120.
Choose the correct variant.

1. You ______ go and see this film: its fantastic!


a. must b. can c. may

2. Passengers ______ fasten their seat belts.


a. can b. may c. must

3. In England children ______ wear school uniform at all times


when they are in school.
a. must b. may c. can

176
4. He is a very cruel man. You really ______ try to forget him.
a. can b. must c. have to

5. You ______ come and stay with us sometime. Well be glad to


see you. (Casual invitation)
a. could b. will be able to c. must

6. I ______ get the bus to go to work every day.


a. have to b. must c. can

7. You ______ smoke at a gas station. It is dangerous!


a. cant b. dont have to c. mustnt

8. We ______ leave at eleven oclock last night because the last bus
went at 11:30.
a. had to b. must c. might

9. We have been staying at a hotel for the last two weeks, so we


______ cook our own meals.
a. mustnt b. cant c. havent had to

10. You ______ tell the boss what happened. He would never
forgive us.
a. mustnt b. cant c. dont have to

11. You ______ go to Ajanta, a new Indian restaurant downtown.


Its the best restaurant I have ever been to.
a. have to b. will be able to c. must

12. Paul ______ get up early in the morning, while everyone in this
house does.
a. cant b. mustnt c. doesnt have to

13. Employees ______ follow the safety regulations.


a. may b. can c. must

177
14. If you fail any exam in June you ______ have it in September.
a. could b. may c. will have to

15. ______ do military service in your country when you were


young?
a. did you have to b. must you c. can you

16. The teacher told us that we ______ harder to do well at the


exam.
a. may work b. must work c. must have worked

17. We ______ come back by boat because the airport was closed
by fog.
a. had to b. must have c. must

18. We have received a confirmation that the goods ______ arrive


on Monday.
a. must b. are to c. can

19. Elisa Doolittle was worried what ______ become of her?


a. had to b. must c. was to

20. The wedding will take place at St. Andrews Church on


Saturday. And there ______ a reception after the wedding ceremony.
a. must be b. is to be c. have to be

Exercise 121.
Choose the correct variant.

1. You ______ eat and drink in the lecture halls: its against the
College regulations.
a. neednt b. mustnt c. dont have to

2. Please dont say anything else. I already know the truth so you
______ lie to me.
a. may not b. neednt c. cant

178
3. You ______ put anything on the shelves until the glue has set
hard.
a. mustnt b. neednt c. are not able to

4. Must we complete this job today? No, you ______ , you can
continue to do it tomorrow.
a. neednt b. mustnt c. cant

5. You ______ a club member to use this tennis court.


a. mustnt be b. dont have to be c. cant be

6. Newspapers ______ mislead the public by distorted information.


a. cant b. neednt c. mustnt

7. You ______ drink alcohol when you go into a pub.


a. dont have to b. mustnt c. neednt

8. Jenison ______ come with us if she doesnt want to.


a. neednt b. mustnt c. needs not to

9. Hannah has agreed to organize the party so she said that the rest
of us ______ do anything.
a. mustnt b. dont have to c. neednt

10. Now that the smallpox has been eradicated, doctors ______
vaccinate against it.
a. dont have to b. neednt c. mustnt

11. You ______ go to the supermarket. I went shopping yesterday.


a. may not b. neednt c. mustnt

12. ______ you shout so? Im right next to you.


a. need b. must c. can

13. I believe people ______ vote at elections.


a. have to b. need c. must

179
14. ______ pay to visit museums in Britain?
a. do you have to b. must you c. do you need

15. I ______ an interview. They gladly accepted me without one.


a. didnt have to have b. neednt have had c. mustnt have

16. Judith felt much better by the weekend, so we ______ her


shopping for her.
a. didnt have to do b. neednt have done c. mustnt do

17. Service was included in the bill, so you ______ the waiter. It
was a waste of money.
a. neednt have tipped b. didnt have to tip
c. mustnt have tipped

18. You ______ a coat. Look what a lovely day it is!


a. neednt have brought b. didnt have to bring
c. couldnt have brought

19. Laura ______ . After driving at top speed she arrived half an
hour early.
a. neednt have hurried b. neednt hurry
c. didnt have to hurry

20. You ______ tell Schumacher what happened to his car. He


would never forgive us.
a. neednt to b. mustnt c. neednt

Exercise 122.
Choose the correct variant.

1. We ______ go home at twelve because my mother wants the car


back.
a. have to b. should c. can

180
2. I think you ______ tell your parents you are going to be late.
Theyll be worried.
a. can b. should c. have to

3. You ______ never do it again! It is very dangerous.


a. must b. should c. have to

4. The manager suggested that we ______ try to find another hotel.


a. may b. must c. should

5. Do you think I ______ tell my parents what happened? My father


will be furious.
a. have to b. need c. should

6. They have just rung the school-bell, so the children ______ out of
their classrooms in a minute.
a. can b. should be c. will have to be

7. Ive got a stomach-ache this morning. Seemingly I ______ too


much of Indian food last night.
a. might have eaten b. should have eaten
c. didnt have to eat

8. Everything is going to be all right. If I were you I ______ stop


worrying about it.
a. must b. should c. would have to

9. I dont think you ______ offer him your help.


a. will need b. have to c. should

10. Hurry up, Jennifer! You ______ be having a bath now. The taxi
is coming in 20 minutes.
a. cant b. mustnt c. shouldnt

11. We found the house very quickly. We ______ very hard.


a. didnt have to look b. shouldnt have looked
c. neednt have looked

181
12. While I was in the shop, the police took my car away and I
______ over USD 1000 to get it back.
a. had to pay b. should pay c. must pay

13. You _____ your sister before you took her car. Now she is annoyed.
a. must have asked b. should have asked c. had to ask

14. Children ______ respect their parents and elderly people.


a. ought to b. have to c. can

15. Why are you drinking coffee in the lounge? You ______ be
working now!
a. ought to b. need to c. have to

16. Larry ______ his mothers permission before he invited his


friends to the villa. She felt hurt.
a. must have asked b. should have asked
c. neednt have asked

17. They ______ to stay at a hotel. Why didnt they stay with us?
We have plenty of room in the house.
a. didnt have to pay b. shouldnt have paid
c. neednt have paid

18. Its your own fault that you are so tired, you ______ to bed so
late.
a. shouldnt have gone b. neednt have gone c. mustnt go

19. You ______ allow David to walk home from school every day
on his own. Hes far too young.
a. shouldnt b. neednt c. dont have to

20. Bartholomew _______ his girlfriend in such a ruthless way.


Now she feels hurt and is unlikely to come back to him.
a. neednt have treated b. shouldnt have treated
c. didnt have to treat

182
Exercise 123.
Choose the correct variant.

1. ______ I borrow you pen, please? Yes, of course, why not?


a. may b. must c. shall

2. Do you think I ______ leave my bag here? Yes, certainly, its


safe enough.
a. need to b. will c. could
3. ______ you kindly open the door for me, please.
a. may b. shall c. could

4. ______ we go out for a meal tonight? Yes, dining out someplace


would be great.
a. must b. shall c. are

5. Im very busy at the moment. ______ you answer the phone for
me, please?
a. will b. must c. need

6. I dont feel like cooking tonight. ______ we buy a take-away


meal or order a pizza?
a. must b. shall c. need

7. The door ______ open. It has got stuck.


a. neednt b. mustnt c. wont

8. My bag is too heavy. ______ you help me to carry it?


a. must b. may c. will

9. Alice, why were you so late yesterday?


Darling, my car______ start and I had to go home by bus.
a. wont b. wouldnt c. mustnt

10. ______ we invite the Greggs to the party?


Why not? They will keep us good company.

183
a. shall b. will c. must

Review Test 124.


Choose the most appropriate modal verb or its equivalent from the
list below.

DISCOVERING INDIA
By the time you get this letter I expect you will have been in
Calcutta for a week or so. You ______ (1) settle in a bit and get used
to the place. It ______ (2) have been an exhausting journey. It
______ (3) have been much fun flying non-stop for nearly twenty
four hours. I ______ (4) say I admire your decision to go and work
in Calcutta. I know the poverty is depressing but the job at least
______ (5) be quite worthwhile. I suppose your boss ______ (6)
have sent you somewhere where there was war and famine so it
______ (7) have been worse. And it really ______ (8) be a
fascinating culture to explore it ______ (9) be more different from
living in Manchester, I bet. I wonder if you ______ (10) do me a
favour? Ive always wanted a genuine Indian sari - and it ______
(11) be really easy to get hold of a good one there. I ______ (12)
you the money before you left, but Ill put it in your bank account if
you like. I ______ (13) send you a cheque if you prefer but ______
(14) cash it there?
Thats all for now.

1. a. will be able to b. will have been able to c. can


2. a. must b. can c. should
3. a. mustnt b. dont have to c. cant
4. a. must b. am able to c. am to
5. a. need b. should c. could
6. a. might b. must c. had to
7. a. should b. could c. neednt
8. a. must b. cant c. shouldnt
9. a. couldnt b. neednt c. shouldnt
10. a. must b. have to c. could

184
11. a. has to b. must c. neednt
12. a. neednt have given b. should have given
c. didnt have to give
13. a. could b. must c. am to
14. a. will you be able to b. must you c. do you have to

Review Test 125.


Fill in the correct forms of the verbs given in brackets.

THE VIDEOPHONE IS HERE AT LAST


Back in the 1940s scientist told us we would soon be able ______ (1
see) the person we were talking to on the phone. People could
hardly ______ (2 believe) it then.
Now, fifty years later, the AT&T company in New York has
demonstrated its VideoPhone which will revolutionise
communication around the world.
You will be able ______ (3 buy) one this spring for 800, but the
price ought ______ (4 drop) if they become popular.
But if you feel you have ______ (5 rush out) and buy one just
wait! There are one or two things I must ______ (6 warn) you
about. Firstly, you should ______ (7 think) very carefully before
answering a VideoPhone.

Review Test 126.


Decide which modals make sense and are suitable in each context
(the answer may be one or both).

______ (1 may/can) you help us? We ______ (2 will/would)


like a house with a large garden. It ______ (3 mustnt/neednt) be
in the village, but it (4 has to/must) be on a bus route. It ______ (5
may/must) have separate sitting and dining rooms, and it ______
(6 mustnt/shouldnt) cost more than 100,000.

185
Lets see. We have three that ______ (7 can/might) be suitable.
______ (8 would/should) you like to go and see them now?

They didnt like the first one they looked at:

Its too far from the village. You ______ (9 couldnt/wouldnt be


able to) walk to the station in less than half an hour. You ______ (10
must/would have to) drive there and pay for the car park every
day.
The house isnt in very good condition. It ______ (11
must/would have to) be redecorated. It ______ (12 cant/must)
have been neglected.

The second, however, was much better:

The agent said its a hundred years old, but it ______ (13
must/cant) have been modernised recently. The people who lived
here ______ (14 must/cant) have been very keen on gardening,
though the garden is a mess!
Yes, we ______ (15 would have to/ought to) work hard to make
the garden look nice, but on the other hand we ______ (16
could/would be able to) move into the house without redecorating.

They also liked the third one:

I like it, but they ______ (17 mustnt/shouldnt) have painted the
walls pink. They ______ (18 must/might) have liked pink very
much!
Its a nice house, but I agree we ______ (19 shall/would have to)
change the colour of the walls. I ______ (20 couldnt/cant) decide
which house I like more. We ______ (21 will have to/must) ask
the children what they think.

Review Test 127.

186
Have a look at these mistakes by foreign students, and explain to
them what is wrong (using the modals in brackets).

A. When I must to come? (must/should/cant)


You ______ (1) use to after must, and in questions the modal
______ (2) go before the subject. You ______ (3) have said:
______ (4 )?

B. Yesterday I must go to the dentist. (can/cant/had to/should)


Must ______ (1) be used with a past time adverbial. It ______ (2)
only refer to the present or future. What you ______ (3) have said
was: ______ (4).

C. Now I am on holiday. I am happy because I mustnt go to


school! (neednt/shouldnt/should/would)
You ______ (1) have used mustnt here. People ______ (2) think
that you meant Im not allowed to go to school. If you mean Its
not necessary, you ______ (3) say: I ______ (4) go to school.

D. Its getting cloudy. It can rain later, perhaps. (can/cant/ought


to/may)
What you ______ (1) have said, instead of can, is ______ (2). If you
are talking of the possibility that a specific event will happen in the
future, you ______ (3) use can. You ______ (4) only use can for
general events that happen from time to time.

E. Dont worry, Mrs. Parker, I do it for you! (can/cant/ll/should)


When you offer or promise to do something, you ______ (1) use the
Present Simple, although you ______ (2) in some other languages.
I do it for you ______ (3) only mean I always do it for you. You
______ (4) have said: Dont worry, Mrs. Parker, I ______ (5).

Tense Revision

Exercise 128.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

187
SOLVING THE MYSTERY OF HIEROGLYPHICS
For almost two thousand years the symbols and inscriptions which
______ (1) onto the great monuments of ancient Egypt ______ (2) a
complete mystery. They were obviously a kind of writing, but
nobody ______ (3) what ______ (4). Then, in 1799, a strange stone
______ (5) in the small Egyptian town of Rosetta. It ______ (6)
three types of writing cut into its surface. One of the languages
______ (7) Greek, but the other two were unknown. A year later the
stone ______ (8) and ______ (9) to the British Museum in London.
For twenty years the stone ______ (10) gathering dust in the
museum. Then in 1822 a French scientist named Jean Francois
Champollion ______ (11) to look at the stone. He immediately
______ (12) that some of the symbols ______ (13) those he ______
(14) on monuments in Egypt. By comparing the Greek words with
the Egyptian symbols he ______ (15) to work out their meaning.
The Egyptian symbols were hieroglyphs, in which sounds and
meanings ______ (16) by a type of writing. Once the puzzle of their
written language ______ (17) it became possible for the inscriptions
on all the great monuments to ______ (18). Thus the mysteries of
Egypts fabulous history and culture ______ (19).

1. a. carved b. had been carved c. had carved


2. a. had been b. were being c. were
3. a. knew b. had known c. didnt know
4. a. did they mean b. they had meant c. they meant
5. a. discovered b. was discovered c. had been discovered
6. a. had b. has had c. was having
7. a. had been b. was c. were
8. a. captured b. had been captured c. was captured
9. a. moved b. had been moved c. was moved
10. a. lay b. laid c. lied
11. a. asked b. was asked c. was asking
12. a. recognized b. had recognized c. was recognizing
13. a. were matching b. matched c. were matched
14. a. saw b. was seen c. had seen

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15. a. was able b. could c. had been able
16. a. are represented b. were represented c. had been represented
17. a. was solved b. had been solved c. had solved
18. a. be deciphered b. have been deciphered c. was deciphered
19. a. finally were unlocked b. were finally unlocked
c. will be finally unlocked

Exercise 129.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

Farmers, as we all ______ (1), ______ (2) a hard time of it in


Britain lately, and ______ (3) to new ways of earning income from
their land. This ______ (4) not only planting new kinds of crops, but
some strange ways of making money, the most unusual of which has
got to be sheep racing. Yes, you ______ (5) me correctly! A farmer
in the West of England now ______ (6) sheep races on a regular
basis, and during the past year over 100 000 people ______ (7) to
watch the holiday. I ______ (8) the farm on my way to the sea for a
holiday, one punter told me, and I ______ (9) I would have a
look. I ______(10) it was serious, to tell you the truth. According
to a regular visitor, betting on sheep is more interesting than betting
on horses. At proper horse races everyone ______ (11) the form of
the horses in advance, and there are clear favourites. But nobody
______ (12) anything about these sheep! Most people ______(13) it
difficult to tell one from another in any case. I ______ (14) to
watch the races, and I must admit that I ______ (15) it quite
exciting. In a typical race, half a dozen sheep ______ (16) downhill
over a course of about half a mile. Food ______ (17) for them at the
other end of the track, I ought to add! The sheep ______ (18)
surprisingly fast, although presumably they ______ (19) for a while
just to give them some motivation. At any rate, the crowd around
me ______ (20) their day out at the races, judging by their happy
faces and the sense of excitement.

1.a. have known b. know c. knew


2.a. have been having b. had c. have

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3.a. have been turning b. turned c. turn
4.a. has involved b. is involving c. involves
5.a. are hearing b. heard c. have been hearing
6.a. holds b. helds c. is holding
7.a. has turned up b. have turned up c. are turning up
8.a. had been passing b. passed c. was passing
9.a. thought b. was thinking c. had thought
10.a. wasnt believing b. didnt believe c. hadnt believed
11.a. has already studied b. have already studied c. already studied
12.a. had heard b. have heard c. has heard
13.a. find b. are finding c. founded
14.a. would stay b. stayed c. was staying
15.a. was finding b. found c. would find
16.a. race b. are going to race c. races
17.a. are waiting b. has waited c. is waiting
18.a. run b. have run c. has run
19.a. havent eaten b. didnt eat c. were not eating
20.a. were obviously enjoying b. obviously were enjoying
c. have been obviously enjoying

Exercise 130.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

KEEPING A DIARY
Are you one of those people who ______ (1) exactly what they
______ (2) every day next week? When the different days ______
(3), will you get out your diary, or are you the kind of person who
______(4)? Some people ______ (5) the appointments in a diary,
but others just hope that they ______(6). For example, tonight I
______ (7) to the cinema, but perhaps I ______ (8) all about it. You
see, I ______ (9) a diary. I try not to forget my appointments, but I
______ (10) that I usually do. I just dont like planning my future. I
know that one day I ______ (11) a serious mistake. I ______ (12) an
important examination, or by the time I ______ (13) it and ______
(14) there, it ______ (15). Perhaps that will be when I ______ (16) a
diary.

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1. a. know b. knows c. has known
2. a. do b. have done c. will be doing
3. a. arrive b. will arrive c. will be arriving
4. a. is just guessing b. will just guess c. have just guessed
5. a. are writing b. write c. will be writing
6. a. will remember b. are remembering c. remembered
7. a. went b. am going c. go
8. a. will forget b. am forgetting c. am going to forget
9. a. never keep b. am never keeping c. never kept
10. a. am knowing b. knew c. know
11. a. will be making b. am going to make c. have made
12. a. will miss b. will have missed c. am missing
13. a. will remember b. will have remembered c. remember
14. a. will get b. will have got c. get
15. a. has finished b. will be finished c. will have finished
16. a. finally buy b. will finally buy c. am finally buying

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 131.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Many schools dont ______ the Internet.


a. make advantage of b. take advantage of
c. possess advantage in

2. The publicity has ______ Jim Morrisons reputation.


a. raised b. increased c. enhanced

3. A line of US tanks slowly ______ .


a. ran b. moved out c. advanced

4. Bertha eventually ______ her goal of becoming a professor of


mathematics.
a. reached b. obtained c. achieved

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5. Quite a number of countries refuse ______ Kosovos
independence.
a. to know b. to accept c. to recognize

6. There is some ______ that the economy in Nicaragua is


improving.
a. recognition b. evidence c. facts

7. Climate change could have disastrous _____ for the humanity.


a. consequences b. conditions c. results

8. Many people expressed ______ over moves to restore the death


penalty.
a. attention b. attitude c. concern

9. As far as spelling ______ Ronald has never been a strong student.


a. is concerned b. concerns c. is taken

10. Jerry sent the application form too late and missed the
opportunity _____ to Great Britain to study in Sandhurst summer
language school.
a. to go b. of going c. for going

11. Good writing still has a place in contemporary ______ .


a. circle b. crowd c. society

12. Mr. Parker ______ a monthly budget of over 7 million for


covert operations.
a. is responsible about b. is responsible for c. is reliable on

13. The pagan tribes were easily _____ by the Persian armies.
a. conquered b. won c. gained

14. Thomas Hardy wrote poetry as well as ______ .


a. literature b. fiction c. books

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15. Many teenagers are fond of ______ because it often describes
space travel and life on other planets.
a. scientific fiction b. science literature c. science fiction

16. Jules Vernes novels are exciting and full of ______ .


a. science fiction b. adventures c. experience

17. The exact origin of the universe remains ______ .


a. a mystery b. a joke c. fiction

18. In the USA there are a lot of illegal ______ from Mexico
entering the country.
a. people b. aliens c. alien beings

19. You should take into consideration the potential ______ of the
deal with Microsoft Computers Inc. for our company.
a. gains b. proceeds c. benefits

20. The relationship between the companies was ______ .


a. mutually benefited b. mutually beneficial
c. both beneficial

Exercise 132.
Choose the correct variant.

1. If we ______ inflation ______ , we actually spend less now.


a. make an account b. take for account
c. take into account

2. Home visits by staff are an _____ of the service.


a. integral part b. integral share c. integration part

3. There is nothing ______ this dress, but if you dont like the way it
fits you, take it back to the shop.
a. wrongly with b. wrong with c. wrong about

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4. Some aliens in Ireland have been ______ for months.
a. out of the work b. away from work c. out of work

5. The results of this work were ______ excellent but still better
than last year.
a. by no means b. by all means c. at no means

6. We were ______ when the telephone rang.


a. on the point of leaving b. at the point of leaving
c. on the point to leave

7. Samantha Kelly kept walking ______ the hallway all night long
thinking over the situation.
a. about and down b. along and up c. up and down

8. Our dependence ______ oil as a source of energy is absolutely


enormous.
a. of b. on c. from

9. The relationship in our family is ______ mutual respect.


a. formed on b. founded from c. based on

10. Travellers to Africa are being ______ the danger of various


exotic infections.
a. threatened of b. warned from c. warned about

11. Protesters in Kathmandu threw stones at the police, who ______


rubber bullets.
a. answered to b. reacted to c. responded with

12. The Army officers expect their troops to ______ without


questions.
a. listen them b. obey them c. obey to them

13. A tartan is ______ of colourful lines and squares on cloth that is


typical of Scotland.
a. a picture b. a pattern c. a drawing

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14. The exam system at this University ______ on the one used in
Great Britain.
a. is patterned b. is designed c. is found

15. Eleanor felt her fellow workers had ______ unfairly, and she
complained to her boss.
a. behaved with her b. treated to her c. treated her

16. The injured were taken to Cape Cod hospital for ______ for
burns and smoke inhalation.
a. treatment b. care c. healing

17. Very often close people end their informal letters with the
words: Yours ______ .
a. faithfully b. sincerely c. affectionately

18. It never ______ my mind that Liza might be lying.


a. came across b. crossed over c. crossed

19. Do you ______ my bringing the children to the party?


a. mind b. object c. care

20. By now Dr. Barnards fame had spread far ______ South Africa.
a. over b. beside c. beyond

Exercise 133.
Choose the correct variant.

1. When the old woman ______ the top of the stairs her heart was
pounding.
a. achieved b. reached c. reached to

2. The Rubens Hotel in Amsterdam is ______ of the town centre.


a. within easy reach b. about close reach
c. within a short distance

195
3. Medicine must be kept ______ of children.
a. out of reach b. away from reach c. out of the distance

4. You dont have to go to his office, you can ______ Mr. Niranjan
by telephone.
a. achieve b. obtain c. reach

5. Such achievements are ______ now.


a. beyond reach b. beyond the reach c. above the reach

6. The Republic of Tunisia ______ independence from France in


1957.
a. achieved b. reached c. approached

7. It is not so easy for actors to ______ fame and fortune in


Hollywood.
a. reach b. succeed in c. achieve

8. A spokesman ______ that the company had acted irresponsibly.


a. refused b. denied c. gave up

9. Arnolds wife finally persuaded him to ______ cigars.


a. give up smoking b. give up to smoke c. refuse smoking

10. Though Rayon was always busy he didnt ______ the pleasure
of going to the theatre from time to time.
a. refuse b. give up c. deny

11. Grimes absolutely ______ to take part in anything illegal.


a. denied b. refused c. gave up

12. Mother refused ______ back to hospital.


a. to go b. from going c. going

13. Having spent 17 days in the open sea after the shipwreck, the
crew of the Medusa still didnt ______ hope of being saved.

196
a. refuse b. give up c. reject

14. After crossing the field in the rain the travellers were covered in
mud ______ .
a. from the head to the foot b. from head to foot
c. from head to feet

15. During the game it is important to keep your ______ the ball at
all times.
a. eyes on b. eye on c. wits on

16. The parents noticed that their son had ______ for music.
a. a good eye b. a good head c. an ear

17. The family enjoyed spending their holidays in a small


picturesque pueblo ______ of the Manzanares river.
a. on the top b. at the foot c. in the mouth

18. Many women ______ a dilemma how to combine a career and


children.
a. face with b. face c. eye

19. A group of people who have the power to create new laws is
called a ______ .
a. legislation body b. legislative body c. legislative corps

20. Priscilla decided that Tom would marry her only when he stood
on his ______ .
a. own legs b. own feet c. legs

Unit 9

The Infinitive

Exercise 134.
Choose the correct word.

197
1. ______ the top of the Jungfrau Mountain was the climbers aim.
a. to reach b. reach

2. It is difficult ______ friendship.


a. to keep up b. keeping up

3. All you have to do is ______ us about the results of the


experiment in time.
a. to inform b. informing

4. The first thing the students must do at the beginning of the


academic year is ______ all the necessary books and manuals from
the library.
a. to take b. taking

5. Dave took a year out ______ the world and ______ his
experience in life.
a. to see broaden b. for seeing broadening

6. Gregory decided to get the second higher education ______ his


professional skills in economics.
a. to improve b. for improving

7. It isnt necessary ______ rich to be happy.


a. to being b. to be

8. One should eat ______ , not live ______ .


(Moliere/Jean-Batiste Poquelin)
a. to live to eat b. living eating

9. The best thing is ______ natural but it takes make-up to look


natural.
(Calvin Klein)
a. to look b. looking

10. You arent fit enough ______ the Army.

198
a. to join b. for joining

11. This girl is too clever ______ .


a. to take in b. to be taken in

12. I was surprised ______ that Amanda was going to marry Bob.
a. to learn b. about learning

13. They didnt publish the news ______ frighten the public.
a. so as not to b. that not to

14. Eugene was not disappointed, he had never really expected


______ the test.
a. to pass b. passing

15. Please dont hesitate ______ us if you have any problems.


a. to call b. in calling

16. He was anxious ______ late.


a. not to arrive b. of not arriving

17. Im not permitted ______ you an answer right now, at this stage
of investigation.
a. to give b. to be given

18. In order ______ the criminals the government closed the


borders.
a. to catch b. of catching

19. The sales team aims ______ its target by at least five per cent
this year.
a. to exceed b. for exceeding

20. Ned is not pleased ______ such simple work every time. He
knows he can do more.
a. to be given b. to give

199
Exercise 135.
Choose the correct word.

1. He claims ______ her brother but I think he is lying.


a. to be b. being

2. The doctor advised me ______ in bed, but it is just so boring.


a. to stay b. to be staying

3. The teacher threatened ______ their behaviour to the principal.


a. to report b. them to report

4. We waited ______ before saying goodbye to Jennifer.


a. for the train to leave b. the train to leave

5. They arranged for Jane ______ in London at the International


Summer School.
a. to stay b. stayed

6. Tom longed for his plan ______ by the Executive Board, which
might result in his promotion.
a. to accept b. to be accepted

7. You can watch the film if you promise ______ straight


afterwards.
a. to go to bed b. going to bed

8. The youngest person ______ the programme was just fourteen.


a. to enter b. entered

9. The window seat on the train is usually the first ______ taken.
a. to be b. is

10. Linda was the only one ______ for the whole performance.
a. to stay b. stayed

200
11. That was the very first programme ______ on the new channel.
a. to be shown b. to show

12. We didnt want to be the last ones ______ the reading room.
a. to leave b. to be left

13. Its a shame ______ to the exhibition of the works by Toulouse-


Lautrec.
a. not to go b. not go

14. This is the report ______ in tomorrow.


a. to be handed b. to hand

15. We have nothing ______ on the subject. Lets call it a day.


a. to discuss b. to be discussed

16. Dont disturb me, Ive got a report ______ this evening.
a. to write b. to be written

17. After seeing the disgusting behaviour of his friend, Robert had
little desire ______ him again.
a. to meet b. of meeting

18. When we came to Wembley Stadium there was no vacant place


______ .
a. to sit b. to be sat

19. I cant go to the reception. I have nothing ______ appropriate


for the occasion.
a. to wear b. for wearing

20. Tomas Wolf is hard ______ in the original. Instead of Look


Homeward, Angel you should start with some adapted short
stories.
a. to read b. to be read

201
The Infinitive with and without to

Exercise 136.
Choose the correct word.
1. It would be wonderful ______ around the world with friends.
a. to travel b. travel

2. The City Council have invited the Prime Minister ______ the
new building of the Trade Centre.
a. to open b. open

3. Its really cold today, the children had better ______ at home.
a. stay b. to stay

4. That programme was funny. It really made me ______ a lot.


a. laugh b. to laugh

5. Bartholomew was made ______ his suitcase at the Customs, then


they searched him thoroughly.
a. to open b. open

6. Im starving! I must have something ______ .


a. to eat b. eat

7. The childs hands are dirty. He really must ______ them before he
gets his candy.
a. wash b. to wash

8. As soon as I have got all the information I need, Ill let you
______ .
a. know b. to know

9. I would rather ______ to the ballet than to a baseball game.


a. go b. to go

10. Please, hurry up! It would be silly ______ our train.


a. to miss b. miss

202
11. Poor Benjamin has caught a cold. Its better for him ______ in
bed.
a. to stay b. stay

12. My back is hurting again. I think Id better ______ a doctor or a


chiropractor.
a. see b. to see

13. People miles away heard the bomb ______ .


a. to explode b. explode

14. The witnesses claimed that they had seen the car ______ into the
wall.
a. crash b. to crash

15. Very often children are not allowed ______ chocolate.


a. eat b. to eat

16. Why not ______ for a stroll after hard work?


a. go b. to go

17. Why ______ people when we can do it ourselves?


a. disturb b. to disturb

18. My parents refused ______ me ______ out until I had finished


doing my homework.
a. to let go b. let to go

19. Im not sure I can afford ______ to the party tonight.


a. to go b. go

20. We expect Tommy ______ on us on Sunday.


a. to call b. call

203
Review Test 137.
Put in the infinitive of the verbs. Decide whether or not you need to.

A: Are you sure youll (1 be) all right on your own?

B: Yes, of course. I can manage (2 look) after myself.


Im pleased Kate invited you (3 stay).

A: Were going (4 have) some fun, I just know it.

B: Its a long journey. Let me (5 buy) you a magazine (6 read).


A: Not when Im travelling. You know it makes me (7 feel) sick,
even in a train. Id rather just (8 look) out of the window.

B: OK. Well, youd better (9 get) in. I think its about (10 leave).
Oh, did I remind you (11 change) at Birmingham?

A: Yes, you did. I wont (12 forget).

Review Test 138.


Write a reply to the letter from an old school friend using the words
in brackets.

Dear Lisa,

(1 I/very pleased/receive) your letter which arrived yesterday. (2


it/marvellous/hear) from you after such a long time. (3 how
silly/you/think) that I had forgotten you! (4 it/very
generous/you/invite me) to come and stay with you. Id really like
to do that next time Im in Scotland. (5 I/sorry/read) that you had
not been invited to Cora and Steves wedding. (6 how
selfish/them/not/invite you) especially after all youve done for
them!

Review Test 139.

204
Open the brackets using the correct form of the infinitive.

ANYTHING GOES!
When Mr. Sam Quirky installed a huge plastic flying elk, about 8
meters tall, on the roof of his house, he said he was free ______ (1
do) what he liked on his own property.
However, the local council have other ideas. Although we are
always eager ______ (2 support) genuine modern art, local laws
forbid this kind of installation, said a spokesperson.
The first person______ (3 notice) the elk was a neighbour,
Mrs. Menendez, who told me: I was quite surprised at first, but
now Im quite happy ______ (4 see) it there. It makes the view
from my window more interesting.
The last thing Mr. Quirky told me was: Whatever the local council
says, Im determined ______ (5 keep) the elk on my roof.
And a spokesperson for the Campaign for Civil Liberties said: We
are very anxious for Mr. Quirky ______ (6 allow) to keep the elk.
And with so many views on the subject, this reporter is reluctant
______ (7 express) an opinion!

Review Test 140.


Complete the passage using enough or too on their own or together
with the verbs in brackets.

Two young sailors are recovering in hospital today, after their boat
overturned. Jason Potter, aged nine, told their story:
We tried to turn the boat the right way, but we just werent strong
______ (1 do) it. Then we tried to get to the beach, but it was
______ (2) far ______ (3 swim). The wind blew us back and we
couldnt swim hard ______ (4). We saw another boat, and shouted
for help, but they were ______ (5) far away ______ (6 hear) us.
The children swam to the foot of the cliffs, where they were noticed
by a Mr. Frank Payne. The cliffs were much ______ (7 ) high for
the kids ______ (8 climb), so I called the lifeboat. The lifeboat
captain commented: Children that age arent experienced ______

205
(9 sail) in high winds. The weather conditions were much ______
(10) dangerous ______ (11 go) outside the harbour.

Review Test 141.


Open the brackets using an active or passive to-infinitive.

EDITOR: Peter, have you got much ______ (1 do) today?

PETER: Yes, quite a lot. Why?

EDITOR: Well, it looks as if Ive got a pretty full day. There are
some Spanish visitors ______ (2 show around) at 3.30. Thatll
take an hour. And at eleven this morning Ive got a new reporter
______ (3 interview). And Ive got two phone calls ______ (4
make). I must speak to Luigi and Charles. And I had a pile of
messages ______ (5 deal with) even before you came in.

PETER: Well, I could show the visitors round. That would help a
bit. And I see theres the annual circulation report ______ (6
write). I can do that, cant I?

EDITOR: Of course you can. And then theres the leading article
______ (7 draft) early this afternoon. Id better do that myself.

Review Test 142.


Open the brackets using an active or passive to-infinitive.

Why did I ever come here? It looked great in the holiday brochure,
so Ive got nobody ______ (1 blame) but myself. But let me tell
you, Ive been here two days and Im bored! Theres nothing
______ (2 do), nowhere ______ (3 go) and nobody ______ (4
talk to). True, there are a few sights ______ (5 see), but you can
do that in your first day. One good thing I did was to bring some
books with me. Ive got two more novels ______ (6 read). Ill

206
finish both tomorrow! And then there are all those postcards ______
(7 write) to friends. Itll give me something ______ (8 do)!

Review Test 143.


Read the letter below. Open the brackets. Decide whether or not
you need to.

Just a quick note and a few words of advice before you leave for
England.
I think you should try ____ (1 get) a nice family (2 stay) with. Some
families let their guests (3 do) more or less what they want. But others
make them (4 do) all sorts of unpleasant things, such as housework
and the washing-up. I have even heard of one family that forced a
student (5 take) the dog for a walk and (6 look after) the children.
This is why I would advise you (7 stay) with the Jacksons, in
Wimbledon. Mrs. Jackson is a wonderful person. If you can get a
room there, you neednt (8 worry) about anything! Shell allow
you (9 do) almost anything you like and she really knows how
(10 cook), as well!

Tense Revision

Exercise 144.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

OPENING OF NEW FAIRDENE SPORTS CENTRE


The Gulliver Sports Centre which ______ (1), was reopened
yesterday by the Minister for Sport. The building ______ (2) as a
market, but ______ (3) to Fairdene Council in 1981, and then (4)
______ into a sports hall. Local schools ______ (5) football and
basketball indoors, and keep fit classes ______ (6) there. In 1990
the hall ______ (7) by a fire which ______ (8) in the heating
system. The hall could not be used and ______ (9) empty while
discussions ______ (10) about its future. It ______ (11) that the hall
______ (12), and an appeal for money ______ (13). Two years ago a

207
local businessman offered ______ (14) for the building work, and
plans ______ (15). The new hall ______ (16) a swimming pool,
running track and other sports facilities which can ______ (17) by
anyone in the Fairdene area. The Minister ______ (18) a speech in
which she ______ (19) everyone involved.

1. a. has been completely rebuilt b. was completely rebuilt


c. completely rebuilt
2. a. has been originally used b. originally used
c. was originally used
3. a. sold b. is sold c. was sold
4. a. was converted b. is converted c. has been converted
5. a. were playing b. played c. were played
6. a. were held b, held c. were holding
7. a. had been damaged b. was damaged c. damaged
8. a. was broke b. was broken c. broke
9. a. remained b. was remained c. was remaining
10. a. were continued b. continued c. were continuing
11. a. was then decided b. then was decided c. then decided
12. a. would rebuilt b. would be rebuilt c. rebuilt
13. a. launched b. had been launched c. was launched
14. a. to pay b. paying c. pay
15. a. drew up b. were drawn up c. were being drawn up
16. a. is included b. is including c. includes
17. a. be used b. used c. be using
18. a. made b. has made c. was made
19. a. was congratulated b. has congratulated c. congratulated

Exercise 145.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

Have you ever wondered what exactly ______ (1) in ten years
time? Well, according to computer expert Tom Vincent, computers
______ (2) to make accurate predictions about the future. Professor
Vincent from Cambridge University ______ (3) a press conference

208
next week to describe the computer which he calls
Computafuture. This computer can tell us what life ______ (4)
like, based on data describing past events, explains Professor
Vincent. For example, Computafuture can predict how many people
______ (5) in a particular area, or whether there ______ (6) a lot of
rain during a particular period. Professor Vincent also believes that
by the year 2050, computers ______ (7) teachers, and ______ (8)
most of the jobs now being done by the police. Computers are
becoming more intelligent all the time, says Professor Vincent.
Soon they ______ (9) traffic and ______ (10) our children. And
telling us about the future.

1. a. will you be doing b. you will be doing c. you have done


2. a. soon will be able b. soon are able c. will soon be able
3. a. holds b. is holding c. is helding
4. a. will be b. would be c. to be
5. a. live b. will be living c. are living
6. a. are b. was c. will be
7. a. will be replaced b. will have replaced c. will replace
8. a. also do b. will also be doing
c. will also have been doing
9. a. will be directing b. will have directed c. direct
10. a. will be teaching b. will have taught c. teach

Exercise 146.
Choose the most appropriate tense form.

It ______ (1) exactly when gunpowder was invented. It ______ (2)


for a fact that rockets and fireworks ______ (3) by the Chinese long
before gunpowder ______ (4) in Europe, which ______ (5) at about
the beginning of the thirteenth century. It ______ (6) that the Age
of Chivalry _____ (7) to an end by gunpowder, since a mounted
knight ______ (8) down by anyone with a firearm. In fact, efficient
firearms ______ (9) until the sixteenth century. When it ______
(10), gunpowder ______ (11) mainly in the siege cannon. Later it
______ (12) in engineering work and mining, but it ______ (13) to

209
be extremely dangerous. Gunpowder ______ (14) by modern
explosives, but it ______ (15) for making fireworks, just as it
______ (16) by the Chinese.

1. a. is not known b. not known c. doesnt know


2. a. is being known b. is known c. knows
3. a. are made b. have been made c. were made
4. a. would be used b. was used c. used to
5. a. occurred b. had occurred c. was occurred
6. a. is generally being believed b. is generally believed
c. generally believes
7. a. brought b. was brought c. had been brought
8. a. could be brought b. can be brought c. could bring
9. a. were not being developed b. didnt develop
c. were not developed
10. a. was first introduced b. first introduced
c. would be first introduced
11. a. used b. had been used c. was used
12. a. used to b. was used c. was used to
13. a. was found b. had been found c. found
14. a. was now replaced b. now replaced
c. has now been replaced
15. a. still is used b. is still used c. is still using
16. a. had been b. was been c. was

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 147.
Choose the correct variant.

1. Mr. Sutcliff is known to be a respected ______ critic and art


connoisseur.
a. literature b. literal c. literary

2. The Pushkin Museum of ______ in Moscow attracts thousands of


visitors.

210
a. Fine Arts b. Fine Art c. Art

3. The Faculty of ______ graduates a lot of skilled specialists.


a. the Arts b. Arts c. Art

4. You dont need to be very ______ to produce great designs.


a. artistical b. artful c. artistic

5. London is still very much the ______ capital of Great Britain.


a. cultural b. culture c. cultured

6. My friend Miguel is a ______ man who knows a lot about music,


literature and other arts.
a. cultural b. culture c. cultured

7. This small curiosity shop selling ______ is very popular with the
tourists.
a. crafts b. handicrafts c. a handicraft

8. Vanessa Redgrave now ______ herself to childrens charity work.


a. gives b. attracts c. dedicates

9. My mother was a ______ and thoughtful teacher.


a. dedicated b. practical c. working

10. Anna has always shown intense ______ to her husband and
children.
a. dedication b. devotion c. attraction

11. We have a huge ______ of quality Persian carpets on sale.


a. stock b. supply c. resource

12. Im sorry, Mrs. Parker, this isoprene scuba-diving swim-suite is


completely ______ in your size.
a. out of stock b. away from stock c. out of supply

13. Leaving home was a major ______ in Eugene Gunts life.

211
a. occasion b. event c. happening

14. The trade unions ______ local politics in this miners town is
immense.
a. power on b. effect on c. influence on

15. Dr. Strangelove was extremely ______ in raising peoples


awareness of the disease.
a. influenced b. influential c. main

16. Parliament of Kerala unanimously ______ the Committees


proposals on social programmes.
a. adapted b. agreed c. adopted

17. The Sendero Luminoso rebels have agreed to ______ the peace
talks.
a. penetrate b. participate at c. participate in

18. All the ______ the televised debate are well-known politicians.
a. participants in b. participants of c. members of

19. After graduation from Berkeley Henry was ______ a scholarship


to do research in biology.
a. awarded with b. awarded c. presented with

20. The Russian Embassy in Antananarivo held a reception ______


Independence Day.
a. in honour of b. after c. for

Exercise 148.
Choose the correct variant.

1. For a while, we were ______ the idea.


a. enthusiastic about b. enthusiastical about
c. enthusiastic of

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2. The increase in the inflation level ______ that the wages are
rising too fast.
a. stresses b. expresses c implies

3. The company currently enjoys a high ______ with its new line of
mobile phones.
a. fame b. success c. profile

4. In this embarrassing situation Mr. Smiley was advised to keep a


______ in court.
a. down profile b. lower profile c. low profile

5. Volunteers of the Peace Corps worked ______ professional


builders in a massive reconstruction programme after the earthquake
in Chile.
a. along b. along with c. alongside with

6. The famous musical The Phantom of the Opera by Lloyd


Webber has enjoyed a successful ______ on Broadway for many
years now.
a. period b. continuation c. run

7. Jessica really wanted to ______ a good impression at the start of


the interview at Wilbour Computers Inc. office in Dallas.
a. improve b. create c. do

8. The Gorgon sisters Medusa, Stheno and Euryale were mythical


______ .
a. creations b. creators c. creatures

9. The question of expelling five students from Massachusetts


Institute of Technology is ______ now.
a. in consideration b. under consideration c. in considering

10. Mayor Dixon ______ the efforts of those involved in the rescue.
a. praised b. approved c. worshipped

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11. His parents live in ______ house in suburban Melbourne.
a. a common b. a general c. an ordinary

12. All the neighbours in this South London area ______ their
gardens.
a. take care for b. take care of c. keep care on

13. This shop is not popular as the staff dont care ______ the
customers at all.
a. of b. in c. about

14. Cant we deal with this matter now ______ until tomorrow?
a. instead of waiting b. instead to wait
c. instead from waiting

15. My mother never ______ me when I look bad.


a. hesitates telling b. hesitates to tell c. expects to tell

16. The ______ rose is a familiar sight in woods and hedges of rural
England.
a. domestic b. stray c. wild

17. The town of Greenbelt is located in pleasant ______ not far


from Washington, D.C.
a. surround b. surroundings c. outskirts

18. A party of tourists set out ______ a journey at dawn.


a. on b. for c. to

19. I almost burst out ______ when I saw the tie Larry was wearing.
a. of laughing b. from laughing c. laughing

20. Can you ______ Mike and tell him the meeting is postponed?
a. get hold of b. keep hold of c. take hold on

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Key

Unit 1

Exercise 1.
1. b, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. b, 20. a.

Exercise 2.
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. a, 11. b, 12. b, 13. a,
14. b, 15. a, 16. a, 17. b, 18. b, 19. b, 20. b.

Exercise 3.
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. b, 9. b, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. b,
14. b, 15. b, 16. a, 17. b, 18. b, 19. b, 20. a.

Exercise 4.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. b.

Review test 5.
1. a, 2. the, 3. -, 4. 5. a, 6. - / any, 7. the, 8. -, 9. -, 10. - / some, 11.
-, 12. a, 13. -, 14. -, 15. -.

Exercise 6.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. b, 10. b, 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. c, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 7.
1. c, 2. b, 3. b, 4. b, 5. c, 6. a, 7. c, 8. a, 9. b, 10. c, 11. c, 12. c, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. a, 17. c, 18. c, 19. c, 20. b.

Review Test 8.
1. much, 2. little, 3. much, 4. many, 5. few, 6. little.

Review Test 9.
1. a lot of, 2. many / a lot of, 3. many, 4. a lot of, 5. much / a lot of,
6. many / a lot of, 7. much.

215
Review Test 10.
1. information, 2. chocolate, 3. advise is, 4. wine, 5. an equivalent
quality, 6. chocolate, 7. a better, 8. the amount of, 9. less sugar, 10.
content, 11. less than, 12. per cent, 13. ingredients, 14. coffee, 15.
strong, 16. a cake, 17. flour, 18. scales, 19. these.

Exercise 11.
1. b, 2. c, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. b, 10. c, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. b, 15. a, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. b, 20. c.

Exercise 12.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a / b, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a, 11. b, 12. b,
13. a, 14. b, 15. b, 16. a, 17. b, 18. b, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 13.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. b, 9. b, 10. b, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. c, 15. c, 16. a, 17. c, 18. c, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 14.
1. c, 2. a, 3. c, 4. b, 5. c, 6. a, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. c,
14. b, 15. b, 16. c, 17. c, 18. b, 19. a, 20. c.

Review Test 15.


1. some, 2. any, 3. any, 4. some, 5. some, 6. some, 7. any.

Exercise 16.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. b, 9. b, 10. a.

Exercise 17.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. b, 15. a, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a, 21. a, 22. a, 23. a, 24. a,
25. b.

Review Test 18.


1. It, 2. it, 3. There, 4. there, 5. There, 6. It, 7. there, 8. there, 9. It,
10. it, 11. It, 12. It, 13. There, 14. it, 15. it.

216
Exercise 19.
1. b, 2. a, 3. c, 4. c, 5. b, 6. a, 7. b, 8. b, 9. a, 10. c, 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. b, 15. c, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 20.
1. a, 2. b, 3. c, 4. b, 5. c, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. c, 15. b, 16. c, 17. c, 18. c, 19. a, 20. a.

Unit 2

Exercise 21.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. b, 9. a, 10. b, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a, 15. b, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 22.
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. b.

Review Test 23.


1. gets, 2. comes, 3. will remind, 4. will make, 5. knows, 6. post, 7.
will receive.

Exercise 24.
1. leaves, 2. arrive, 3. get, 4. will be shown, 5. be given, 6. is served,
7. dont get, 8. finishes, 9. will be, 10. are provided, 11. is, 12. will
stay, 13. will go back, 14. are expected, 15. find, 16. will look, 17.
get back, 18. will help, 19. dont recognize, 20. is served, 21. is,
22.plans, 23. stay, 24. wont be, 25. get lost, 26. will all have

Exercise 25.
1. b, 2. a, 3. b, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. c, 9. c, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. b, 15. a, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. c, 20. c.

Exercise 26.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. b, 16. a, 17. b, 18. a, 19. b, 20. a.

217
Review Test 27.
1. oldest, 2. bigger, 3. more modern, 4. more comfortable, 5. most
expensive, 6. more popular, 7. more boring, 8. smaller, 9. more
pleasant, 10. more helpful, 11. nicer, 12. noisiest, 13. busiest.

Review Test 28.


1. more convenient, 2. driest, 3. nicest, 4. most beautiful, 5. more
sensible, 6. cheaper, 7. better, 8. worse.

Exercise 29.
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b, 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. b, 20. b.

Exercise 30.
1. b, 2. b, 3. b, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. b, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a, 15. b, 16. b, 17. b, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Review Test 31.


1. dark, 2. terribly, 3. badly, 4. suddenly, 5. unhappy, 6. sadly, 7.
anxious, 8. friendly, 9. hard, 10. foolishly.

Review Test 32.


1. comfortable, 2. windy, 3. expensive, 4. well, 5. greasy, 6. hungry,
7. suitable, 8. true, 9. fully, 10. sleepy, 11. thankful, 12. badly, 13.
terribly, 14. probably, 15. bad, 16. immediately.

Review Test 33.


1. lately, 2. widely, 3. mostly, 4. slow, 5. little, 6. wrongly, 7.
quickly, 8. highly, 9. far, 10. further, 11. long, 12. late.

Exercise 34.
1. a, 2. a, 3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. a, 7. b, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a, 11. c, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b, 16. c, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 35.
1. a, 2. c, 3. b, 4. b, 5. c, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. c, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. c, 15. a, 16. a, 17. b, 18. c, 19. a, 20. a.

218
Exercise 36.
1. a, 2. c, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. c, 9. b, 10. a, 11. a, 12. b, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b, 16. a, 17. c, 18. a, 19. b, 20. a.

Unit 3

Exercise 37.
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b.

Exercise 38.
1. a, 2. a, 3. b, 4. a, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. b, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a, 15. b, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. a.

Review Test 39.


1. seems, 2. are feeling, 3. are staying, 4. is, 5. stands, 6. looks, 7.
costs, 8. make, 9. tastes, 10. is shining.

Exercise 40.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. b, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 41.
1. b, 2. a, 3. b, 4. a, 5. a, 6. b, 7. b, 8. b, 9. a, 10. b. 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. b.

Review Test 42.


1. stopped, 2. was happening, 3. looked, 4. were standing, 5. was
passing, 6. was giving/gave, 7. were working/worked, 8. was
getting/got, 9. could not, 10. was emptying, 11. were
behaving/behaved, 12. coughed, 13. said, 14. dropped.

Exercise 43.
1. b, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. b, 11. b, 12. b, 13.
b, 14. b, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. b.

219
Exercise 44.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b, 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20.a.

Review Test 45.


1. are going to build, 2. will be/is going to be, 3. will like/are going
to like, 4. will be/are going to be, 5. are going to have, 6. will be/is
going to be, 7. are going to stop

Review Test 46.


1. will be speaking, 2. am going, 3. am leaving, 4. am visiting/am
going to visit, 5. will be, 6. starts, 7. will see, 8. will tell, 9. get.

Review Test 47.


1. get of, 2. will help, 3. will be, 4. is going to be, 5. is coming, 6. is
going to be, 7. will need, 8. will test, 9. make, 10. will probably
regret, 11. will bring, 12. will be

Exercise 48
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b,5. b, 6. b, 7. b, 8. b, 9. b, 10. b, 11. a, 12. b, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Review Test 49
1. to leave, 2. to unpack and get, 3. to get, 4. to stay, 5. not to go off,
6. to make.

Exercise 50.
1. a, 2. a, 3. b, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. b, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. b, 15. b, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 51.
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. a, 6. c, 7. a, 8. c, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b, 16. a, 17. c, 18. c, 19. c, 20. a.

Exercise 52.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. b, 11. c, 12. b, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. b, 17. c, 18. a, 19. c, 20. c.

220
Unit 4

Exercise 53.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 54.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. b.

Review Test 55.


1. has stood, 2. was, 3. stayed, 4. have lived, 5. have known, 6. was,

Review Test 56.


1. has been, 2. has become, 3. has now started, 4. was born, 5.
moved, 6. completed, 7. began, 8. appeared, 9. got, 10. has since
made, 11. went on, 12. moved, 13. has made, 14. have been, 15. has
never been, 16. marked, 17. has been directing, 18. has directed, 19.
has lived/has been living, 20. married.

Review Test 57.


1. has happened, 2. has had, 3. fell, 4. broke, 5. did this happen, 6.
told, 7. knew, 8. didnt tell, 9. didnt see, 10. havent seen, 11. has
had, 12. did.

Exercise 58.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. a, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. b, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Review Test 59.


1. sat, 2. felt, 3. didnt know, 4. had gone in, 5. had been, 6. had
looked, 7. went in, 8. felt, 9. had already got, 10. was, 11. wanted,
12. meant, 13. had thought, 14. had imagined, 15. was, 16. couldnt
remember, 17. had planned, 18. almost decided, 19. had to do,
20. had spent, 21. couldnt give up, 22. were, 23. felt, 24. opened,

221
25. had gone in, 26. came out, 27. smiled, 28. hated, 29. appeared,
30. suddenly wished, 31. got up, 32. wondered, 33. looked, 34. felt.

Review Test 60.


1. has become, 2. began, 3. was studying, 4. stood, 5. didnt win, 6.
had ever been, 7. elected/has elected/had been elected, 8. just
laughed, 9. got up, 10. has shown, 11. has never been, 12. has
fought/has been fighting, 13. were continually writing, 14.
treated/were treating/had treated, 15. had thrown them out/threw
them out, 16. always took/has always taken, 17. interviewed, 18.
was planning, 19. has already persuaded/had already persuaded, 20.
told.

Exercise 61.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. b, 9. a, 10. b, 11. b, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. b, 20. a.

Review Test 62.


1. will be working, 2. will be, 3. will be working, 4. will have
completed, 5. will be, 6. will have finished, 7. will have been
working on/will have worked, 8. will jump, 9. will you be going/are
you going, 10. will have arrived, 11. are going, 12. will see.

Review Test 63.


1. does their plane arrive, 2. am meeting, 3. wont be/am not going
to be, 4. finishes, 5. will be working/am going to work, 6. will they
be, 7. will have finished, 8. will be, 9. am having/will be having, 10.
am picking up/will be picking up, 11. will have to, 12. are
meeting/will meet.

Exercise 64.
1. b, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Review Test 65.


I.

222
1. had been seen, 2. had been, 3. doesnt own, 4. had gone, 5. is, 6.
hadnt telephoned, 7. had been found, 8. had been storing/was
storing.

II.
1. was entitled, 2. knows, 3. had been, 4. was visiting/had been
visiting, 5. was walking/had been walking, 6. is.

Exercise 66.
1. b, 2. a, 3. b, 4. c, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. b.

Exercise 67.
1. it will take/it is going to take, 2. will you lend, 3. I will pay, 4.
you wont have to, 5. we will share, 6. will be/is going to be, 7. will
wish/will be wishing/is going to wish, 8. we will have recovered, 9.
you wont get/you are not going to get, 10. he wont be able, 11. he
is selling/he will sell/he is going to sell, 12. I am meeting/Im going
to meet, 13. we sign/we are going to sign/we will sign, 14. I pay/Im
going to pay, 15. he will send/he is going to send/he will be sending.

Exercise 68.
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4.b, 5.a, 6.a, 7.b, 8.a, 9.b, 10.c, 11.a, 12. b, 13.c, 14.b,
15.c, 16. a, 17. b, 18. b, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 69.
1. b, 2. c, 3. a, 4. b, 5. c, 6. a, 7. a, 8. c, 9. b, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. c, 16. b, 17. c, 18. b, 19. c, 20. b.

Exercise 70.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b, 11. b, 12. b, 13. c,
14. b, 15. c, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. c, 20. a.

Exercise 71.
1. b, 2. c, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. c, 8. a, 9. c, 10. c, 11. a, 12. b, 13. c,
14. c, 15. a, 16. a, 17. b, 18. c, 19. b, 20. b.

Exercise 72.

223
1. b, 2. a, 3. b, 4. a, 5. b, 6. a, 7. c, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. c, 12. c, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b, 16. b, 17. b, 18. c, 19. c, 20. a.

Unit 5

Exercise 73.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Review Test 74.


1.
1. have been thinking, 2. has been acting, 3. has been crying, 4. has
been making, 5. have you talked, 6. has said.
2.
7. have you been, 8. have been talking, 9. has been trying, 10. have
been, 11. havent heard, 12. has had, 13. has been, 14. has she
broken, 15. has been hurt.

Review Test 75.


1. it has been, 2. we have been hoping, 3. havent you written, 4.
have always meant, 5. I have sent, 6. has been saving, 7. we have
put, 8. has gone on, 9. hasnt been enjoying/hasnt enjoyed, 10. has
had to, 11. he has had, 12. has been coming, 13. we have managed,
14. have you seen, 15. he has left, 16. we have been getting, 17. he
hasnt said, 18. you have done.

Exercise 76.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a, 15. b, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. a.

Review Test 77.


1. was sailing, 2. was heading, 3. had worked, 4. had been
conducting, 5. had been, 6. was coming, 7. had been writing, 8. had
said, 9. went, 10. was, 11. were crashing, 12. heard, 13. had run.

Exercise 78.

224
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b.

Exercise 79.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. b, 9. b, 10. a.

Exercise 80.
1. b, 2. b,3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. b.

Review Test 81.


1. had been doing, 2. had had, 3. had taken, 4. had been snowing, 5.
was, 6. was born, 7. had lived, 8. was married, 9. had, 10. was
separated, 11. had, 12. had worked, 13. was earning, 14. liked, 15.
had told, 16. expected, 17. went.

Review Test 82.


1. c, 2. a, 3. a, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. c, 8. a, 9. c, 10. a.

Exercise 83.
1. b, 2. b, 3. b, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b.

Exercise 84.
1. b, 2. a, 3. b, 4. c, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. a, 10. b, 11. c, 12. b, 13. b,
14. b, 15. a, 16. c, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. c.

Exercise 85.
1. a, 2. b, 3. c, 4. b, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. a, 9. b, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. c, 16. a, 17. b, 18. c.

Exercise 86.
1. b, 2. c, 3. a, 4. c, 5. b, 6. c, 7. c, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b, 11. b, 12. a, 13. c,
14. b, 15. b, 16. c, 17. b, 18. c, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 87.
1. b, 2. a, 3. b, 4. b, 5. c, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. c, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. c,
14. a, 15. c, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. b, 20. a.

225
Unit 6

Exercise 88.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b, 16. a, 17. b, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 89.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4.a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. b, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Review Test 90.


1. is regarded, 2. have been made, 3. has not been changed, 4. is
owned, 5. has been used, 6. is being built.

Exercise 91.
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a, 11. b, 12. b, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. a, 17. b, 18. b, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 92.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. a,b, 7. b, 8. a,b, 9. b, 10. a, 11. a,b, 12. a,
13. a, 14. a,b, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19.a, 20.a.

Exercise 93.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. b, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Review Test 94.


1. is/was based, 2. were interviewed, 3. were visited, 4. have/had
been built, 5. have been/had been/were designed, 6. was/had been
considered, 7. was closed, 8. have been renovated, 9. is shown, 10.
are equipped, 11. are provided, 12. were/are considered, 13. were
interviewed, 14. have been/were awarded

Review Test 95.


1. is caused, 2. is burned, 3. are carried, 4. transported, 5. have been
carried, 6. has been taken, 7. have been taken, 8. is dumped, 9. has

226
been launched, 10. to be considered, 11. was not being treated,
12. has been reported, 13. are being forced, 14. be solved, 15. will
be faced, 16. is expected.

Review Test 96.


1. are being driven, 2. are being killed, 3. cross, 4. are taken, 5. are
killed, 6. make, 7. often be seen, 8. are hit, 9. move around, 10. be
hypnotized, 11. do not move, 12. are sometimes hit, 13. fly, 14. Can
anything be done, 15. was built, 16. have been constructed, 17.
lives, 18. have been built, 19. has been put up, 20. look out, 21. are
often seen, 22. be hoped, 23. become.

Exercise 97.
1. c, 2. c, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. c, 7. a, 8. c, 9. b, 10. c, 11. b, 12. c, 13. a,
14. c, 15. b, 16. c, 17. b, 18. b, 19. b, 20. b.

Exercise 98.
1. b, 2. c, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. c, 7. c, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b, 11. b, 12. c, 13. c,
14. c, 15. a, 16. b, 17. b, 18. c, 19. b, 20. a, 21. a, 22. b, 23. a, 24. b,
25. b.

Exercise 99.
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. b, 5. c, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. c, 10. b.

Exercise 100.
1. c, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. c, 10. c, 11. a, 12. b, 13. c,
14. a, 15. b, 16. c, 17. c, 18. a.

Exercise 101.
1. b, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. c, 6. c, 7. b, 8. c, 9. b, 10. b, 11. c, 12. b, 13. a,
14. c, 15. a, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 102.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b, 11. b, 12. c, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. b, 20. c.

227
Exercise 103.
1. c, 2. a, 3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. a, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. c.

Unit 7

Exercise 104.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. b,
14. b, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. b, 19. b, 20. a.

Exercise 105.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 106.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a.

Review Test 107.


1. playing, 2. sitting, 3. call, 4. paying, 5. go, 6. leave, 7. collect, 8.
approaching, 9. walk.

Review Test 108.


1. not to speak, 2. to go, 3. go out, 4. see, 5. to go out, 6. go out, 7.
to stay out, 8. to do.

Review Test 109.


1. to think, 2. to explain, 3. to go back, 4. to write, 5. to produce, 6.
to include, 7. to feature, 8. to think.

Review Test 110.


1. to give, 2. to do, 3. to do, 4. to help, 5. to welcome, 6. to tell, 7. to
have, 8. to meet, 9. to be back.

Exercise 111.

228
1. a, 2. b, 3. c, 4. c, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. a, 9. b, 10. c, 11. a, 12. b, 13. b,
14. c, 15. b, 16. b, 17. b, 18. a, 19. b, 20. a.

Exercise 112.
1. b, 2. a, 3. c, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. c, 11. a, 12. a, 13. c,
14. a, 15. c.

Exercise 113.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. b, 9. c, 10. c.

Exercise 114.
1. b, 2. c, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b, 11. c, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. a, 16. c, 17. a, 18. a, 19. c, 20. b.

Exercise 115.
1. c, 2. c, 3. b, 4. b, 5. c, 6. b, 7. c, 8. b, 9. c, 10. a, 11. c, 12. b, 13. c,
14. b, 15. a, 16. b, 17. c, 18. a, 19. c, 20. c.

Exercise 116.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. c, 5. c, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b, 11. c, 12. b, 13. c,
14. c, 15. a, 16. c, 17. a, 18. c, 19. a, 20. c.

Exercise 117.
1.a, 2.c, 3.b, 4.b, 5.c, 6.b, 7.b, 8.c, 9.a, 10.c, 11.c, 12.a, 13.b, 14.c,
15.c, 16.b, 17.a, 18.b, 19.c, 20.a.

Unit 8

Exercise 118.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. c, 9. b, 10. a, 11. c, 12. a, 13. a,
14. c, 15. a, 16. a, 17. b, 18. a, 19. a, 20. c.

Exercise 119.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. c, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a.

Exercise 120.

229
1. a, 2. c, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. a, 9. c, 10. a, 11. c, 12. c, 13. c,
14. c, 15. a, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. c, 20. b.

Exercise 121.
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. c, 7. a, 8 .a, 9. c, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. c,
14.a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 122.
1. a, 2. b, 3. a, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. a, 8. b, 9. c, 10. c, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. a, 16. b, 17. c, 18. a, 19. a, 20. b.

Exercise 123.
1. a, 2. c, 3. c, 4 .b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. a.

Review Test 124.


1. b, 2. a, 3. c, 4. a, 5. b, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. c, 11. b, 12. b, 13. a,
14. a.

Review Test 125.


1. to see, 2. believe, 3. to buy, 4. to drop, 5. to rush out, 6. warn, 7.
think.

Review Test 126.


1. can, 2. would, 3. neednt, 4. must/has to, 5. must, 6.
shouldnt/mustnt, 7. might, 8. would, 9. couldnt/wouldnt be able
to, 10. would have to, 11. would have to, 12. must, 13. must, 14.
cant, 15. would have to, 16. could/would be able to, 17. shouldnt,
18. must, 19. would have to, 20. cant, 21. will have to/must.

Review Test 127.


A. 1.cant, 2.must, 3.should, 4.When must I come?
B. 1.cant, 2.can, 3.should, 4.Yesterday I had to go to the dentist.
C. 1.shouldnt, 2.would, 3.should, 4.neednt.
D. 1.ought to, 2.may, 3.cant, 4.can.
E. 1. cant, 2.can, 3.can, 4.should, 5.will do it for you.

Exercise 128.

230
1. b, 2. c, 3. a, 4. c, 5. b, 6. a, 7. b, 8. c, 9. c, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. b,
14. c, 15. a, 16. a, 17. b, 18. a, 19. b.

Exercise 129.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. c, 5. b, 6. a, 7. b, 8. c, 9. a, 10. b, 11. a, 12. c, 13. a,
14. b, 15. b, 16. a, 17. c, 18. a, 19. a, 20.a.

Exercise 130.
1. a, 2. c, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. c, 11. b, 12. a, 13. c,
14. c, 15. c, 16. a.

Exercise 131.
1. b, 2. c, 3. c, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. a, 8. c, 9. a, 10. a, 11. c, 12. b, 13. a,
14. b, 15. c, 16. b, 17. a, 18. b, 19. c, 20. b.

Exercise 132.
1. c, 2. a, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. b, 9. c, 10. c, 11. c, 12. b, 13. b,
14. a, 15. c, 16. a, 17. c, 18. c, 19. a, 20. c.

Exercise 133.
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. c, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. b, 9. a, 10. c, 11. b, 12. a, 13. b,
14. b, 15. b, 16. c, 17. c, 18. b, 19. b, 20. a.

Unit 9

Exercise 134.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. b, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 135.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. a,
14. a, 15. a, 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

Exercise 136.
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. a, 15. b 16. a, 17. a, 18. a, 19. a, 20. a.

231
Review Test 137.
1. be, 2. to look, 3. to stay, 4. to have, 5. buy, 6. to read, 7. feel, 8.
look, 9. get, 10. to leave, 11. to change, 12. forget.

Review Test 138.


1. am very pleased to receive, 2. It was marvellous to hear, 3. How
silly of you to think, 4. It was very generous of you to invite me, 5. I
was sorry to read, 6. How selfish of them not to invite you.

Review Test 139


1. to do, 2. to support, 3. to notice, 4. to see, 5. to keep, 6. to be
allowed, 7. to express.

Review Test 140.


1. enough to do, 2. too, 3. to swim, 4. enough, 5. too, 6. to hear, 7.
too, 8. to climb, 9. enough to sail, 10. too, 11. to go.

Review Test 141.


1. to do, 2. to be shown around, 3. to interview, 4. to make, 5. to
deal with, 6. to write/to be written, 7. to draft/to be drafted.

Review Test 142.


1. to blame, 2. to do, 3. to go, 4. to talk to, 5. to see, 6. to read, 7. to
write/to be written, 8. to do.

Review Test 143.


1. to get, 2. to stay, 3. do, 4. do, 5. to take, 6. to look after, 7. to stay,
8. worry, 9. to do, 10. to cook.

Exercise 144.
1. a, 2. c, 3. c, 4. a, 5. b, 6. a, 7. b, 8. c, 9. a, 10. b, 11. a, 12. b, 13. c,
14. a, 15. b, 16. c, 17. a, 18. a, 19. c.

Exercise 145.
1. b, 2. c, 3. b, 4. a, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a.

232
Exercise 146.
1. a, 2. b, 3. c, 4. b, 5. a, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. c, 10. a, 11. c, 12. b, 13. a,
14. c, 15. b, 16. c.

Exercise 147.
1. c, 2. a, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. c, 7. b, 8. c, 9. a, 10. b, 11. a, 12. a, 13. b,
14. c, 15. b, 16. c, 17. c, 18. a, 19. b, 20. a.

Exercise 148.
1. a, 2. c, 3. c, 4. c, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. c, 9. b, 10. a, 11. c, 12. b, 13. c,
14. a, 15. b, 16. c, 17. b, 18. a, 19. c, 20. a.

233
References
1. Betty Schrampfer Azar. Understanding and Using English
Grammar. Longman, 1990.
2. Donald Adamson. Practise Your Tenses. Longman, 1996.
3. John Eastwood. Oxford Practice Grammar. Oxford University
Press, 1997.
4. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman, 2005.
5. Luke Prodromou. Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate.
Longman, 2000.
6. L. Walker & S. Elsworth. Grammar Practice for Intermediate
Students. Longman, 1996.
7. L. Walker & S. Elsworth. Grammar Practice for Upper
Intermediate Student. Longman, 1996.
8. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. Macmillan
Education, 2006.
9. Mark Foley & Dianne Hall. Advanced Learners Grammar.
A Self-Study Reference and Practice Book with Answers. Longman,
2003.
10. Martin Hewings. Advanced Grammar in Use. A Self-Study
Reference and Practice Book for Advanced Learners of English.
Cambridge University Press, 1999.
11. Michael Vince. Intermediate Language Practice. Macmillan
Heinemann, 2003.
12. Michael Vince. First Certificate Language Practice. Macmillan
Heinemann, 2003.
13. Michael Vince. Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan
Heinemann, 2003.
14. Mike Watkins. Practise Your Modal Verbs. Longman, 1996.
15. Roy Kingsbury. Practise Your Gerunds and Infinitives.
Longman, 1995.
16. Susan M. Reinhart. Testing Your Grammar. The University of
Michigan Press, 2001.

234




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