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VITAMINS They cannot be stored in the body for a

long period of time.

The term VITAMINS is derived from the
A water soluble vitamin constantly travels in
words vital and amine, because vitamins
the body and comes out in the urine if the
are required for life and were originally
body does not need it.
thought to be amines.
These vitamins need to be replaced daily.
Vitamins and minerals are substances that
They are organic compounds that are
are found in the foods we eat.
required by humans in small portion of the
Vitamins are necessary for growth and
vitality. They are found in all natural foods.
They are obtained from foods and dietary IMPORTANCE OF THE VITAMINS:
Vitamins are organic substances necessary
B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, Coenzymes
for life. Vitamins are essential to the normal
B7, B9, B12, C, K
functioning of our bodies but cannot made B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7 Metabolism of
by our own body. energy yielding
There are thirteen vitamins classified as nutrients
either water-soluble (C and B complex) or B6, B9, B12 Red blood cell
fat-soluble (A,D,E,K). synthesis
B6, B9, B12 Amino acid
B7, B5, B3 Fatty acids synthesis
Energizes metabolism C, E Antioxidant
Regulates metabolism protection
Helps in the formation of blood clot when B1, B6, B12 Nerve transmission
we bleed A, D Gene expression
Enables cell growth
Helps us see colors instead of only black
and white
Vitamins are grouped based on their
solubility in water or in fat
Vitamin that can be stored in the liver and
fat tissues of your body until your body Vitamin B Complex: Vitamin A
needs it. They can be stored in your body up B1-
to six months. Thiamine/ Vitamin D
They are absorbed, together with fat from Aneurine
the intestine, into the circulation. B2- Vitamin E- a-
Riboflavin tocopherol (Vitamin
Vitamin G)
Vitamins that can be dissolved in water. B3- Niacin Vitamin K
Vitamin C and Vitamin B are water soluble (nicotinic
vitamins. acid)
B4- Choline
Panthothenic Japanese surgeon in the navy found that
acid beriberi on ships could be avoided by
B6- adding meat and whole grains to diet.
B7- Biotin
o Helps the body to convert food into
B8- Inositol
B9- Folate energy
B10-Folic o Aids in the function of the heart and
acid cardiovascular system, brain and
(pterolglutam nervous system.
ic acid) Beriberi
o Early symptoms:
Loss of appetite
B13- orotic
acid Tingling hands and legs
B14- Weakness of leg muscles
B15- Difficulty in walking
Pangamic o Infantile beriberi- babies can get
Acid beriberi if breast-fed by a vitamin B1
deficient woman. Symptoms:
Vitamin C- Ascorbic
acid Fretful
Vitamin P- Vomiting
Bioflavonoids (Citrin Weight loss
and Rutin) Swelling
Para-Aminobenzoic Convulsions
acid- PABA
o Fortified breads
FACTS ABOUT VITAMINS: o Cereals- most important source
(consumed in most diets)
They are found in almost everything we eat. o Fish, lean meat
Processing affects vitamin content. o Milk
Dietary supplement can boost vitamin o Yeast and liver- high concentrated
intake. sources
Not all what you eat can be used by the
body. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Very important vitamin because it is part of

two enzymes (FMN) and (FAD) which are
Vitamin B Complex Group oxidizing agents

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Importance:

o Works with another B vitamins to
Prevents beriberi that was discovered in promote healthy growth and tissue
west indies repair
o Helps release energy form
Symptoms of Deficiency: Importance:
o Stomatitis o Helps controlling the weight as well
o Anemia as cholesterol levels
o Swollen and dark tongue o Prevents gallstones
o Angular chelosis: cracks in corners of o Helps in the maintenance of the
mouth and lips nervous system and assists memory
Sources: and learning
o Cereal, nuts, milk, eggs o Helps in fighting infections including
o Green-leafy vegetables, and lean hepatitis and AIDS
meat o It is required for normal cell
RDA: 1.3mg/day membrane structure and function
o It helps in production of
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
neurotransmitter acetylcholine
Prevents development of Pellagra o It assists in the nerve impulse
Isolated from nicotine acid transmission, gallbladder regulation,
Plays an important role in coenzyme NAD, liver functions, and lecithin
which is very important in metabolism production.
Importance: Deficiency:
o Works with the other B vitamins to o Liver disease
release energy from carbohydrates o Increased in cholesterol levels and
Sources; high blood pressure
o Dairy, Poultry, Fish o Kidney problems
o Lean meats, Nuts, and eggs o Inability to digest fats
Deficiency: o Stunted growth
o Pellagra: dermatitis a disease o Impaired memory and brain
characterized by scaly sores, mucosal functions
changes, and mental symptoms
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
o Muscular weakness
o Anorexia Plays an important role in energy
o Indigestion metabolism
o Skin eruptions It is essential for the formation of ATP from
o Diarrhea carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and alcohol.
Vitamin B4 (Choline)
o Meat, Milk, Mushrooms
Cholines metabolism is closely interrelated o Liver, Peanuts, Eggs, Yeast
to that of methionine and methyl folate, yet Deficiency:
choline is considered as the stepchild in o Headache
nutrition. o Fatigue
A major precursor of betaine that is used by o Impaired muscle coordination
the kidneys to maintain water balance and o GI tract disorder
by the liver as a source of methyl groups for RDA: 5mg/day
methionine formation.
Vitamin B6 (Peridoxine)
Helps in maintaining healthy brain function It is needed for health at cellular level and a
Helps in the formation of red blood cells fair concentration is found in the lens of the
Helps in breaking down of proteins human eye as well as the heart.
Helps in the synthesis of antibodies of the A cure to hair loss, but this has not been
immune system tested under clinical situations.
Sources: Plays an important part in the health of the
o Animal tissues cell membranes especially the specialized
o Fish, Poultry, Whole grains cells in the brain
o Bananas, Carrots, potatoes,
Gorbanzo beans, Avocado Vitamin B9 (Folate)
o Legumes, Nuts, eggs, fish, bread and Folate is derived From Latin word means leaf
cereals because dark leafy vegetables are the best
Deficiency: source for folate
o Weakness
o Sleeplessness Sources
o Peripheral Neuropathy o Beans, legumes, whole grains
o Personality changes o fish
o Dermatitis o Citrus fruits
o Glossitis o Liver
RDA: 1.3-2mg/day o Eggs
o Milk and milk products
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Participates in reactions in which CO2 is o Folic Acid aids in the production of RBC
added to a compound. and neural tube formation
Essential cofactor for 5 carboxylase enzyme o Folate aids in the synthesis of DNA
that add CO2 to various compounds.
Sources: Deficiency
o Whole grains, Eggs, Nuts, Legumes o Reduced ability to double DNA
Deficiency: o Anemia
o Skin rash o RDA: 400ug/day
o Neurological disorders
o Impaired growth
RDA: 30ug/day for adults Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)

Is very important vitamin that plays an

important role in many coenzymes
Important in metabolism and maintenance of
nervous system

Vitamin B8 (Inositol) Sources

o Meat
o poultry
o Seafood assists with formation of epithelium, skin
o Eggs and mucus membrane
o Milk and milk products maintains healthy eyes
assists with bone remolding
Deficiency: Anemia
promotes normal development of teeth, soft
RDA: 2.4 ug/day and skeletal tissue

Sources of VA and beta- carotene

o Beta- Carotene a precursor of va
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
comes from green, leafy vegetables
Is involved in many processes in the body
and intensely colored fruits and
Most important function: synthesis of collagen,
the principal tissue protein found in tendon,
o animal sources: eggs, meat an dairy
-healthy immune system
o dry skin, poor immunity and slow
-Helps wound healing growth
-Maintains the connective tissues o night blindness, xeropthalmia (total
-Aids in iron absorption o retinopathy
Adult RDA: 1000ug RE
o Fruits and vegetables (Major
sources of VC)
o Citrus fruits
o Broccoli
o Green pepper Considered as hormone taht facilitates
absorption of Ca and P
It assists with bone formation by aiding the
o Scurvy (well-known)
o Weakness absorption of Ca
o Fatigue Essential to development of the teeth and
o Inflammation of the gum bones
o Impaired wound healing
o Haemorrhages Sources
o Depression
o Milk
RDA: 60 mg/day o Cheese
o Fish
o Butter

FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS o Rickets- a weakening and softening of
bones brought on by extreme calcium loss
o Osteoporosis
This nutrients act together with VC
to help maintain the thin walls of
capillaries, therefore preventing
Antioxidant and promotes RBC bleeding or bruising
Deficiency of vitamin E is hemolytic anemia Should be taken wit Vitamin C
RDA: 15mg/day (ascorbic acid) and Ca

o Corn o white material just beneath citrus
o Nuts peel, as well as in peppers, grapes,
o olives pine barks, onions, garlics, blue and
o green leafy vegetables red berries, green tea as well as
o vegetable oils buckwheat
o wheat germ

o bruising
Function: o iron deficiency
-protects cell membrane and tissues from
damage by oxidation PARA- AMINOBENZOIC ACID (PABA)
- promotes function of a healthy circulatory
PABA is shortened named for para-
aminobenozoic acid taht is ofteh thought as
Adult RDA: 15mg
only ingredient used in sunscreens (protect
against ultraviolet rays)
VITAMIN P (Bioflavonoids)
Moiety of PGA, a form of folic acid, some
enhances the action of vitamin C and
health professionals do not consider it a
for this reason they should be taken
vitamin but only a B-complex factor
Used to improved the protein in the body, it
effectively used in treatment of sport
relates to red blood cell formation as well as
injuries as they are pain relieving.
assisting manufacture of folic acid in the
Relieving pain in the legs, across th
back and can lessen the symptoms
linked to hair growth as well as graying of
of prolonged bleeding, a low serum
hair but these results are disappointing.
calcium as wells as oral herpes
People suffering from vitiligo, over
Active in preserving the structures of
pigmentation of skin or without pigmention
capillaries, antibacterial effect and
some spots, have reported an improvement
promotes circulation
of the skin after more PABA was ingested
Indicated in the production of bile,
lowering blood cholesterol, levels Deficiency
and prevention and treatment of
When PABA is in short supply fatigue,
irritability, nervousness,constipation and
Super active substances
depression might manifest
Weeping eczema
Patchy areas on the skin o liver disease
o raised cholesterol level
o high blood pressure as well as kidney
o Liver, Kidney problems
o brewers yeast o inability to digest fats.stunted growth and
o molasses fatty buildup in the liver
o whole grains o memory and brain function could also be
o mushrooms ad spinach impaired
o can be made by intestinal bacteria

needed for health at cellular level and a fair
its metabolism is interrelated to methionine concentarion is found in the lens of the
and methyl-folate but trated by some human eye as well as the heart
nutritional specialists as stepchild in men taking extra inositol reported that their
nutrition hair oss had improved
assists in controlling your weight, plays an important role in the health of cell
cholesterol levels,keeping cell mebranes membranes especially the specialized cells
healthy, maintainance of nervous sysyem- of the brain, bone marrow, eyes and
assiting memory and learning, help fight intestines
infections including hepatitis and AIDS. promotes hair growth and controls estrogen
Choline is critical for normal membranes levels and may assist in preventing breast
structure and function lumps
major precursor of betaine, amd is used by reducing blood cholesterol levels
th kidneys to maintain water balance and by
the liver as a source oodf methyl groups for
methionine formation o plant source: phytic acid which can bind
produce the important neurotransmitter with minerals and so affect their absorption
acetylcholine negatively
assist nerve impulses, gallbladder o wheat germ
regulation, liver functions and lecithin o brewers yeast
production o bannas
o liver
Source o brown rice and vegies
o egg yolks o oat flakes
o beef o nuts
o wheat germ o unrefined molasses
o oats o raisins
o nuts

Deficiency o Eczema
o Constipation
Is mainly methyl donor which helps in
o Abnormalities of eyes and
formation of certain amino acids like
o Raised cholesterol
Plays a role in oxidation of glucose and cell
May reduce hypoxia (deficient oxygen) in
not really recognized as a vitamin and is cardiac muscles
manufactured by the body by intestinal flora Antioxidant helping lengthen cell life
very little is known about this Enhancing liver functions
And helps in detoxification processed
helps in the production of genetic material and
also usedin conditions such as multiple sclerosis
and chronic hepatits

o Was first isolated in 1951 by Drs. Ernest

VITAMIN B14 Krebs Sr. And Jr. From apricot kernels, along
with laetrile termed vitaminB17.
there is currently little knowledge about this
first isolated from wine
found to be a metabolite of xanthoprotein
o At that time as today they were not sure
however it was said by a biochemist Earl R.
whether it was essential to life
Norris xanthoprotein was the VB14.
Similar to vitamin V10 anD V11 Uses/ Deficiency
Plays an important role in the body. Some of
o Useful for headaches, angina nad
its functions are:
musculoskeletal chest pain
- helps in formation of cells o Shortness of breath insomnia
o And general stress- to be used of course,
-resistance to combat anemias
only after specific medical condtions are
-enhances anti tumor growth of protein ruled out.
such as pterin phosphate


o Destruction of RBC
o Anemia (pernicious anemia)
o Increase growth of cancerous cells