Paper Title
On (2,2)-Domination in Hexagonal Mesh Pyramid
Authors
D. Antony Xavier, Elizabeth Thomas
Abstract
Network topology plays a key role in designing an interconnection network. Various topologies for interconnection networks have been proposed in the literature of which pyramid network is extensively used as a base for both software data structure and hardware design. The pyramid networks can efficiently handle the communication requirements of various problems in graph theory due to its inherent hierarchy at each level. Domination problems are one of the classical types of problems in graph theory with vast application in computer networks and distributed computing. In this paper, we obtain the bounds for a variant of the domination problem namely (2,2)-domination for a pyramid network called Hexagonal mesh pyramid.
Keywords
Domination, (2,2)- domination, Hexagonal mesh, Hexagonal mesh pyramid
Citation/Export
MLA
D. Antony Xavier, Elizabeth Thomas, “On (2,2)-Domination in Hexagonal Mesh Pyramid”, March 17 Volume 5 Issue 3 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 431 – 434
APA
D. Antony Xavier, Elizabeth Thomas, March 17 Volume 5 Issue 3, “On (2,2)-Domination in Hexagonal Mesh Pyramid”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 431 – 434

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 19

Paper Title
On (2,2)-Domination in Hexagonal Mesh Pyramid
Authors
D. Antony Xavier, Elizabeth Thomas
Abstract
Network topology plays a key role in designing an interconnection network. Various topologies for interconnection networks have been proposed in the literature of which pyramid network is extensively used as a base for both software data structure and hardware design. The pyramid networks can efficiently handle the communication requirements of various problems in graph theory due to its inherent hierarchy at each level. Domination problems are one of the classical types of problems in graph theory with vast application in computer networks and distributed computing. In this paper, we obtain the bounds for a variant of the domination problem namely (2,2)-domination for a pyramid network called Hexagonal mesh pyramid.
Keywords
Domination, (2,2)- domination, Hexagonal mesh, Hexagonal mesh pyramid
Citation/Export
MLA
D. Antony Xavier, Elizabeth Thomas, “On (2,2)-Domination in Hexagonal Mesh Pyramid”, March 17 Volume 5 Issue 3 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 431 – 434
APA
D. Antony Xavier, Elizabeth Thomas, March 17 Volume 5 Issue 3, “On (2,2)-Domination in Hexagonal Mesh Pyramid”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 431 – 434

© All Rights Reserved

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_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Department of Mathematics, Loyola College, Chennai, India

e-mail: elizathomas.25@gmail.com

Abstract- Network topology plays a key role in designing an interconnection network. Various topologies for interconnection networks have

been proposed in the literature of which pyramid network is extensively used as a base for both software data structure and hardware design. The

pyramid networks can efficiently handle the communication requirements of various problems in graph theory due to its inherent hierarchy at

each level. Domination problems are one of the classical types of problems in graph theory with vast application in computer networks and

distributed computing. In this paper, we obtain the bounds for a variant of the domination problem namely 2,2 -domination for a pyramid

network called Hexagonal mesh pyramid.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

distance , between and is the length of the shortest

Interconnection networks are currently being used for many

-paths in .The diameter of is () = { (, ):

different applications ranging from inter-ip connections in

, ()}. For an integer 1 and , the open

VLSI circuits to wide area computer networks [8]. An

interconnection network can be modeled by a graph where a neighborhood of is = : 0 <

processor is represented by a vertex and a communication , , and the closed neighborhood of is

channel between two processing vertices is represented by an = . For a vertex we define the

edge. Various topologies for interconnection networks have degree of as = . The minimum degree of is

been proposed in the literature: these include cubic networks denoted by (G) = min{d(v) | v V (G)}.

(e.g meshes, tori, kary n-cubes, hypercubes, folded cubes and For two positive integers and , a subset of the vertex

hypermeshes), hierarchical networks (e.g pyramids, trees), and of a graph is (, )-dominating set of if every vertex

recursive networks (e.g RTCC networks, OTIS networks, WK () is within distance to atleast vertices in . The

recursive networks and star graphs) that have been widely parameter , () denotes the minimum cardinality of a

studied in the literature for topological properties. (, )-dominating set of and is called the (, )-dominating

A famous network topology that has been used as the base of number.

both hardware architectures and software structures is the This dominating concept is a generalization of the two

pyramid. By exploiting the inherent hierarchy at each level, concepts distance domination and -domination of a graph. So

pyramid structures can efficiently handle the communication the study of (, )-domination of a graph is more interesting

requirements of various problems in graph theory, digital and has received the attention of many researchers. Some

geometry, machine vision, and image processing [4].The main results and bounds of (, )-domination and (2,2)-domination

problems with traditional pyramids are hardware scalability and number of a graph that are used in the sequel are given below;

poor network connectivity and bandwidth. To address these Theorem 1.1[3] Let be a graph. Then , () and

problems, in [1] a new pyramidal network called as hexagonal these bounds are sharp.

mesh pyramid is proposed. The new network preserves many Theorem 1.2[3] If = (), then , () = .

desirable properties of traditional pyramid network. Theorem 1.3[9] If is a spider with vertices, then 2,2 ()

Domination is a rapidly developing area of research in graph = n + 1 2.

theory, and its various applications to ad-hoc networks, Corollary 1.1[9] If is a connected graph on 3 vertices,

distributed computing, social networks and web graphs partly then 2,2 () n + 1 2 with equality if and only if is a

explain the increased interest. A dominating set of a graph is spider.

a vertex subset with the property that every vertex of the graph In this paper we focus on (2,2)-domination of hexagonal

is either in the dominating set or adjacent to a vertex in the mesh pyramid and give an improved upper bound for it.

dominating set. The minimum size of the dominating set is

called the domination number and is denoted by .Let

431

IJRITCC | March 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 3 431 434

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

II. HEXAGONAL MESH AND HEXAGONAL MESH PYRAMID

In this section we briefly describe the interconnection

networks, hexagonal mesh and hexagonal mesh pyramid. We

also recall some of its topological properties.

A. Hexagonal Mesh

Triangular, square and hexagon are the three existing

regular plane tessellations which are composed of the same

kind of regular polygons. To design direct interconnection

networks we use any one of this, also these types of

interconnection networks are highly competitive in overall

performance. The triangular tessellation is used to define

hexagonal network and this type of hexagons are widely

studied in [6].

An n-dimensional hexagonal mesh HX(n) has 3n2 3n +

1 vertices and 9n2 15n + 6 edges where is the number of

vertices on one side of the hexagon. The diameter of () is

Fig.1. A hexagonal mesh pyramid of dimension 3, .

2( 1). In this structure, there are 6 vertices with degree 3

which we call as corner vertices. The vertex, which is at 1

distance from the corner vertices, is called the centre vertex and The number of vertices and edges of () is 3 and

it is unique. See Fig.1. This particular structure has wide 32 ( 1) + 6( 1)3 respectively. The diameter of

application in the field of computer graphics, cellular phone () is 2( 1) is same as the diameter of the hexagonal

base stations, image processing and in chemistry as the mesh network. Furthermore, it is Hamiltonian and pancyclic.

representation of benzenoid hydrocarbons.

HEXAGONAL MESH PYRAMID

In this section we deduce an upper bound for (2,2) -

domination number of a -dimensional hexagonal mesh

pyramid. Before proceeding to the main theorems, we need the

following results.

(2) ,2,2 (2) = 2.

Fig.1. A hexagonal mesh of dimension five, . () (n > 2), if is even then there exists (2,2)-dominating

set such that || = (2 2)/2.

B. Hexagonal Mesh Pyramid Theorem 3.2.[2] For any -dimensional hexagonal mesh

() (n > 2), if is odd then there exists (2,2)-dominating

A hexagonal mesh pyramid of levels denoted as ()

set such that || = (2 + 1)/2.

consists of a set of vertices, arranged in levels of a hexagonal

mesh. A vertex is addressed as (, (, , )) and is said to be a Theorem3.2. 2,2 (2) = 2 and 2,2 (3) = 2 .

vertex at level . The part (, , ) of the address determines

Proof: Since the diameter of (2)is 2, from theorem

the address of a vertex within the layer , of the hexagonal

1.2, 2,2 (2) = 2.

network. The vertices at level , form a network (). A

vertex with the address (, (, , )) placed at level , of the For (3) , clearly the single vertex in level 0 and the

hexagonal network is connected to all its adjacent vertices. This centre vertex of the HX2 form a (2,2)-dominating set. Hence

vertex is also connected to all the vertices of the hexagon with 2,2 (3) = 2.

centre ( + 1(, , ))See Fig.2.

Theorem 3.3. For any -dimensional hexagonal mesh

() ( > 3) , if is even then there exists (2,2) -

dominating set such that = (3 + 32 4 + 12) 12.

432

IJRITCC | March 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 3 431 434

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Proof: For any given -dimensional hexagonal mesh dominating set of ( + 2). Clearly is the union of

pyramid () n > 3 , we will choose a subset of the and the (2,2)-dominating set of ( + 2), say Sn+2 . By

vertex set such that it consists of only the vertices of the theorem 3.1, Sn+2 = (( + 2)2 2)/. Hence, = +

(2,2) dominating set of each (refer [2]) , in the level +2 .

1, where 2 and is even.

We claim that is a (2,2) -dominating set such that = ( + 2)3 + 3( + 2)2 4( + 2) + 12) 12.

D = (n3 + 3n2 4n + 12) 12.

The proof is by induction on the dimension where >

Theorem 3.4. For any -dimensional hexagonal mesh

3 and is even.If =4, then the set will consist of the

() ( > 3), if is odd then there exists (2,2) -

vertices of the 2,2 -dominating set of 2 and 4 , in

dominating set such that D = (n3 + 3n2 + 5n + 3) 12.

the levels 1 and 3 respectively.The (2,2)-dominating set of

2 consists of the vertices with label 1,1,0, 1 and Proof: For any given -dimensional hexagonal mesh

1,0,1 . Clearly the top most vertex (i.e) the vertex with label pyramid () ( > 3), we will choose a subset of the

0,0,0,0 will be at distance one from these two vertices. Also vertex set such that it consists of only the vertices of the

all the vertices in level 2 will be at a distance atmost two from (2,2)-dominating set of each () , in the level 1, where

at least one of these vertices. Now it enough to show that all 3 ( is odd) and the top most vetex (i.e) at level 0.

the vertices in level 2 will be at a distance at most two from at We need to prove that is a (2,2)-dominating set such that

least one of the vertices in the (2,2)-dominating set of 4 . D = n3 + 3n2 + 5n + 3 12 . The proof is similar to the

We know that every vertex in level 2 will generate a hexagonal previous theorem.

mesh of dimension two in the next level. Clearly all the vertices

in each of these hexagonal meshes are at distance one to the As a consequence of the above theorems we have the

vertex that generates it. We observe that the hexagonal meshes following;

either consists on one point from the 2,2 -dominating set of

4 or has a point from the 2,2 -dominating set of 4 Corollary3.1. For any -dimensional hexagonal mesh

in its 1-neighbourhood. Hence all the vertices all the vertices in pyramid, () ( > 3),

level 2 will be at a distance at most two from at least one of the n3 + 3n2 4n + 12

, when is even.

vertices in the 2,2 -dominating set of 4 . Hence D is 12

2,2 ()

2,2 -dominating set of 4 . Clearly D = 2 + 7 = n3 + 3n2 + 5n + 3

, when is odd.

9. Hence in this case D = (n3 + 3n2 4n + 12) 12. 12

Assume that the result is true for a hexagonal mesh

dimension . Consider a hexagonal mesh of dimension + 2. Remark: We observe that the bound is reduced when

The subset of the vertex set is chosen such that it consists compared to the general upper bound for any connected graph

of only the vertices of the (2,2)-dominating set of each , obtained in corollary 1.1. The newly obtained upper bound for

in the level 1, where 2 + 2 and is even. (2,2) -domination number of hexagonal mesh pyramid is

Now it remains to show that is a (2,2)-dominating set of significantly smaller when compared to the general upper

( + 2). By induction, there exist a (2,2)-dominating set bound for any connected graph.

3 +3 2 4+12

of (), say such that = .

12

Hence it is enough to prove that all the vertices in level IV. CONCLUSION

will be at a distance at most two from at least two of the In this paper we have present an upper bound for the (2,2)-

vertices in . Cleary all the vertices in level will be at a domination number of hexagonal mesh pyramid. We observe

distance at most two from at least one of the vertices in the that in the case of hexagonal mesh pyramid we get a reduced

(2,2)-dominating set of the hexagonal mesh of the previous upper bound when compared to the general upper bound for

level i.e.(). Also we know that every vertex in level any connected graphs. This work could be further extended to

will generate a hexagonal mesh of dimension two in the next other interconnection networks.

level. Clearly all the vertices in each of these hexagonal meshes

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

are at distance one to the vertex that generates it. We observe

that the hexagonal meshes either consists on one point from the This work is supported by Maulana Azad Fellowship F1-

(2,2)-dominating set of ( + 2) or has a point from the 17.1/2013-14/MANF-CHR-TAM-28120 of the University

(2,2)-dominating set of ( + 2) in its 1-neighbourhood. Grants Commission, New Delhi, India.

Hence all the vertices all the vertices in level will be at a

distance atmost two from at least one of the vertices in the

(2,2)-dominating set of ( + 2) . Hence is (2,2) -

433

IJRITCC | March 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 3 431 434

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

REFERENCES

[1] D Antony Xavier, DeeniC.J, Hexagonal mesh pyramid: Some

topological properties, Mathematical Scs. International

Research Journal,Vol 03,Issue 1,2014, 266-271.

[2] D Antony Xavier, Deeni C.J, Elizabeth Thomas, S.Kulandai

Therese, (2,2)-Domination InHexagonal mesh, Proc. of

International Conference on Advances In Applied Probability,

Graph theory and Fuzzy Mathematics, pp.179-180 , St.Peters

College, Kolenchery, Kerala India, January 11 14, 2014.

[3] G.Joythilakshmi, A.P.Pushpalatha, S.Suganthi, V.Swaminathan,

(k,r) domination in graphs, Int.J.Contemp.Math.Sciences,

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[4] H.Sarbazi-Azad, M.Quld-Khaoua, L.Mackenzie, Algorithemic

constructions of Hamiltonians in pyramid networks,

Inf.proc.letters 80, 2001, 75-79.

[5] M.Fischermann, L.Volkmann, A remark on a conjecture for

the (k,p) domination number, Utilitas Mathematica, 67, 2005,

223 227.

[6] M.S.Chen, K.G.Shin, DilipD.Kandlur, Addressing, Routing,

Broadcasting in Hexagonal Mesh Multiprocessors. IEEE

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[7] T.J. Bean, M.A Henning, H.C Swart, On the integrity of

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[8] T.W Hanynes, S.T Hedetnieni, P.J Slater, Fundamentals of

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[9] You Lu, XinminHou, Jun Ming Xu, On the (2,2)

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