Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 59

Welding

Welding is a permanent material joining process used in making welds.

Defn:

Welding is a permanent material joining process

That produces coalescence or union of materials,

By heating them to critical / suitable temp., with or with the application of pressure

Or by application of pressure alone (normally at room temp. or below critical temp.)

and with or without the use of filler metal

.

Welding Welding is a permanent material joining process used in making welds. Defn: Welding is a
Welding Welding is a permanent material joining process used in making welds. Defn: Welding is a
Types of Welding 1. Oxyfuel welding 2. Arc Welding 3. Resistance Welding 4. Cold Welding 5.
Types of Welding
1.
Oxyfuel welding
2.
Arc Welding
3.
Resistance Welding
4.
Cold Welding
5.
Diffusion Welding
6.
Friction Welding
7.
Electron Beam Welding
8.
Laser Welding
9.
Explosive Welding
10.
UltraSonic Welding
11.
ElectroSlag Welding

Classification of Welding

The various ways the welding and allied processes are classified based on

Source of heat., (flame, arc., etc)

Types of interaction (liquid/liquid, solid/solid)

In general Various types of Welding and allied processes are classified as follows,

  • 1. Gas Welding

    • a. Air-Acetylene Welding

    • b. Oxy-Acetylenes Welding

    • c. Oxy-hydrogen Welding

    • d. Pressure Gas Welding

  • 2. Arc Welding

    • a. Carbon Arc Welding

    • b. Shielded Metal Arc Welding

    • c. Flux Cored Arc Welding

    • d. Submerged Arc Welding

    • e. TIG or GTAW Welding

    • f. MIG or GMAW Welding

    • g. Plasma Welding

    • h. Electro Slag Welding

    • i. Electro gas Welding

    • j. Stud Arc Welding.

  • 3. Resistance Welding

    • a. Spot Welding

    • b. Seam Welding

    • c. Projection Welding

    • d. Resistance Butt Welding

    • e. Flash Butt Welding

    • f. Percussion Welding

    • g. High frequency Resistance Welding

  • 4. Solid State Welding

    • a. Cold Welding

    • b. Diffusion Welding

    • c. Explosive Welding

    • d. Friction Welding

    • e. Roll Welding

    • f. Forge Welding

    • g. Hot pressure Welding

    • h. Ultrasonic Welding

  • 5. Thermo-chemical Welding processes

    • a. Thermit welding

    • b. Atomic Hydrogen Welding

  • 6. Radient Energy Welding processes

    • a. Electron Beam Welding

    • b. Laser Beam Welding.

  • Commonly used base metals

    • 1. Ferrous

      • a. Wrough Iron

      • b. Cast iron

      • c. Low, Medium, High - Carbon Steel

      • d. Cast Steel

      • e. Alloy Steel

      • f. Stainless steel., etc

  • 2. Non-ferrous

    • a. Al and alloy

    • b. Cu And alloy

    • c. Mg and alloy

    • d. Ni and alloy

    • e. Zn and alloy., etc

  • Advantage of Welding

    • 1. A good weld is as strong as the base Metal

    • 2. General Welding equipments is not very costly

    • 3. Portable welding equipments are available.

    • 4. Welding permits considerable freedom in design

    • 5. A large number of metals/alloy both similar and dissimilar can be joined by welding

    • 6. Welding can join workpieces through spots, as continous pressure tight seams, end-to-end and in a number of other configurations

    • 7. Welding can be mechanized.

    Disadvantage

    • 1. Welding gives out Harmful raditions, fumes and spatters

    • 2. Welding results in residual stresses and distortion of the work pieces.

    • 3. Jigs and fixtures are generally required to hold and position the parts to be welded.

    • 4. Edge preparation of the work piece is generally required before welding them

    • 5. A skilled welder is a must to produce a good welded job

    • 6. Welding heat produced metullargical changes. The structure of the Welded joint is not same as that of the parent metals

    • 7. A welded joint for many reasons needs, stress-relief heat treatment .

    Gas Welding Processes

    Defn:

    Gas Welding is a fusion welding processes

    -

    In joining the metals, using the heat of combustion of an oxygen/air and fuel gas (ie.,acetylence , hydrogen,

     

    propane or butane) mixture.

    -

     
     

    The intense heat (flame) thus produced melts and fuse together the edges of the parts to be welded, generally

    with the addition of a filler metal.

     

    Principle of operation

    When acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the welding torch and ignited, the flame reaches a temperature of about 3200 C results at the tip of the torch is sufficient hot to melt , that flows to form a complex bond and join the parent metals generally with a filler metal rod added to the molten metal pool to build up the seam slightly for greater strength.

    Oxy-acetylene welding does not require the components to be forced together under pressure until the weld forms and solidifies.

    Types of Welding flame

    • 1. Neutral Flame (Acetelylene Oxugen is equal proportion)

    • 2. Oxidising flame (Excess Oxygen)

    • 3. Reducing flame

    (Excess Acetylene)

    Gas Welding Processes Defn: Gas Welding is a fusion welding processes - In joining the metals,
    Gas Welding Processes Defn: Gas Welding is a fusion welding processes - In joining the metals,
    Gas Welding Processes Defn: Gas Welding is a fusion welding processes - In joining the metals,

    Apart from their chemical nature, these flames differ in shape and structure as shown.

    Theoretically all flames consist of three zones:

    an inner cone,

    a middle reducing zone known as the acetylene feather

    an oxidizing outer zone called the flame envelope or the streamer.

    The inner cone is readily distinguishable bright luminous zone. It consists of a mechanical mixture of hot oxygen and dissociated acetylene. The primary combustion starts at the outer boundary of the inner cone and extends into the acetylene feather.

    The secondary combustion occurs in the flame envelope using oxygen from atmospheric; air.

    Neutral flame:

    Acetylene and oxygen ratio is 1: 1

    (exactly

    0 2 : C 2 H 2 = 1.1 to 1)

    Oxidizing flame:

    Greater oxygen supply (it’s used for copper and copper based alloys, steel) (0 2 : C 2 H 2 = 1.5 to 1)

    Reducing flame:

    Lower oxygen supply (brazing, soldering, flame hardening).

    (0 2 : C 2 H 2 = 0.85 to 0.95)

    Flame temperature:

    Temperature is one of the important characteristics of the flame. Higher the temperature more efficient is the

    heating and melting of the metal. The temperature of the flame is not constant.

    It varies along and across the flame and depends on the composition of the flame. For most of the hydrocarbons which burn with an inner luminous cone the maximum temperature is in the intermediate zone next to the inner cone.

    Welding is done using the flame in this zone and accordingly the torch is positioned such that the tip of the inner luminous cone is within 2 to 3 mm of the metal surface to be welded. It is this zone that decides the nature of the flame-reducing, carburizing or oxidizing.

    The flame temperature depends on the oxygen to acetylene ratio and increases with increase in this ratio up to a certain point. The limiting values are 1.2 to 1.9 with corresponding temperatures of 3300 to 3500°C. The maximum temperature obtained in a reducing flame is about 2900°C, that in a neutral flame about 3250°C and for an oxidizing flame about 3500°C.

    Netural Flame

    Equal Volumes of Oxygen and acetelyene ( 1.1 to 1 ratio)

     

    e

    perature of t e fla

    e is about

    (

    )

    The flame has nicely defined inner core, which is light blue in color. It is surrounded by an

    outerflame envelope produced by the combination of oxygen in the aior and superheated CO and H2 gas from the inner core. This envelope is usually a much daker blue than the inner core. No chemical change in the molten metal and therefore will not oxidize or carburize the metal.

    Neutral flame is commonly used for

    MS, CI, SS, Cu and Al.

    Oxidising flame Higher Oxygen Supply ( 1.5 : 1 ratio) flame burns with load roar.

    Oxidizing flame tends to be hotter than the netural flame. This is because of excess O2 and

    whic

    causes t

    e te

    perature to rise as

    ig

    as

    The high temperature of an Oxidising flame would be advantage if it were not for the fact that excess O2, especially at high temperature, tends to combione with many metals to form brittle, hard, low strength oxides. Excess O2 causes the weld bead and surrounding area to have a scummy or dirty appearance.

    It is not used in welding of steel

     

    A slightly oxidizing flame is helpful when welding most Cu based alloy, Zn based alloy, few ferrous materials like Mg-steel and few grade of CI.

    Reducing Flame

    If the volume of Oxygen supplied to the netural flame is reduced , resulting flame will be

    carburizing or reducing flame., ie., rich acetylene. -

    it can be recoginized by feather which

    exists between the inner core and outer envelope. The outer flame envelope is longer tha that of the neutral flame and is usually brighter in color.

    reducing fla

    e

    a an approx te

    perature of

    (

    )

    Metals that tends to absorb C should not be welded using Carburizing flame.

    Carburizing flame

    A Carburizing flame does not consume the available carbon, therefore if it burning

    temperature is lower and the left over carbon is forced into the molten metal. With iron and steel it produced very hard, brittle substance know as ironcarbide. A carburizing flame is used in the welding of Pb and carburizing surface hardening process.

    Reducing flame

    A reducing flame may be distinguished from a carburizing flame by the fact that a

    carburizing flame contains more acetylene than a reducing flame.

    A reducing flame does

    not carburizes the metal, rather it ensures the absence for the oxidizing conditions. A reducing flame welding is used for welding Low alloy steel rods and for welding non- ferrous metals that do not tend to absorb carbon.

    Chemistry of Oxy-acetylence flame

    Stage 1.

    C 2 H 2 +

    O 2

    CO + H 2 +

    Heat

    (inner white core flame reaction)

    Stage 2

    2CO + H 2 + 1.5O 2

    2CO 2 + H 2 O + Heat (Temperature 3300 C)

    Welding Techniques

    There are two techniques of gas Welding

    • 1. Left Ward technique or fore hand Welding method.

    • 2. Right Ward technique or Back hand welding method.

    Chemistry of Oxy-acetylence flame Stage 1. C H + O → CO + H + Heat

    Left Ward technique or fore hand Welding method

    Right Ward technique or Back hand welding method

    Welder holds welding torch in his right hand and

    Welder holds welding torch in his left hand and

    filler rod in the left hand

    filler rod in the right hand

    Welding flame is away from the finished weld (towards the unwelded parts of the joint) and filler rod towards the unwelded part of the joint

    Welding flame is towards finished weld (towards the unwelded parts of the joint) and filler rod away from the unwelded part of the joint

    It pre-heats the edge of the joint

    The filler rod may be moved in circles or semi- circles.

    Good Control and a neat appearance

    The weld puddle is less fluid and this result in a slightly different appearance of the weld surface

    Used on relatively thin metals having thickness less than 5 mm

    Used for heavier or thicker above 5 mm , because in this technique heat concentrated into the metal.

    Base metal Preparation

    Joints used in gas welding

    Butt

    Lap

    Edge

    T

    Corner joint

    Use of flux

    During welding if the metal is heated / melted in air, oxygen from the air combines with the metal to form oxides which results in poor quality, Low strength welds in some cases, may even make the weld impossible. In order to avoid this difficulty, a flux is used.

    A flux is a material used to prevent, dissolve or facilitate removal of oxides and other undesirable

    substances. A flux prevents the oxidation of molten metals.

    The flux is fusible and non-metallic.

    During welding flux chemically reacts with the oxides and a slag is formed that floats to and covers the

    top of the molten puddle of metal and thus help keep out atmospheric oxygen and other gases. Fluxes may be in powder, pastes or liquid forms

    Flux may be applied directly on to the surface of the base metal to be welded or by dipping the heated

    end of the filler rod in it.

    The flux sticks to the filler rod end.

    NO FLUX IS USED IN THE GAS WELDING OF STEEL.

    Fluxes are used in the gas welding of CI, SS, and most non-ferrous metals other than Pb, Zn and other precious metals

    Flux used in CI :

    Borate or Boric acid, Soda ash, and small amount of other compounds such as Sodium

    Chloride., etc. which increase the fluidity of the fusion iron-silicate slag, as well as removal of the slag.

    Flux used in SS:

    Borax, Boric acid, fluorspar, which ensure better control of the molten metal and to make

    it possible a sound, clean, good-appearing weld.

    Equipment used for Gas Welding Process

    It consists of a welding torch, which is available in various sizes and shapes, connected by hoses to high pressure gas cylinders and equipped with pressure gases and regulators. Although it can be mechanized, this welding operation is essentially manual and hence slow, and is used typically for fabrication and repair work.

    Equipment used for Gas Welding Process It consists of a welding torch, which is available in

    Application of Gas Welding

    • 1. Fabrication of automotive bodies

    • 2. Repairing work

    Advantages of Gas welding

    Equipment used for Gas Welding Process It consists of a welding torch, which is available in
    • 1. The equipment is versatile, low cost, self sufficient and usually portable

    • 2. The cost and maintenance of the welding equipment is low when compared to other welding process

    • 3. The rate of heating and cooling is relatively slow.

    • 4. Since the Source of heat and of filler metal are separate, the welder has control over filler metal deposition rate

    • 5. More control over the temperature of the metal in the weld Zone.

    Disadvantages of Gas Welding

    • 1. Fluxes used in certain welding and brazing operations produce flames that are irritating to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs.

    • 2. Heavy sections cannot be joined economically

    • 3. Flame temperature is less than the temperature of the arc

    • 4. More safety problems are associated with the handling and storing of gases

    • 5. Refractory metals and reactive metals cannot be gas welded

    Arc Welding Processes

    Defn

    Arc Welding is a fusion welding processes

    wherein coalescence of the workpiece is produced by melting the surface to be joined with the

     

    heat energy ontained from an a.c or d.c, flux, or inert gas electir arc stick between the work piece

    and an electode (consumed or non-consumable)

     

    with or without the application of pressure and

    with or without the use of filler metal depending upon the base plate thickness

    .

    Principle

    Arc is maintained between the job and the carbon electrode held in a holder and ground to specific geometry.

    DC straight polarity is preferred to restrict electrode disintegration and the amount of carbon going into the weld metal.

    The arc is allowed to impinge on the surface to be welded till a molten pool forms and then a holder is steadily moved along the joint .

    Filler metal and flux may or may not be used, depending upon the types of joint and the material to be welded.

    Process

    In arc welding process an electric arc between an electrode and a work piece or between two electrodes is utilised to heat the joint to be welded. Basic circuit for arc welding is shown in Fig.

    Arc Welding Processes Defn Arc Welding is a fusion welding processes wherein coalescence of the workpiece

    This consists of a power Source, electode or electodes and work piece. Power may be DC or AC Power.

    D.C Power consists of D.C generator or rectified A.C

    A.C Power consists of tansformer / alternator .

    When A.C power source is used equal amount of heat is produced at anode and cathode.

    Where as D.C Power source produced high heat at anode and medium heat at cathode. Based on the requirement, electrode / Work can be made as anode/ cathode in this method.

    In D.C arc Welding there are two polarities ie., straight polarity and reverse polarity.

    In straight Polarity work is made positive (high heat zone) and electrode negative (low heat zone), This is also called DCEN.

    Deep penetration is obtained in straight polarity, this is used for thicker work piece.

    In reverse polarity work is made negative (low heat zone) and electrode positive (high heat zone). This is also called as DCEP.

    Less Penetration is obtained in reverse Polarity; this is used for thin work piece.

    Electrodes are of two types

    • 1. Consumable Electrodes

      • a. Bare Wire electrode

      • b. Coated electrode

  • 2. Non-Consumable Electrodes

  • With the use of bare wire electrodes:

    • 1. Oxides are formed which affect fusion and hence strength, ductility may be reduced.

    • 2. N2 is picked up leading to the formation of nitrides and embrittlement of the metal.

    • 3. Water vapor is picked up which complicates the metallurgical reaction and also results in

    porosity.

    • 4. Low burning rates.

    • 5. Penetration power of arc is less.

    • 6. Arc is unstable.

    Bare wire electrodes are used where poor quality is tolerable, i.e., in galvanized surfaces, surfacing and tack welding.

    The coated electrode consists of a core wire with a covering of coated material. coating are:

    • 1. Formation of a protective gas shield.

    • 2. Formation of protective slag on liquid metal

    • 3. Deoxidation of the melt.

    • 4. Stabilization of arc.

    • 5. Addition of alloying elements.

    • 6. Reduce spatter of weld.

    • 7. Increase deposition efficiency.

    • 8. Influence the depth of penetration.

    Functions of this

    Electrode coating is a mixture of many constituents to satisfy a particular function

    Cellulose is used for shielding while welding high Sulphur steels

    CaCo3 also can be used instead of cellulose.

    Rutile, Tio2, Feo, Sio2, Mno2 and limestone - slag forming constituents

    Ferro manganese and Ferro silicon - deoxdisng constituents.

    Potassium constituents - for sterilsation.

    Sodium silicate and potassium silicate - binding ingradients

    Va, Ca, Mb, Zr, Cr, Ni, Mn and W are alloying constituents.

    Joints welded by Carbon arc Welding.

    Electrode coating is a mixture of many constituents to satisfy a particular function  Cellulose is

    TYPES

    1.

    Plain Butt

    2.

    Beveled Butt

    3.

    Lap

    4.

    Corner

    5.

    Flange

    6.

    Tee

    Welding 3, 6 , 10 mm diameter carbon electrode, approx current are 25, 70 and 125 Amps respectively.

    When using Graphite electrode, these current may be increase by 5 10 %.

    Arc depends up on the materials also., like for Cu, MS and SS we need electrode of 3- 4 mm diameter and 70, 40 and 40 Amps respectively.

    The types of welds, joints, and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. Naturally, the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different.

    Electrode coating is a mixture of many constituents to satisfy a particular function  Cellulose is

    are described below.

    Flat-Position Welding

    Earlier reexplained that welding can be done in any position, but it is much simpler when done in the flat position. In this position, the work is less tiring, welding speed is faster, the molten puddle is not as likely to run, and better penetration can be achieved. Whenever possible, try to position the work so you can weld in the flat position. In the flat position, the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.

    Joint Type Butt joints are the primary type of joints used in the flat position of welding; however, flat-position welding can be made on just about any type of joint providing you can rotate the section you are welding on to the appropriate position. Techniques that are useful in making butt joints in the flat position, with and without the use of backing strips,

    BUTT JOINTS WITHOUT BACKING STRIPS.A butt joint is used to join two plates having surfaces in about the same plane. Several forms of butt joints are shown in figure 7-17.

    Plates up to 1/8 inch thick can be welded in one pass with no special edge preparation. Plates from 1/8 to 3/16 inch in thickness also can be welded with no special edge preparation by welding on both sides of the joint.

    Tack welds should be used to keep the plates aligned for welding. The electrode motion is the same as that used in making a bead weld.

    In welding 1/4-inch plate or heavier, you should prepare the edges of the plates by beveling or by J-, U-, or V-grooving, whichever is the most applicable. You should use single or double bevels or grooves when the specifications and/or the plate thickness requires it. The first bead is deposited to seal the space between the two plates and to weld the root of the joint. This bead or layer of weld metal must be thoroughly cleaned to remove all slag and dirt before the second layer of metal is depos-ited.

    In making multipass welds, as shown in figure 7-18, the second, third, and fourth layers of weld metal are made with a weaving motion of the electrode. Clean each layer of metal before laying additional beads. You may use one of the weaving motions shown in figure 7-19, depending upon the type of joint and size of electrode.

    BUTT JOINTS WITHOUT BACKING STRIPS. — A butt joint is used to join two plates having
    BUTT JOINTS WITHOUT BACKING STRIPS. — A butt joint is used to join two plates having
    BUTT JOINTS WITHOUT BACKING STRIPS. — A butt joint is used to join two plates having

    In the weaving motion, oscillate or move the elec-trode uniformly from side to side, with a slight hesitation at the end of each oscillation. Incline the electrode 5 to 15 degrees in the direction of welding as in bead weld-ing.

    When the weaving motion is not done properly, undercutting could occur at the joint, as shown in figure 7-20. Excessive welding speed also can cause undercut-ting and poor fusion at the edges of the weld bead.

    BUTT JOINTS WITH BACKING STRIPS.Welding 3/16-inch plate or thicker requires backing strips to ensure complete fusion in the weld root pass and to provide better control of the arc and the weld metal. Prepare the edges of the plates in the same manner as required for welding without backing strips.

    For plates up to 3/8 inch thick, the backing strips should be approximately 1 inch wide and 3/16 inch thick. For plates more than 1/2inch thick, the backing strips should be 1 1/2 inches wide and 1/4 inch thick Tack-weld the backing strip to the base of the joint, as shown in figure 7-21. The backing strip acts as a cushion for the root pass. Complete the joint by welding additional layers of metal. After you complete the joint, the

    backing strip

    ay be “was ed” off or cut away wit

    a cutting

    torch.

    When specified, place a seal bead along the root of the joint.

    Bear in mind that many times it will not always be possible to use a backing strip; therefore, the welder must be able to run the root pass and get good penetration without the formation of icicles.

    Advantage of Electric Arc method

    • 1. Heat input to the Work pieces can be easily controlled by changing the arc length

    • 2. Work piece distortion is negligible.

    • 3. Process can be easily mechanized.

    • 4. Process is simple and good welding skill can be acquired in short time.

    When the weaving motion is not done properly, undercutting could occur at the joint, as shown
    • 5. Total welding cost is less as compared to other welding process.

    • 6. Process is very suitable for butt welding of thinner workpiece (1-2 mm thickness)

    Disadvantage of electric Arc method

    • 1. There are chances of carbon being transferred from electrode to weld metal, thus causing a harder weld deposit is case of ferrous materials.

    • 2. In the absence of proper electrode geometry and in confined space arc blow results which gives poor welds with blow holes and porosity.

    • 3. A spate filler metal is needed; which slows down the welding speed.

    Application of Electric Arc method

    • 1. Welding Steel, Al, Ni, Cu, and good number of other alloys.

    • 2. Used for brazing, preheating and post-heating of the welded joints.

    • 3. Used for repairing the Casting.

    When the weaving motion is not done properly, undercutting could occur at the joint, as shown

    Shielded metal arc welding.

    Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is a process that melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc established between a sticklike covered electrode and the metals, as shown in figure aside. It is often called stick welding. The electrode holder is connected through a welding cable to one terminal of the power source and the workpiece is connected through a second cable to the other terminal of the power source.

    It uses coated electrode of 2.5 to 6.35 mm diameter and 300 400 mm length held in electrode holder. The power source used is both AC and DC with equal ease and effectriveness . Arc temperature are 5000 C, voltage are 15 45 V with current between 10 500 Apms.

    Shielded metal arc welding. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is a process that melts and joins
    Shielded metal arc welding. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is a process that melts and joins

    The core of the covered electrode, the core wire, conducts the electric current to the arc and provides filler metal for the joint. For electrical contact, the top 1.5 cm of the core wire is bare and held by the electrode holder. The electrode holder is essentially a metal clamp with an electrically insulated outside shell for the welder to hold safely.

    The heat of the arc causes both the core wire and the flux covering at the electrode tip to melt off as droplets . The molten metal collects in the weld pool and solidifies into the weld metal.The lighter molten flux, on the other hand, floats on the pool surface and solidifies into a slag layer at the top of the weld metal.

    Advantages and Disadvantages The welding equipment is relatively simple, portable, and inexpensive as compared to other

    Advantages and Disadvantages

    The welding equipment is relatively simple, portable, and inexpensive as compared to other arc welding processes. For this reason, SMAW is often used for maintenance, repair, and field construction. However, the gas shield in SMAW is not clean enough for reactive metals such as aluminum and titanium. The deposition rate is limited by the fact that the electrode covering tends to overheat and fall off when excessively high welding currents are used.The limited length of the electrode (about 35 cm) requires electrode changing, and this further reduces the overall production rate.

    Advantages and Disadvantages The welding equipment is relatively simple, portable, and inexpensive as compared to other

    Gas-tungsten arc welding.

    Gastungsten arc welding (GTAW) is a process that melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc established between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the metals, as shown in figure aside. The torch holding the tungsten electrode is connected to a shielding gas cylinder as well as one terminal of the power source, as shown in figure (a) aside. The tungsten electrode is usually in contact with a water-cooled copper tube, called the contact tube, as shown in figure (b), which is connected to the welding cable (cable 1) from the terminal.

     
    Gas-tungsten arc welding. Gas – tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is a process that melts and joins
     

    Figure : Gastungsten arc welding: (a) overall process; (b) welding area enlarged.

       

    This allows both the welding current from the power source to enter the electrode and the electrode to be cooled to prevent overheating.The workpiece is connected to the other terminal of the power source through a different cable (cable 2). The shielding gas goes through the torch body and is directed by a nozzle toward the weld pool to protect it from the air. Protection from the air is much better in GTAW than in SMAW because an inert gas such as argon or helium is usually used as the shielding gas and because the shielding gas is directed toward the weld pool. For this reason, GTAW is also called tungsteninert gas (TIG) welding. However, in special occasions a noninert gas can be added in a small quantity to the shielding gas.

    Therefore, GTAW seems a more appropriate name for this welding process. When a filler rod is needed, for instance, for joining thicker materials, it can be fed either manually or automatically into the arc.

    Advantages and Disadvantages

    Gastungsten arc welding is suitable for joining thin sections because of its limited heat inputs. The feeding rate of the filler metal is somewhat independent of the welding current, thus allowing a variation in the relative amount of the fusion of the base metal and the fusion of the filler metal. Therefore, the control of dilution and energy input to the weld can be achieved without changing the size of the weld. It can also be used to weld butt joints of thin sheets by fusion alone, that is, without the addition of filler metals or autogenous welding. Since the GTAW process is a very

    clean welding process, it can be used to weld reactive metals, such as titanium and zirconium, aluminum, and magnesium.

    However, the deposition rate in GTAW is low. Excessive welding currents can cause melting of the tungsten electrode and results in brittle tungsten inclusions in the weld metal. However, by using preheated filler metals, the deposition rate can be improved. In the hot-wire GTAW process, the wire is fed into and in contact with the weld pool so that resistance heating can be obtained by passing an electric current through the wire.

    Plasma Arc Welding

    Plasma arc welding (PAW) is an arc welding process that melts and joins metals by heating them with a constricted arc established between a tungsten electrode and the metals, as shown in figure aside. It is similar to GTAW, but an orifice gas as well as a shielding gas is used. As shown in figure aside, the arc in PAW is constricted or collimated because of the converging action of the orifice gas nozzle, and the arc expands only slightly with increasing arc length . Direct-current electrode negative is normally used, but a special variable polarity PAW machine has been developed for welding aluminum, where the presence of aluminum oxide films prevents a keyhole from being established.

    clean welding process, it can be used to weld reactive metals, such as titanium and zirconium,

    Figure: Plasma arc welding: (a) overall process; (b) welding area enlarged and shown with keyholing.

    Submerged Arc Welding

    In submerged arc welding a thick layer of granular flux is deposited just ahead of a bare wire consumable electrode, and an arc is maintained beneath the blanket of flux.

    A portion of the flux melts and removes impurities from pool of molten metal, while unmelted flux provides additional shielding. The molten flux then solidifies into a glass like covering over the weld.

    This layer along with unmelted flux provides a thermal insulation that slows down the cooling of the weld metal and helps to produce soft, ductile welds. After cooling, the solidified flux is easily removed, the unmelted flux is collected and recirculated.

    SAW is most suitable for making flat butt or fillet welds in low carbon steels (0.3% carbon) with some preheat and post heat precautions, medium carbon steels, alloy steels, C.I, stainless steels, Cu alloys and nickel alloys. The process is not recommended for welding high carbon steels, tool steels, Al, Mg, Titanium, Lead or Zn.

    Submerged Arc Welding In submerged arc welding a thick layer of granular flux is deposited just

    Area's of application:

    Ship building, storage tanks, fabricating pipes, boiler and pressure vessels, rail- road tank cars, structural shapes.

    Advantages:

    • 1. Smooth welds of high strength, ductility with low H2 and N2 contents are obtained

    • 2. Because of high Amperages (high current densities) high metal deposition rates, deep penetration and

    • 3. Less distortion.

    high welding speeds are achieved.

    • 4. Joint designs are simple.

    • 5. For sheets up to 40mm thick single pass is sufficient.

    Disadvantages:

    • 1. The operator can not see the arc, so can not judge the progress of welding Therefore extra

    accessories are needed.

    • 2. The flux needs preplacing on the joint, which may not be always possible.

    • 3. In small thicknesses burn through is likely to occur.

    • 4. Proper fit up of the joint is required.

    • 5. Flux is subjected to contamination that may cause weld porosity.

    • 6. C.I (poor ductility), Mg (easily causes fire), Pb, Al (low M.P) can not be welded by this

    processes.

    Resistance Welding

    Resistance welding is a group of welding processes which produce coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from reistance offered by the work of electrical current through the parts being joined.

    A pair of Copper alloy electrode conduct electrical current through the two sheets pressed between. The interface between the two sheets offers max resistance to the flow of current, this generates heat, the interface metls and consequently solidifies under pressure of the two electrodes, their by joining the two sheets at the spot that was under two electrodes.

    Disadvantages : 1. The operator can not see the arc, so can not judge the progress
    Disadvantages : 1. The operator can not see the arc, so can not judge the progress

    The three major resistance welding processes are :

    • 1. Resistance spot welding

    • 2. Reistance seam welding that uses roller electrodes, instead of cylindrical electrodes as in case of spot welding

    Cold Welding

    A soild state welding processes in which pressure is used at room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation at the weld. Metal joined with No heat or flux.

    Cold Welding A soild state welding processes in which pressure is used at room temperature to

    Pressure bring surface together, disrupted surface films and allows chemical bonding of clean surface

    Mainly applicable for soft, ductile materials like Al, Indalium, Lead., etc.

    Used for Circular wire section or tubular cross section.

    Roll Bonding is an example of Cold Welding.

    Pressure is applied to the work piece through dies or rolls. Due to plastic deformation involved both mate, both the mating parts need to be ductile.

    Diffusion Welding

    Diffusion welding occurs in the solid stat when properly prepared surface are kept in contact under predetermined onditiond of time, pressure and elevated temperature.

    Cold Welding A soild state welding processes in which pressure is used at room temperature to

    The temperature which is well below the melting point (2/3 ½ of the MP) causes sufficient atomic diffusion for the bond to be made between flat clean surface which are pressed together,.

    Cold Welding A soild state welding processes in which pressure is used at room temperature to

    Sequence for diffusion bonding of ceramics to metals

    • a) Hard ceramic and comparatively soft metal surfaces come into contact

    • b) Metal surface begins to yield under high local stresses

    • c) Deformation continues mainly in the metal, leading to void shrinkage (in association with diffusional mass

    transfer)

    • d) The bond is formed

    Friction Welding

     Friction welding is a soild state welding process which produces coalescence of material by the
    Friction welding is a soild state welding process which produces coalescence of material by the
    heat obtained from a mechanical induction sliding motion between rubbing surfaces of two
    cylindrical work pieces. The Work pieces are held together under pressure.
    Features of Friction Welding
    No filler material, flux or shield gas Environmentally clean; no arcs, sparks, smoke or flame
    Surface impurities burn through during process
    Narrow heat affected zones
    Ability to weld dissimilar metals
    Weld strength usually as strong or stronger than the weaker material being joined
    Operators do not require manual operating skills
    Simple integration into the manufacturing area
    Easily automated for mass production
    Minimal plant requirements to install

    Electron Beam Welding

    A Welding process which produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from a concentration beam composed primarily of high velocity electrons impinging upon the surface to be joined.

    Electron Beam Welding A Welding process which produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from
    Electron Beam Welding A Welding process which produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from

    Laser beam Welding

    A Welding Process which produced coalescence of materials with the heat obtained from the application of concentrated cohenerent light beam impinging upon the surface to be joined.

    Electron Beam Welding A Welding process which produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from
    Electron Beam Welding A Welding process which produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from

    Explosive welding

    A Soild State welding process in which coalescence is affected by high velocity movement together of parts to be jointed, produced by a controlled detonation.

    Explosive welding A Soild State welding process in which coalescence is affected by high velocity movement

    Explosives The commonly used high explosives are

    Explosive

    Detonation velocity , m/s

    RDX (Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, C 3 H 6 N 6 O 6

    8100

     

    8190

    PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate, C 5 H 8 N 12 O 4 ) TNT (Trinitrotoluene, C 7 H 5 N 3 O 6 )

    6600

    Tetryl (Trinitrophenylmethylinitramine, C 7 H 5 O 8 N 5 )

    7800

     

    5010

    Lead azide (N 6 Pb) Detasheet

    7020

    Ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 )

    2655

     

    Applications

    1)

    Joining of pipes and tubes.

    2)

    Major areas of the use of this method are heat exchanger tube sheets and pressure vessels.

    3)

    Tube Plugging.

    4)

    Remote joining in hazardous environments.

    5)

    Joining of dissimilar metals - Aluminium to steel, Titanium alloys to Cr Ni steel, Cu to

    stainless steel, Tungsten to Steel, etc.

    6)

    Attaching cooling fins.

    7)

    Other applications are in chemical process vessels, ship building industry, cryogenic

    industry, etc.

    Advantages

    1)

    Can bond many dissimilar, normally unweldable metals.

    2)

    Minimum fixturing/jigs.

    3)

    Simplicity of the process.

    4)

    Extremely large surfaces can be bonded.

    5)

    Wide range of thicknesses can be explosively clad together.

    6)

    No effect on parent properties.

    7)

    Small quantity of explosive used.

    Limitations

    • 1. The metals must have high enough impact resistance, and ductility.

    • 2. Noise and blast can require operator protection, vacuum chambers, buried in sand/water.

    • 3. The use of explosives in industrial areas will be restricted by the noise and ground vibrations caused by the explosion.

    • 4. The geometries welded must be simple flat, cylindrical, conical.

    Ultrasonic Welding

    A solid state welding process which produces coalescence of material by the local application of high frequency vibratory energy as the work parts are held together under pressure.

    Limitations 1. The metals must have high enough impact resistance, and ductility. 2. Noise and blast
    Limitations 1. The metals must have high enough impact resistance, and ductility. 2. Noise and blast

    Electroslag Welding

    A Welding process producing coalescence of metals with the help of molten slag which melts the filler metals and the surface of the work piece to be welded. The molten weld pool is shielded by this slag which moves along the full cross-section of the joint as welding progresses. The Process is initiated by an arc which heats the slag. The arc is then extinguished and the conductive slag is maintained in a molten condition by its resistance to electric passing between the electrode and the work.

    Limitations 1. The metals must have high enough impact resistance, and ductility. 2. Noise and blast

    Advantages of Electroslag Welding:

    High deposition rate - up to 45 lbs/h (20 kg/h); Low slag consumption (about 5% of the deposited metal weight); Low distortion; Unlimited thickness of work piece.

    Disadvantages of Electroslag welding:

    Coarse grain structure of the weld; Low toughness of the weld; Only vertical position is possible.

    Welding of Low Carbon Steel

    Low Carbon steel have

    Easy weld and machine

    elting point fro

    Flexibility in use.

    Low Carbon steel is most widely used for welding in industries because of its strength, its workability under fabricating methods and its relatively low price.

    Low Carbon steels may be welded by any of the commonly used welding processes, the choice depending upon section thickness and quality thickness.

    Plate thickness above 25 mm need

    preheat,

    controlled interpass temperature and

    post welding stress relief to avoid cracking and to maintain toughness, strength and ductility.

    Welding processes employed for welding low Carbon steel are

    • 1. Oxy-acetylene Welding

    • 2. Flux-Shielded metal Arc Welding

    • 3. Submerged Arc Welding

    • 4. Gas Metal Arc Welding

    • 5. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    • 6. Plasma Arc Welding

    • 7. Thermit Welding

    • 8. Resistance Welding

    • 9. Electroslag Welding

    10. Brazing.

    Thermal Effect of Welding

    Welding involves many metallurgical phenomena .welding operation resembles casting .

    Welding processes, except cold welding, heating and cooling are essential integral parts of this process .

    Thermal Effect of Welding Welding involves many metallurgical phenomena .welding operation resembles casting . Welding processes,
    Thermal Effect of Welding Welding involves many metallurgical phenomena .welding operation resembles casting . Welding processes,

    If one looks at the microstructure of a welded joint ,he clearly visualizes three distinct zones namely

    • (a) Weld metal zone

    • (b) Heat affected zone

    (HAZ)

    -grain growth region

    -grain refined region

    -transition region

    • (c) Base metal or parent metal .

    Weld Metal Zone

    • Weld metal zone is formed as the weld metal solidifies from the molten state.

    • This is a mixture of parent metal and electrode(or filler metal), the ratio depending upon the welding processes used, the type of joint, the plate thickness, etc.,

    Thermal Effect of Welding Welding involves many metallurgical phenomena .welding operation resembles casting . Welding processes,
    • Weld metal zone is cast metal of particular composition of the mixture that has cooled; its microstructure reflects the cooling rate in the weld. Depending upon the chemical composition , a martensite structure in the weld indicates a very fast cooling rate; fine pearlite, and coarse pearlite showing comparatively slower rates of cooling respectively. From the molten weld pool, the first metal to solidify grows epitaxially(With its orientation controlled by the crystal substrate) upon the solid grains of the unmelted base metal.

    • Depending upon the composition and solidification rates, the weld solidifies in a cellular or dendritic growth mode.

    • Both modes cause segregation of alloying elements and consequently, the weld metal is less homogeneous on the microlevel than the base metal and therefore cannot be expected to have the same properties as the wrought parent metal unless the filler metal has in the as deposited condition, properties equal to the parent metal.

    • Fig. shows the weld metal zone in a welded steel.

      • (b) Heat Affected Zone

    (HAZ):

    • Adjacent to the weld metal zone is the heat affected zone that is composed of parent metal that did not melt but was heated to a high enough temperature for a sufficient period that grain growth occurred.

    • Heat affected zone is the portion of the base metal whose mechanical properties and microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding.

    • HAZ, usually contains a variety of microstructures. In plain carbon steels these structures may range from very narrow regions of hard martensite to coarse pearlite. This renders HAZ, the weakest area in a weld. Except where there are obvious defects in the weld deposit, most welding failures originate in the heat affected zone.

    • The heat affected zone is often defined(i.e., visualized) by the response of the welded joint to hardness or etching effect tests.

    • The width of HAZ varies according to the welding processes and technique; in arc welds it extends only a few mm from the fusion boundary, but in oxy-acetylene and electroslag welds it is somewhat wider.

    • The HAZ in low carbon steel of normal structure welded in one run with coated electrodes or by submerged arc process comprises three metallurgically distinguished regions.

      • The grain growth region

      • The grain refined region

      • The transition region

     Both modes cause segregation of alloying elements and consequently, the weld metal is less homogeneous
    • (a) The grain growth region

      • Grain growth region is immediately adjacent to the weld metal zone(fusion boundary)

      • In this zone parent metal has been heated to a temperature well above the upper critical (A 3 ) temperature. This resulted in grain growth or coarsening of the structure.

      • The maximum grain size and the extent of this grain growth region increase as the cooling rate decreases, and are the greatest for the electroslag welds.

      • Fig shows large regions of pearlite and smaller grains of ferrite.

      

    (b) The grain refined region

    Adjacent to the grain growth region is the grain refined region.

    The refined zone indicates that in this region, the parent metal has been heated to just above the A 3 temperature where grain refinement is completed and the finest grain structure exists.

    Fig. shows the structure of refined zone of the low carbon steel in question. Complete recrystallization is shown in which the ferrite(white) and pearlite(dark) areas are both much finer.

    ( c) The Transition Zone

    • In the transition zone, a temperature range exists between the A 1 and A 3 transformation temperatures where partial allotropic recrystallization takes places.

    • Fig. shows the structure of the transition zone of the low carbon steel in which the ferrite grains have not been altered but the pearlite regions have been made finer.

    • This change was produced by heating into the critical range which transformed the pearlite into austenite and by subsequent cooling re-formed the pearlite.

    ( c) The Transition Zone  In the transition zone, a temperature range exists between the

    Unaffected Parent Metal

    ( c) The Transition Zone  In the transition zone, a temperature range exists between the
    • Outside the heat affected zone is the parent metal that was not heated sufficiently to change its microstructure.

    • Fig. shows the typical grain structure of the parent metal ferrite(white) and pearlite(dark) which was welded and whose weld metal zone and HAZ microstructures were discussed and shown earlier.

    Metallurgy of Welding

    Welding Metallurgy depends on

    • 1. Melting of electrode and parent (or base) metal

    • 2. Solidification of weld metal

    • 3. Gas absorption and gas-metal reaction

    • 4. Slag-metal reaction

    • 5. Surface penetration

    • 6. Soild state reaction

    Both chemical inhomogenity and changes in metallurgical structure are known to result during welding operation because most fusion welding processes generate high rate of heating and cooling in the weld metal and parent metal adjacent to the weld:

    Weld metal is quickly melted and then it resolidifies under the equivalent chill casting

    condition Parent metal is subjected to a complex thermal cycle with a temperature gradient

    extending from the melting range to ambient temperature and followed by a cooling cycle induced by the surrounding cold metal Temperature change and change in microstructure introduced volume change in the area sourrouding the weld and hence it causes straining, plastic flow, residual stresses or even cracking.

    Metallurgical effects of Welding

    Welding operation gives rise to many metallurgical effects:

    • 1. Weld metal is essentially a small casting, with inherent defects and characteristics of a casting.

    • 2. Absorption of gases by weld metal and gas reaction is important in controlling the porosity of a weld e.g. H2 in Al. H2 can easily dissolve in the molten metal at high temperature and may be subsequently be trapped in the soild metal, if cooling is rapid. The gas either be retained in the microstructure or may bubble which can become trapped as porosity in the fast freezing metal.

    • 3. Slag inclusion are frequently trapped in fusion welds due to joints or bead contour and there is difficulty of removing or melting the salg in subsequent runs.

    • 4. Hot cracking of welds under constrained welding conditions, the contractional strains, causes intercrystalline cracks in hot welds, the fractured surface being tinted with oxidation film

    • 5. Heat affected Zone

    (HAZ):

    • Adjacent to the weld metal zone is the heat affected zone that is composed of parent metal that did not melt but was heated to a high enough temperature for a sufficient period that grain growth occurred.

    • Heat affected zone is the portion of the base metal whose mechanical properties and microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding.

    • HAZ, usually contains a variety of microstructures. In plain carbon steels these structures may range from very narrow regions of hard martensite to coarse pearlite. This renders HAZ, the weakest area in a weld. Except where there are obvious defects in the weld deposit, most welding failures originate in the heat affected zone.

    • The heat affected zone is often defined(i.e., visualized) by the response of the welded joint to hardness or etching effect tests.

    • The width of HAZ varies according to the welding processes and technique; in arc welds it extends only a few mm from the fusion boundary, but in oxy-acetylene and electroslag welds it is somewhat wider.

    • The HAZ in low carbon steel of normal structure welded in one run with coated electrodes or by submerged arc process comprises three metallurgically distinguished regions.

      • The grain growth region

      • The grain refined region

      • The transition region

        • (a) The grain growth region

          • Grain growth region is immediately adjacent to the weld metal zone(fusion boundary)

          • In this zone parent metal has been heated to a temperature well above the upper critical (A 3 ) temperature. This resulted in grain growth or coarsening of the structure.

    • The maximum grain size and the extent of this grain growth region increase as the cooling rate decreases, and are the greatest for the electroslag welds.

    • Fig shows large regions of pearlite and smaller grains of ferrite.

      

    (b) The grain refined region

    Adjacent to the grain growth region is the grain refined region.

    The refined zone indicates that in this region, the parent metal has been heated to just above the A 3 temperature where grain refinement is completed and the finest grain structure exists.

    Fig. shows the structure of refined zone of the low carbon steel in question. Complete recrystallization is shown in which the ferrite(white) and pearlite(dark) areas are both much finer.

    ( c) The Transition Zone

    • In the transition zone, a temperature range exists between the A 1 and A 3 transformation temperatures where partial allotropic recrystallization takes places.

    • Fig. shows the structure of the transition zone of the low carbon steel in which the ferrite grains have not been altered but the pearlite regions have been made finer.

    • This change was produced by heating into the critical range which transformed the pearlite into austenite and by subsequent cooling re-formed the pearlite.

     The maximum grain size and the extent of this grain growth region increase as the
     The maximum grain size and the extent of this grain growth region increase as the
    • 6. Corrosion of Weld In case of welded joints the weld metal compostion differs from that of base material. In the presence of dilute carbonic acid from the atmosphere, electrolytic action is set up and surface of the steel become corroded. If the weld metal is electro- positive to that base metal, the weld metal is attacked and if the base metal is electro- negative to the weld metal, the base metal will be attacked.

    • 7. Dilution When the filler metal/ electrode of different composition from the base metal/work is employed the weld bead may be expected to exhibit a composition lying somewhere between that of the filler metal and that of the base metal. This effect is called Dilution and it comes about because the filler metal penetrates and metls into the base metal.

    Composite Zone

    The combination of melted filler metal and melted base metal creates a liquid weld pool that becomes the composite

    zone upon cooling.

    Should the filler metal be of a different chemical composition compared to the base metal, then

    the base metal is said to become diluted by the filler metal. welding arc and thermodynamic forces, the composite zone is mainly homogeneous.

    Unmixed Zone

    A very tin region, typically 0.05 - 0.01 in (1.25 - 2.5 mm) surrounding the composite zone is called the unmixed

    zone.

    The metal in this region solidified prior to mixing

    with the filler metal since the temperature reached was just

    above its melting point.

    The stirring action and time

    above the melting temperature is insufficient for mixing to

    However, due to the electrical sitrring action of the

    Composite Zone The combination of melted filler metal and melted base metal creates a liquid weld

    have taken place.

    Therefore its chemical composition is essentially the same as the base metal.

    Although the

    unmixed zone is present in all fusion welds, it is readily visible only in those welds using a filler metal alloy of

    substantially different chemical composition than the base metal.

     

    Weld Interface

    The next zone metallurgically defined in a weldment is the weld interface, typically called the weld line or fusion line.

    This interface clearly separates the unmelted base metal on one side and the solidified weld metal on the other side. In pure metals, the transition from base metal to weld metal is often difficult to observe metallographically because of epiaxial qrowth, where during liquid weld metal solidification, the new solid crystals begin to grow from the existing

    base metal grains.

    However, in carbon and alloy steels, the weld interface is easily revealed by standard etching

    techniques.

    This method is often used in the "field"to delineate the weld metal (copmosite and unmixed zones) from

    the heat affected zone in carbon steel welds.

    Two common macroetchants for this purpose are: 5 to 10% Nital (5 to

    10% concentrated nitric acid dissolved in 90% to 95% methanol or ethyl alcohol, by volume) and 10% Ammonium Persulphate (10 g ammonium persulphate dissolved in 100 mL of water).

    Partially Melted Zone

    In the base metal immediately adjacent to the weld interface, the temperature from welding is insufficient for complete

    melting, i.e. just below the liquidus temperature but above the solidus temperature, in the solid-liquid region.

    This

    area is called the partially melted zone.

    In steels, this zone becomes susceptible to hot cracking since the liquidation

    (melting) of manganese sulphide inclusions can cause weak localized regions that do not have the hot strength to withstand the heating/cooling (expansion/contraction) cycle of welding.

    Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ)

    The HAZ is the subject of continuing interest since it involves a wide range of temperatures from the welding operation

    that can significantly alter the base metal's metallurgy and associated mechanical and physical properties. next section.

    See the

    Unaffected Base Metal Zone

    The further region from the liquid weld metal (composite zone) is the unaffected base metal. This region is defined by

    welding temperature below the lower critical transformation temperature (A 3 ), 1340 o F (725 o C) for carbon steels.

    As

    such, there are no phase transformations taht occur to the original base metal microstructure.

    However, since the

    temperature reached in this region are sufficient to cause precipitation hardening, tempering or stress relieving, it is important to know the original microstructure and the potential effects of further heating.

    HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ)

    Single-Pass Weldments

    The heat affetced zone (HAZ) extends from weld interface to the unaffected base metal.

    The resultant temperature

    range in the HAZ extends from just below the liquidus down to the sub-critical temperatures slightly less than the lower

    critical transformation temperature, i.e. 2970 - 800 o F (1350 - 425 o C) for carbon steel.

    With this large temperature

    gradient comes varying microstructures in steel that will depend on the peak temperature reached, time at temperature, and cooling rate. Consequently, the term "heat affected zone" is really a misnormer when describing it on a metallurgical basis, since the HAZ is really made up of several distinct metallurgical zones.

    Figure 20 shows a cross section of a single-pass weldment outlining the weld metal and HAZ.

    Figure 20 shows a cross section of a single-pass weldment

    outlining the weld metal and HAZ.

    Because of varying

    thermal conditions as a function of distance from the weld

    interface, the HAZ is actually composed of four distinct regions, namely, the grain-coarsened-HAZ, grain-refined-

    HAZ, intercritical_HAZ, and subcritical-HAZ.

    Each of these

    regions within the HAZ possesses microstructures and associated mechanical and physical properties that make them unique.

    To define the four regions of the HAZ in metallurgical terms,

    the Fe-Fe 3 C phase diagram provides an ideal tool.

    Figure

    21 illustrates a single-pass weldment and compares the HAZ microstructures produced by the heat of welding and related to peak temperature reached, time at temperature, and cooling rate.

    Grain-Coarsened-HAZ

    Figure 20 shows a cross section of a single-pass weldment outlining the weld metal and HAZ.

    The peak temperatures reached in the grain-coarsened-HAZ region

    raange from 2000 to 2700 o F (1090 to 1480 o C), depending on the carbon

    content.

    Another way to describe this temperature range in metallurgical

    terms, is that it exrends from much above the upper critical transformation

    temperature to just below the solidus temperature. There are two main

    metallurgical conditions that occur in this region: 1) the microstructure is austenite (for the most part) and 2) since the austenite produced is much above the upper critical transformation temperature, grain growth will

    occur.

    The amount of grain growth will depend on the peak temperature

    and time at that temperature, i.e. the higher the peak temperature and the longer the time at that temperature, the larger the austenite grains will grow.

    Two significant metallurgical consequences result in this region: 1) since austenite is produced, the potential for transformation to martensite upon cooling exists, where martensite is not a desirable transformation product due to its lack of ductility, toughness, and susceptibility to cold cracking and 2) as austenitic grain size grows, the resultant room temperature microstructure will be similarly effected, with low temperature notch (charpy) toughness being significantly change, i.e. the larger the grain size, the lower the notch toughness.

    Grain-refinement - HAZ

    This region comprises temperature from just above the lower critical transformation temperature and up to 200 o F

    (93 o C) higher.

    These temperatures are within the normalizing heat treatment range and are very conducive to

    austenitic grain refinement and its associated improved low temperature notch (charpy) toughness. hand, austenite is still produced and the likelihood of martensite must be considered.

    On the other

    Intercritical-HAZ

    The temperatures in this region includes the intercritical ranges, between the lower and upper critical temperatures. Some austenite is produced in this partially transformed range, such that the potential for martensite transformation

    exists.

    In medium and high carbon steels, this austenite can contain large amounts of carbon which has a higher

    tendency to produce martensite on cooling.

    Subcritical-HAZ

    The subcritical-HAZ includes the tempered area of the Fe-Fe 3 C phase diagram.

    Should the base metal be in the

    tempered condition (i.e. quenched and tempered) the heat of welding may be sufficient for further tempering, thereby

    reducing the tensile strength and hardness in this region.

    There are no phase transformations which take place in the

    tempered area since the lower critical transformation temperature is not exceeded.

    Cooling Rate

    The cooling rate also varies from region to region in the HAZ. It increases with increasing peak temperature ay

    constant heat input and decreases with increasing heat input at constant peak temperature. typical cooling rate curve (solid line showing peak temperature) for a single-pass weldment.

    Figure 21 displays a By drawing a tangent to

    this curve, it becomes apparent that the steepest part of the curve (i.e. fastest cooling rate) is related to the grain-

    coarsened-HAZ.

    Since this region is comprised essentially of austenite and is linked to the fastest cooling r ate, it

    therefore possesses the greatest potential for transformation to martensite.

    Toe cracking is a form of hydrogen-assisted cold cracking related to welding and owes its name

    Toe cracking is a form of hydrogen-assisted cold cracking related to

    welding and owes its name to the area of the weld where cracking

    initiates.

    The toe of the weld is in the extreme grain-coarsened-HAZ

    (adjacent to the weld interface) and is directly affiliated with the

    austenite to martensite transformation in this high cooling rate region; a consequence of welding that produces the highest potential

    hardness in the HAZ of a carbon steel (see figure 22).

    Weldability of Steel

    Weldability is the Capacity of a material to be welded under the fabrication conditions imposed into a specific suitably designed structure and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service.

    This implies that a metal with good Weldability can be welded readily so as to perform satisfactorily in the fabrication structure.

    Weldability compasses the

    Metallurgical compatibility of a metal /alloy with any specific welding process. -

    Metallurgical compactability imples that the base metal and weld metal can be combined within the degree of dilution encounted in a specific process without the production of deleterious constituents or phases. Ability of the metal /alloy to be welded with mechanical soundness.

    Serviceability of the resulting joints. ability of the welded strucuture to withstand low high temperature , impact loads., etc.

    A metallic material with adequate Weldability should fulfil the following requirements :-

    • 1. Have full strength and toughness after welding.

    • 2. Contribute to good weld quality even with high dilution.

    • 3. Have unchanged corrosive resistance after welding.

    • 4. Should not be enbrittlement when stress relived.

    Presence of alloy elements

    Alloying elements

    • 1. Increase or decrease hardenability of the HAZ . The elements that have greatest effect on the hardenability of the steel are C, Mn, Mo, Cr, V, Ni and Si. The effect of these elements alloying on controlling the tendency to form HAZ martensite, and thus cold cracking may be expressed as carbon equivalent (CE) CE

    = % C +

    +

    +

    +

    -

    -

    • 2. Form age-hardening precipitates

    • 3. Provide grain refinement (Al, V, Ti, Zr and N acts as grain refiners in low alloy steel).

    • 4. Reduce segregations.

    • 5. Control dutile-to-brittle transformation temperature.

    • 6. Form substitutional alloys and strengthen the metal by solid solution hardening.

    • 7. Form insterstitial alloys and increase mechanical properties by lattice distortions.

    • 8. Form Carbides.

    Welding Distortion

    When the metal is heated, it expands. If this expansion is resisted, deformation will occur.

    After the welding/heating, when the metal cools, it contracts, if this contraction is resisted, a stress is applied.

    If this applied stress causes movement, distortion occur.

    If this applied stress causes no movement, it is left as residual stress.

    Welding Distortion When the metal is heated, it expands. If this expansion is resisted, deformation will

    Types of Distortion

    Welding Distortion When the metal is heated, it expands. If this expansion is resisted, deformation will

    Distortion in weldment takes place by 3-D changes that occur during welding:

    • 1. Longitudinal shrinkage that occur parallel to the weld line.

    • 2. Transverse shrinkage that occur perpendicular to the weld line.

    • 3. Angular change that consists of rotation around the weld line.

    Welding Distortion When the metal is heated, it expands. If this expansion is resisted, deformation will
    Welding Distortion When the metal is heated, it expands. If this expansion is resisted, deformation will

    Control of Weld distortion

    Various practical ways for minimizing distortion caused by contractions:

    • 1. Keep the contraction forces as low as possible by using only that amount of weld metal as is required by the joint.

    • 2. Use as few weld passes as possible.

    • 3. Place welds near the neutral axis.

    • 4. Balance welds around the neutral axis.

    • 5. Use of back step welding or skip method of welding.

    • 6. Make shrinkage forces work in the desired direction.

    • 7. Balance shrinkage forces with opposing forces.

    • 8. Welding sequences.

    • 9. Reduce welding time.

    10. Breakdown large weldments into sub-assemblies.

    Control of Weld distortion Various practical ways for minimizing distortion caused by contractions: 1. Keep the
    Control of Weld distortion Various practical ways for minimizing distortion caused by contractions: 1. Keep the
    Control of Weld distortion Various practical ways for minimizing distortion caused by contractions: 1. Keep the
    Control of Weld distortion Various practical ways for minimizing distortion caused by contractions: 1. Keep the
    Control of Weld distortion Various practical ways for minimizing distortion caused by contractions: 1. Keep the

    Pre-heating in Welding

    Preheating the steel to be welded slows the cooling rate in the weld area.

    This may be necessary to avoid cracking of the weld metal or heat affected zone.

    The need for preheat increases with steel thickness, weld restraint, the carbon/alloy content of the steel, and the diffusible hydrogen of the weld metal.

    Preheat is commonly applied with fuel gas torches or electrical resistance heaters.

    Preheating involves heating the base metal, either in its entirety or just the region surrounding the joint, to a specific desired temperature, called the preheat temperature, prior to welding.

    Heating may be continued during the welding process, but frequently the heat from welding is sufficient to maintain the desired temperature without a continuation of the external heat source.

    The interpass temperature, defined as the base metal temperature between the first and last welding passes, cannot fall below the preheat temperature.

    Pre-heating in Welding Preheating the steel to be welded slows the cooling rate in the weld

    There are four primary reasons to utilize preheat:

    (1) it lowers the cooling rate in the weld metal and base metal, producing a more ductile metallurgical structure with greater resistant to cracking

    (2) the slower cooling rate provides an opportunity for any hydrogen that may be present to diffuse out harmlessly without causing cracking

    (3) it reduces the shrinkage stresses in the weld and adjacent base metal, which is especially important in highly restrained joints and

    (4) it raises some steels above the temperature at which brittle fracture would occur in fabrication. And additionally preheat can be used to help ensure specific mechanical properties, such as notch toughness.

    Factors considered when choosing a method for applying pre-heat

    • 1. The material thickness,

    • 2. size of the weldment and

    • 3. available heating equipment

    For example, small production assemblies may be heated most effectively in a furnace. However, large structural components often require banks of heating torches, electrical strip heaters, or induction or radiant heaters.

    A high level of accuracy generally is not required for preheating carbon steels. Although it is important that the work be heated to a minimum temperate, it is acceptable to exceed that temperature by approximately 100°F (40°C). However, this is not the case for quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels, since welding on overheated Q&T steels may be detrimental in the heat affected zone. Therefore, Q&T steels require that maximum and minimum preheat temperatures be established and closely followed.

    Preheat can prevent cracking and/or ensure specific mechanical properties such as notch toughness.

    Preheat must be used whenever applicable codes so specify; when no codes apply to a given situation, the welding engineer must determine whether or not preheat is needed, and what temperature will be required for a given base metal and section thickness.

    Preheat may be applied in a furnace, or by using heating torches, electrical strip heaters, or induction or radiant heaters. Carbon steels do not require precise temperature accuracy, but induction or radium heaters, maximum and minimum preheat temperatures must be followed closely for quenched and tempered steels.

    Factors considered when choosing a method for applying pre-heat 1. The material thickness, 2. size of

    Accuracy Control in Welding

    Shipbuilding involves the fabrication of large and complex welded structures. Hulls are made up from many plates joined by butt-welding with bulkheads and stiffeners welded to the inside surface only.

    The trend to block construction enables high levels of fit-out to be completed with minimal access restrictions. Piping and other services within each block must be fabricated with high accuracy to enable efficient integration into the structure.

    Maintaining accuracy in overall dimensions of subassemblies is critical to the success of shipbuilding.

    The current trend to optimised designs using thinner plates and lighter stiffening creates greater challenges in accuracy control.

    Accuracy Control Concepts

    The purpose of a metal fabrication is to create the form, physical characteristics, and finish of a

    metal component according to clearly defined specifications. The fabrication process is executed by a group of people using available technologies and procedures. A measure of the effectiveness of the fabrication process is the ability to correctly produce specific parts that meet the specification.

    Accuracy

    The difference between the achieved mean dimension and the target specification is the

    accuracy of the process.

    Variation

    The variation of the distribution around its mean tells us to what degree the process is capable of achieving the desired performance; the smaller the dispersion around the process mean, the more capable the process. The reciprocal of the variance is the process precision, which measures the ability to execute identical performances and the ability of people and procedures to direct the fabrication process.

    Identifying Sources of Variation

    In order to achieve overall accuracy in a fabrication all sources of variation must be identified. A

    holistic approach to the manufacturing process is required with integration of product and process knowledge. Identification of variation can be approached from the consideration of all the steps involved in design and manufacture that can have an impact on accuracy and putting process control measures in place to ensure conformance. Factors such as structural rigidity, material behaviour, process limitati ons and operator dependency of some processes must be taken into account whenallowing for shrinkage and distortion of welded components.

    Drawings

    Drawings in electronic format are increasingly being linked directly to marking out and cutting operations. This reduces the potential for errors and enables rapid feedback of systematic nonconformances in marking out and cutting to the engineering function. Minor changes to electronic drawings can be made to tailor the drawing to the manufacturing process or even individual production machines.

    • 1. Precision in Marking Out and Cutting

    Modern shipyards are utilising CAD/CAM in their laser and plasma cutting operations. The same equipment is now increasingly used for component identification and marking out. Marking out for subsequent assembly as part of the CAD/CAM cutting process minimises subsequent

    requirements

    for marking out, greatly reduces errors in marking out and improves assembly times.

    This enables:

    • 1. High accuracy in cutting leading to good fit up in the fabrication shop, leading to less minor corrections and accompanying distortion.

    • 2. Identification of parts and marking out of cut pieces using dot matrix, laser or plasma systems.

    This leads to greatly enhanced traceability of parts, enhanced precision of assembly, thus minimising errors and rework.

    • 2. Precision in Weld Preparation

    Preparation of bevels for plate butt welds is now commonly by machining. While machining is more expensive than thermal cutting it enables compound bevels to be produced with precision not achievable by thermal cutting processes. Extremely accurate fitment of parts to be joined can be achieved. This is particularly important for larger welds such as main plate butt welds where major gains can be made in controlling overall distortion.

    • 3. Precision in Assembly

    This is where it all comes together and precision in assembly is dependent on accuracy of design, accuracy of cut parts, accuracy of marked assembly lines and last but not least the skills of the people doing the assembly.

    • 4. Tack welding

    Tack welding plays a critical role in firstly holding the assembled structure together ready for welding and secondly in maintaining correct root gaps in butt welds and preventing movement in the structure as welding progresses. The number of tack welds, the length tack welds and the distance between them will depend on the length and thickness of the weld, the degree of rigidity needed, the details of the weld preparation and the welding process being used. The tacking sequence can also have an effect and may need to be controlled to ensure correct root gaps are maintained along the length of a joint.

    • 5. Back-To-Back Assembly

    Back to back assembly of identical asymmetrical structures provides a method of counteracting the shrinkage forces of one component with the shrinkage forces of another. Additional presetting may be required so that when the two components are freed from each other there is no residual distortion due to spring back from locked up residual stresses.

    • 6. Stiffening

    Stiffening of a structure can be achieved in a number of ways. Use of larger tack welds, partially welding, provision of temporary bracing, use of assembly jigs with preset camber can be used to minimise distortion of a weldment. Longitudinal stiffeners welded along each side of a long seam can be used to prevent bowing of long members. Stiffener location is important. If stiffeners are too far from the joint they are stiffening they may be ineffective, whereas if stiffeners are too close they may interfere with welding of the joint.

    for marking out, greatly reduces errors in marking out and improves assembly times. This enables: 1.

    7.

    Pre-setting

    Where a known amount of angular distortion will occur, presetting the joint by the amount of

    angular distortion expected ensures the alignment of the finished weld. This method can be very effective if consistent shrinkage rates are achieved through close control of welding procedures.

    8.

    Jigs and Fixtures

    Jigs and fixtures can be used for assembly and welding of subassemblies where the components

    are held rigidly until welded. This approach works well for production of multiple smaller sub-assembles.

    8. Jigs and Fixtures Jigs and fixtures can be used for assembly and welding of subassemblies

    9.

    Welding Process

    Higher energy processes that allow higher welding speeds generally lead to lowering of shrinkage and distortion rates with the advantage of increased welding productivity. Implementation of processes enabling higher welding speeds may be difficult to justify solely on the basis of reduced welding time, but overall savings can be significant when the downstream costs of distortion correction are considered.

    10. Controlled Welding Procedures

    Ensuring all operators are following welding procedures ensures that weld metal shrinkage is consistent. Maintaining consistency in shrinkage outcomes requires good welding management systems. Welding procedures should be developed to ensure that minimal weld metal is deposited while maintaining the specified weld quality level. When carrying out the fabrication it is important that the weld sizes are produced within the specified size range and weld shape is correct. Over-welding of thin structural sections is common although there is no advantage to the fabricator or customer in over-welding. On the other hand, undersize welds can lead to costly re-work with inevitable increased distortion.

    11. Welding Technique

    General rules for minimising distortion are:

    Keep weld volumes/size to the minimum specified

    Balance welds about neutral axes

    Keep the time between runs to a minimum

    Maintain preheat temperatures

    12. Welding Sequence

    The direction and sequence of welding is important in distortion control. Generally welds are made

    in the direction of free ends. For longer welds, back-step welding or skip welding is used.

    1.

    For back-step welding short weld lengths are placed with welding in the opposite direction to the general progression.

    Common Faults in Welded Joints / Welding Defects

    Common Faults in Welded Joints / Welding Defects 1. Common weld defects include :  i.
    Common Faults in Welded Joints / Welding Defects 1. Common weld defects include :  i.
    Common Faults in Welded Joints / Welding Defects 1. Common weld defects include :  i.
    Common Faults in Welded Joints / Welding Defects 1. Common weld defects include :  i.
    Common Faults in Welded Joints / Welding Defects 1. Common weld defects include :  i.

    1.

    Common weld defects include:

    i. Lack of fusion

    ii. Lack of penetration or excess penetration

    iii. Porosity

    iv. Inclusions

    v. Cracking

    vi. Undercut

    vii. Lamellar tearing

    Any of these defects are potentially disastorous as they can all give rise to high stress intensities which may result in sudden unexpected failure below the design load or in the case of cyclic loading, failure after fewer load cycles than predicted.

    i and ii. - lack of fusion and Penetration or excess penetration.

    To achieve a good quality join it is essential that the fusion zone extends the full thickness of the sheets being joined.

    Thin sheet material can be joined with a single pass and a clean square edge will be a satisfactory basis for a join. However thicker material will normally need edges cut at a V angle and may need several passes to fill the V with weld metal.

    Where both sides are accessible one or more passes may be made along the reverse side to ensure the joint extends the full thickness of the metal.

    Lack of fusion results from too little heat input and / or too rapid traverse of the welding torch (gas or electric). Excess penetration arises from to high a heat input and / or too slow transverse of the welding torch (gas or electric).

    Excess penetration - burning through - is more of a problem with thin sheet as a higher level of skill is needed to balance heat input and torch traverse when welding thin metal.

    ii. Porosity - This occurs when gases are trapped in the solidifying weld metal. These may arise from damp consumables or metal or, from dirt, particularly oil or grease, on the metal in the vicinity of the weld.

    This can be avoided by ensuring all consumables are stored in dry conditions and work is carefully cleaned and degreased prior to welding.

    iv. Inclusions - These can occur when several runs are made along a V join when joining thick plate using flux cored or flux coated rods and the slag covering a run is not totally removed after every run before the following run.

    v. Cracking - This can occur due just to thermal shrinkage or due to a combination of strain accompanying phase change and thermal shrinkage. In the case of welded stiff frames, a combination of poor design and inappropriate procedure may result in high residual stresses and cracking. Where alloy steels or steels with a carbon content greater than about 0.2% are being welded, self cooling may be rapid enough to cause some (brittle) martensite to form. This will easily develop cracks. To prevent these problems a process of pre-heating in stages may be needed and after welding a slow controlled post cooling in stages will be required. This can greatly increase the cost of welded joins, but for high strength steels, such as those used in petrochemical plant and piping, there may well be no alternative.

    vi Undercutting - In this case the thickness of one (or both) of the sheets is reduced at the toe of the weld. This is due to incorrect settings / procedure. There is already a stress concentration at the toe of the weld and any undercut will reduce the strength of the join.

    vii Lamellar tearing - This is mainly a problem with low quality steels. It occurs in plate that has a low ductility in the through thickness direction, which is caused by non metallic inclusions, such as suphides and oxides that have been elongated during the rolling process.

    These inclusions mean that the plate can not tolerate the contraction stresses in the short transverse direction. Lamellar tearing can occur in both fillet and butt welds, but the most vulnerable joints are 'T' and corner joints, where the fusion boundary is parallel to the rolling plane. These problem can be overcome by using better quality steel, 'buttering' the weld area with a ductile material and possibly by redesigning the joint.

    This can be avoided by ensuring all consumables are stored in dry conditions and work is

    Solidification Cracking

    This is also called centreline or hot cracking. They are called hot cracks because they occur immediately after welds are completed and sometimes while the welds are being made. These defects, which are often caused by sulphur and phosphorus, are more likely to occur in higher carbon steels.

    Solidification cracks are normally distinguishable from other types of cracks by the following features:

    they occur only in the weld metal - although the parent metal is almost always the source of the low melting

    point contaminants associated with the cracking they normally appear in straight lines along the centreline of the weld bead, but may occasionally appear as

    transverse cracking solidification cracks in the final crater may have a branching appearance

    as the cracks are 'open' they are visible to the naked eye

    A schematic diagram of a centreline crack is shown below:

    Solidification Cracking This is also called centreline or hot cracking. They are called hot cracks because

    On breaking open the weld the crack surface may have a blue appearance, showing the cracks formed while the metal was still hot. The cracks form at the solidification boundaries and are characteristically inter dendritic. There may be evidence of segregation associated with the solidification boundary. The main cause of solidification cracking is that the weld bead in the final stage of solidification has insufficient strength to withstand the contraction stresses generated as the weld pool solidifies. Factors which increase the risk include:

    insufficient weld bead size or inappropriate shape

    welding under excessive restraint

    material properties - such as a high impurity content or a relatively large shrinkage on solidification

    Joint design can have an influence on the level of residual stresses. Large gaps between conponents will increase the strain on the solidifying weld metal, especially if the depth of penetration is small. Hence weld beads with a small depth to width ratio, such as is formed when bridging a large wide gap with a thin bead, will be more susceptible to solidification cracking.

    In steels, cracking is associated with impurities, particularly sulphur and phosphorus and is promoted by carbon, whereas manganese and sulphur can help to reduce the risk. To minimise the risk of cracking, fillers with low carbon and impurity levels and a relatively high manganese content are preferred. As a general rule, for carbon manganese steels, the total sulphur and phosphorus content should be no greater than 0.06%. However when welding a highly restrained joint using high strength steels, a combined level below 0.03% might be needed.

    Weld metal composition is dominated by the filler and as this is usually cleaner than the metal being welded, cracking is less likely with low dilution processes such as MMA and MIG. Parent metal composition becomes more important with autogenous welding techniques, such as TIG with no filler.

    Avoiding Solidification Cracking

    Apart from choice of material and filler, the main techniques for avoiding solidification cracking are:

    control the joint fit up to reduce the gaps

    clean off all contaminants before welding

    ensure that the welding sequence will not lead to a buildup of thermally induced stresses

    choose welding parameters to produce a weld bead with adequate depth to width ratio or with sufficient throat

    thickness (fillet weld) to ensure the bead has sufficient resistance to solidificatiuon stresses. Recommended minimum depth to width ratio is 0.5:1 avoid producing too large a depth to width ratio which will encourage segregation and excessive transverse

    strains. As a rule, weld beads with a depth to width ratio exceeds 2:1 will be prone to solidification cracking avoid high welding speeds (at high current levels) which increase segregation and stress levels accross the

    weld bead at the run stop, ensure adequate filling of the crater to avoid an unfavourable concave shape

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) - also referred to as hydrogen cracking or hydrogen assisted cracking, can occur in steels during manufacture, during fabrication or during service. When HIC occurs as a result of welding, the cracks are in the heat affected zone (HAZ) or in the weld metal itself.

    Four requirements for HIC to occur are:

    a) Hydrogen be present, this may come from moisture in any flux or from other sources. It is absorbed by the

    weld pool and diffuses int o the HAZ. b) A HAZ microstructure susceptible to hydrogen cracking.

    c) Tensile stresses act on the weld

    d) The assembly has cooled to close to ambient - less than 150 o C

    HIC in the HAZ is often at the weld toe, but can be under the weld bead or at the weld root. In fillet welds cracks are normally parallel to the weld run but in butt welds cracks can be transverse to the welding direction.

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) - also referred to as hydrogen cracking or hydrogen assisted cracking, can

    Safety and Health

    Safety and Health

    Welding Symbols

    Welding Symbols