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Article

A Novel DFIG Damping Control for Power System

with High Wind Power Penetration

Aiguo Tan 1,2 , Xiangning Lin 1 , Jinwen Sun 1, *, Ran Lyu 1 , Zhengtian Li 1 , Long Peng 1 and

Muhammad Shoaib Khalid 1,3

1 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology,

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China;

tanaiguo@hust.edu.cn (A.T.); xiangning.lin@hust.edu.cn (X.L.); lvran.deyouxiang@163.com (R.L.);

tianlz9806115@163.com (Z.L.); penglong08@hust.edu.cn (L.P.); shoaibusmani@hust.edu.cn (M.S.K.)

2 School of Information Engineering, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi 445000, China

3 School of Electrical Engineering, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan

* Correspondence: jinwensun@126.com; Tel.: +86-135-5416-8060

Received: 7 March 2016; Accepted: 24 June 2016; Published: 5 July 2016

Abstract: Aiming at the fact that large-scale penetration of wind power will to some extent weaken

the small signal stability of power systems, in this paper, the dynamic model of a doubly fed induction

generator (DFIG) is established firstly, to analyze the impact of wind generation on power oscillation

damping. Then, based on the conventional maximum power point tracking control of variable

speed wind turbine, a supplementary control scheme is proposed to increase the damping of power

system. To achieve best performance, parameters of the damping control are tuned by using a

genetic algorithm. Results of eigenvalue analysis and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of

supplementary damping control with fixed wind speed. At last, due to the problem that fluctuation

of output power of wind generators would cause the unstable performance of the DFIG damping

controller above, a new algorithm that adapts to the wind variation is added to the supplementary

damping control scheme. Results of the simulation show that an improved damping control scheme

can stably enhance system damping under various wind speeds and has higher practical value.

Keywords: adaptive damping control; doubly fed induction generator (DFIG); small signal stability;

power oscillation; DFIG supplementary control

1. Introduction

The penetration of wind energy increases rapidly with the in-depth study and technical progress

on wind power generation in recent years, however, large-scale penetration of wind power will change

the damping characteristics of grid, thus the low signal stability of the network under high wind

power penetration level is more sensitive than that of the traditional grid [13].

The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has gained increasing popularity in wind power

generation recently due to its flexible controllability and relatively low price. Although the impact

of power system oscillation on DFIG can be inhibited by power electronic converter, the volatility of

wind power and the tripping of wind generators without low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability

increase the oscillation power suffered by synchronous machines in the regional grid, thus making

power systems more likely to suffer chronic oscillation. Therefore, it is of great significance for the

secure and stable operation of regional grid with high wind power penetration to increase the inhibitive

capability of power system oscillation by improving the existing control strategies of variable speed

wind turbines [48].

In fact, current PSS control strategies to enhance operational stability of grids cannot have had

full effect since the operation of traditional synchronous generators needs to consider other control

Energies 2016, 9, 521 2 of 15

demands such as voltage regulation and frequency regulation except for stability control, which is

always contradiction with aims and instructions of PSS. However, wind generators normally have less

output control demand, and can respond to the damping control effectively, which is very suitable for

the project implementation of small signal stability optimal control strategy in power grid with high

wind penetration.

References [914] have studied the controller design for DFIG to increase the damping of the

system. In reference [9], pitch control is utilized to design a damping controller based on P/f

droop control, in which the deviation of frequency is used to adjust pitch angle and change the

amount of captured wind energy, thus adjusting the power of wind turbine based on oscillation of

frequency. However, the response speed of pitch control is too slow to suppress the oscillation of

the system effectively. In [10], the auxiliary signal derived from r is added to the rotor phase angle

control, which can enhance not only the low-frequency damping of the system, but also the LVRT

capability of the wind generator. Reference [11] reduces the impact of a DFIG wind turbine on a

regional grid through the control of rotor flux amplitude and the phase of DFIG, which is similar to

dynamic excitation and power angle characteristics of a gel synchronous generator. [12,13] proposes

a control mechanism aimed at designing the power system stabilizer (PSS) for a DFIG, whose input

signal is the DFIG terminal voltage, system oscillation power, and deviation of rotational speed of

synchronous generator, respectively. Reference [14] investigates the principle of improving the system

damping through the power regulation of the PMSG-based wind turbines, and proposes the active

and the reactive power damping control strategies, which enhances system damping by adding

proportional control based on the deviation of system frequency to rotor speed of MPPT control.

However, only proportional control would produce some steady-state error to power the angle of a

synchronous generator.

Aiming at the small signal stability problem in large-scale penetration of wind power into power

systems, in this paper, the dynamic model of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is established

firstly, to analyze the impact of wind generation on power oscillation damping. Then, based on the

conventional maximum power point tracking control of variable speed wind turbine, a supplementary

control scheme is proposed to increase the damping of power system. To achieve best performance,

parameters of the damping control are tuned by using a genetic algorithm. Results of eigenvalue

analysis and simulation on Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) three-machine nine-bus

system with an integrated DFIG demonstrate that the proposed supplementary control scheme can

effectively suppress the oscillation of the system in fixed wind speeds.

Finally, the above damping control is improved by making the additional active power constant

with the variation of operational point of wind generator, due to the problem that varying power

output of the wind generator caused by randomness of wind speed would cause the control effect

unstable, which is not only contributive to the system power oscillation, but also counterproductive

to the whole system. Results of contrast simulation verify the insensitivity of new damping control

schemes to the change of wind speed and significant enhancement of system stability.

The sketch diagram [15] in Figure 1 shows a DFIG-based wind power generation system.

As shown in Figure 1, stator side of DFIG connects to the grid through a transformer, while the

rotor side connects to the grid through back to back convertor, which achieves the decoupling of rotor

speed and grid frequency and the convertor compensates the difference between mechanical and

electrical frequency by injecting variable frequency rotor current. DFIG dynamic modeling is mainly

divided into three parts: the mechanical part, doubly-fed generator, and controller [16].

Energies 2016, 9, 521 3 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 3 of 15

Wind Pg jQg

Wind

Voltage

Frequency

Pitch angle Pitch angle

Rotor current Rotor current

Pitch angle control MPPT Pitch angle

Terminal voltage control

control MPPT T

p iqr idr

m m

Kp Pw* ( xs xm ) V 1

Kv

1 Tp s m xmV (1 sTe ) 1 s

ref

Vref

1

xm

Figure

Figure 1.

1. Structure

Structure of

of the

the DFIG

DFIG control system.

control system.

The doubly-fed generator rotor is driven by the rotating of wind turbine blades through a gear

The doubly-fed generator rotor is driven by the rotating of wind turbine blades through a gear

box, whose electromechanical equation is modeled in (1):

box, whose electromechanical equation is modeled in Equation (1):

(T T )

m pTmm Te qe (1)

m 2 Hm m (1)

2H

Ignore the

Ignore the stator

stator Figure

Figure 1,

1, and

and assume

assume d-axis

d-axis is

is consistent

consistent with

with the

the direction of maximum

direction of maximum value

value

of stator

of stator flux,

flux, then

then the

the electromagnetic

electromagnetic torque

torque equation

equation can

can be

be simplified

simplified as

as Equation

(2): (2):

xmViqr

TeTexmxm iqsq ) xm Viqr

idsidsidridriqs

pi(qriqr (2)

b (sxs m

b px ` x xmq)

Mechanical

Mechanicaltorque

torqueequation

equationisisshown

shownin

inEquation

(3): (3):

P

P

TmTm (3)

(3)

m

m

Neglect rotor transients, then the convertor model can be simplified properly. Model the back to

Neglect rotor transients, then the convertor model can be simplified properly. Model the back

back voltage convertor with current loop as an ideal current source, then the relationship of voltage

to back voltage convertor with current loop as an ideal current source, then the relationship of voltage

and current of generator rotor and stator are shown in Equation (4), where subscript s represents

and current of generator rotor and stator are shown in Equation (4), where subscript s represents

parameters related to stator and subscript represents parameters in grid side of convertor. The rs , xs ,

parameters related to stator and subscript represents parameters in grid side of convertor. The rs,

rR , and xR are resistance and leakage reactance of stator and rotor, wb is the angular velocity of the

xs, rR, and xR are resistance and leakage reactance of stator and rotor, wb is the angular velocity of the

DFIG rotor when frequency and xm is the excitation reactance of DFIG.

DFIG rotor when frequency and xm is the excitation reactance of DFIG.

vvdsdsr

rssiidsds `

[( xxmm qi)iqsqs `

rpxxss ` xmm iqrqr s]

vqs rs iqs rpx R ` xm qids ` xm idr s

v r i [( x x )i x i ] (4)

vds qs r R isdrqs` srpxRR ` xmm qidsqr ` xmmdr iqs s (4)

vdsvdsr

RrRiqridrsrpx

s[( sxR`xmxqi )i

m drqr ` x x i

m mds iqss ]

vds rand

With stator resistance being neglected sdirection

R iqr the [( xs xmof)idrmaximum

xmids ] value of stator flux, determining

the position of d axis, the power injected to the grid can be equivalent to Equations (5) and (6):

With stator resistance being neglected and the direction of maximum value of stator flux,

determining the position of d axis, the power injected to the grid can be equivalent to Equations (5)

P vds ids ` vqs iqs ` vdc idc ` vqc iqc (5)

and (6):

2

P Q

vdsidsxvmqsVi

iqsdr

vdcVidc vqciqc (5)

(6)

xs ` xm xm

xmVidr V 2

Q (6)

xs xm xm

Energies 2016, 9, 521 4 of 15

As shown in Figure 1, DFIG adjusts the speed of wind turbine blades by maximum power point

tracking to achieve active power control. First, get theoretical maximum power output Pw according to

the angular speed-output power curve by measured rotor speed, then, achieve control objective by

adjusting inverter current. The control equation is shown in Equation (7):

xs ` xm 1

iqr r P pm q{m iqr s (7)

xm V Te

As shown in Figure 1, DFIG changes the terminal voltage by controlling the reactive power in

exchange with the grid. The control equation is in Equation (8):

idr KV pV Vre f q V{xm idr (8)

As shown, in lower left part of Figure 1 is the pitch control. Once wind speed is higher than rated

speed, variable pitch control can effectively regulate the pitch angle to limit the aerodynamic efficiency

of the wind turbine blades to prevent wind wheel speed from getting too high and causing mechanical

damage. The control equation is shown in Equation (9):

K p pm re f q p

p (9)

Tp

Small signal stability is the ability of power system to keep pace in the case of small perturbations

which means that the effect caused by disturbance is too small to affect the structure of analysis model.

The power system experiences small disturbance every time, such as random fluctuation of loads,

slow change of some parameters and so on. Therefore, the ability of small signal stability is a necessity

for a well-designed power system.

Power system generally can be described by nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAE)

as follows [17]:

x f px, yq

(10)

0 gpx, yq

The first equation of DAE is state equation, and the second one is algebraic equation.

The above non-linear model can be linearized at the operating point and can be represented by

incremental differential algebraic equations in the case of small perturbations as shown in Equation (11)

ff ff ff

x Fx Fy x

(11)

0 Gx Gy y

1

As Fx Fy G

y Gx (12)

As it is well known, the stability of linear systems depends on the eigenvalues of state matrix As .

Based on the first law of Lyapunov, if all eigenvalues of state matrix As have negative real parts,

the system is asymptotically stable; conversely, if the system has at least one positive real part

eigenvalues, the system is unstable; and the system is critical stable if the real part of at least one

eigenvalue is zero when other eigenvalues have negative real parts. In addition, the eigenvectors

and participation factors corresponding to eigenvalues can provide more system information for the

inhibition of low frequency oscillation and the design of a small signal stability controller.

From state matrix As , a certain number of eigenvalues can be calculated out and each eigenvalue

corresponds to a mode: real eigenvalues correspond to non-oscillation mode, complex eigenvalues

Energies 2016, 9, 521 5 of 15

From

Energies 2016,state

9, 521matrix As, a certain number of eigenvalues can be calculated out and each eigenvalue 5 of 15

corresponds to a mode: real eigenvalues correspond to non-oscillation mode, complex eigenvalues

with negative real parts correspond to decay mode, and it is compared with its positive real part

with negative real

corresponding parts correspond

to aperiodic instability.toComplex

decay mode, and it is

eigenvalues arecompared

as follows:with its positive real part

corresponding to aperiodic instability. Complex eigenvalues are as follows:

= + j (13)

` j (13)

Real part of complex eigenvalue describes the system oscillation damping and imaginary

part means the oscillation frequency. The oscillation frequency and damping ratio can be expressed

Real part of complex eigenvalue describes the system oscillation damping and imaginary part means

as follows:

the oscillation frequency. The oscillation frequency and damping ratio can be expressed as follows:

f f (14)

(14)

2

2

?

(15)

2 2` 2 2 (15)

Damping determines the stability characteristics of system and the system can provide sufficient

Damping

damping determines

to keep thestable

the system stability

onlycharacteristics

if damping isof system

bigger andzero.

than the system can provide sufficient

damping to keep the system stable only if damping is bigger than zero.

4. Optimal DFIG Control under Fixed wind Speed

4. Optimal DFIG Control under Fixed wind Speed

4.1. Supplementary Damping Control of DFIG

4.1. Supplementary Damping

As it is well known, Control of DFIG

synchronous generators and constant speed wind turbines are integrated with

the grid

As itand theirknown,

is well stabilitysynchronous

is easily affected by the status

generators of power

and constant system.

speed wind Onturbines

the contrary, the rotor

are integrated

speed of DFIG whose rotor side is excited by a power electronic convertor does

with the grid and their stability is easily affected by the status of power system. On the contrary, not couple with the

frequency

rotor speedofofthe grid.whose

DFIG The active

rotor power output of

side is excited byvariable

a powerspeed windconvertor

electronic generatordoesis only

notcontrolled

couple withby

wind

the speed, thus

frequency DFIG

of the has

grid. noactive

The inhibitory

power effect on low

output frequency

of variable oscillation,

speed and theisdynamic

wind generator process

only controlled

of power

by systemthus

wind speed, will inevitably

DFIG has no lackinhibitory

power support

effect in

onareas under the high

low frequency penetration

oscillation, level.

and the dynamic

Once

process disturbance

of power system orwill

failure occurs,lack

inevitably the power

volatility of wind

support powerunder

in areas in thethe

area of penetration

high high wind powerlevel.

penetration will increase

Once disturbance the oscillation

or failure occurs, thepower such

volatility of that

windapower

synchronous

in the areamachine

of highsuffers in the

wind power

case of insufficient

penetration damping

will increase in synchronous

the oscillation power such machine,

that a which is more

synchronous likely to

machine cause

suffers in the

the system

case of

to remain volatile.

insufficient damping in synchronous machine, which is more likely to cause the system to remain volatile.

The block diagram

diagram of supplementary

supplementary control

control is

is shown

shown in in Figure

Figure 2. ItIt is

is proved

proved in in [14] that the

adjustment of

adjustment of active

active power

power of DFIG can generate an additional additional damping

damping torque

torque for the swing of

power angle of synchronous generators, thus increasing the damping of system. is the phase angle

of terminal voltage of the bus DFIG connected, compare it with its initial

voltage of the bus DFIG connected, compare it with its initial value. value. is is

thethe

deviation of

deviation

synchronous

of synchronous speed, and

speed, mis

and the

m is themeasured

measured rotational

rotationalspeed.

speed.

1

s Ti

K p (1 Td s)

2f 0 1 sT f s

*m Pw*

m

0 MPPT

Figure

Figure 2.

2. Damping

Damping control

control for

for DFIG.

DFIG.

4.2.

4.2. Achievement

Achievement of

of GA

GA Optimization

Optimization

To ensuredynamic

To ensure dynamicperformance

performance of of

thethe system,

system, especially

especially for suppressing

for suppressing power power oscillation,

oscillation, DFIG

DFIG

controller parameters should be well tuned. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used in this paperpaper

controller parameters should be well tuned. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used in this to

to tune

tune parameters

parameters of damping

of damping control.

control.

GA

GA is a search heuristic that

is a search heuristic that mimics

mimics thethe process of natural

process of natural selection.

selection. This

This heuristic

heuristic is

is routinely

routinely

used

used to generate useful solutions to optimize and search for problems [18]. Genetic algorithm belongs

to generate useful solutions to optimize and search for problems [18]. Genetic algorithm belongs

Energies 2016, 9, 521 6 of 15

to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA), which generate solutions to optimize problems

using techniques inspired by natural evolution, such as inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover.

Wind Power optimization control is a multi-variable, multi-constrained non-linear programming

problem. A genetic algorithm (GA) with strong robustness and adaptive searching capabilities on

wind power optimization control can search the optimal solutions based on all continuous and discrete

control variables so that the complexity of calculation is reduced; GA can also avoid a premature local

optimum, and reduce the corresponding amount of calculation to get globally optimal solution faster.

As described in Section 4.1, damping ratio is an important index that measures the dynamic

performance of system. In order to satisfy certain transient performance of system dynamics, it is more

reasonable to set the damping ratio as optimization objective.

where i is the damping ratio of the ith electromechanical mode, and J is the smallest damping ratio

among all the electromagnetic damping oscillation modes in some operating mode.

Constraint condition is:

pmin p pmax (18)

where p is the parameter vector defined as p = [Kp ,Ti ,Td ] and pmax and pmin are the upper and lower

limits, respectively, of the parameter vector. By using GA, the optimal controllers can be derived from

the solution of optimization problem Equation (16).

To minimize the objective function, the following classic GA procedure is employed:

randomly generated. Minimum damping ratio of system electromechanical oscillation modes

calculated according to the initial parameters of individual is defined as the fitness of the

individual and the individuals are sorted based on the fitness in descending order.

2. Crossover and mutation. New individuals are generated by the exchange of different parts of

gene of two parents selected by hybrid probability and then mutation operation is carried out on

the new generated individuals.

3. Fitness value assessment. Calculate the minimum damping ratio of electromechanical oscillation

mode as fitness of individual to assess all the descendants.

4. Choice. The top N individuals with maximum fitness values are chosen from the population after

hybridization for breeding the next generation.

5. Stop. The algorithm stops when damping ratio of the best individual of the population can

meet the requirements or genetic calculation exceeds the maximum algebra, otherwise goes back

to step Equation (2).

The case study system, as shown in Figure 3, is the WSCC three-machine nine-bus system.

There are two synchronous generators, with rated power of G1 100 MVA, and that of G2 300 MVA.

All two synchronous generators are identical and equipped with turbine governors. The parameters of

the synchronous generators are shown in Table 1 of Appendix along with turbine governor control

blocks and parameters. Two wind farms based on DFIG are connected to the grid in Bus 3 and Bus 10.

Wind farm1 and wind farm2 are composed of 60 and 40 wind turbines (unit capacity 1.5 MW), and are

respectively represented by one aggregated DFIG. Nodes 5, 6, and 8 are loads with constant power

model, whose capacity is 160 + 80j MVA, 200 MVA and 80 + 60j MVA, respectively.

Energies 2016, 9, 521 7 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 7 of 15

2 7 9 3

G2 Wind

Farm 1

8

5 6

1 10

G1 Wind Farm 2

Figure3.3.WSCC

Figure WSCCthree-machine

three-machine nine-bus

nine-bus system

systemwith

withwind

windturbine.

turbine.

Table of proposed

1. The optimal results of DFIG supplementary

DFIG damping damping

control in control, GA is used to

WSCC system.

tune the damping control parameters. The population number is usually set as 10 times larger than

the variable numbers, so it isWind

set asFarm

60 in this case.

Kpi It is clear

Tiithat the Tdi

objective function can reach zero

after about 30 generations of evolution. The optimization results are presented in Table 1.

Wind farm 1 6.823 16.076 2.312

Wind farm 2 5.462 10.715 1.498

Table 1. The optimal results of DFIG damping control in WSCC system.

Wind FarmDFIG

To verify the effectiveness of proposed Kpi Tii

supplementary Tdi

damping control, GA is used to tune

Wind farm 1 6.823 16.076 2.312

the damping control parameters. The population number is usually set as 10 times larger than the

Wind farm 2 5.462 10.715 1.498

variable numbers, so it is set as 60 in this case. It is clear that the objective function can reach zero after

about 30 generations of evolution.

Electromechanical oscillationThe optimization

modes of systemresults are 3presented

in Figure with andinwithout

Table 1.DFIG damping

Electromechanical oscillation

control are shown in Table 2. modes of system in Figure 3 with and without DFIG damping

control are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Electromechanical modes of wscc system with and without dfig damping control.

Table 2. Electromechanical modes of wscc system with and without dfig damping control.

Control Strategy Eigenvalue Damping Ratio

Control Strategy 0.3050 3.6112i

Eigenvalue 0.0841 Ratio

Damping

No Damping Control

1.6038 10.8145i 0.1467

0.3050 3.6112i 0.0841

No Damping Control 0.5323 3.3790i 0.1543

DFIG Damping Control 1.6038 10.8145i 0.1467

1.7232 10.4471i 0.1641

0.5323 3.3790i 0.1543

DFIG Damping Control

1.7232 10.4471i 0.1641

Distribution of partial eigenvalues for the two experiments is shown in Figure 4. The triangles

are eigenvalues of system without supplementary damping control (no damping control), which is

theDistribution

basic model of partial

describedeigenvalues

in Sectionfor the two experiments

2, and quadrangles isareshown in Figure of

eigenvalues 4. The triangles

systems withare

eigenvalues

supplementaryof system without

damping supplementary

control, damping

which is described incontrol

Section(no damping

3. The arrows control), which istothe

from triangles

basic model described in Section 2, and quadrangles are eigenvalues of systems with

quadrangles show the change of eigenvalues of electromagnetic oscillation modes. It is rather obvious supplementary

damping

that when control, which

there is is described

no damping in Section

controller for the 3. Thethe

DFIG, arrows fromoscillation

interarea trianglesistopoorly

quadrangles

damped.show In

thecontrast,

change the of eigenvalues

coordinately tuned of electromagnetic

supplementaryoscillation modes. Itcan

damping controllers is rather

make all obvious that when

the eigenvalues

move

there to the

is no desiredcontroller

damping region. for the DFIG, the interarea oscillation is poorly damped. In contrast,

To further demonstrate

the coordinately tuned supplementary the effectiveness

damping of the proposedcan

controllers control

makescheme, several simulations

all the eigenvalues move to arethe

conducted.

desired region. Add a power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1 [18], then run a time-domain

simulation

To further in demonstrate

the case of adding supplementary

the effectiveness damping

of the proposedcontrol andscheme,

control no damping control

several in DFIGare

simulations

at Bus 2. Load at Bus 8 increases to 110% times of original value at 5 s, which

conducted. Add a power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1 [18], then run a time-domain simulation means a small in

perturbation occurs at 5 s.

the case of adding supplementary damping control and no damping control in DFIG at Bus 2. Load at Bus

The to

8 increases rotor speed

110% curves

times of the synchronous

of original value at 5 s, generator 1 under

which means small

a small perturbationoccurs

perturbation in theatcase

5 s.of

PSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control are illustrated in Figure 5. It

The rotor speed curves of the synchronous generator 1 under small perturbation in the case of

can be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation, and oscillation

PSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control are illustrated in Figure 5. It can

settles down much faster when adopting damping controls. Damping effect added in synchronous

be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation, and oscillation settles

machine and DFIG with the same active power output can achieve approximately the same

down much faster when adopting damping controls. Damping effect added in synchronous machine

effectiveness, proving the performance of supplementary damping control of DFIG.

and DFIG with the same active power output can achieve approximately the same effectiveness,

proving the performance of supplementary damping control of DFIG.

Observe

Observe from from Figure

Figure 55 that

that the

the oscillation

oscillation suppression

suppression effect

effect of

of DFIG

DFIG supplementary

supplementary damping

damping

control

control is not inferior to that of PSS in synchronous generator with the same active power output. In

is not inferior to that of PSS in synchronous generator with the same active power output. In

fact,

fact, active

active power

power output

output ofof DFIG

DFIG isis variable

variable due

due to

to the

the volatility

volatility of

of wind

wind speed.

speed. The

The response

response of of

rotor

rotor speed

speed of of generator

generator 11 in

in the

the case

case of

of only

only DFIG

DFIG damping

damping control

control under

under small

small perturbation

perturbation isis

illustrated

illustrated

Energies

in

2016, in

Figure 6. Obviously, the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG damping control

Figure 6. Obviously, the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG damping control varies

9, 521

varies

8 of 15

with

with different

different windwind speeds,

speeds, having

having aa great

great impact

impact on

on its

its practical

practical application.

application.

YY

Eigenvalues

Eigenvalues

Damping

Damping ratio

ratio from

from 0.14

0.14 to

to distribution

0.16 distribution without

without

0.16 DFIG

DFIG damping

damping control

control

Eigenvalues

Eigenvalues

distribution

distribution with

with

DFIG

DFIG damping

damping control

control

Damping

Damping ratio

ratio from

from 0.08

0.08 to

to

0.15

0.15

XX

Figure

Figure 4.

4. Change

Change of

of eigenvalues

eigenvalues with

with damping

damping control.

control.

Figure

Figure 5. Dynamic response of rotor speed of

of G1

G1 under

under different

different control

control scheme.

Figure 5.

5. Dynamic

Dynamic response

response of

of rotor

rotor speed

speed of G1 under different control scheme.

scheme.

Observe from Figure 5 that the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG supplementary damping

control is not inferior to that of PSS in synchronous generator with the same active power output.

In fact, active power output of DFIG is variable due to the volatility of wind speed. The response

of rotor speed of generator 1 in the case of only DFIG damping control under small perturbation is

illustrated in Figure 6. Obviously, the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG damping control varies

with different wind speeds, having a great impact on its practical application.

Energies 2016, 9, 521 9 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 9 of 15

Figure 6. Dynamic response of rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed in supplementary

Figure 6. Dynamic response of rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed in supplementary

damping control.

damping control.

5. Optimal DFIG Control under Mutative Wind Speed

5.1.

5.1. DFIG

DFIG Supplementary

Supplementary Damping

Damping Control

Control Scheme

Scheme Considering

Considering Wind

Wind Speed

Speed Variation

Variation

Different from PSS in synchronous generator, the effect

Different from PSS in synchronous generator, the effect of wind generatorof wind generator supplementary

supplementary damping

damping control is not constant in fixed operation mode and varies as the

control is not constant in fixed operation mode and varies as the change of wind speed. Namely,change of wind speed.

Namely, in areas where wind speed is volatile, utilization of wind generator supplementary

in areas where wind speed is volatile, utilization of wind generator supplementary damping control damping

control cannot the

cannot inhibit inhibit

powerthe oscillation

power oscillation effectively.

effectively.

In

In Section

Section 3,

3, the

the method

method of of variable

variable speed

speed wind

wind turbine

turbine to

to inhibit

inhibit oscillation

oscillation is

is to

to inject

inject active

active

power

power to the grid quickly to change the power angle of synchronous generator, thus enhancing low

to the grid quickly to change the power angle of synchronous generator, thus enhancing low

signal stability of system. Additional active power injected into the grid can reflect the control

signal stability of system. Additional active power injected into the grid can reflect the control effect of effect

of wind

wind generator

generator supplementarydamping

supplementary dampingcontrol,

control,and

andobserve

observefrom

fromthe

the maximum

maximum powerpower point

point the

the

tracking scheme of Section 1,

tracking scheme of Section 1, mostly,mostly,

Pw K

3m K (m m )3

*3 3

(19)

Pw K m K pm ` m q (19)

K is the optimal power output coefficient of a wind turbine. Simplify above polynomial on the

right K is the

side, optimal

then power can

the equation output coefficient

be as follows: of a wind turbine. Simplify above polynomial on the

right side, then the equation can be as follows:

Pw K 3m

Pw K 3m (20)

K (3 3 ( m )) (20)

`K p3mm` 3mmmmpmm ` m qq

where K m3 is normal output of wind turbine generator, the polynomial in the right side is the

where K m 3output

supplementary is normal output

of the of wind

damping turbine

control. As generator, the polynomial in the right side is the

m is considerably larger than m, Equation (20)

supplementary output

can be equivalent to of the damping control. As m is considerably larger than m , Equation (20)

can be equivalent to

Pw Pw K m3m K 3mm 2

mm

3 2

K `K 3

(21)

(21)

KK 33m `P

P m

We can make = m /2m and set P nearly constant, then the diagram of the improved

2

We can make m1m1 = m/m and set P nearly constant, then the diagram of the improved

DFIG damping control scheme is shown in Figure 7.

DFIG damping control scheme is shown in Figure 7.

Energies 2016, 9, 521 10 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 10 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 10 of 15

1 s

s Ti

1 K p (1 T Td s)

2f 0 1 sT f K p (1 s i T d s)

2f 0 1 sT f s

m

m

m 2m 2

*

*m *

m

Pw* *

m m

m* Pw

m

0 MPPT

0 MPPT

Figure

Figure7.7.

7.Improved

Improvedsupplementary

supplementarydamping

dampingcontrol

controlofof

DFIG.

Figure Improved supplementary damping control of DFIG.

DFIG.

5.2.

5.2.Time-Domain

Time-DomainSimulation

SimulationAnalysis

Analysis

While considering

While considering

consideringthe the

the effect

effect

effect ofof actual

of actual actual

damping damping

damping

correctivecorrective

control, it control,

corrective iscontrol,

necessaryitit is necessary

necessary toto

issimultaneously

to

simultaneously

simultaneously

perform perform

perform

time-domain time-domain

time-domain

simulation simulation

simulation

and verification and

for and verification

verification

the overshoot, for the overshoot,

for the period,

oscillation overshoot, andoscillation

oscillation

decay time

period,

period, and

anddecay

of the damping decay time

timeofofthe

control. thedamping

dampingcontrol.

control.

We

Wetuned the parameters of the optimized damping ratio control in Figure 7 by GA described

tuned the parameters of the optimized damping ratio control in Figure 7 by GA described

ininSection 3, then added Power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1, and then ran time-domain

Section 3, then added Power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1, and then ran time-domain

simulation

simulation inin the

inthe case

thecase of adding

caseofofadding

adding supplementary

supplementary damping

damping control

control and no nodamping control in the

supplementary damping control and and

no damping dampingcontrolcontrol

in thein the

DFIG

DFIG

DFIG at Bus 2. Increased load at Bus 8 to 110% times of original value at 5 s, means a small

at Bus at

2. Bus 2. Increased

Increased load at Busload8 atto Bus

110%8 times

to 110% times of

of original original

value at 5 s,value

means at a5small

s, means a small

perturbation

perturbation

perturbation occurs at 5 s.

occurs at 5 s. occurs at 5 s.

The

Therotor

rotorspeed

speedcurves

curvesofofthethesynchronous

synchronousgenerator1

generator1werewereunder little perturbation in the case

under little perturbation in the case

ofofPSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control as illustrated in Figure 8

PSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control as illustrated in Figure 8

and

andTable

Table3.3.ItItcan be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation,

can be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation, perturbation,

and

and oscillation settlesdown

oscillation settles downmuch muchfaster

fasterwhen

whenadopting

adoptingdamping

dampingcontrol.

control.Damping

Dampingeffect effectadding

addinginin

synchronous

synchronousmachine

machineand andDFIGDFIGwith

withthe thesame

sameactive power output can achieve approximately the

active power output can achieve approximately the

same effectiveness, proving the performance of

same effectiveness, proving the performance of supplementary supplementary

supplementarydampingdampingcontrolcontrolof ofDFIG.

DFIG.

damping control of DFIG.

Figure 8. Dynamic response of rotor speed of G1 adopting novel DFIG damping control.

Figure

Figure 8.

8. Dynamic

Dynamic response

response of

of rotor

rotor speed

speed of

of G1

G1 adopting

adopting novel

novel DFIG damping control.

DFIG damping control.

Energies 2016, 9, 521 11 of 15

Table 3. Dynamic performance of optimized damping control.

Table 3. Dynamic performance of optimized damping control.

Control Strategy

Control Strategy PositiveOvershoot/p.u.

Positive Overshoot/p.u. Oscillation

Oscillation Period/s

Period/s Decay

DecayTime/s

Time/s

No Damping

No Damping Control

Control 0.00082

0.00082 1.7

1.7 13.5

13.5

PSS Damping

PSS Damping Control

Control 0.00082

0.00082 1.9

1.9 7.4

7.4

DFIG Damping

DFIG Damping Control

Control 0.00082

0.00082 2.1

2.1 7.6

7.6

Thescenarios

The scenariosthat

that

thethe

windwind speed

speed fluctuates

fluctuates in a considerable

in a considerable varyingvarying range

range are takenare taken to

to validate

validate the proposed method compared with the damping control method of

the proposed method compared with the damping control method of the wind turbine proposed the wind turbine

proposed

in [19]. Thein [19]. The comparative

comparative simulation

simulation results results

and the andinthe

analysis analysis

terms in domain

of time terms ofcharacteristics

time domain

characteristics

are are shown

shown in Figure 9 and in Figure

Table 4. 9 and Table 4.

Figure 9. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting existing damping control.

Figure 9. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting existing damping control.

Table 4. Dynamic performance under different wind speeds adopting existing damping control.

Table 4. Dynamic performance under different wind speeds adopting existing damping control.

Wind Speed Positive Overshoot/p.u. Oscillation Period/s Decay Time/s

Wind Speed 6 m/s 0.00132 1.8 9.7

Wind Speed Positive Overshoot/p.u. Oscillation Period/s Decay Time/s

Wind Speed 8 m/s 0.00098 2.0 8.0

Wind

Wind Speed

Speed 611m/s

m/s 0.00132

0.00079 1.8

2.2 9.7

6.9

Wind Speed 8 m/s

Wind Speed 15 m/s 0.00098

0.00069 2.0

2.4 8.0

5.5

Wind Speed 11 m/s 0.00079 2.2 6.9

While

WindtheSpeed

novel

15 system

m/s oscillation0.00069

resulted in little perturbation

2.4 in the case of

5.5 adding DFIG

damping control and without PSS control is shown in Figure 10. It is obvious that oscillation

suppression

While theeffects

novelofsystem

improved DFIG damping

oscillation control

resulted in tend to be less

little perturbation volatile

in the case in

of different wind

adding DFIG

speeds and

damping is more

control andpractical.

without PSS control is shown in Figure 10. It is obvious that oscillation

suppression effects of improved DFIG damping control tend to be less volatile in different wind

speeds and is more practical.

Energies 2016, 9, 521 12 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 12 of 15

Figure 10. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting novel damping control.

Figure 10. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting novel damping control.

By comparing the simulation results of the proposed method and the method proposed in [19],

it can be found the

By comparing that simulation

the control effects

resultsofofboth

themethods

proposed aremethod

satisfactory

andwhile in high proposed

the method wind speeds. in [19],

From Tables 4 and 5, it can be found that when wind speed is at its rated value, i.e., 15 m/s, the

it can be found that the control effects of both methods are satisfactory while in high wind speeds.

performance of the two control strategies are very close except that the first overshoot resulting from

From Tables 4 and 5, it can be found that when wind speed is at its rated value, i.e., 15 m/s,

of the control strategy in [19] is 2, while this index resulting from the control strategy proposed in

the performance

this paper is of theuptwo

only control

to 1.5, strategies

which are better.

is slightly very close except

However, thatwind

when the first overshoot

speed decreases,resulting

the

from of the control strategy in [19] is 2, while this index resulting from the control

method proposed in this paper is still capable of maintaining a relatively good control effect, while strategy proposed

in this

thepaper

controliseffect

onlyofup thetocompared

1.5, which

methodisdeteriorates.

slightly better.

From However, when

Table 4, it can wind

be found thatspeed

whendecreases,

wind

the method proposed

speed decreases to in thisthe

6 m/s, paper

secondis still capable

overshoot of maintaining

resulting a relatively

from the control methodgood control

in [19] reaches effect,

while1.5, while this

the control indexofresulting

effect from the method

the compared proposeddeteriorates.

method is below 1. Table

From Furthermore,

4, it can in the

be follow-

found that

whenup windperiods,

speed thedecreases

damping process

to 6 m/s, of oscillation

the second is overshoot

slow when resulting

utilizing the control

from the method

control in [19]. The

method in [19]

fifth oscillation peak value is only attenuated to 25% of the first peak value

reaches 1.5, while this index resulting from the proposed method is below 1. Furthermore, in the under the control method

proposed in [19]. In contrast, by using the proposed method, this index can be attenuated below 5%

follow-up periods, the damping process of oscillation is slow when utilizing the control method in [19].

of the first peak value. As a result, the consistency and the reliability of the damping control effect

The fifth oscillation peak value is only attenuated to 25% of the first peak value under the control

cannot be ensured unless the impact brought by various wind speeds, which can be eliminated by

method proposed in [19]. negative

introducing a targeted In contrast, by using

feedback, the

is fully proposed

considered in method,

the controlthis index can be attenuated

strategy.

below 5% of the first peak value. As a result, the consistency and the reliability of the damping control

effect cannot Table

be ensured unless

5. Dynamic the impact

performance brought

of novel by various

DFIG damping wind

control speeds,

under which

different can be eliminated

wind speeds.

by introducing aWind

targeted

Speednegative feedback, is fully

Positive Overshoot/p.u. considered in the control

Oscillation Period/s strategy.

Decay Time/s

Wind Speed 6 m/s 0.00086 2.1 8.2

5. Dynamic

Table Wind Speed 8performance

m/s of novel DFIG damping control

0.00080 2.2under different wind

7.6 speeds.

Wind Speed 11 m/s 0.00075 2.3 7.0

Wind Speed

Wind Speed 15 m/s 0.00070

Positive Overshoot/p.u. 2.4 Period/s

Oscillation 5.8 Time/s

Decay

Wind Speed 6 m/s 0.00086 2.1 8.2

Converter rated capacity is determined by the maximum allowed slip power of the DFIG,

Wind Speed 8 m/s 0.00080 2.2 7.6

usually 30%40%, and most DFIGs nowadays have a converter capacity between 30% and 40% of the

Wind Speed 11 m/s 0.00075 2.3 7.0

ratedWind

capacity

Speedof15the DFIG. The output

m/s converter current of DFIG

0.00070 2.4 involved in damping

5.8 control

strategy and case study (Figure 10) has been provided in Figure 11. During our whole simulation

study, the output current is always within the converter capacity limit.

Converter rated capacity is determined by the maximum allowed slip power of the DFIG, usually

30%40%, and most DFIGs nowadays have a converter capacity between 30% and 40% of the rated

capacity of the DFIG. The output converter current of DFIG involved in damping control strategy and

case study (Figure 10) has been provided in Figure 11. During our whole simulation study, the output

current is always within the converter capacity limit.

Energies 2016, 9, 521 13 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 13 of 15

Figure 11. The output converter rms current of DFIG involved in damping control strategy.

Figure 11. The output converter rms current of DFIG involved in damping control strategy.

The simulation results shows that, in any case, the maximum rise in the converter rms per-unit

The simulation

current is only 0.7,results

whichshowsis still that,

withinin the

anyoperational

case, the maximum

thresholds.riseAsinlong

the converter rms per-unit

as the magnitude of

current

converter output current does not exceed the threshold during the whole control process and under of

is only 0.7, which is still within the operational thresholds. As long as the magnitude

converter

various output current

wind speeds, it does

can benot exceed the

considered threshold

that the outputduring the whole

converter currentcontrol

duringprocess

damping and under

action

various wind

is within speeds,

allowed it canInbe

limits. considered

this that the our

case, we consider output converter

strategy current

effective during damping action is

and feasible.

within allowed limits. In this case, we consider our strategy effective and feasible.

6. Conclusions

6. Conclusions

In this paper, a supplementary control scheme for one of the most commonly used variable

In this

speed wind paper, a supplementary

turbines DFIG is proposed controlto scheme forthe

increase onedamping

of the most commonly

of power usedSimultaneous

system. variable speed

tuning of parameters of these controllers is accomplished by

wind turbines DFIG is proposed to increase the damping of power system. Simultaneous using GA. The simulation results tuning

on a

of WSCC

parameterssystem ofdemonstrate

these controllers the effectiveness

is accomplished of the proposed

by using GA.control

Thescheme in fixed

simulation windon

results speed.

a WSCC

system Furthermore,

demonstrate In theorder to mitigate

effectiveness ofthe

theproblem

proposed of existing DFIG damping

control scheme in fixedcontrol strategies, that

wind speed.

is, Furthermore,

their effects areInsensitive

order toto wind speed

mitigate and result

the problem of in volatileDFIG

existing system damping

damping ratio, an

control improved

strategies, that

is, their effects are sensitive to wind speed and result in volatile system damping ratio, anproposed

damping control scheme based on the feedback regulation of wind turbine rotor speed is improved

to implement

damping controlnovel

schemeDFIG self-adaptive

based dampingregulation

on the feedback control under different

of wind windrotor

turbine speeds.

speedComparative

is proposed

simulation results show that the proposed strategy is able to maintain consistent and satisfactory

to implement novel DFIG self-adaptive damping control under different wind speeds. Comparative

control effects and ensure a stable power system damping ratio even with significant fluctuations of

simulation results show that the proposed strategy is able to maintain consistent and satisfactory

wind speed, which is the main advantage of the proposed method.

control effects and ensure a stable power system damping ratio even with significant fluctuations of

windAcknowledgments:

speed, which is This

thework

mainis supported

advantage byof

National Natural Science

the proposed method.Foundation of China (NSFC) (51537003).

Author Contributions: This work was leaded by Aiguo Tan. The modeling process has been performed by Ran

Acknowledgments: This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (51537003).

Lyu, Zhengtian Li, Long Peng and Muhammad Shoaib Khalid. Simulation and analysis of the results have been

performed

Author by Xiangning

Contributions: Linwork

This and Jinwen Sun. by Aiguo Tan. The modeling process has been performed by

was leaded

Ran Lyu, Zhengtian Li, Long Peng and Muhammad Shoaib Khalid. Simulation and analysis of the results have

Conflicts

been of Interest:

performed The authors

by Xiangning declare

Lin and no conflict

Jinwen Sun. of interest.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Symbol and Acronym

DFIG Doubly Fed Induction Generator

WT Wind Turbine

PSS Power System Stabilizer

PMSG Permanent magnet Synchronous Generator

GA Genetic Algorithm

Energies 2016, 9, 521 14 of 15

WT Wind Turbine

PSS Power System Stabilizer

PMSG Permanent magnet Synchronous Generator

GA Genetic Algorithm

MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking

LVRT Low Voltage Ride Through

DAE Differential Algebraic Equation

WSCC Western Systems Coordinating Council

Pw Input mechanical power of DFIG

Tm Mechanical torque applied to the generator shaft

m Mechanical angular velocity of DFIG rotor

p Number of poles of the DFIG

Ps , Pr Active power of DFIG stator and rotor, respectively

Qs , Qr Reactive power of DFIG stator and rotor, respectively

s Slip ratio of DFIG

f1 Frequency of the DFIG stator current

f2 Frequency of the DFIG rotor excitation current

xm Excitation reactance of DFIG

b angular velocity of DFIG rotor when frequency is 60 Hz

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(CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).