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To speak at macro level that is at projet manager or at senior

levels. The Functional Spec (Specification) which is a comprehensive


document is created after the (SRS) Software Requirements
Document. It provides more details on selected items originally
described in the Software Requirements Template. Elsewhre
organizations combine these two documents into a single
document.

The Functional Specification describes the features of the desired


functinality.. It describes the product's features as seen by the
stake holders,and contains the technical information and the data
needed for the design and developement.

The Functional Specification defines what the functionality will be of


a particulat area that is to be precise a transaction in SAP
terminology.
The Functional Specification document to create a detailed design
document that explains in detail how the software will be designed
and developed.

The functional specification translates the Software Requirements


template into a technical description which

a) Ensures that the product feature requirements are correctly


understood before moving into the next step, that is detchnical
developement process.

b) Clearly and unambiguously provides all the information


necessary for the technical consultants to develop the objects.

At the consultant level the functional spects are preapred by


functinal consultants on any functionality for the purpose of getting
the same functinality designed by the technical pepole as most of
the times the functionalities according to the requirements of the
clients are not available on ready made basis.

Let me throw some light on documentation which is prepared before


and in a project:
1) Templates
2) Heat Analysis -
3) Fit Gap or Gap Analysis
4) Business Process Design
5) Business Process Model
6) Business Change & Impact
7) Configuration Design, which is just 5 % of Total SAP- have
different names -
8) Future Impact & Change Assessement
9) Functional Design (Module Wise)
10) Risk Assessement
11) Process Metrics and Many More-- Which has impact on Business
and its work flow

Note * This documents are preapared in Vanilla SAP Standards --


Things differ from one implementation to another, and it always
depends on the type of business which is opting for SAP.

Functional specifications (functional specs), in the end, are the blueprint for how you want a particular
report and transaction to look and work. It details what the report will do, how a user will interact with it,
and what it will look like. By creating a blueprint of the report or transaction first, time and productivity
are saved during the development stage because the programmers can program instead of also
working out the logic of the user-experience. It will also enable you to manage the expectations of your
clients or management, as they will know exactly what to expect.

A key benefit of writing up a Functional Spec is in streamlining the development process. The developer
working from the spec has, ideally, all of their questions answered about the report or transaction and
can start building it. And since this is a spec that was approved by the client, they are building nothing
less than what the client is expecting. There should be nothing left to guess or interpret when the spec is
completed.

Functional Specification
A functional specification (or sometimes functional specifications) is a formal document used to describe
in detail for software developers a product's intended capabilities, appearance, and interactions with
users. The functional specification is a kind of guideline and continuing reference point as the
developers write the programming code. (At least one major product development group used a "Write
the manual first" approach. Before the product existed, they wrote the user's guide for a word
processing system, then declared that the user's guide was the functional specification. The developers
were challenged to create a product that matched what the user's guide described.) Typically, the
functional specification for an application program with a series of interactive windows and dialogs with
a user would show the visual appearance of the user interface and describe each of the possible user
input actions and the program response actions. A functional specification may also contain formal
descriptions of user tasks, dependencies on other products, and usability criteria. Many companies have
a guide for developers that describes what topics any product's functional specification should contain.
For a sense of where the functional specification fits into the development process, here are a typical
series of steps in developing a software product:

Requirements:
This is a formal statement of what the product planners informed by their knowledge of the marketplace
and specific input from existing or potential customers believe is needed for a new product or a new
version of an existing product. Requirements are usually expressed in terms of narrative statements and
in a relatively general way.

Objectives: Objectives are written by product designers in response to the Requirements. They
describe in a more specific way what the product will look like. Objectives may describe architectures,
protocols, and standards to which the product will conform. Measurable objectives are those that set
some criteria by which the end product can be judged. Measurability can be in terms of some index of
customer satisfaction or in terms of capabilities and task times. Objectives must recognize time and
resource constraints. The development schedule is often part or a corollary of the Objectives.
Functional specification.: The functional specification (usually functional spec or just spec for short) is
the formal response to the objectives. It describes all external user and programming interfaces that the
product must support.
Design change requests: Throughout the development process, as the need for change to the functional
specification is recognized, a formal change is described in a design change request.

Logic Specification:
The structure of the programming (for example, major groups of code modules that support a similar
function), individual code modules and their relationships, and the data parameters that they pass to
each other may be described in a formal document called a logic specification. The logic specification
describes internal interfaces and is for use only by the developers, testers, and, later, to some extent,
the programmers that service the product and provide code fixes to the field.

User documentation:
In general, all of the preceding documents (except the logic specification) are used as source material
for the technical manuals and online information (such as help pages) that are prepared for the
product's users.
Test plan: Most development groups have a formal test plan that describes test cases that will exercise
the programming that is written. Testing is done at the module (or unit) level, at the component level,
and at the system level in context with other products. This can be thought of as alpha testing. The plan
may also allow for beta test. Some companies provide an early version of the product to a selected
group of customers for testing in a "real world" situation.

The Final Product:


Ideally, the final product is a complete implementation of the functional specification and design change
requests, some of which may result from formal testing and beta testing. The cycle is then repeated for
the next version of the product, beginning with a new Requirements statement, which ideally uses
feedback from customers about the current product to determine what customers need or want next.
Most software makers adhere to a formal development process similar to the one described above. The
hardware development process is similar but includes some additional considerations for the
outsourcing of parts and verification of the manufacturing process itself.