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EffectsofPossession(Art.

539to561)
Possessionas Notes
Holder(Lessee,Tenant) Owner Coowner
Within10daysoffilingcomplaint,thepossessor
deprivedmaypresentamotiontosecureawritof
Righttoberespectedinhispossessionandrighttoberestoredinhispossessionthroughlegalmeans(Art.539) injunctiontorestorepossession
Personinpossession"enconceptodedueno
Coownersareinconceptholdersfor (conceptof/claimoftitle)eventuallybecomes
thepurposesofacquiringpropertyby ownerbyprescription).
prescription,unlessthecoownershipis Possessorsasholdersinclude:Lessees,trustees,
Possessioninconceptofholdercannot Acquiredthroughownershipisthemeansin clearlyrepudiatedbyunequivocalacts antichreticcreditors,agents,attorney's
acquirepropertybyacquisitiveprescription. acquiringdominion(Art.540) communicatedtotheothercoowners. (representingtheirclient'sproperties),depositaries.
Requirementsforsuchpresumption:1.Mustbein
actualorconstructivepossession;2.Possession
mustbeintheconceptofowner.
Kindsoftitle:1.Trueandvalid(sufficienttotransfer
ownershipwithoutthenecessityoflettingthe
prescriptionperiodpass);2.Colorable(thereis
somethingwrongasthegrantorisnottheowner);
3.Putative(apersonbelieveshimselftobethe
Presumptionofjusttitle,andnotobligedtoprove owner,butheisnotasthereisnomodeof
orshowit(Art.541) acquiringownership.
Presumptionapplieswhetherpossessionisin:1.
Goodfaithorbadfaith;2.Ownorthroughanother;
Presumptionofpossessionofmovablesfoundintherealproperty/immovable(Art.542) 3.Holderorconceptodedueno
Exclusivepossessionofthepartofthing
possessedincommonupondivision Theinterruptionofpossessionofoneprejudicesall
(Art.543) theothercoowners
Possessormustbeingoodfaith.
NaturalFruitsareconsideredreceivedfromthe
momenttheyaregatheredorsevered.Civilfruits
accruedailyandbelongtopossessorinthat
Righttofruitsreceivedbeforetheirpossessionwaslegallyinterrupted(Art.544) proportion.
Righttoapartinexpensesandharvestin Ifhedesires,maygivepossessoringoodfaithright Divisionisprorata.Alsoappliestoexpenses,
proportiontothetimeofpossession,once tofinishcultivationandharvest,withindemnity charges.Samealsoappliestocropsnotyet
possessioningoodfaithceases(Art.545) forexpensesandthenetproceedsforhisharvest. manifest.
Possessorinconceptofownerhastherightsto:1.
Possessoringoodfaithisallowedtoretain Beentiledtoreimbursementandretainpremises Successorshallrefundthenecessaryexpenses.If
thinguntilreimbursedandberefundedthe untilpaid(ifingoodfaith);2.Isentitledonlytoa possessorisingoodfaith,theusefulexpensesshall
usefulexpensesifingoodfaith.(Art.546) refundbutnoretention(ifinbadfaith) alsoberefunded.
Possessoringoodfaithcanremoveuseful
improvementifitcanbedonewithoutinjury. Unlesscoveredbyparagraph2ofthepreceding
(Art.547) article.
Ifpossessorisingoodfaitha)hecanremovethe
Righttoremoveluxuriousorpleasurable ormanentsorb)beretainedbytheownersubject
embellishmentsorornamentsoftheprincipal toreimbursement;Ifpossessorisinbadfaitha)he
thingifnoinjurywilltakeplace,unless canremovethemorb)ownercanretainthe
successorinpossessionrefundsthem.(Art. ornament,refundingthevalueattheownertakes
548) possession
Rightsregardingfruitsasowner:1.Ifingoodfaith
a)gatheredandseveredfruitsandb)pendingand
ungatheredfruits(proratingofexpenses,net
harvestandcharges)betweenpossessorand
Legitimatepossessorhastherighttobe owner;2.Ifinbadfaitha)mustreturnthevalueof
reimbusedthefruitsreceivedbypossessorin thegatheredfruitsorthosealreadyreceivedminus
badfaithandthosehecouldhavereceived. necessaryexpensesforcultivating,gatheringandb)
(Art.549) norightsastothegatheredfruits.
Costsoflitigationisbornebythepossessor.(Art.550) SeenotesonArt.542
Neitheristhepossessorisgoodfaithorbadfaith
Improvementsbornebynatureshallbenefitthepersonwhosucceededinrecoveringthepossession.(Art.551) entitledtoimprovementsby:1.Time;2.Nature
Exceptwhenactedthroughfraudulentintentor
Noliabilityfordeteriorationorlossofthethingifingoodfaith,badfaithisliableevenifthroughafortuitousevent.(Art.552) negligenceafterthejudicialsummons.
Personwhorecoverspossessionhasnoobligationtopayforimprovementtswhichceasedtoexistattimehetakespossession.(Art553)
Presumptionofpossessionatintermediateperiod.(Art.554)
Possessionofmovablesnotlostaslongastheyremainincontrolofthepossessor.(Art.556) Lossofpossesion:abandonment,assignment
throughgratuitoustitle,destructionortotallossof
thingandpossessionofanotherbasedonArt.537
PossessionofimmovablesandrealrightsnotlostortransferredbyprescriptionexceptinaccordancewiththeMortgageLawand (foroneyear)orrealpossessionforaperiodless
RegistrationLaws.(Art.557) than10years.(Art.555)
Actsofpossessionasholderdonotbindor
prejudicethoseasownerexceptexpressly
allowedorratifiedsubsequently.(Art.558)
Ownercannotrecoverevenifreimbursedif:1.
movableisobtainedingoodfaithfrommerchant
Possessionofmovableingoodfaith Ownercannotobtainreturnunlesshereimburse storesorthoseinaccordancewithCodeof
equivalenttoatitle,especiallythroughsale, thepricepaidbyapossessorwhoacquires Commerce;2.Estopped;3.InnocentPurchaseror
publicauction.Badfaithisneverequivalentto movableingoodfaith(lostordeprivedfrom HolderofNegotiabledocumentoftitleforthe
title owner).(Art.559).Ifbadfaith,noreimbursement Goods
Possessionislostoncehabitceases.Insofaras
ownershipisconcerned,Art.716applies(20days
Wildanimalsarepossessedifundercontrol,domesticanimalsonlyiftheyretainhabitofreturningtopremisesofpossessor..(Art.560) fromoccupationbyanotherperson).
Appliestopossessionbothingoodorbadfaith,but
Recoveryofpossessionunjustlylost,shallbedeemedforpurposesredoundingtohisbenefitthatwhichisnotinterrupted.(Art.561) ifonlybeneficialtothem.
RichardAllanA.Lim 2A Property