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# A Basic But Helpful Guide On

Framo System
Written by Capt Rajeev Jassal on March 27, 2017

## I recently met a 3rd officer. I had a conversation with him about

less number of jobs these days for junior officers.

He told me how he got the job just after clearing his exams while
his friends were still waiting.

## Well, he had worked on ships (tankers) with Framo pumps.

I was like.. what ?? Now Framo system helping to get the jobs
on ships.
Few seconds later when I got my breath back, I realised how
Framo has captured the tanker market.

## Truth be told, Submersible pumps are the present and future of

the tanker industry.

## This makes the knowledge of Submersible pumps and Framo

system so much important. This post is about the basics of the

## Framo submersible pumps are centrifugal pumps. So before we

discuss Framo pumps, we must know how a centrifugal pump
works ?
And this video might help in understanding of how a centrifugal
pump works.

## I am not going in details of how a centrifugal pump works. But if

you watch the above video, you would know that it has three
main components

Impeller

## A prime mover (source of energy) to move the impeller

Prime mover provides the energy for the impeller to rotate. Impeller rotates and
pushes the liquid into the volute casing.

Volute casing has a spiral structure. It has narrow opening at the entry of liquid and
the size of opening increases along the passage of liquid.
This means that as the liquid travels in the volute casing, velocity reduces and
pressure increases. This is as per Bernoillis Theorum.

This is the most basic points we should know before we proceed with any kind of
centrifugal pump.

## As with all centrifugal pumps, Framo pump also have

Impeller

Volute casing
But apart from being a centrifugal pump, FRAMO is also a submersible pump.
That is the pump is fitted inside the cargo tank and will be submerged in the liquid
(cargo).

Keeping this in mind, let us discuss the components of FRAMO system to better
understand this.

1. Hydraulic Motor

For the centrifugal pump to work, impeller need to rotate. But impeller would not
rotate on its own. It need a source of energy (prime mover).

In steam turbine centrifugal pumps, this energy is provided by steam. For electric
pumps, electric motor provides this energy for rotating the impeller.

## In FRAMO system, this energy is provided by the Hydraulic motor using

the pressurised hydraulic oil.
How ? Well we all have read the below law of conservation of energy. Havent we
?

Energy can neither be created not destroyed. It can only be converted from one
form to another
Hydraulic motor converts pressure energy of high hydraulic oil pressure to
rotational energy to rotate the impeller.

Below diagram is the most basic diagram that shows how a hydraulic motor works.
High pressure oil enters the motor. It rotates the shaft and low pressure oil leaves
the motor.

In Framo system, you will not be able to see the hydraulic motor as it is placed in
the outer casing.

## And there are no serviceable parts in a Framo hydraulic motor.

2. Power Packs
For the Hydraulic motor to rotate the impeller, there need to be high pressure of
hydraulic oil.

Power packs supply this high pressure hydraulic oil to the Framo hydraulic motor.

Power packs are either installed in the forecastle store or in the engine room of the
ship.

## A hydraulic oil tank to draw the oil from

High pressure pump to take suction from the Hydraulic tanks and pump this oil
into the hydraulic pipeline on deck

## Electric motor to run the High pressure pump

It is important that hydraulic oil tank always have sufficient oil for the high
pressure pump. If it has less or no oil, the pump will get damaged.

## Closed Suction valve to the power pack

There are two safe gaurds in the Framo system to ensure this.

## Low oil level trip

Closed suction valve trip
If the suction valve for the high pressure pump is closed, the power pack will trip.
This ensures that the suction valve of the pump to take suction from hydraulic tank

The alarm for the trip will display in cargo control room as well as Engine control
room.

There is a sensor arrangement for the suction valve, which senses if the suction
valve is fully open.
In old Framo system this could be a manual valve with its handle touching the
sensor. If the suction valve is even slightly closed, its looses the touch of sensor
and trip is activated.

In new systems, the valve is not a manual valves. In this case the a proximity
sensor is fitted on top of the valve, that senses if the valve is fully open or not.

## Low oil level trip

The power pack can loose suction if there isnt sufficient oil in the hydraulic tank.
For this reason when the oil level in the hydraulic tank goes below minimum level,
the power pack will trip.

The oil level in the hydraulic tank is kept just above the alarm level. This ensures
that any leakage in the line will be immediately detected without the loss of much
of hydrualic oil.

## Low Low level Alarm

When the level is at Low level, an alarm will activate and will be displayed in CCR
and ECR.

If the level of the oil further drops to Low Low, the hydraulic oil system (Power
pack) will trip.

If the low oil level trip is activated, the reason for low level must be investigated.
The oil can then be refilled either from the standby tank or spare drums whichever
available.

## So far we have discussed that

Framo pump is run by hydraulic motor and

Hydraulic motor gets the pressurised hydraulic oil from the power packs

## Now let us see the internal parts of the framo pump.

If you notice,

the red section is the high pressure hydraulic oil going into the hydraulic motor.

## Yellow part is the hydraulic oil return.

Both these pipes are concentric to each other. Like in below picture.

This pump is inside the cargo tank and there are two liquids (hydraulic oil and
cargo) that should not come in contact.

If the hydraulic oil leak into the cargo, cargo can damage. If cargo goes into the
hydraulic oil, the hydraulic system will damage.

As you might have guessed, there is something in the Framo pump to prevent that.
There is hydraulic seal that prevents hydraulic oil leakage to the cargo side. And
there is cargo seal that prevents cargo leaking into the hydraulic side.

But seals can leak overtime, right ? so if any of these seals are leaking, how would
we know ?
That is exactly the purpose of cofferdam.

You can think of cofferdam as a steel cup with cargo seal at the bottom. Any
hydraulic oil or cargo leakage will collect in this cofferdam.

## It is important to know if the cofferdam is empty or not. And this is done

by purging the cofferdam.
We introduce air or nitrogen in the cofferdam and check the outlet of the purging
line.
If we just get the air in outlet of purging line, the cofferdam is empty. So no
leakage of hydraulic oil or cargo and both the seals are intact.

If we get cargo in the cofferdam, it indicates that the cargo seal of the Framo pump
is leaking

If we get Hydraulic oil in the cofferdam, it indicates that Hydraulic oil seal of the
framo pump is leaking

If we get mixture of Hydraulic oil and cargo, it indicates that both oil seal and
cargo seal are leaking

If any of the seal is leaking, it need to be replaced with new seal after the
discharging and tank cleaning of the tank.

Framo has a purging routine which shows when the purging of the pump
cofferdam need to be carried out.
We must keep history of purging records for all previous voyages.

For some cargoes, we are supposed to not do the cofferdam purging. These may
be toxic cargoes such Toluene Diisocynate or solidifying cargoes such as Palm oil.
In these cases we need to fill the cofferdam with some liquid (DOP in case of

## 4. STC Valve (Before known as Flow control

valve)
Now we have the pump and the hydraulic system to run the pump.

But like any other type of cargo pump, Framo too would have an operational
requirement.
To be able to run the pump at different speeds
To achieve this, we should be able to control the flow of the hydraulic oil to the
hydraulic motor of the Framo pump. This is because more the flow of pressurised
oil to the hydraulic motor, more speed the impeller will rotate.

This is exactly what Speed torque controller does. STC is fitted on top plate of the
pump on main deck. The Hydraulic oil inlet pass through the STC.

STC of the pump controls the speed of the pump by allowing only the required
amount of hydraulic oil to pass through to the hydraulic motor.

STC also prevent the pump to overspeed by controlling the amount of oil to the
hydraulic motor of the pump.

There are two ways to control the speed of the pump through STC.

## From the local control on the STC

From the cargo control room

## Local control valve on STC

With local control valve, we can control the speed of the pump locally from the
pump itself. This becomes handy during stripping of the tanks or tank cleaning.

Local control valve is a kind of knob located on the STC. When we close the knob
(by turning clockwise), the STC passes the oil to the pump.

When we open the knob (by turning anti clockwise), the STC bypasses all the oil
and nothing goes into the hydraulic motor. Pump stops or do not run in this case.

By partially closing the local control valve, we can adjust the speed of the pump.

## Starting the pump from the cargo control room

Speed of the pump (or we can say operation of STC) can also be controlled from
cargo control room.

We do this by a lever provided in the cargo control room. Each pump has a lever
that connects with the STC of that pump by a hydraulic control line.

As we push the lever up to start the pump, a signal in form of hydraulic control line
pressure goes to the STC.

STC then releases the amount of oil to the hydraulic motor which will be
corresponding to the amount to lever lifted.

Here is the actual photo of the STC and pump stack on deck.
Remote start and Local start
Both, the remote start from CCR and local start from the pump location are
interconnected.

We cannot start the pump from local control if the pump Lever is not pushed up
from the CCR.

## Same goes other way around.

If the local control knob is in open position, the pump will not work even when the
pump lever is operated from CCR.
So for the pump to operate, STC need to have the signal from both from local
control valve as well as remote lever in CCR.

## We push the lever up from the CCR

We operate the pump locally by slowly closing the local control valve

## From CCR , we push the lever up to start the pump

5. Feed Pumps

For the Framo system to work efficiently, the hydraulic oil used in the system need
to be in absolute good condition.

There are few things that can degrade the hydraulic oil quality.

## Moisture ingress due to hydraulic lines being in vacuum due to temperature

variation

Air in the system that can cause vibrations, frothing of the oil etc.

Small particles that can be inside the oil during filling of hydraulic oil tank or after
a maintenance on the system
Feed pump takes care of all of these issues. Here is how.

Feed pump always keep on running, 365 days in a year, 24 hours a day. Feed pump
maintains positive pressure in the lines and hydraulic system . It continuously
recirculate the oil through entire hydraulic oil system

Usually pressure of more than 5 Bars is maintained in the system even when the
system is not in use.

Now when the system is always under positive pressure, the chances of moisture
ingress are minimum

Air if any is auto released to the Hydraulic tank while recirculation. Off course if
air is still suspected in the system, there is air purging arrangements in the Framo.

And any particles in the system are filtered while feed pump runs the hydraulic oil
in recirculation mode. This is because the recirculated oil is made to pass through
the filter.

Recirculation of hydraulic oil through feed pump also avoids oil temperature
variations at different parts of the hydraulic system.

## There is another function that feed pump serves.

It helps in keeping the feed pressure on the suction side of the main hydraulic
pump. This means that when high pressure power pack pumps are taking suction
from the hydraulic tank, feed pump ensures that there is no negative pressure on
the suction side.

## Feed pump alarms

One of the feed pumps must always be running when the power packs are not in
operation. If the feed pump stops, the protection pressure Low alarms will be
initiated.

When starting the first main power pack, two feed pumps will automatically start
before the power pack is started. This is called high capacity mode of feed system.
This is to keep the feed pressure on the suction side of the main hydraulic pump.

Now let us say that one of the feed pump stops while running in high capacity
mode and the power packs are running. In this case the third feed pump will start
automatically.

If running signal for the third feed pump is not obtained within 3 seconds, the
feed pressure low alarm will be initiated and power packs will shut down.
6. Cooling and heating system

Hydraulic oil used in any hydraulic system has a optimum temperature range for
use. This is because higher temperature can damage the seals and other
components and also it accelerates the degradation of oil.
Hydraulic oil used in Framo system is no exception.

Depending upon the surrounding temperature, the hydraulic oil used in Framo may
be below or above this temperature range.

If it is above the optimum range, the oil will need cooling. If it is below the
optimum range, it would need heating.
Even if the surrounding tempertaure is within optimum range, the oil temperature
will increase during operation.

## If the surrounding temperature is below 20 C, we need to open the heating and

venting valve for heating with one power pack running. When the oil temperature
is well within operating range, other power packs can be started.

Same goes for when the surrounding temperature is higher. The hydraulic oil is
made to pass through a oil cooler to cool the oil before delivery on deck.

The cooling water inlet valve is automatically controlled. It will open at hydraulic
oil temperature above 50 C and will close when temperature decreases to below 30
C.
The high oil temperature alarm will activate if the oil temperature is above 60 C.

## When oil temperature reaches 70 C, the power packs will trip.

7. Emergency Stops

One final thing (among many other) that the operator of the Framo pumps need to
know is about Emergency stops for the pumps.

These are the push buttons installed at different locations. When pressed, the
hydraulic system will trip immidiately.
The common locations for these emergency stops are

## At the power pack location

On each ship, there could be few locations for emergency stop for Hydraulic
system. We must know all of these locations.

Conclusion
Submersible pumps on board tankers is the first choice for the ship owners because