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Category Function Methods

Increase density, bearing Vibrocompaction


capacity, and frictional M1:Dynamic compaction
strength; increase M2:Geopolymer Injections
Densification
liquefaction resistance of Blasting compaction
granular soils; decrease Compaction grouting
compressibility, increase M4:Surface compaction (including rapid
strength of cohesive soils impact compaction)

Preloading without drains


Accelerate consolidation,
M3:Preloading with vertical drains
reduce settlement,
Consolidation
increase strength Vacuum consolidation
Electro-osmosis

Reduce load on Geofoam


foundation soils, reduce Foamed concrete
Load Reduction settlement, increase slope Lightweight fills, tire chips, etc.
stability

Mechanical stabilized earth


Soil nailing/anchoring
Inclusion of reinforcing Micro piles
elements in soil to Columns (aggregate piers, stone
improve engineering columns, jet grouting, etc.)
Reinforcement
characteristics; provide Fiber reinforcement
lateral stability Column supported embankments with
load transfer platforms
Geosynthetic reinforced embankment
M1 The Dynamic Compaction technology, also known as dynamic consolidation
The basic principle behind the Dynamic Compaction (DC) technique consists in the transmission
of high energy waves in order to improve weak subsoil. As a result of the impact the soil is
compacted depending on its condition, structure and depth. The energy is transferred to the
subsoil by multiple impacts with properly shaped weight (normally steel pounder) with a weight
ranging from 10 to 40 tons free falling from a height ranging from 5 to 40 m.

In order to perform an effective dynamic consolidation the lattice - boom cranes are used
obtaining sufficiently high impact energy.

The Dynamic Compaction method consists of two pounding stages where in the first
stage deep layers are compacted and in the second stage intermediate layers. After completion of
the two stages the surface compaction (so-called 'ironing') is carried out within the entire
improved area.

The Dynamic Compaction is normally preceded by the development of a test plot where
the grid spacing is determined along with the impact energy which is needed to achieve the
required compaction, i.e. weight and shape of the pounder and the height of its drop.
M2 Geopolymer Injections

If the soil is not stable and strong enough, there is a risk that the building or structure may
subside. URETEK has a solution to improve and stabilise the ground and the bearing capacity
directly under the foundation without excavation, vibrations or other disturbances.

The method uses geopolymer which is injected deep into the ground, where it expands
and reaches a force of up to 10,000 kilopascals. When the geopolymer expands, it makes the
surrounding ground denser and thus prevents the building or structures from subsiding and
settling. With URETEK ground improvement the bearing capacity can be improved in advance,
for example when a building's usage changes and its likely that the load on the building will
increase.

Geopolymer injections and URETEK ground improvement can be used in almost all
types of soils and can be used to stabilise a variety of different buildings, such as industrial and
commercial buildings, car parks and roads. If needed, the structures can also be lifted back to the
desired level with millimetre precision.

Before the repair work begins URETEKs team carefully investigate the soil under the
foundation. The results of the test will show how deep the geopolymer should be injected and
which types of geopolymer should be used to maximise the bearing capacity of the ground.

When you know the soil conditions, small holes are drilled through the foundation or the slab.
Injection tubes are installed into these approximately 2cm diameter holes. Through these tubes
the geopolymer is injected as deep as is necessary. Firstly the geopolymer, which is in liquid
form, penetrates the voids that are in the soil and thereafter expands and seals the surrounding
soil.
The injection process is monitored by laser, which indicates when the soil has reached the
desired bearing capacity. The geopolymer that is injected in the soil hardens in about 15 minutes,
and the desired bearing capacity of the structure is reached.

Benefits of ground improvement

The ground can be improved and stabilised quickly and non-disruptively


In smaller projects the ground and the soil can be improved and stabilised in a few hours
If necessary, you can inject geopolymer on a small, enclosed area
The geopolymers that URETEK use are safe and proven, dont dissolve in water or give
extra load to the surrounding soil and ground.
M3 Preloading with vertical drains

Vertical Drains, also known as Wick Drains or Band Drains, are used to accelerate the
consolidation of embankments built of fine grain soils. This is normally to expedite construction
and limit long term settlement.

The construction of a new embankment or structure induces additional stresses on the ground
that can create unacceptable long term settlements during the life of an embankment or structure.
A preloading programme can be designed to induce these settlements in an accelerated time
frame and minimise the long term residual settlements to be within acceptable limits.

Fine grained soils such as Clays and Silts are usually saturated and therefore, settlements can
only occur if the excess water is expelled through the voids in the soil grains and particles. These
soils also tend to have a low permeability, and so the reduction of pore water pressure can be a
slow process.

Vertical drains consist of a flat or cylindrical plastic core wrapped in a geotechnical fabric, and
allow water to drain up through the centre of the drain. These come in a variety of sizes and
shapes to meet a variety of soil and site conditions.

Vertical drains can be used to increase the rate of consolidation, delivering substantial
programme savings for the build times of earth embankments for many types of land raising
schemes.
Prefabricated vertical drains are installed by pushing a hollow steel mandrel, which house the
drain material, and are set out on a grid pattern.

The mandrel is driven into the ground by the rig, once at the required depth the mandrel is
removed, leaving the vertical drain anchored by a steel anchor plate that holds the drain securely
in place.

The mandrel can penetrate soils up to a tip resistance of 5MPa, firmer soils can be penetrated by
the use of vibrators or pre-drilling.

A temporary surcharge embankment needs to be combined with the installation of the Vertical
Drains in order to expedite full or partial primary consolidation, as well as induce several years
of secondary consolidation settlement. Placement of the embankment and the additional
temporary surcharge embankment are placed in phases, to avoid the risk of slip failure.

Real time monitoring of the geotechnical parameters, including pore pressures and horizontal
displacement, are monitored throughout the consolidation period. These instruments are installed
to validate the design and the safe phasing of the embankment construction. These results will
also be used to back analyse the design and access the consolidation process
M4 Surface Compaction
Backfilling material

Compaction