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C O U P L E D DE T E R I O R A T I O N P R O C E S S E S I N C O N C R E T E

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E X P O S U R E T O A C I DI C E N V I R O N M E N T , C Y C L I C L O A DI N G A N D I M P A C T L O A DI N G
I n g . Ja k u b G r i n g e r
C z e c h T e c h n i c a l U n i v e r s i ty i n P r a g u e , F a c u l ty o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , De p a r tm e n t o f C o n c r e te a n d M a s o n r y S tr u c tu r e s
S u p e r v i s o r : Do c . I n g . M a r e k F o g l a r , P h . D.

ANNOTATION CYCLIC LOADING


Durability of the structures is one of the most discussed issues of last decades. Modern It is well-known fact, that the concrete structures deflections increase under the cyclic
high-performance concretes enable to design extremely slender structures which are loading, the phenomenon is called cyclic creep. In the thesis the mathematical extension
more vulnerable to the deterioration effects due to their minimal dimensions. In case of of the deflection increase calculation developed by doc. Foglar was proposed. The
the transport infrastructure at least two deterioration mechanisms are involved; chemical extension is further supplemented by the deterioration methods.
- the material is exposed e.g. to acid solution which reacts with concrete components The extension of the method is based on the partial integration over the compressive
and successively weakens composition of the binder and mechanical the material is zone height which reflects the real stress distribution in the cross-section. The strain rate
exposed to e.g. cyclic loading which leads to the formation and further propagation of effect was included in the evaluation due to the higher strain rates during the fatigue
cracks in the material matrix. testing. Comparison of the calculated and measured deflection can be seen in Fig. 2.
The state of the art in the thesis provided information that the problems of the combined
deterioration processes are not so thoroughly described. Therefore the work is focused
on the problem of coupled deterioration processes in concrete, particularly acidic
chemical deterioration, cyclic loading and extreme type of loading impact.
The thesis presents an analytical tool for the evaluation of the chemical deterioration
degree of concrete elements based on the chemical kinetics. This model was further
verified for the use in the assessment of the deflection increase due to the cyclic loading,
so-called cyclic creep, and in the estimation of the beam energy dissipation during the Fig. 2. Static and dynamic deflections with the calculated trend curves for specimen A5
impact loading. IMPACT LOADING
The analytical model and its extensions were verified with the data obtained from the The impact loading is not a deteriorative effect, but extreme type of loading, therefore it
long-term experimental program which involved many testing methods (Atomic was evaluated separately, but for the reduced material characteristics due to the
Absorption Spectrometry, Scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray aggressive environment and cyclic loading.
spectroscopy, Photon Doppler velocimetry etc.). The impact testing was recorded with high-speed camera together with the deflection
CHEMICAL DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE measurements using the Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). For the evaluation of the
For most cases of material deterioration the main factors influencing the degree of dissipated energies during the impact loading the numerical model in LS-DYNA
deterioration are the duration of the process and its aggressiveness (rate). For chemical software was prepared and fitted with the measured data for all tested specimens. The
deterioration, the rate is based on the chemical reaction rate, which can be expressed by amount of energy which dissipated in the deflections during the impact loading was
chemical kinetics. compared for differently deteriorated specimens. The methods for the chemical
For the thesis, hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as a deteriorative substance. In this deterioration degree assessment were incorporated to the formula for estimating the
case, it can be assumed, that the deteriorative reaction, that takes place when an dissipated energies during the impact. Evaluation of one specimen can be seen in Fig. 3.
aggressive environment comes into contact with concrete will correspond with the
neutralization according to the following equation (left) together with the appropriate
rate equation (right):

Based on the long-term pH measurements (Fig. 1) the rate constant was found as a first
order pseudo-rate constant.
Fig. 3. Development of burden speed / deflection and forcedeflection curve / area (right) of spec. A8

CONCLUSIONS
The main focus of the thesis was to propose an analytical model dealing with the acidic
chemical deterioration of concrete structures which can be further extended for the use
in assessment of the deflection increase due to the cyclic loading and for use in the
estimation of the impact resistance of concrete elements.
Main results ofthe thesis are:
Two different analytical approaches for the evaluation of the deterioration degree
Fig. 1. Reinforcement scheme of the specimens. of the concrete elements were proposed and successfully verified with the
With the rate constant and the solved rate experimental program. All used assumptions were proved with laboratory testing,
equation the actual rate of dissolution of SEM and EDS.
the calcium ions in time can be The analytical system for the evaluation of the deflection increase due to the
calculated. These quantities are insufficient for quantifying the degree of deterioration cyclic loading was extended and the obtained results were experimentally
of the concrete elements. To overcome these difficulties, it is necessary to link the verified. An approach for the estimation of the remaining fatigue life-time
obtained chemical equations with methods for quantifying the material properties. For independent on the total number of applied cycles N and number of already
this purpose two methods to determine the deterioration degree of concrete exposed to applied cycles n was proposed.
aggressive environment were proposed: 1) determination of the reduced compressive The approach for possible estimation of the energy dissipated during the impact
strength and 2) evaluation of the time variable cross-sectional area of sound specimen loading in dependency on the deterioration degree was formulated. The
core. recommendations for the FEM modelling of the impact loading were stated.
The first method (reduced Both proposed methods for the assessment of deteriorated specimens were
compressive strength) is based on implemented in the consequent systems of cyclic loading and impact loading
the modification of the Fret assessments. Suitability of particular method for different limit states was
function for the compressive obtained by comparing the calculated and measured data. Principle of the
strength calculation (equations on proposed methods implementation can be seen in Fig. 4.
the right). The second method
(reduced cross-sectional area) is based on the elimination of the deteriorated layer
(without Ca2+ ions) from the further calculations.
Assumptions for the analytical model and for both methods for acidic deterioration
assessment stated in the theoretical part of the thesis were verified on the long-term
experimental program. The specimens stored in dry or aggressive environment were
consequently exposed to cyclic loading and at last to the impact loading. Fig. 4. Principle of the proposed approaches implementation to different design states analysis

Do c to r a l d e g r e e p r o g r a m : C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g
B r a n c h o f s tu d y : B u i l d i n g a n d S tr u c tu r a l E n g i n e e r i n g P e r i o d o f d o c to r a l s tu d y : 0 1 / 2 0 1 2 - 0 9 / 2 0 1 6