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:2: ESE Offline Test

01.(a) Upon integrating


du r dp
2
Sol: Density of oil, = 876 kg/m3 r g sin C1
Dynamic viscosity of oil, = 0.24 kg/m.s dr 2 dx
Assumptions : du r dp C
The flow is steady and incompressible g sin 1
dr 2 dx r
The entrance effects are negligible and r dp
2
thus the flow is fully developed. u r g sin C1nr C 2
Neglect minor losses 4 dx
du
r+dr At, r 0 ; 0 C1 = 0
Px + dx
dr
Wsin At r = R , u = 0
r2
Px
R 2 dp

r
u r g sin 1 2
4 dx R
W
dr
u r rdr
2 R
R 2 0
Vavg

2 R R 2 dp r2
dx 2 g sin 1 2 rdr
r R 0 4 dx R
x
R
1 dp r r4
2
g sin
2
2 dx 2 4R 0
Wx = W sin
= g Velement sin 1 R 2 R 2 dp
g sin
Wx = g2r dr dx sin 2 2 4 dx
The force balance gives R 2 dp
g sin
(2rdrPx) (2rdrPx+dx) + (2rdxr) 8 dx
(2rdxr+dr) g(2rdrdx)sin = 0 D2
Vavg P gL sin
32L
Dividing the equation by (2drdx)
Volume flow rate, Q
P gL sin D 4
rdp dr 128L
gr sin 0
dx dr Case(ii)
du = 0 sin = 0

dr PD 4
Q
rdp d du 128L
r gr sin 0
dx dr dr P = P1 P2
d du dp = 135 88 = 47 kPa
r
r dr dr dx
g sin


47 103 1.5 10 2 4

d du r dp 128 0.24 15
r g sin Qhori = 1.62 105 m3/s
dr dr dx
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:3: COV 2 Solutions

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:4: ESE Offline Test

(ii) For uphill flow with an inclination 8o Now for Vessel A,

Quphill


47 103 876 9.8115 sin 8o 0.015
4 P1V = mA RT1
Where V in m3
128 0.24 15
5 3 And m = mass of air
Quphill = 110 m /s
PV
mA 1
(iii) for downhill flow with an inclination RT1
= 8o 0.7 10 3 3
19.884 kg
Qdownhill
4710 876 9.8115 sin 8 0.015
3 4
0.287 368
128 0.24 15 Similarly for Vessel B,
Qdownhill = 2.24 105 m3/s PV
Flow is driven by the combined effect of mB = mass of air in vessel B 2
RT2
pumping power and gravity.
0.35 10 3 3
Gravity opposes uphill flow, enhances 7.654kg
downhill flow and has no effect on horizontal 0.287 478
flow. Let Tf and Pf are the final temperature and
pressure after mixing the air of two vessel.
01(b).
From 1st law of thermodynamics
dQ = dU + dW
01(c). here dQ = 0, dW = 0
dU = 0 vinitial = vfinal
Sol:
A
mACvT1 + mBCvT2 = (mA + mB) Cv Tf
B
m T m B T2
Tf A 1
mA mB
3 m3 3 m3 19.884 368 7.654 478
398.574 K
19.884 7.654
Now applying,
Given data PfV = mRTf
Vessel A V = total volume = 3 + 3 = 6 m3
Initial pressure m = total mass = mA + mB = 27.538 kg
P1 = 0.7 MPa , T1 = 95oC = 95+273 = 368 K pf 6 = 27.538 0.287398.574
= Initial temperature pf = 0.525 MPa
Vessel B, From property relation
P2 = Initial pressure = 0.35 MPa
dH mR
T2 = Initial temperature ds dP kJ / K
= 205 + 273 = 478 K T P
2 dT 2 dP
PV = 0.287 T S mC p mR
1 T 1 P
P = in kPa
v = m3/kg Change in entropy of air of vessel A
T=K (Sf S1) = S1
Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg.K
Cv = 0.718 kJ/kg.K
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:5: COV 2 Solutions

T P fLV 2
m A C p ln f m A 0.287 ln f hL
T1 P1 2gD
398.574 0.52502 0.018 4.5 2.12 2
19.8841.005ln 0.287 ln hL
368 0.7 2 9.81 0.6
hL = 0.031 m
P = WQhL
= 3.2364 kJ/K
= 9810 0.6 0.031
Change in entropy of air of Vessel B P = 182.466 W
(Sf S2) = S11
T P
m B C p ln f m B 0.287 ln f 01(e).
T2 P2
398.574 0.52502 02(a).
7.6541.005 ln 0.287 ln
478 0.35 Sol: Diameter of pipe 1, D1=D
= 2.2886 kJ/K
Diameter of pipe 2, D2=D
Total change in entropy = S1 + S11 Length of pipe, L1=L2=L
= 3.2364 2.2886 = 0.9478 kJ/K Total discharge = Q
Head loss due to friction when pipes
01(d). are in series = H
Head loss due to friction when pipes
Sol: d = 0.6 m , L = 4500 mm are in parallel = h
Q = 0.6 m3/sec , k = 0.48 mm
Ns
D/d = 2.25
10 3
m2
VD Case1: Pipes connected in parallel
Reynolds Number, R e L, D

A Q1 B

0.6 0.68 v Q
2 Q
4 Q2 C
V = 1.65 m/s
1000 2.12 0.68
Re
10 3 For parallel connection,
Re = 11.2 105 > 4000 Q = Q1 + Q2 and h = h1 = h2
Flow is turbulent
Where Q1 = discharge in pipe 1
1 R
2 log10 1.74 Q2 = discharge in pipe 2
f K
h1 = head loss in pipe 1
1 0.34
2 log10 3
1.74 h2 = head loss in pipe 2
f 0.48 10
f = 0.018 For pipe AB ,

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:6: ESE Offline Test

4fL1V1
2
Q 4Q Q 4Q
h= where, V1 = 1 12 V1 =
A D D 2
D2g D2
4
4Q
4fL 12 4Q
D 32fLQ1 -----(1)
2
V2 = 2
h= d
D 2g 2 D5 g
32fLQ 2 32fLQ 2
H 2 5 ---- (4)
Similarly: For pipe AC D g 2d 5 g
32fLQ22
h = h2 = -----(2) From equation 1
2d 5 g h 32fL
2 5
As h1 = h2 Q1 D g
2

2 2
32fLQ1 32fLQ From equation 2
2 5 2
D g d g
2 5
h 32fL
2 5
2 2
Q2 d g
2

Q1 Q
25
D 5
d Substituting the values in equation (4) we get
Q 1 D / d 5 = (2.25)5
2
Q2 h Q2 h
Q H
2 Q12 Q 22
2 2
Q1 H Q Q
7.5937
Q2 h Q1 Q 2
Q = Q1 + Q2 2 2
1 1
= 7.5937 Q2 + Q2 = 8.5937 Q2
0.8836 0.1163
Q2 = 0.1163 Q
H
Q1 = 1 0.1163Q = 0.8836Q 75.214
h

Case: Pipes connected in series 02.(b)


L, D
L, d Sol:
Q
V1 = 10 m/sec 2
Q V1 V2 1
P1= 5 bar
x= 1
v1 = 0.3749 m3/kg 15 cms

Total loss = sum of head losses in the h1 = 2749 kJ/kg


s1 = 6.8213 kJ/kg.K Tsurr =300K
two pipes and discharge Q is same for
both the pipes. P2 = 4.5 bar
2 2 x2 = 0.95
H=
4fLV1

4fLV2
D 2g d 2g
----- (3)
v 2 v f2 x 2 v g2 v f2
= 0.001088 + 0.95 (0.414 0.001088)
= 0.3933 m3/kg
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:7: COV 2 Solutions


h 2 h f2 x 2 h g2 h f2 dQ = 52.29 kW
= 623.5 + 0.95 (2744 623.5) T = 400 K
S2 S1
dQ
= 2637.975 kJ/kg m Sgen

s 2 s f2 x 2 s g2 s f2 T
52.29
= 1.8207 + 0.95 (6.8565 1.8207) 0.4711 (6.6047 6.8213) + Sgen
= 6.6047 kJ/kg.K 400
2 0.10204 + 0.1307 = 0.0287 kW/K > 0
D V1
A1V1 4
m Entropy of production for control volume
v1 v1
and surroundings

0.152 10 Tsurr = 300 K
4 S2 S1
0.4714 kg / sec dQ
0.3749 m Sgen
T
A V 52.29
m 2 2 0.4711 (6.6047 6.8213) + Sgen
v2 300
0.10204 + 0.1743 = Sgen
0.152 V2
4 0.4714 kg / sec Sgen = 0.07226 kW/K > 0
0.3933
0.4711 0.3933 02(c).
V2 = 10.49 m/sec

0.15 2
Sol : S = 0.85 = 850 kg/m3
4 D = 0.15 m
Applying SFEE L = 1.22 km = 1220 m
V 2 dQ V 2 dW Q = 23 lps = 23 10-3 m3/sec
h1 1
m h2 2
m

2000 dt
2000 dt 0 = 65 % = 0.65
P = 10 h.P = 10 746 = 7460 watt
10 2 dQ 10.49 2
0.4711 2749 0.4711 2638 f = 64/Re
2000 dt
2000 =? Q = AV

23 10-3 = 0.15 V
2
10.49 2 10 2
0.4711 2638 2749
dQ 4
dt 2000 V = 1.3 m/sec

= 0.4711 (111 + 0.00502) = 52.29 kW O / P Fluid power
0
Entropy of production for control volume I / P Brake power
. g. Q. h f
1 2 0
B.P
850 9.81 23 10 3 h f
=0.4711
m 0.65
7460
hf = 25.28 m
S1= 6.8213 S2 = 6.6047
f .L.V 2
hf
2g D

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:8: ESE Offline Test

64 Tf
.L.V 2 (ds)II = mc ln
R T2
hf e
2g.D Tf Tf
(ds)mix =(ds)I+(ds)II=mc ln + c ln
1220 1.3
64 2 1
T T2
R
25.28 e Tf2
2 9.81 0.15 = mc ln =0
T1T2
Re = 1773.6 < 2000 ( Laminar Flow)
V.D Tf2
1773.6 ln =0
T1T2
1.3 0.15
= 1773.6 Tf2 T1T2

= 1.086 10-4 m2/sec Tf = T1T2
= 1.086 cm2/sec Wmax = c (T1 + T2 2Tf)
= 1.086 stoke say 1.1 stoke
= c (T1 + T2 2 T1T2 )
03(a).
=c T1 T2 2

Sol:
Body
T1 Tf 03(b).

Q1 = c (T1 Tf) Sol:


Assumptions :
W = Q1Q2 Fully developed flow
E
Steady flow

Summation of forces along x-direction


Q2 = c (Tf T2)
(2r)dx
Body
Pr 2
p 2
T2 Tf P dx r
x

c Heat capacity dx

W = Q1 Q2
Fx = 0
= c (T1Tf) c (Tf T2) p
Pr 2 P dx r 2 2rdx 0
= c (T1 + T2 2Tf) x
p
For work to be maximum the engine has to dxr 2 2rdx
x
be reversible, for condition of reversibility
p r
entropy change of universe must be zero.
x 2
Tf
(ds)I = mc ln At the wall, =0 at r = R
T1

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:9: COV 2 Solutions

P2 P1 D 1 03(c).
0
x 2 x1 2 2 Sol:
= 106 m2/s = 1000 kg/m3
0
D
P1 P2 VD VD
4L Re
We know,
P1 P2 Q = AV
hL
g

50 10 3 0.1 V
2

fLV 2 4
hL 0.05 = 0.0078 V
D2g
P1 P2 = ghL V = 6.36 m/s
6.36 0.1
gfLV 2 Re
P1 P2 10 6
2gD Re = 636000
D fLV 2 As Re > 4000
0
4L 2D The flow is turbulent
fV 2
0 1. Friction Factor
8 1 R
64 64 2 log10 1.74
Friction factor, f f K
Re VD
1 0.05
V 2 64 2 log10 1.74
0 f 0.00015
8 VD 1
8V 6.785
0 f
D f = 0.0217
0 will be maximum when V is maximum for
given and D. fV 2 1000 0.0217 6.362
VD 2. 0
Reynolds number, Re 8 8
N
Remax = 2000 0 109.6 2
m
VD
2000
3. shear velocity .
2000
V u* 0
D
8 2000
0 109.6
D D = 0.33 m/sec
1000
16000 2
0
D 2

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: 10 : ESE Offline Test

04(a). T1 The boundary layer is turbulent and the drag


Hot Spring coefficient appropriate to this ReL = 9106
Sol:
is
Q1 0.074 1700
C Df 1 / 5
Re L Re L
system 0.074 1700
H.E

W
9.00 10 6 1/ 5 9.00 10 6
= 2.82 10 3

Q2 Drag force due to skin friction


U 2
Large lake FDf C Df area
T2 2
Given data : 9983
2
3
T1 = hot spring water temperature 2.82 10 3.5
= 56oC = 56 + 273 = 329 K 2
T2 = Lake water temperature = 44.3 N
= 14oC = 14 + 273 = 287 K Total measured drag
Q = rate of flowing of hotspring water = skin friction drag + wave drag
= 0.1 m3/min 70.0 = 44.3 + FDW
Wave drag , FDW = 70.0 44.3 = 25.7 N
m = mass of flow = Q
04(c).
0.1 1000
kg / s Sol: Given :
60 Atmospheric pressure, Pa = 760 mm of Hg
= density of water = 1000 kg/m3 Atmospheric temperature, Ta = 250C,
Heat transfer, Q = 0
h 1 h 2 T0 S 2 S1
dw m Internal energy of air, u = u0 + 0.718t
T PV = 0.287 (tf + 273)
m CT1 T2 T0 C ln 2 Assumption :
T1 (i) The bottle is stationary and thus kinetic
0.1 1000 4.2
56 14 287 ln 287 energy and potential energy changes are
60 329 zero.
= 19.62 kW (ii) There is no heat transfer
04(b). (iii) There are no boundary work involved.

Sol: The wetted surface of the model is Mass balance:


considered as an equivalent flat plate 3.0 m mmin mout = msystem
long and having a surface area of 3.50 m2. mi me = m2 m1 in
Reynolds number where i = inlet, e = exit,
UL 1 = initial state
Re L
2 = final state of control volume
3.0 3.0 Here, initially evacuated m1 = 0
6
9 106 and no mass leaves control volume
1.0 10
me = 0

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: 11 : COV 2 Solutions

mi = m2 -------------- (1)
1 1
Energy balance :
Ein Eout = E system

Qin Win mh Q out Wout mh
in out
m 2 u 2 m1u1 system
mihi = m2u2 ------- (2) 2 2
from (1) and (2) After
hi = u2 Cooling water cooling
Internal energy is given as inlet inlet
U2 = U0 + 0.718t Pa, Ta
U2 = U0 + 0.718t2 3 3
= U0 + 0.718 t2
1
U2 = U0 + 0.718t2 p
hi = u + PV T2 T1 2
ua + (PV)a p1
0.4
= U0 + 0.287 (25 + 273) + 0.718 25
5.5 1.4
Pv 0.287t 273 288 468.73K
hi = u0 + 85.526 + 17.95 1
T T
= u0 + 103.476 n = 0.75 2 1
hi = u2 T2 T1
u0 + 103.476 = u0 + 0.718t2 T T
T2 T1 2 1 240.973 K
t2 = 144.20C 0.75
05.(a) T2 = 528.973 K
Sol:
Given data,
(a) Power required to drive the compressor
Inlet conditions, pressure = 1 bar = p,
=m h 2 h 1
Temperature = 15oC = 15 + 273 = 288 K =
T1 = 0.01 (T2 T1) Cp
Outlet conditions, pressure = 5.5 bar = p2 = 0.01 240.973 1.005 = 2.42 kW
m = mass flow rate = 0.01 kg/s T
n = efficiency of compressor = 0.75 5.5 bar
2
T3 = temperature after cooler = 40oC 2
= 40+ 273 = 313 K 3
Now from adiabatic process 1 bar

1
s
(b) Rate of irreversibility = T0(S)universe
Where, (S)universe = (S)compressor +
(S)aftercooler + (S)atmosphere
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: 12 : ESE Offline Test

T2 P2 05(c).
C p ln R ln Sol: Assume width of the boundary layers be a.
T1 P1
m


Then momentum flux is
C p ln T3 C P 528.973 313
u
2

T A u u a dy U a d
2

2 288
U
Rate of irreversibility Where = y /
528.973 5.5 u
1.005 ln 288 0.287 ln 1 For laminar flow, 2 2
U
T0 m

313 528.973 313

1
1.005 ln Cp A lam U a lam 42 43 4 d
2

528.973 288 0
= 1.0 kW 1
4 5
U a lam 3 4
2

05(b). 3 5 0
8
Sol: Governing equation : U 2 a lam
d 2 u dp 15
2 For 1/7th power law turbulent profile,
dy dx
u
1 dp 2 1 / 7
u y C1 y C 2 U
2 dx

1
A turb U 2 a turb 1 / 7 d
2
At y = 0 , u= U , C2 = U
At y = b, u = 0, which yields 0


1 dp 2 1
0 b C1b U U 2 a turb 2 / 7 d
2 dx
0
U 1 dp
C1 b 7
1

b 2 dx U 2 a turb 9 / 7
9 0
u
1 dp 2
2 dx
y by U 1
y
7
U 2 a turb
b
9
Now,
1 dp 2 y

b b Comparing the momentum fluxes,
Q udy y by U 1 dy turb 72
0 0
2 dx b
lam 105
1 dp 3 Ub
or Q b It is to be noted that generally the turbulent
12 dx 2
boundary layer grows faster than the laminar
For Q=0, with = 4.7 104 Ns/m2 boundary layer when a completely turbulent
dp 6 U flow is considered from the leading edge.
2
dx b However the present result is valid at
6 0.3 4.7 10 4 transition for a constant momentum flux.
94.0 N / m 2 .m
0.003 2

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