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Earthquakes Mechanics and Effects

Earthquakes Mechanics and Effects Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 -
Earthquakes Mechanics and Effects Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 -

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 1

Seismic Activity: 1961-1967

Seismic Activity: 1961-1967 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 3

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 3

Plate Tectonics: Driving Mechanism

Plate Tectonics: Driving Mechanism Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2
Plate Tectonics: Driving Mechanism Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 5

Earthquakes: Cause and Effect

Why earthquakes occur

How earthquakes are measured

Earthquake effects

Mitigation strategy

Earthquake time histories

• Mitigation strategy • Earthquake time histories Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 2

Plate Boundaries

Plate Boundaries Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 4

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 4

Plate Tectonics: Details in Subduction Zone

Plate Tectonics: Details in Subduction Zone Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake
Plate Tectonics: Details in Subduction Zone Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 6

Seismicity of North America

North American Plate Pacific Plate
North American
Plate
Pacific
Plate
of North America North American Plate Pacific Plate Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 7

Faults and Fault Rupture

Epicenter Rupture surface Hypocenter (focus) Fault plane Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design
Epicenter
Rupture surface
Hypocenter
(focus)
Fault plane
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 9

Elastic Rebound Theory

Time = 0 Years

New fence Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 11
New fence
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 11

Seismicity of Alaska

North American Plate Pacific Plate
North American
Plate
Pacific
Plate
Seismicity of Alaska North American Plate Pacific Plate Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 8

Types of Faults

Strike slip Strike slip (left lateral) (right lateral)
Strike slip Strike slip (left lateral) (right lateral)

Strike slip

Strike slip

(left lateral)

(right lateral)

slip Strike slip (left lateral) (right lateral) N o r m a l Reverse (thrust) Instructional

Normal

slip (left lateral) (right lateral) N o r m a l Reverse (thrust) Instructional Material Complementing

Reverse (thrust)

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 10

Time = 40 Years

New road Old fence Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 -
New road
Old fence
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 12
Time = 41 Years New road Old fence Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
Time = 41 Years
New road
Old fence
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 13

Seismic Wave Forms (Body Waves)

Direction of Compression wave propagation
Direction of
Compression wave
propagation

(P wave)

Direction of propagation Shear wave
Direction of
propagation
Shear wave

(S wave)

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 15

Arrival of Seismic Waves

P waves S waves Love waves
P waves
S waves
Love waves
Arrival of Seismic Waves P waves S waves Love waves Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 17

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 14
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 14

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 14

Seismic Wave Forms (Surface Waves)

Direction of propagation Love wave
Direction of
propagation
Love wave
Direction of propagation Rayleigh wave
Direction
of
propagation
Rayleigh wave

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 16

Relationship Between Reservoir Level and Seismic Activity at Koyna Dam, India

Inflow Reservoir level Earthquake frequency
Inflow
Reservoir level
Earthquake frequency
Dam, India Inflow Reservoir level Earthquake frequency Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 18

Effects of Seismic Waves

Fault rupture

Ground shaking

Landslides

Liquefaction

Tsunamis

Seiches

• Landslides • Liquefaction • Tsunamis • Seiches Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 19

Cause of Liquefaction

“If a saturated sand is subjected to ground vibrations, it tends to compact and decrease in volume.

If drainage is unable to occur, the tendency to decrease in volume results in an increase in pore pressure.

If the pore water pressure builds up to the point at which it is equal to the overburden pressure, the effective stress becomes zero, the sand loses its strength completely, and liquefaction occurs.”

Seed and Idriss (1971)

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 21

Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading, 1993 Earthquake in Kobe, Japan

and Lateral Spreading, 1993 Earthquake in Kobe, Japan Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design
and Lateral Spreading, 1993 Earthquake in Kobe, Japan Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 23

Surface Fault Rupture, 1971 Earthquake in San Fernando, California

Fault Rupture, 1971 Earthquake in San Fernando, California Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design
Fault Rupture, 1971 Earthquake in San Fernando, California Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 20

Liquefaction Damage, Niigata, Japan, 1964

Liquefaction Damage, Niigata, Japan, 1964 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 22

Landslide on Coastal Bluff, 1989 Earthquake in Loma Prieta, California

Coastal Bluff, 1989 Earthquake in Loma Prieta, California Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design
Coastal Bluff, 1989 Earthquake in Loma Prieta, California Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 24

Cause of Tsunamis

Tsunamis are created by a sudden vertical movement of the sea floor.

These movements usually occur in subduction zones.

Tsunamis move at great speeds, often 600 to 800 km/hr.

Tsunamis move at great speeds, often 600 to 800 km/hr. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 25

Result of Ground Shaking, 1994 Earthquake in Northridge, California

of Ground Shaking, 1994 Earthquake in Northridge, California Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 27

Measuring Earthquakes

INTENSITY

• Subjective

• Used where instruments are not available

• Very useful in historical seismicity

MAGNITUDE

• Measured with seismometers

• Direct measure of energy released

• Possible confusion due to different measures

released • Possible confusion due to different measures Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 29

Tsunami Damage, Seward, Alaska, 1964

Tsunami Damage, Seward, Alaska, 1964 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics
Tsunami Damage, Seward, Alaska, 1964 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 26

Mitigation Strategies

Earthquake effect

Strategy

Fault rupture

Avoid

Tsunami/seiche

Avoid

Landslide

Avoid

Liquefaction

Avoid/resist

Ground shaking

Resist

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 28

Modified Mercalli Intensity

Developed by G. Mercalli in 1902 (after a previous version of M. S. De Rossi in the 1880s)Modified Mercalli Intensity Subjective measure of human reaction and damage Modified by Wood and Neuman to

Subjective measure of human reaction and damage(after a previous version of M. S. De Rossi in the 1880s) Modified by Wood and

Modified by Wood and Neuman to fit California construction conditionsthe 1880s) Subjective measure of human reaction and damage Intensity range I (lowest) to XII (most

Intensity range I (lowest) to XII (most severe)by Wood and Neuman to fit California construction conditions Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

conditions Intensity range I (lowest) to XII (most severe) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 30

Modified Mercalli Intensity

I. Not felt except by a few under especially favorable circumstances.

II. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors if buildings. Suspended objects may swing.

III. Felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings. Standing automobiles may rock slightly. Vibration like passing truck.

automobiles may rock slightly. Vibration like passing truck. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 31

Modified Mercalli Intensity

VII. Everybody runs outdoors. Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction, slight to moderate in well built ordinary structures, considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures. Noticed by persons driving cars. [0.10 to 0. 15g]

VIII. Damage slight in specially designed structures, considerable in ordinary construction, great in poorly built structures. Fall of chimneys, stacks, monuments. Sand and mud ejected is small amounts. Changes in well water. Persons driving cars disturbed. [0.25 to 0.30g]

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 33

Modified Mercalli Intensity

XI. Few, if any, (masonry) structures left standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Underground pipelines completely out of service. Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground. Rails bent greatly.

XII. Damage total. Waves seen on ground surface. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into air.

Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into air. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 35

Modified Mercalli Intensity

IV. During the day, felt indoors by many, outdoors by few. At night, some awakened. Dishes, windows, doors disturbed; walls make creaking sound. Sensation like heavy truck striking building. Standing automobiles rocked noticeably. [0.015 to 0.02g]

V. Felt by nearly everyone, many awakened. Some dishes and windows broken. Cracked plaster. Unstable objects overturned. Disturbance of trees, poles and other tall objects. [0.03 to 0.04g]

VI. Felt by all. Many frightened and run outdoors. Some heavy furniture moved. Fallen plaster and damaged chimneys. Damage slight. [0.06 to 0.07g]

and damaged chimneys. Damage slight. [0.06 to 0.07g] Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 32

Modified Mercalli Intensity

IX. Damage considerable in specially designed structures, well designed frame structures thrown out of plumb, damage great in substantial buildings with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations. Ground cracked conspicuously. Underground pipes broken. [0.50 to 0.55g]

X. Some well built wooden structures destroyed. Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations badly cracked. Rails bent. Landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes. Shifted sand and mud. Water splashed over banks. [More than 0.60g]

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 34

Isoseismal Map for the Giles County, Virginia, Earthquake of May 31, 1897.

for the Giles County, Virginia, Earthquake of May 31, 1897. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design
for the Giles County, Virginia, Earthquake of May 31, 1897. Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 36

Isoseismal Map For New Madrid Earthquake of December 16, 1811

Isoseismal Map For New Madrid Earthquake of December 16, 1811

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Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 37

Isoseismal Map for February 9, 1971, San Fernando Earthquake

Map for February 9, 1971, San Fernando Earthquake Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design
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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 39

Comparisons of Various Intensity Scales

Comparisons of Various Intensity Scales MMI = Modified Mercalli RF = Rossi-Forel JMA = Japan Meteorological

MMI = Modified Mercalli

RF = Rossi-Forel

JMA

= Japan Meteorological Agency

MSK

=Medvedez-Spoonheur-Karnik

Meteorological Agency MSK =Medvedez-Spoonheur-Karnik Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 41

Isoseismal Map for 1886 Charleston Earthquake Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake

Isoseismal Map

for 1886

Charleston

Earthquake

Isoseismal Map for 1886 Charleston Earthquake Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 38

Comparison of Isosiesmal Intensity for Four Earthquakes

Comparison of Isosiesmal Intensity for Four Earthquakes Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 40

Instrumental Seismicity

Magnitude (Richter, 1935) Also called local magnitude

M L = Log [Maxumum Wave Amplitude (in mm/1000)]

Recorded Wood-Anderson seismograph

100 km from epicenter

Recorded Wood-Anderson seismograph 100 km from epicenter Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 42

Magnitude (in general)

M = Log A +f(d,h) +C S + C R

A is wave amplitude

F(d,h) accounts for focal distance and depth

C S and C R , are station and regional corrections

C S and C R , are station and regional corrections Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451,

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 43

Moment Magnitude

Seismic moment = M O = μAD

[Units = force times distance]

Where:

μ = modulus of rigidity A = fault rupture area D = fault dislocation or slip

Moment magnitude = M W = (Log M O -16.05)/1.5

(Units = dyne-cm)

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 45

Magnitude

Approximate Relationship Between Magnitude and Intensity

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Richter (Local) MbLg 2 1 0 1
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Richter
(Local)
MbLg
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Intensity

ˆ

M =

L

0.67

I 0 +

1

ˆ

0.49

I +

0

1.66

m

bLg

=

I 0 + 1 ˆ 0.49 I + 0 1.66 m bLg = Instructional Material Complementing

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 47

Other Wave-Based Magnitudes

M S Surface-wave magnitude (Rayleigh waves)

m b Body-wave magnitude (P waves)

M B Body-wave magnitude (P and other waves)

m bLg (Higher order Love and Rayleigh waves)

M JMA (Japanese, long period)

and Rayleigh waves) M J M A ( Japanese , long period) Instructional Material Complementing FEMA

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 44

Moment Magnitude vs Other Magnitude Scales (Magnitude Saturation)

 
 
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 46

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 46

 

Seismic Energy Release

 
 

Log E = 1.5 M S + 11.8

 

1E+28

1E+26

1000 31
1000
31
 

1E+24

 

Energy, Ergs

1E+22

1E+20

1E+18

 

1E+16

1E+14

1E+12

 

0

2

4

6

8

10

 

Magnitude, Ms

 
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 48

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 48

Seismic Energy Release

1E+28 Nuclear bomb 1E+26 1964 Alaska earthquake 1E+24 1906 San Francisco earthquake 1E+22 1972 San
1E+28
Nuclear bomb
1E+26
1964 Alaska earthquake
1E+24
1906 San Francisco earthquake
1E+22
1972 San Fernando earthquake
1E+20
Atomic bomb
1E+18
1978 Santa Barbara earthquake
1E+16
1E+14
1E+12
0
2
4
6
8
10
Energy, Ergs
1E+16 1E+14 1E+12 0 2 4 6 8 10 Energy, Ergs Magnitude, Ms Instructional Material Complementing

Magnitude, Ms

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 49

Sample Ground Motion Records

Sample Ground Motion Records Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 51

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 51

Corrected vs Uncorrected Motions

Corrections made primarily:

To remove instrument response

To account for base line shift

instrument response • To account for base line shift Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 53

Ground Motion Accelerograms

Sources:

NONLIN (more than 100 records)

Internet (e.g., National Strong Motion Data Center)

USGS CD ROM

Uses:

Evaluation of earthquake characteristics

Development of response spectra

Time history analysis

Development of response spectra • Time history analysis Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 50

Ground Motion Characteristics

Acceleration, velocity, displacement

Effective peak acceleration and velocity

Fourier amplitude spectra

Duration (bracketed duration)

Incremental velocity (killer pulse)

Response spectra

Other (see, for example, Naiem and Anderson 2002)

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 52

Base Line Correction for Simple Ground Motion Acceleration, in/sec 2 500 250 0 -250 -500
Base Line Correction for Simple Ground Motion
Acceleration, in/sec 2
500
250
0
-250
-500
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
200
Velocity, in/sec
150
100
50
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
800
Displacement, in
600
400
200
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
in 600 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time, sec

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 54

Typical Earthquake Accelerogram Set

600 400 Horizontal acceleration (E-W), cm/sec 2 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -463 cm/sec 2
600
400
Horizontal acceleration (E-W), cm/sec 2
200
0
-200
-400
-600
-463 cm/sec 2
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
600
400
Vertical acceleration (E-W), cm/sec 2
200
0
-200
-400
-600
0
5
-500 cm/sec 2
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
600
400
Horizontal acceleration (N-S), cm/sec 2
200
0
-200
-400
-600
0
5
-391 cm/sec 2
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Tim e (s ec)
Loma Prieta Earthquake
Time, Seconds
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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 55

Definition of Incremental Velocity

Acceleration, cm/sec 2 600 400 Acceleration, cm/sec 2 200 400 0 300 -200 -400 200
Acceleration, cm/sec 2
600
400
Acceleration, cm/sec 2
200
400
0
300
-200
-400
200
-600
0 5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
100
Time, Seconds
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
8
9
10
11
12
Time, Seconds
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 57

Concept of Fourier Amplitude Spectra

50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30
50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
T ime, Seconds
1 2
1 0
8
6
4
2
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
F r e q u e n c y ,
H z .
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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 59
Amplitude
Fourier Amplitude

Definition of Bracketed Duration

Acceleration, cm/sec 2 600 400 0.05g 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 5 10 15
Acceleration, cm/sec 2
600
400
0.05g
200
0
-200
-400
-600
0 5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Time, Seconds
-600 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Time, Seconds Bracketed duration Instructional

Bracketed duration

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 56

Concept of Fourier Amplitude Spectra

v &&

g

t

( )

a

0

+

N /2

a

j

πjf

cos(2

0

)

+

N /2

b

j

sin(2

πjf

0

)

=

 

j =

1

j =

1

⎛ ⎜

b

f 0 =

df

 

1/ Ndt

φ

j

=

arctan

⎜ ⎝

j


=

   

a

j

Acceleration, cm/sec 2

N / 2 a + ∑ A j cos(2 πjf φ + ) 0 0
N / 2
a
+
A
j cos(2
πjf φ
+
)
0
0
j
j
= 1
2
2
A
= a + b
j
j
j
Normalized Fourier Coefficient
600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
-600
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

N points at timestep dt

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 10 20 30 Frequency (Hz) N/2 points
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
10
20
30
Frequency (Hz)
N/2 points at frequency df

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 58

Ground Motion Frequency Content (1)

Horizontal acceleration (E-W), cm/sec 2 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 10 20
Horizontal acceleration (E-W), cm/sec 2
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
-600
0
10
20
30
40
50
Vertical acceleration (E-W), cm/sec 2
600
400
200
0
-200
-400
-600
0
10
20
30
40
50
1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fourier
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Fourier Amplitude
1.2 Frequency(Hz) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
1.2
Frequency(Hz)
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Fourier Am plitude
Time, Seconds Frequency(Hz)

Time, Seconds

Frequency(Hz)

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Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 60

Fourier Amplitude

Ground Motion Frequency Content (2)

600 Horizontal acceleration, cm/sec 2 400 200 0 -200 -400 -463 cm/sec 2 -600 0
600
Horizontal acceleration, cm/sec 2
400
200
0
-200
-400
-463 cm/sec 2
-600
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
40
30
Horizontal velocity, cm/sec
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-30.7 cm/sec
-40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
15
11.0 cm
Horizontal displacement, cm
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Time, Seconds

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0 10 20 30
0
10
20
30
Frequency (Hz) 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 10 20 30 Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
10
20
30
Frequency (Hz)
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
`
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
10
20
30
Frequency (Hz)
Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 61
Fourier Amplitude
Fourier Amplitude

1.2

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Development of an Elastic Displacement Response Spectrum

El Centro Earthquake Record 0.40 0.20 0.00 Maximum Displacement Response Spectrum -0.20 16 -0.40 14
El Centro Earthquake Record
0.40
0.20
0.00
Maximum Displacement Response Spectrum
-0.20
16
-0.40
14
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
TIME, SECONDS
12
10
8
T=0.6 Seconds
4.00
6
2.00
4
0.00
2
-2.00
0
-4.00
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
PERIOD, Seconds
T=2.0 Seconds
8.00
4.00
0.00
-4.00
-8.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 62
DISPLACEMENT, In.
DISPLACEMENT, in.
GROUND ACC, g
DISPLACEMENT, inches