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SMK PAHI-PRA U

Physic 960
amimo
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Chapter 2 Kinematics

2.1 Linear motion


2.2 Projectiles

Introduction
Kinematics - A study of a motion of an object without considering the effect that produces
motion. Kinematics analyses the position of an object relation to time.

2.1 Linear Motion


Learning Outcome:
(a) derive and use equations of motion with constant acceleration;
(b) sketch and use the graphs of displacement time, velocity-time and acceleration-time for the
motion of a body with constant acceleration;
1. linear motion can be separated into Horizontal and Vertical (freefall) motion.

Figure 2- 1
2. Horizontal motion best explain using four fundamental physical quantities: Displacement,
velocity, acceleration and time.
Distance
Distance,L is a measure of how far an object has moved.
Displacement
Displacement,s is defined as the distance moved in a particular direction. (It is the
change in position)
Note:
1. Negative and positive displacement.
To the right = + (+5km)
To the left = - (-10 km)
2. Measuring total distance and total displacement.

Figure 2- 2.
If the object is travel from A to C, using A to B then B to C.
Total distance = 7 unit, then total displacement = 5 unit.

If the object is travel A to B then C, then return to B and then A.


Total distance = 14 unit, then total displacement = 0 unit

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Physic 960
amimo
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Speed
Speed,v is defined as the distance moved per second (or the rate of change of distance)
Velocity
Velocity,v is defined as the rate of change of displacement.
The speed and velocity can be show in two ways, whether the average or the instant.
The average would refer to the whole journey divide by the whole time used to travel,
but then the instant would meant the speed or velocity at particular time.

Figure 2- 3

s
Average velocity = .
t

If the change of time is become smaller and smaller , then the average velocity will
become instantaneous velocity.

Figure 2- 4

s ds
Instantaneous velocity = t 0
lim
=
t dt
The instantaneous velocity of an object is its velocity at a particular instant or time.
Note:
1. Negative velocity and positive velocity.
-5 unit s-1 mean the object move to the left

Acceleration
Acceleration,a is defined as the rate of change of velocity.

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Physic 960
amimo
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Figure 2- 5

v
Average acceleration1 =
t
dv
Instantaneous acceleration =
dt
Motion with Constant Acceleration

1. From the definition of acceleration, we learn that


Change in velocity v u
a
Time taken from initial to final velocity t
v = u + at 1
where v is final velocity and u is the initial velocity of the object.
2. Displacement = average velocity x time.
(u v )
s t . 2
2
Replace (1) to ( 2)
1
s ut at 2
2
2s
From (1), v-u = at and (2) v + u =
t
v2 = u2 + 2as

Summary of equation: The idea of s u v a t

Formulae Uses when absence of Eq. No


vu
a s, displacement 1
t
(u v )
s t a, acceleration 2
2
1
s ut at 2 v, final velocity 3
2

v2 = u2 + 2as t, time 4

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Slope = Gradient, slope use by US and gradient use by UK

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SMK PAHI-PRA U
Physic 960
amimo
Document1

Table 2- 1
Example 2- 1
Starting at time t = 0 seconds, an object accelerates from 12 ms-1 to 27 ms-1 in 4 seconds. Find
the value of time, t (to the nearest second), when its total displacement is 110 m.
Solution :
v u 27 12
a 3.75 ms -1
t 4
v 2 u 2 2as Then v 12 2 2 3.75 110 31.13 ms -1
U sin g, v u at
v - u 31.13 12
t 5.1 s
a 3.75
Example 2- 2
A bus travels at straight road with the speed of 24 m/s decreases uniformly to 8 m/s by
travelling 40 m. Calculate:
(a) The decelerations of the bus.
(b) The time taken for the deceleration.
(c) Total distance travels before the bus stops.
Solution:
(a) v 2 u 2 2as (b) v u at
8 24 2a( 40)
2 2
8 (24) (-6.4)t
a 6.4 ms -2 t 2.5s
(c ) Using v u at
0 (24) ( 6.4)t
t 3.75s
1 1
s ut at 2 (24 3.75) ( 6.4)( 3.75) 2 45 m
2 2

Graphical representation of motion

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Physic 960
amimo
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Acceleration due to gravity (ignoring friction)

1.Objects in gravitation field experience a


downwards force - their weight. If unbalanced,
this produces acceleration downwards.
2.There is an acceleration free fall or acceleration
due to gravity when the object moves at the same
acceleration.
3. Acceleration free fall is represented by the
symbol "g" as assume constant 9.81m s-2.
4. The value of g not depends on the
displacement or location of the object.
5. Previously we have use suvat to examine the
kinematic of horizontal motion, here also we can Figure 2- 6
use it with a little adjustment, the a have to be
replace by -g and the t refer to that only moment. So the suvat will transform into suv-gt.
Study the figure 2-5.

Case 1 Case 2 Case 3

An object travels An object travels An object travels below the


upwards downwards reference level

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Displacement = +s Displacement = +s Displacement = -s


Velocity = +v Velocity =-v Velocity = -v
Acceleration = -g Acceleration = -g Acceleration = -g

Table 2- 2

Useful information for calculation:

Figure 2- 7

Information Analysis

The velocity decreases to zero 1. Calculation of maximum displacement:


when the object reaches the u2
H
highest point. 2g
2. Calculate total time for the objects to travel.
Using the formula:
1 2
s ut at
2
Time taken for the object to s is H and a is g
reach the highest point is the 1
same as the time it takes to H ut gt 2
2
drop back to its initial point. Total time for traveling is 2 x t.
2. Calculate velocity before reaching the ground.
v = u gt
u=0
v = -gt
Table 2- 3

Example 2- 3

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Figure 2- 8
A stone thrown upward with initial velocity 30 ms-1. Calculate the time interval between 25 m
from the surface.[ Assume g = 10 ms-2]
Solution:
When s 0
1
ut gt 2 0
2
t (30 5t ) 0
then t 0 and t 6
given s 25 m , u 30 ms -1
1
s ut gt 2
2
25 30t 5t 2
(t 1)(t 5) 0
The time interval will be 5s - 1s 4s Figure 2- 9

Example 2- 4
An object thrown upward with initial velocity 20 m s-1 from a
point P, that is 25 m from the surface of the earth. Sketch the
graph of . .[ Assume g = 10 ms-2]
(a) Displacement - time
(b) Velocity - time
(c) Speed time

Solution:
Maximum Height, H : v 0, s H
v 2 u 2 2gs Figure 2- 10

0 u 2 2gH
u2 400
H 20m
2g 2(10)

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Assume s 0 at Point P. Time to return to point P t P , u 20 ms -1


1
u sin g s ut - gt 2
2
1 2
0 (20)t P gt P
2
1
t P (20 gt P ) 0
2
t P 0 and t P 4s

Displacement from point P to Earth surface , s - 25 m. Time taken to the earth surface , t t s
1
u sin g s ut - gt 2
2
1
25 (20)t s gt 2s
2
( t s 1)( t s 5) 0
t s 5s

Figure 2- 11: Sketching skill is priority

2.2 Projectile
Learning Outcome:
(a) solve problems on projectile motion without air resistance;
(b) explain the effects of air resistance on the motion of bodies in air.

1. The motion equations can be used with object projected or thrown through the air at an
angle. Examples of projectiles : motion of missiles, throwing basketball and long jump
2. Consider the ball thrown at a initial velocity,u at an angle to the ground. Ignoring air
resistance, the only force acting on the ball during its flight is the gravity. Analysis shown
-A downward acceleration that only affects the vertical component of the velocity.
-The horizontal velocity remains constant.
-The ball follows a parabolic path through the air.

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SMK PAHI-PRA U
Physic 960
amimo
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-The time of flight depends on the vertical velocity.


3. The horizontal distance travelled depends on the horizontal velocity and the time of - flight.
4. The horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent and can be treated
separately in calculations.

Figure 2- 12

5. The table below shows the horizontal and vertical components of projectile motion.

Horizontal component (x axis) Vertical component (y axis)


Initial velocity u cos u sin
Instant velocity
u cos u sin -gt
at time,t.
Acceleration 0 -g
To reach R To reach H, v = 0
Time taken Total time to R is twice the time 0 = usin - gtH
Using formula: to reach H.
u sin
v = u + at So, tH=
g
tR=2tH

R = (u cos ) 2 tH Using formula


Height H / u sin V2 = u2 + 2 as
= 2 (u cos )
Range R g 0 = (u sin )2 - 2gH
travelled u 2 sin 2 u 2 sin2
R= H=
g 2g

Displacement
x = (u cos )t 1 2
at any instant t s = (u sin )t- gt
2

Maximum R occurs when = 45


Extra The range of projection is the
information same for and (90 - ).
Example, 0 = 15 and 75

Final velocity,v U cos u sin -gt

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SMK PAHI-PRA U
Physic 960
amimo
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Table 2- 4

Example 2- 5
A canon is fired in a projectile with the initial velocity 30 ms-1 at angle 60. Calculate
(a) Time reaching maximum height.
(b) Maximum height.
(c) Range
(d) Time taken to reach 30 m height.
(e) Velocity during 30 m.
Solution:
u sin 30 sin 60
( a) t H 2.65s
g 9.8
u2 sin2
(b) Maximum Height , H
2g
30 2 sin2 60

2(9.8)
34.44m
u2 sin2
(c ) Range , R
g
30 2 sin(2 60)

9.8
79.53m
(d ) Vertical Displacement, s y 30m
1
u sing s y u y t gt 2
2
then uy u sin 30 sin60 25.98 ms 1
1
so s y (25.98)t (9.81)t 2
2
t 1.70s and 3.60s

(e ) (i) case t 1.70 s (ii) case t 3.60 s


v 1 v 12y v 12x v 2 v 22y v 22x
v 1x u cos 30 cos60 15ms 1 v 2 x u cos 30 cos60 15ms 1
v 1y u y gt v 2 y u y gt
u sin (9.8)t u sin (9.8)t
30 sin 60 (9.8)(1.70) 8.7 ms -1 30 sin 60 (9.8)( 3.60) 8.7 ms -1
v 1 (15) 2 (8.7) 2 17.3 ms -1 v 1 (15) 2 (8.7) 2 17.3 ms -1
8.7 8.7
tan 1 tan 1
15 15
1 30.1 1 30.1

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SMK PAHI-PRA U
Physic 960
amimo
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Figure 2- 13

Effect of Air Resistance


1. When a body moves through the air, the air resistance against the motion of the body
is known as the viscous2 drag3.
2. The viscous drag on a body depend on
a. Shape of the body : Objects which are streamlined experience less drag
b. Velocity of the body: the viscous drag is proportional to the square of the
velocity
3. when the body is released from rest and fall through the air, its velocity initially
increase. As its velocity increases, the viscous drag increase. The acceleration of the
body decrease. Finally when the acceleration is zero, the velocity is constant. The
maximum constant velocity is known as terminal velocity.

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