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Article
A Novel DFIG Damping Control for Power System
with High Wind Power Penetration
Aiguo Tan 1,2 , Xiangning Lin 1 , Jinwen Sun 1, *, Ran Lyu 1 , Zhengtian Li 1 , Long Peng 1 and
Muhammad Shoaib Khalid 1,3
1 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China;
tanaiguo@hust.edu.cn (A.T.); xiangning.lin@hust.edu.cn (X.L.); lvran.deyouxiang@163.com (R.L.);
tianlz9806115@163.com (Z.L.); penglong08@hust.edu.cn (L.P.); shoaibusmani@hust.edu.cn (M.S.K.)
2 School of Information Engineering, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi 445000, China
3 School of Electrical Engineering, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
* Correspondence: jinwensun@126.com; Tel.: +86-135-5416-8060

Academic Editor: Simon J. Watson


Received: 7 March 2016; Accepted: 24 June 2016; Published: 5 July 2016
Abstract: Aiming at the fact that large-scale penetration of wind power will to some extent weaken
the small signal stability of power systems, in this paper, the dynamic model of a doubly fed induction
generator (DFIG) is established firstly, to analyze the impact of wind generation on power oscillation
damping. Then, based on the conventional maximum power point tracking control of variable
speed wind turbine, a supplementary control scheme is proposed to increase the damping of power
system. To achieve best performance, parameters of the damping control are tuned by using a
genetic algorithm. Results of eigenvalue analysis and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of
supplementary damping control with fixed wind speed. At last, due to the problem that fluctuation
of output power of wind generators would cause the unstable performance of the DFIG damping
controller above, a new algorithm that adapts to the wind variation is added to the supplementary
damping control scheme. Results of the simulation show that an improved damping control scheme
can stably enhance system damping under various wind speeds and has higher practical value.

Keywords: adaptive damping control; doubly fed induction generator (DFIG); small signal stability;
power oscillation; DFIG supplementary control

1. Introduction
The penetration of wind energy increases rapidly with the in-depth study and technical progress
on wind power generation in recent years, however, large-scale penetration of wind power will change
the damping characteristics of grid, thus the low signal stability of the network under high wind
power penetration level is more sensitive than that of the traditional grid [13].
The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has gained increasing popularity in wind power
generation recently due to its flexible controllability and relatively low price. Although the impact
of power system oscillation on DFIG can be inhibited by power electronic converter, the volatility of
wind power and the tripping of wind generators without low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability
increase the oscillation power suffered by synchronous machines in the regional grid, thus making
power systems more likely to suffer chronic oscillation. Therefore, it is of great significance for the
secure and stable operation of regional grid with high wind power penetration to increase the inhibitive
capability of power system oscillation by improving the existing control strategies of variable speed
wind turbines [48].
In fact, current PSS control strategies to enhance operational stability of grids cannot have had
full effect since the operation of traditional synchronous generators needs to consider other control

Energies 2016, 9, 521; doi:10.3390/en9070521 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies


Energies 2016, 9, 521 2 of 15

demands such as voltage regulation and frequency regulation except for stability control, which is
always contradiction with aims and instructions of PSS. However, wind generators normally have less
output control demand, and can respond to the damping control effectively, which is very suitable for
the project implementation of small signal stability optimal control strategy in power grid with high
wind penetration.
References [914] have studied the controller design for DFIG to increase the damping of the
system. In reference [9], pitch control is utilized to design a damping controller based on P/f
droop control, in which the deviation of frequency is used to adjust pitch angle and change the
amount of captured wind energy, thus adjusting the power of wind turbine based on oscillation of
frequency. However, the response speed of pitch control is too slow to suppress the oscillation of
the system effectively. In [10], the auxiliary signal derived from r is added to the rotor phase angle
control, which can enhance not only the low-frequency damping of the system, but also the LVRT
capability of the wind generator. Reference [11] reduces the impact of a DFIG wind turbine on a
regional grid through the control of rotor flux amplitude and the phase of DFIG, which is similar to
dynamic excitation and power angle characteristics of a gel synchronous generator. [12,13] proposes
a control mechanism aimed at designing the power system stabilizer (PSS) for a DFIG, whose input
signal is the DFIG terminal voltage, system oscillation power, and deviation of rotational speed of
synchronous generator, respectively. Reference [14] investigates the principle of improving the system
damping through the power regulation of the PMSG-based wind turbines, and proposes the active
and the reactive power damping control strategies, which enhances system damping by adding
proportional control based on the deviation of system frequency to rotor speed of MPPT control.
However, only proportional control would produce some steady-state error to power the angle of a
synchronous generator.
Aiming at the small signal stability problem in large-scale penetration of wind power into power
systems, in this paper, the dynamic model of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is established
firstly, to analyze the impact of wind generation on power oscillation damping. Then, based on the
conventional maximum power point tracking control of variable speed wind turbine, a supplementary
control scheme is proposed to increase the damping of power system. To achieve best performance,
parameters of the damping control are tuned by using a genetic algorithm. Results of eigenvalue
analysis and simulation on Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) three-machine nine-bus
system with an integrated DFIG demonstrate that the proposed supplementary control scheme can
effectively suppress the oscillation of the system in fixed wind speeds.
Finally, the above damping control is improved by making the additional active power constant
with the variation of operational point of wind generator, due to the problem that varying power
output of the wind generator caused by randomness of wind speed would cause the control effect
unstable, which is not only contributive to the system power oscillation, but also counterproductive
to the whole system. Results of contrast simulation verify the insensitivity of new damping control
schemes to the change of wind speed and significant enhancement of system stability.

2. DFIG Model and Control System


The sketch diagram [15] in Figure 1 shows a DFIG-based wind power generation system.
As shown in Figure 1, stator side of DFIG connects to the grid through a transformer, while the
rotor side connects to the grid through back to back convertor, which achieves the decoupling of rotor
speed and grid frequency and the convertor compensates the difference between mechanical and
electrical frequency by injecting variable frequency rotor current. DFIG dynamic modeling is mainly
divided into three parts: the mechanical part, doubly-fed generator, and controller [16].
Energies 2016, 9, 521 3 of 15
Energies 2016, 9, 521 3 of 15

Wind Pg jQg
Wind

Voltage
Frequency
Pitch angle Pitch angle

Rotor Speed Rotor Speed


Rotor current Rotor current
Pitch angle control MPPT Pitch angle
Terminal voltage control
control MPPT T
p iqr idr
m m
Kp Pw* ( xs xm ) V 1
Kv
1 Tp s m xmV (1 sTe ) 1 s

ref
Vref
1

xm

Figure
Figure 1.
1. Structure
Structure of
of the
the DFIG
DFIG control system.
control system.

The doubly-fed generator rotor is driven by the rotating of wind turbine blades through a gear
The doubly-fed generator rotor is driven by the rotating of wind turbine blades through a gear
box, whose electromechanical equation is modeled in (1):
box, whose electromechanical equation is modeled in Equation (1):
(T T )
m pTmm Te qe (1)
m 2 Hm m (1)
2H
Ignore the
Ignore the stator
stator Figure
Figure 1,
1, and
and assume
assume d-axis
d-axis is
is consistent
consistent with
with the
the direction of maximum
direction of maximum value
value
of stator
of stator flux,
flux, then
then the
the electromagnetic
electromagnetic torque
torque equation
equation can
can be
be simplified
simplified as
as Equation
(2): (2):
xmViqr
TeTexmxm iqsq ) xm Viqr
idsidsidridriqs
pi(qriqr (2)
b (sxs m
b px ` x xmq)

Mechanical
Mechanicaltorque
torqueequation
equationisisshown
shownin
inEquation
(3): (3):

P
P
TmTm (3)
(3)

m
m
Neglect rotor transients, then the convertor model can be simplified properly. Model the back to
Neglect rotor transients, then the convertor model can be simplified properly. Model the back
back voltage convertor with current loop as an ideal current source, then the relationship of voltage
to back voltage convertor with current loop as an ideal current source, then the relationship of voltage
and current of generator rotor and stator are shown in Equation (4), where subscript s represents
and current of generator rotor and stator are shown in Equation (4), where subscript s represents
parameters related to stator and subscript represents parameters in grid side of convertor. The rs , xs ,
parameters related to stator and subscript represents parameters in grid side of convertor. The rs,
rR , and xR are resistance and leakage reactance of stator and rotor, wb is the angular velocity of the
xs, rR, and xR are resistance and leakage reactance of stator and rotor, wb is the angular velocity of the
DFIG rotor when frequency and xm is the excitation reactance of DFIG.
DFIG rotor when frequency and xm is the excitation reactance of DFIG.
vvdsdsr
rssiidsds `
[( xxmm qi)iqsqs `
rpxxss ` xmm iqrqr s]
vqs rs iqs rpx R ` xm qids ` xm idr s
v r i [( x x )i x i ] (4)
vds qs r R isdrqs` srpxRR ` xmm qidsqr ` xmmdr iqs s (4)
vdsvdsr
RrRiqridrsrpx
s[( sxR`xmxqi )i
m drqr ` x x i
m mds iqss ]
vds rand
With stator resistance being neglected sdirection
R iqr the [( xs xmof)idrmaximum
xmids ] value of stator flux, determining
the position of d axis, the power injected to the grid can be equivalent to Equations (5) and (6):
With stator resistance being neglected and the direction of maximum value of stator flux,
determining the position of d axis, the power injected to the grid can be equivalent to Equations (5)
P vds ids ` vqs iqs ` vdc idc ` vqc iqc (5)
and (6):
2
P Q
vdsidsxvmqsVi
iqsdr
vdcVidc vqciqc (5)
(6)
xs ` xm xm

xmVidr V 2
Q (6)
xs xm xm
Energies 2016, 9, 521 4 of 15

As shown in Figure 1, DFIG adjusts the speed of wind turbine blades by maximum power point
tracking to achieve active power control. First, get theoretical maximum power output Pw according to
the angular speed-output power curve by measured rotor speed, then, achieve control objective by
adjusting inverter current. The control equation is shown in Equation (7):
xs ` xm 1
iqr r P pm q{m iqr s (7)
xm V Te

As shown in Figure 1, DFIG changes the terminal voltage by controlling the reactive power in
exchange with the grid. The control equation is in Equation (8):

idr KV pV Vre f q V{xm idr (8)

As shown, in lower left part of Figure 1 is the pitch control. Once wind speed is higher than rated
speed, variable pitch control can effectively regulate the pitch angle to limit the aerodynamic efficiency
of the wind turbine blades to prevent wind wheel speed from getting too high and causing mechanical
damage. The control equation is shown in Equation (9):

K p pm re f q p
p (9)
Tp

3. Theory of Power System Low Frequency Oscillation


Small signal stability is the ability of power system to keep pace in the case of small perturbations
which means that the effect caused by disturbance is too small to affect the structure of analysis model.
The power system experiences small disturbance every time, such as random fluctuation of loads,
slow change of some parameters and so on. Therefore, the ability of small signal stability is a necessity
for a well-designed power system.
Power system generally can be described by nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAE)
as follows [17]:

x f px, yq
(10)
0 gpx, yq
The first equation of DAE is state equation, and the second one is algebraic equation.
The above non-linear model can be linearized at the operating point and can be represented by
incremental differential algebraic equations in the case of small perturbations as shown in Equation (11)

ff ff ff
x Fx Fy x
(11)
0 Gx Gy y

Then the eigen matrix of system is shown in Equation (12)

1
As Fx Fy G
y Gx (12)

As it is well known, the stability of linear systems depends on the eigenvalues of state matrix As .
Based on the first law of Lyapunov, if all eigenvalues of state matrix As have negative real parts,
the system is asymptotically stable; conversely, if the system has at least one positive real part
eigenvalues, the system is unstable; and the system is critical stable if the real part of at least one
eigenvalue is zero when other eigenvalues have negative real parts. In addition, the eigenvectors
and participation factors corresponding to eigenvalues can provide more system information for the
inhibition of low frequency oscillation and the design of a small signal stability controller.
From state matrix As , a certain number of eigenvalues can be calculated out and each eigenvalue
corresponds to a mode: real eigenvalues correspond to non-oscillation mode, complex eigenvalues
Energies 2016, 9, 521 5 of 15

From
Energies 2016,state
9, 521matrix As, a certain number of eigenvalues can be calculated out and each eigenvalue 5 of 15
corresponds to a mode: real eigenvalues correspond to non-oscillation mode, complex eigenvalues
with negative real parts correspond to decay mode, and it is compared with its positive real part
with negative real
corresponding parts correspond
to aperiodic instability.toComplex
decay mode, and it is
eigenvalues arecompared
as follows:with its positive real part
corresponding to aperiodic instability. Complex eigenvalues are as follows:
= + j (13)
` j (13)
Real part of complex eigenvalue describes the system oscillation damping and imaginary
part means the oscillation frequency. The oscillation frequency and damping ratio can be expressed
Real part of complex eigenvalue describes the system oscillation damping and imaginary part means
as follows:
the oscillation frequency. The oscillation frequency and damping ratio can be expressed as follows:

f f (14)
(14)
2
2

?


(15)
2 2` 2 2 (15)

Damping determines the stability characteristics of system and the system can provide sufficient
Damping
damping determines
to keep thestable
the system stability
onlycharacteristics
if damping isof system
bigger andzero.
than the system can provide sufficient
damping to keep the system stable only if damping is bigger than zero.
4. Optimal DFIG Control under Fixed wind Speed
4. Optimal DFIG Control under Fixed wind Speed
4.1. Supplementary Damping Control of DFIG
4.1. Supplementary Damping
As it is well known, Control of DFIG
synchronous generators and constant speed wind turbines are integrated with
the grid
As itand theirknown,
is well stabilitysynchronous
is easily affected by the status
generators of power
and constant system.
speed wind Onturbines
the contrary, the rotor
are integrated
speed of DFIG whose rotor side is excited by a power electronic convertor does
with the grid and their stability is easily affected by the status of power system. On the contrary, not couple with the
frequency
rotor speedofofthe grid.whose
DFIG The active
rotor power output of
side is excited byvariable
a powerspeed windconvertor
electronic generatordoesis only
notcontrolled
couple withby
wind
the speed, thus
frequency DFIG
of the has
grid. noactive
The inhibitory
power effect on low
output frequency
of variable oscillation,
speed and theisdynamic
wind generator process
only controlled
of power
by systemthus
wind speed, will inevitably
DFIG has no lackinhibitory
power support
effect in
onareas under the high
low frequency penetration
oscillation, level.
and the dynamic
Once
process disturbance
of power system orwill
failure occurs,lack
inevitably the power
volatility of wind
support powerunder
in areas in thethe
area of penetration
high high wind powerlevel.
penetration will increase
Once disturbance the oscillation
or failure occurs, thepower such
volatility of that
windapower
synchronous
in the areamachine
of highsuffers in the
wind power
case of insufficient
penetration damping
will increase in synchronous
the oscillation power such machine,
that a which is more
synchronous likely to
machine cause
suffers in the
the system
case of
to remain volatile.
insufficient damping in synchronous machine, which is more likely to cause the system to remain volatile.
The block diagram
diagram of supplementary
supplementary control
control is
is shown
shown in in Figure
Figure 2. ItIt is
is proved
proved in in [14] that the
adjustment of
adjustment of active
active power
power of DFIG can generate an additional additional damping
damping torque
torque for the swing of
power angle of synchronous generators, thus increasing the damping of system. is the phase angle
of terminal voltage of the bus DFIG connected, compare it with its initial
voltage of the bus DFIG connected, compare it with its initial value. value. is is
thethe
deviation of
deviation
synchronous
of synchronous speed, and
speed, mis
and the
m is themeasured
measured rotational
rotationalspeed.
speed.

1
s Ti
K p (1 Td s)
2f 0 1 sT f s

*m Pw*
m


0 MPPT

Figure
Figure 2.
2. Damping
Damping control
control for
for DFIG.
DFIG.

4.2.
4.2. Achievement
Achievement of
of GA
GA Optimization
Optimization
To ensuredynamic
To ensure dynamicperformance
performance of of
thethe system,
system, especially
especially for suppressing
for suppressing power power oscillation,
oscillation, DFIG
DFIG
controller parameters should be well tuned. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used in this paperpaper
controller parameters should be well tuned. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used in this to
to tune
tune parameters
parameters of damping
of damping control.
control.
GA
GA is a search heuristic that
is a search heuristic that mimics
mimics thethe process of natural
process of natural selection.
selection. This
This heuristic
heuristic is
is routinely
routinely
used
used to generate useful solutions to optimize and search for problems [18]. Genetic algorithm belongs
to generate useful solutions to optimize and search for problems [18]. Genetic algorithm belongs
Energies 2016, 9, 521 6 of 15

to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA), which generate solutions to optimize problems
using techniques inspired by natural evolution, such as inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover.
Wind Power optimization control is a multi-variable, multi-constrained non-linear programming
problem. A genetic algorithm (GA) with strong robustness and adaptive searching capabilities on
wind power optimization control can search the optimal solutions based on all continuous and discrete
control variables so that the complexity of calculation is reduced; GA can also avoid a premature local
optimum, and reduce the corresponding amount of calculation to get globally optimal solution faster.
As described in Section 4.1, damping ratio is an important index that measures the dynamic
performance of system. In order to satisfy certain transient performance of system dynamics, it is more
reasonable to set the damping ratio as optimization objective.

Objective function Max J (16)

J min ti , i P assemble of electromechanical modesu (17)

where i is the damping ratio of the ith electromechanical mode, and J is the smallest damping ratio
among all the electromagnetic damping oscillation modes in some operating mode.
Constraint condition is:
pmin p pmax (18)

where p is the parameter vector defined as p = [Kp ,Ti ,Td ] and pmax and pmin are the upper and lower
limits, respectively, of the parameter vector. By using GA, the optimal controllers can be derived from
the solution of optimization problem Equation (16).
To minimize the objective function, the following classic GA procedure is employed:

1. Initialization of the population. N individuals represented by parameter vector p can be


randomly generated. Minimum damping ratio of system electromechanical oscillation modes
calculated according to the initial parameters of individual is defined as the fitness of the
individual and the individuals are sorted based on the fitness in descending order.
2. Crossover and mutation. New individuals are generated by the exchange of different parts of
gene of two parents selected by hybrid probability and then mutation operation is carried out on
the new generated individuals.
3. Fitness value assessment. Calculate the minimum damping ratio of electromechanical oscillation
mode as fitness of individual to assess all the descendants.
4. Choice. The top N individuals with maximum fitness values are chosen from the population after
hybridization for breeding the next generation.
5. Stop. The algorithm stops when damping ratio of the best individual of the population can
meet the requirements or genetic calculation exceeds the maximum algebra, otherwise goes back
to step Equation (2).

4.3. Simulation Studies


The case study system, as shown in Figure 3, is the WSCC three-machine nine-bus system.
There are two synchronous generators, with rated power of G1 100 MVA, and that of G2 300 MVA.
All two synchronous generators are identical and equipped with turbine governors. The parameters of
the synchronous generators are shown in Table 1 of Appendix along with turbine governor control
blocks and parameters. Two wind farms based on DFIG are connected to the grid in Bus 3 and Bus 10.
Wind farm1 and wind farm2 are composed of 60 and 40 wind turbines (unit capacity 1.5 MW), and are
respectively represented by one aggregated DFIG. Nodes 5, 6, and 8 are loads with constant power
model, whose capacity is 160 + 80j MVA, 200 MVA and 80 + 60j MVA, respectively.
Energies 2016, 9, 521 7 of 15
Energies 2016, 9, 521 7 of 15

2 7 9 3
G2 Wind
Farm 1
8

5 6

1 10

G1 Wind Farm 2

Figure3.3.WSCC
Figure WSCCthree-machine
three-machine nine-bus
nine-bus system
systemwith
withwind
windturbine.
turbine.

To verify the effectiveness


Table of proposed
1. The optimal results of DFIG supplementary
DFIG damping damping
control in control, GA is used to
WSCC system.
tune the damping control parameters. The population number is usually set as 10 times larger than
the variable numbers, so it isWind
set asFarm
60 in this case.
Kpi It is clear
Tiithat the Tdi
objective function can reach zero
after about 30 generations of evolution. The optimization results are presented in Table 1.
Wind farm 1 6.823 16.076 2.312
Wind farm 2 5.462 10.715 1.498
Table 1. The optimal results of DFIG damping control in WSCC system.

Wind FarmDFIG
To verify the effectiveness of proposed Kpi Tii
supplementary Tdi
damping control, GA is used to tune
Wind farm 1 6.823 16.076 2.312
the damping control parameters. The population number is usually set as 10 times larger than the
Wind farm 2 5.462 10.715 1.498
variable numbers, so it is set as 60 in this case. It is clear that the objective function can reach zero after
about 30 generations of evolution.
Electromechanical oscillationThe optimization
modes of systemresults are 3presented
in Figure with andinwithout
Table 1.DFIG damping
Electromechanical oscillation
control are shown in Table 2. modes of system in Figure 3 with and without DFIG damping
control are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Electromechanical modes of wscc system with and without dfig damping control.
Table 2. Electromechanical modes of wscc system with and without dfig damping control.
Control Strategy Eigenvalue Damping Ratio
Control Strategy 0.3050 3.6112i
Eigenvalue 0.0841 Ratio
Damping
No Damping Control
1.6038 10.8145i 0.1467
0.3050 3.6112i 0.0841
No Damping Control 0.5323 3.3790i 0.1543
DFIG Damping Control 1.6038 10.8145i 0.1467
1.7232 10.4471i 0.1641
0.5323 3.3790i 0.1543
DFIG Damping Control
1.7232 10.4471i 0.1641
Distribution of partial eigenvalues for the two experiments is shown in Figure 4. The triangles
are eigenvalues of system without supplementary damping control (no damping control), which is
theDistribution
basic model of partial
describedeigenvalues
in Sectionfor the two experiments
2, and quadrangles isareshown in Figure of
eigenvalues 4. The triangles
systems withare
eigenvalues
supplementaryof system without
damping supplementary
control, damping
which is described incontrol
Section(no damping
3. The arrows control), which istothe
from triangles
basic model described in Section 2, and quadrangles are eigenvalues of systems with
quadrangles show the change of eigenvalues of electromagnetic oscillation modes. It is rather obvious supplementary
damping
that when control, which
there is is described
no damping in Section
controller for the 3. Thethe
DFIG, arrows fromoscillation
interarea trianglesistopoorly
quadrangles
damped.show In
thecontrast,
change the of eigenvalues
coordinately tuned of electromagnetic
supplementaryoscillation modes. Itcan
damping controllers is rather
make all obvious that when
the eigenvalues
move
there to the
is no desiredcontroller
damping region. for the DFIG, the interarea oscillation is poorly damped. In contrast,
To further demonstrate
the coordinately tuned supplementary the effectiveness
damping of the proposedcan
controllers control
makescheme, several simulations
all the eigenvalues move to arethe
conducted.
desired region. Add a power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1 [18], then run a time-domain
simulation
To further in demonstrate
the case of adding supplementary
the effectiveness damping
of the proposedcontrol andscheme,
control no damping control
several in DFIGare
simulations
at Bus 2. Load at Bus 8 increases to 110% times of original value at 5 s, which
conducted. Add a power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1 [18], then run a time-domain simulation means a small in
perturbation occurs at 5 s.
the case of adding supplementary damping control and no damping control in DFIG at Bus 2. Load at Bus
The to
8 increases rotor speed
110% curves
times of the synchronous
of original value at 5 s, generator 1 under
which means small
a small perturbationoccurs
perturbation in theatcase
5 s.of
PSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control are illustrated in Figure 5. It
The rotor speed curves of the synchronous generator 1 under small perturbation in the case of
can be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation, and oscillation
PSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control are illustrated in Figure 5. It can
settles down much faster when adopting damping controls. Damping effect added in synchronous
be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation, and oscillation settles
machine and DFIG with the same active power output can achieve approximately the same
down much faster when adopting damping controls. Damping effect added in synchronous machine
effectiveness, proving the performance of supplementary damping control of DFIG.
and DFIG with the same active power output can achieve approximately the same effectiveness,
proving the performance of supplementary damping control of DFIG.
Observe
Observe from from Figure
Figure 55 that
that the
the oscillation
oscillation suppression
suppression effect
effect of
of DFIG
DFIG supplementary
supplementary damping
damping
control
control is not inferior to that of PSS in synchronous generator with the same active power output. In
is not inferior to that of PSS in synchronous generator with the same active power output. In
fact,
fact, active
active power
power output
output ofof DFIG
DFIG isis variable
variable due
due to
to the
the volatility
volatility of
of wind
wind speed.
speed. The
The response
response of of
rotor
rotor speed
speed of of generator
generator 11 in
in the
the case
case of
of only
only DFIG
DFIG damping
damping control
control under
under small
small perturbation
perturbation isis
illustrated
illustrated
Energies
in
2016, in
Figure 6. Obviously, the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG damping control
Figure 6. Obviously, the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG damping control varies
9, 521
varies
8 of 15
with
with different
different windwind speeds,
speeds, having
having aa great
great impact
impact on
on its
its practical
practical application.
application.

YY

Eigenvalues
Eigenvalues
Damping
Damping ratio
ratio from
from 0.14
0.14 to
to distribution
0.16 distribution without
without
0.16 DFIG
DFIG damping
damping control
control
Eigenvalues
Eigenvalues
distribution
distribution with
with
DFIG
DFIG damping
damping control
control

Damping
Damping ratio
ratio from
from 0.08
0.08 to
to
0.15
0.15

XX

Figure
Figure 4.
4. Change
Change of
of eigenvalues
eigenvalues with
with damping
damping control.
control.

Figure
Figure 5. Dynamic response of rotor speed of
of G1
G1 under
under different
different control
control scheme.
Figure 5.
5. Dynamic
Dynamic response
response of
of rotor
rotor speed
speed of G1 under different control scheme.
scheme.

Observe from Figure 5 that the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG supplementary damping
control is not inferior to that of PSS in synchronous generator with the same active power output.
In fact, active power output of DFIG is variable due to the volatility of wind speed. The response
of rotor speed of generator 1 in the case of only DFIG damping control under small perturbation is
illustrated in Figure 6. Obviously, the oscillation suppression effect of DFIG damping control varies
with different wind speeds, having a great impact on its practical application.
Energies 2016, 9, 521 9 of 15
Energies 2016, 9, 521 9 of 15

Figure 6. Dynamic response of rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed in supplementary
Figure 6. Dynamic response of rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed in supplementary
damping control.
damping control.

5. Optimal DFIG Control under Mutative Wind Speed


5. Optimal DFIG Control under Mutative Wind Speed
5.1.
5.1. DFIG
DFIG Supplementary
Supplementary Damping
Damping Control
Control Scheme
Scheme Considering
Considering Wind
Wind Speed
Speed Variation
Variation
Different from PSS in synchronous generator, the effect
Different from PSS in synchronous generator, the effect of wind generatorof wind generator supplementary
supplementary damping
damping control is not constant in fixed operation mode and varies as the
control is not constant in fixed operation mode and varies as the change of wind speed. Namely,change of wind speed.
Namely, in areas where wind speed is volatile, utilization of wind generator supplementary
in areas where wind speed is volatile, utilization of wind generator supplementary damping control damping
control cannot the
cannot inhibit inhibit
powerthe oscillation
power oscillation effectively.
effectively.
In
In Section
Section 3,
3, the
the method
method of of variable
variable speed
speed wind
wind turbine
turbine to
to inhibit
inhibit oscillation
oscillation is
is to
to inject
inject active
active
power
power to the grid quickly to change the power angle of synchronous generator, thus enhancing low
to the grid quickly to change the power angle of synchronous generator, thus enhancing low
signal stability of system. Additional active power injected into the grid can reflect the control
signal stability of system. Additional active power injected into the grid can reflect the control effect of effect
of wind
wind generator
generator supplementarydamping
supplementary dampingcontrol,
control,and
andobserve
observefrom
fromthe
the maximum
maximum powerpower point
point the
the
tracking scheme of Section 1,
tracking scheme of Section 1, mostly,mostly,

Pw K
3m K (m m )3
*3 3
(19)
Pw K m K pm ` m q (19)
K is the optimal power output coefficient of a wind turbine. Simplify above polynomial on the
right K is the
side, optimal
then power can
the equation output coefficient
be as follows: of a wind turbine. Simplify above polynomial on the
right side, then the equation can be as follows:
Pw K 3m
Pw K 3m (20)
K (3 3 ( m )) (20)
`K p3mm` 3mmmmpmm ` m qq
where K m3 is normal output of wind turbine generator, the polynomial in the right side is the
where K m 3output
supplementary is normal output
of the of wind
damping turbine
control. As generator, the polynomial in the right side is the
m is considerably larger than m, Equation (20)
supplementary output
can be equivalent to of the damping control. As m is considerably larger than m , Equation (20)
can be equivalent to
Pw Pw K m3m K 3mm 2
mm
3 2
K `K 3
(21)
(21)
KK 33m `P
P m
We can make = m /2m and set P nearly constant, then the diagram of the improved
2
We can make m1m1 = m/m and set P nearly constant, then the diagram of the improved
DFIG damping control scheme is shown in Figure 7.
DFIG damping control scheme is shown in Figure 7.
Energies 2016, 9, 521 10 of 15
Energies 2016, 9, 521 10 of 15
Energies 2016, 9, 521 10 of 15


1 s
s Ti
1 K p (1 T Td s)
2f 0 1 sT f K p (1 s i T d s)
2f 0 1 sT f s
m
m
m 2m 2
*

*m *
m
Pw* *
m m
m* Pw
m




0 MPPT
0 MPPT
Figure
Figure7.7.
7.Improved
Improvedsupplementary
supplementarydamping
dampingcontrol
controlofof
DFIG.
Figure Improved supplementary damping control of DFIG.
DFIG.

5.2.
5.2.Time-Domain
Time-DomainSimulation
SimulationAnalysis
Analysis
While considering
While considering
consideringthe the
the effect
effect
effect ofof actual
of actual actual
damping damping
damping
correctivecorrective
control, it control,
corrective iscontrol,
necessaryitit is necessary
necessary toto
issimultaneously
to
simultaneously
simultaneously
perform perform
perform
time-domain time-domain
time-domain
simulation simulation
simulation
and verification and
for and verification
verification
the overshoot, for the overshoot,
for the period,
oscillation overshoot, andoscillation
oscillation
decay time
period,
period, and
anddecay
of the damping decay time
timeofofthe
control. thedamping
dampingcontrol.
control.
We
Wetuned the parameters of the optimized damping ratio control in Figure 7 by GA described
tuned the parameters of the optimized damping ratio control in Figure 7 by GA described
ininSection 3, then added Power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1, and then ran time-domain
Section 3, then added Power system stabilizer (PSS) in generator 1, and then ran time-domain
simulation
simulation inin the
inthe case
thecase of adding
caseofofadding
adding supplementary
supplementary damping
damping control
control and no nodamping control in the
supplementary damping control and and
no damping dampingcontrolcontrol
in thein the
DFIG
DFIG
DFIG at Bus 2. Increased load at Bus 8 to 110% times of original value at 5 s, means a small
at Bus at
2. Bus 2. Increased
Increased load at Busload8 atto Bus
110%8 times
to 110% times of
of original original
value at 5 s,value
means at a5small
s, means a small
perturbation
perturbation
perturbation occurs at 5 s.
occurs at 5 s. occurs at 5 s.
The
Therotor
rotorspeed
speedcurves
curvesofofthethesynchronous
synchronousgenerator1
generator1werewereunder little perturbation in the case
under little perturbation in the case
ofofPSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control as illustrated in Figure 8
PSS damping control, DFIG damping control, and no damping control as illustrated in Figure 8
and
andTable
Table3.3.ItItcan be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation,
can be seen that the rotor speed fluctuates on a small scale under small perturbation, perturbation,
and
and oscillation settlesdown
oscillation settles downmuch muchfaster
fasterwhen
whenadopting
adoptingdamping
dampingcontrol.
control.Damping
Dampingeffect effectadding
addinginin
synchronous
synchronousmachine
machineand andDFIGDFIGwith
withthe thesame
sameactive power output can achieve approximately the
active power output can achieve approximately the
same effectiveness, proving the performance of
same effectiveness, proving the performance of supplementary supplementary
supplementarydampingdampingcontrolcontrolof ofDFIG.
DFIG.
damping control of DFIG.

Figure 8. Dynamic response of rotor speed of G1 adopting novel DFIG damping control.
Figure
Figure 8.
8. Dynamic
Dynamic response
response of
of rotor
rotor speed
speed of
of G1
G1 adopting
adopting novel
novel DFIG damping control.
DFIG damping control.
Energies 2016, 9, 521 11 of 15

Energies 2016, 9, 521 11 of 15


Table 3. Dynamic performance of optimized damping control.
Table 3. Dynamic performance of optimized damping control.
Control Strategy
Control Strategy PositiveOvershoot/p.u.
Positive Overshoot/p.u. Oscillation
Oscillation Period/s
Period/s Decay
DecayTime/s
Time/s
No Damping
No Damping Control
Control 0.00082
0.00082 1.7
1.7 13.5
13.5
PSS Damping
PSS Damping Control
Control 0.00082
0.00082 1.9
1.9 7.4
7.4
DFIG Damping
DFIG Damping Control
Control 0.00082
0.00082 2.1
2.1 7.6
7.6

Thescenarios
The scenariosthat
that
thethe
windwind speed
speed fluctuates
fluctuates in a considerable
in a considerable varyingvarying range
range are takenare taken to
to validate
validate the proposed method compared with the damping control method of
the proposed method compared with the damping control method of the wind turbine proposed the wind turbine
proposed
in [19]. Thein [19]. The comparative
comparative simulation
simulation results results
and the andinthe
analysis analysis
terms in domain
of time terms ofcharacteristics
time domain
characteristics
are are shown
shown in Figure 9 and in Figure
Table 4. 9 and Table 4.

Figure 9. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting existing damping control.
Figure 9. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting existing damping control.
Table 4. Dynamic performance under different wind speeds adopting existing damping control.
Table 4. Dynamic performance under different wind speeds adopting existing damping control.
Wind Speed Positive Overshoot/p.u. Oscillation Period/s Decay Time/s
Wind Speed 6 m/s 0.00132 1.8 9.7
Wind Speed Positive Overshoot/p.u. Oscillation Period/s Decay Time/s
Wind Speed 8 m/s 0.00098 2.0 8.0
Wind
Wind Speed
Speed 611m/s
m/s 0.00132
0.00079 1.8
2.2 9.7
6.9
Wind Speed 8 m/s
Wind Speed 15 m/s 0.00098
0.00069 2.0
2.4 8.0
5.5
Wind Speed 11 m/s 0.00079 2.2 6.9
While
WindtheSpeed
novel
15 system
m/s oscillation0.00069
resulted in little perturbation
2.4 in the case of
5.5 adding DFIG
damping control and without PSS control is shown in Figure 10. It is obvious that oscillation
suppression
While theeffects
novelofsystem
improved DFIG damping
oscillation control
resulted in tend to be less
little perturbation volatile
in the case in
of different wind
adding DFIG
speeds and
damping is more
control andpractical.
without PSS control is shown in Figure 10. It is obvious that oscillation
suppression effects of improved DFIG damping control tend to be less volatile in different wind
speeds and is more practical.
Energies 2016, 9, 521 12 of 15
Energies 2016, 9, 521 12 of 15

Figure 10. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting novel damping control.
Figure 10. Rotor speed of G1 under different wind speed adopting novel damping control.
By comparing the simulation results of the proposed method and the method proposed in [19],
it can be found the
By comparing that simulation
the control effects
resultsofofboth
themethods
proposed aremethod
satisfactory
andwhile in high proposed
the method wind speeds. in [19],
From Tables 4 and 5, it can be found that when wind speed is at its rated value, i.e., 15 m/s, the
it can be found that the control effects of both methods are satisfactory while in high wind speeds.
performance of the two control strategies are very close except that the first overshoot resulting from
From Tables 4 and 5, it can be found that when wind speed is at its rated value, i.e., 15 m/s,
of the control strategy in [19] is 2, while this index resulting from the control strategy proposed in
the performance
this paper is of theuptwo
only control
to 1.5, strategies
which are better.
is slightly very close except
However, thatwind
when the first overshoot
speed decreases,resulting
the
from of the control strategy in [19] is 2, while this index resulting from the control
method proposed in this paper is still capable of maintaining a relatively good control effect, while strategy proposed
in this
thepaper
controliseffect
onlyofup thetocompared
1.5, which
methodisdeteriorates.
slightly better.
From However, when
Table 4, it can wind
be found thatspeed
whendecreases,
wind
the method proposed
speed decreases to in thisthe
6 m/s, paper
secondis still capable
overshoot of maintaining
resulting a relatively
from the control methodgood control
in [19] reaches effect,
while1.5, while this
the control indexofresulting
effect from the method
the compared proposeddeteriorates.
method is below 1. Table
From Furthermore,
4, it can in the
be follow-
found that
whenup windperiods,
speed thedecreases
damping process
to 6 m/s, of oscillation
the second is overshoot
slow when resulting
utilizing the control
from the method
control in [19]. The
method in [19]
fifth oscillation peak value is only attenuated to 25% of the first peak value
reaches 1.5, while this index resulting from the proposed method is below 1. Furthermore, in the under the control method
proposed in [19]. In contrast, by using the proposed method, this index can be attenuated below 5%
follow-up periods, the damping process of oscillation is slow when utilizing the control method in [19].
of the first peak value. As a result, the consistency and the reliability of the damping control effect
The fifth oscillation peak value is only attenuated to 25% of the first peak value under the control
cannot be ensured unless the impact brought by various wind speeds, which can be eliminated by
method proposed in [19]. negative
introducing a targeted In contrast, by using
feedback, the
is fully proposed
considered in method,
the controlthis index can be attenuated
strategy.
below 5% of the first peak value. As a result, the consistency and the reliability of the damping control
effect cannot Table
be ensured unless
5. Dynamic the impact
performance brought
of novel by various
DFIG damping wind
control speeds,
under which
different can be eliminated
wind speeds.
by introducing aWind
targeted
Speednegative feedback, is fully
Positive Overshoot/p.u. considered in the control
Oscillation Period/s strategy.
Decay Time/s
Wind Speed 6 m/s 0.00086 2.1 8.2
5. Dynamic
Table Wind Speed 8performance
m/s of novel DFIG damping control
0.00080 2.2under different wind
7.6 speeds.
Wind Speed 11 m/s 0.00075 2.3 7.0
Wind Speed
Wind Speed 15 m/s 0.00070
Positive Overshoot/p.u. 2.4 Period/s
Oscillation 5.8 Time/s
Decay
Wind Speed 6 m/s 0.00086 2.1 8.2
Converter rated capacity is determined by the maximum allowed slip power of the DFIG,
Wind Speed 8 m/s 0.00080 2.2 7.6
usually 30%40%, and most DFIGs nowadays have a converter capacity between 30% and 40% of the
Wind Speed 11 m/s 0.00075 2.3 7.0
ratedWind
capacity
Speedof15the DFIG. The output
m/s converter current of DFIG
0.00070 2.4 involved in damping
5.8 control
strategy and case study (Figure 10) has been provided in Figure 11. During our whole simulation
study, the output current is always within the converter capacity limit.
Converter rated capacity is determined by the maximum allowed slip power of the DFIG, usually
30%40%, and most DFIGs nowadays have a converter capacity between 30% and 40% of the rated
capacity of the DFIG. The output converter current of DFIG involved in damping control strategy and
case study (Figure 10) has been provided in Figure 11. During our whole simulation study, the output
current is always within the converter capacity limit.
Energies 2016, 9, 521 13 of 15
Energies 2016, 9, 521 13 of 15

Figure 11. The output converter rms current of DFIG involved in damping control strategy.
Figure 11. The output converter rms current of DFIG involved in damping control strategy.

The simulation results shows that, in any case, the maximum rise in the converter rms per-unit
The simulation
current is only 0.7,results
whichshowsis still that,
withinin the
anyoperational
case, the maximum
thresholds.riseAsinlong
the converter rms per-unit
as the magnitude of
current
converter output current does not exceed the threshold during the whole control process and under of
is only 0.7, which is still within the operational thresholds. As long as the magnitude
converter
various output current
wind speeds, it does
can benot exceed the
considered threshold
that the outputduring the whole
converter currentcontrol
duringprocess
damping and under
action
various wind
is within speeds,
allowed it canInbe
limits. considered
this that the our
case, we consider output converter
strategy current
effective during damping action is
and feasible.
within allowed limits. In this case, we consider our strategy effective and feasible.
6. Conclusions
6. Conclusions
In this paper, a supplementary control scheme for one of the most commonly used variable
In this
speed wind paper, a supplementary
turbines DFIG is proposed controlto scheme forthe
increase onedamping
of the most commonly
of power usedSimultaneous
system. variable speed
tuning of parameters of these controllers is accomplished by
wind turbines DFIG is proposed to increase the damping of power system. Simultaneous using GA. The simulation results tuning
on a
of WSCC
parameterssystem ofdemonstrate
these controllers the effectiveness
is accomplished of the proposed
by using GA.control
Thescheme in fixed
simulation windon
results speed.
a WSCC
system Furthermore,
demonstrate In theorder to mitigate
effectiveness ofthe
theproblem
proposed of existing DFIG damping
control scheme in fixedcontrol strategies, that
wind speed.
is, Furthermore,
their effects areInsensitive
order toto wind speed
mitigate and result
the problem of in volatileDFIG
existing system damping
damping ratio, an
control improved
strategies, that
is, their effects are sensitive to wind speed and result in volatile system damping ratio, anproposed
damping control scheme based on the feedback regulation of wind turbine rotor speed is improved
to implement
damping controlnovel
schemeDFIG self-adaptive
based dampingregulation
on the feedback control under different
of wind windrotor
turbine speeds.
speedComparative
is proposed
simulation results show that the proposed strategy is able to maintain consistent and satisfactory
to implement novel DFIG self-adaptive damping control under different wind speeds. Comparative
control effects and ensure a stable power system damping ratio even with significant fluctuations of
simulation results show that the proposed strategy is able to maintain consistent and satisfactory
wind speed, which is the main advantage of the proposed method.
control effects and ensure a stable power system damping ratio even with significant fluctuations of
windAcknowledgments:
speed, which is This
thework
mainis supported
advantage byof
National Natural Science
the proposed method.Foundation of China (NSFC) (51537003).

Author Contributions: This work was leaded by Aiguo Tan. The modeling process has been performed by Ran
Acknowledgments: This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (51537003).
Lyu, Zhengtian Li, Long Peng and Muhammad Shoaib Khalid. Simulation and analysis of the results have been
performed
Author by Xiangning
Contributions: Linwork
This and Jinwen Sun. by Aiguo Tan. The modeling process has been performed by
was leaded
Ran Lyu, Zhengtian Li, Long Peng and Muhammad Shoaib Khalid. Simulation and analysis of the results have
Conflicts
been of Interest:
performed The authors
by Xiangning declare
Lin and no conflict
Jinwen Sun. of interest.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Symbol and Acronym
DFIG Doubly Fed Induction Generator
WT Wind Turbine
PSS Power System Stabilizer
PMSG Permanent magnet Synchronous Generator
GA Genetic Algorithm
Energies 2016, 9, 521 14 of 15

Symbol and Acronym

DFIG Doubly Fed Induction Generator


WT Wind Turbine
PSS Power System Stabilizer
PMSG Permanent magnet Synchronous Generator
GA Genetic Algorithm
MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking
LVRT Low Voltage Ride Through
DAE Differential Algebraic Equation
WSCC Western Systems Coordinating Council
Pw Input mechanical power of DFIG
Tm Mechanical torque applied to the generator shaft
m Mechanical angular velocity of DFIG rotor
p Number of poles of the DFIG
Ps , Pr Active power of DFIG stator and rotor, respectively
Qs , Qr Reactive power of DFIG stator and rotor, respectively
s Slip ratio of DFIG
f1 Frequency of the DFIG stator current
f2 Frequency of the DFIG rotor excitation current
xm Excitation reactance of DFIG
b angular velocity of DFIG rotor when frequency is 60 Hz

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