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Electrical and Computer Engineering Depariment, B e ~ G u r i o nUniversityof the

NC~CV Beer-Shew

, 84105, ISRAEL

1. INTRODUCTION

demand for low-profile multi-band antennas for a large variety of applications in

personal and satellite communication systems. Most of the existing printed antennas

designs operate at one or double frequencies while the demand is for versatile multi

frequency antennas operational in GSM, GPS, UMTS and Bluetoathapplications. The

nahre of the fractal geometry applied in antenna designs offer hvo major advantages:

design of operational small scaled antennas [I]and multifrequency operation [2]. As

such it is appealing to use fractal geometries in multbfrequency applications. The

major drawback in a straight-fonvard application of fractal geometly in antenna

design is the lack of flexibility in the mntrol ofthe operational frequencies. Usually,

the operational frequencies are determined by the type of fractal used in the design.

In this paper, we present a novel algorithm based on fractal geometry flexible enough

to control the location of the required operational frequencies. The algorithm is

applied to the design of a bowtie antenna to operate in four arbitraly frequencies. The

simulations are performed with the Antenna Designer commercial s o h a r e from

HFSS. Results of the antenna radiation characteristics are presented.

bowtie [3] dipole and the fractal used to obtain the multiband effect is the Yd order

Sierpinski [4], [ 5 ] fractal geometry as shown in Fig. I. The bowiie dipole is a wide

bandwidth element, which makes it a good candidate for multiband design. The

bowtie dipole is printed on both sides of a dielectric substrate.

Fig. I-Bowtie dipole (a) basic geometry, (b) Sierpinski 3'* order fractal geometry

The antenna is excited with a balanced feed. The initial length of the antenna is

determined by the desired lowest OpC~tioMlfrequency. At this frequency the dipole

length is approximately hI2. Using a standard Sierpinski fractal the dipole resonates at

0-7803-8302-8/04/$20.00

frequencies determined approximately by the ratio 2' in which n, is the fractal order.

In many cases this limitation is not acceptable and an arbitraly frequency location is

required, To circumvent this limitation and be able to obtain a mukcband design with

arbitraly frequency locations, it is suggested to control the fractal parameters (the

triangular dimensions and angles) in an iterative fashion The number of the required

operating frequencies determines the Sierpinski fractal order used for the design As a

test case, the Sierpinski fractal 31d order embedded in the bowtie dipole was chosen

and is shown in Fig. lb. In this case the dipole resonates in 4 frequencies. The

dimension, 1 (i=1+4) affects the dipole performance at the Ih operational frequency in

which i=4 corresponds to the lowest frequency. The initial value of the lengths, k is

set to be approximately Ail2 at the corresponding frequency f. These lengths are

independently vaned to match the ratio between adjacent operational frequencies.

Finally the largest length I, is varied to obtain resonance at the lowest required

operational frequency. This final scaling is necessary, since the increase of the fractal

order lowers the hasic resonance frequency of the antenna. All other dimensions of

the fractal geometly are scaled correspondingly.

3. SIMULATION RESULTS

A bowtie with four operating frequencies have been chosen as a test case to

demonstrate the efficiency of the algonthm. The required frequencies are: 915 MHr,

1575 MHz, 1750 MHz and 2450 MHz. The dielectric substrate used in the design is

R04003 with electrical properties (~.=3.38, tanS=0.0027) and thickness 1.5 mm. The

bowtie dipole is printed on both sides of the substrate. The apex angle of the dipole

was chosen to be 90' to ascenain maximum bandwidth ofthe basic stmcmre based an

a parameter shldy conducted pnor to the multiband design. Moreover, a large apex

angle enables more flexibility in the variation of the fractal geometly to match the

perfomacce of the antenna to the desired frequencies. Fig. 2 shows the final

geometly of a 3'' order Sierpinski fractal geometry implemented to obtain resonance

at 4 frcquencies.

.. ,

1:ig 2- Bowtie dipole with the optimized 3" order Sierpinski fractal geometry

Fig. 3 shows the surface current distributionon the dipole at the desired frequencies.

3442

I

3. f=1.802 G H r 4.f=2.472 FHz

It can he noticed that the increase in the resonance frequency reduces the active region

of the dipole as expected. Fig. 4 shows the frequency dependence of the input

impedance (real and imaginary) of the optimized fractal howtie dipole compared to a

ndard bowtie dipole with the same dimensions.

I

(a) oprimizcd bowtie (b) sfandard bowlie

One can ohserve resonance at the 4 required frequencies in the fractal bowtie

dipole compared to two resonances in the standard bowtie dipole. The maximum

impedance is obtained at the lowest frequency and it decreases for higher frequencies.

Fig. 5 showa the copol and xpol radiation pattern of the dipole in the E plane (@=9O0)

at the 4 desired frequencies. It can te observed that for all frequencies a very nice

3443

defined panern is obtained. The level of xpol increases as the resonant frequency

increases due to additional transverse currents as exhibited in the current plot (Fig. 3).

... I

...

3. +I 802 G H ~ 4. e2.472 GHz

Fig. 5- Copol and Xpol radiation pattems in E plane ($=90).

4. CONCLUSIONS

A navel aleorithm based on Seminski fractal eeometly for multiband antenna

operation w a I developed. The algohthm is flexibleenoughto control the location of

the required operational frequencies. The design of a 4 frequency bowtie antenna was

chosen as a test case. The simulation results demonstrate the algorithm efficiency to

obtain resonance in four arbitrary frequency bands. The algorithm is general and can

be extended to deliver designs for larger number of frequency bands.

5 . REFERENCES

111

.. J. Gianvinono. Y. Rahmat-Samii. Fractal Antennas: A Novel Antenna

Miniaturization Technique, and Applications, IEEE Annenas & Propagation

~ a g .2002,

, VOI. 44, NO. I, pp. 20-36

[2] D.H. Werner, P.L. Werner, Frequency independent Feauhlrcs of Self-Similar

Fractal Antennas, Radio Science, 1996, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 1331-1343

[3] Y.D. Lin and S.N. Tsai, Yoplarer Waveguide-Fed Uniplanar B o w T k Antenna,

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1997, Vol. 45, pp. 305-306

[41 C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. POUS,X. Garcia, F. Benitez, Fractal Multiband Antenna

Based on the Sierpinski Gasket, Electronics Letters, 1996, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp.1-2

[5] C. Puente-Baliarda, 1. Rome, R. POUS, A. Card, On the Behavior of

the Sierpinski Multiband Fractal Antenna, IEEE Transactions on Antennas

and Propagation, 1998, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 517-524

3444

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