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LETTERS OF CREDIT- Negotiable Instruments


> A letter of credit is a financial device developed by merchants as a convenient and
relatively safe mode of dealing with sales of goods to satisfy the seemingly irreconcilable
interests of the seller, who refuses
to part with his goods before he is paid, and a buyer, who wants to have control of the
goods before paying
> To break the impasse, the buyer may be required to contract a bank to
issue a letter of credit, the issuing bank can authorize the seller to
raw drafts and engage to pay them upon their presentment simultaneously with the
tender of documents required by the letter of
credit. The buyer and seller agree on what documents are to be
presented for payment, but ordinarily they are documents of title evidencing or attesting to
the shipment of the goods to the buyer
> Once the letter of credit is established, the seller ships the goods to the buyer and in the
process secures the required shipping documents
and documents of title. To get paid, the seller executes a draft and presents it together
with the required documents to the issuing bank
> The issuing bank redeems the draft and pays cash to the seller if it
finds that the documents submitted by the seller conform with what the letter of credit
requires. The bank then obtains possession of the documents upon paying the seller. The
transaction is completed when
the buyer reimburses the issuing bank and acquires the documents entitling him to the
goods. The seller gets paid only if he delivers the
documents of title over the goods while the buyer acquires the said
documents and control over the goods only after reimbursing the bank.

> What characterizes letters of credit, as distinguished from other
accessory contract, is the ENGAGEMENT OF THE ISSUING BANK TO
DOCUMENTS ARE PRESENTED TO IT. In turn, this arrangement


> Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP) issued by the
International Chamber of Commerce


1. Buyerprocures the letter of credit and obliges himself to reimburse the issuing bank
upon receipt of the documents of title. He is the one initiating the operation of the transaction as
buyer of the merchandise and also of the credit instrument. His contract with the bank
which is to issue the instrument and is represented
by the Commercial Credit Agreement form which he signs,
supported by the mutually made promises contained in the agreement
2. Opening bankusually the buyers bank which issues the letter of
credit and undertakes to pay the seller upon receipt of the draft and proper documents of
titles to surrender the documents to the
buyer upon reimbursement. As it is the one issuing the
instrument, it should be a strong bank, well known and well regarded in international
trading circles.
3. Sellerin compliance with the contract of sale, ships the goods to
the buyer and delivers the documents of title and draft to the issuing bank to recover
payment. He is also the beneficiary of the credit instrument because the instrument is addressed
to him and is in his favor. While the bank cannot compel the seller to ship the goods and
avail of the benefits of the instruments, however, the seller may recover from the bank the value
of his shipment is made within the terms of the instrument, even though he hasnt
given the bank any direct consideration for the banks promises contained in the
4. Correspondent bank/advising bankto convey to the seller the
existence of the credit or a confirming bank which will lend credence to the letter of credit
issued by the lesser known issuing bank or paying bank which undertakes to encash the drafts
drawn by the exporter. Furthermore, another bank known as the
negotiating bank may be approached by the buyer to have the draft discounted instead of
going to the place of the issuing bank to claim payment


> If the beneficiary is to be advised by the issuing bank by cable, the services of an
ADVISING OR NOTIFYING BANK must always be utilized
> The responsibility of the NOTIFYING BANK is merely to convey or
transmit to the seller or beneficiary the existence of the credit. However, if the beneficiary
requires that the obligation of the issuing bank shall also be made the obligation of the bank to
himself, there is
what is known as a CONFIRMED COMMERCIAL CREDIT and the bank
notifying the beneficiary of the credit shall become a CONFIRMING BANK. In this case,
the liability of the confirming bank is primary and it is as if the credit were issued by the issuing
and confirming banks jointly, thus giving the beneficiary or a holder for value of drafts drawn
under the credit, the right to proceed against either or both banks, the moment the credit
instrument has been breached.
> The paying bank on which the drafts are to be drawn it may be the
issuing bank or the advising bank. If the beneficiary is to draw and
receive payment in his own currency, the advising bank may be indicated as the paying
bank also. When the draft is to be paid in this
manner, the paying bank assumes no responsibility but merely pays
the beneficiary and debits the payment immediately to the account
which the issuing bank has with it. IF THE ISSUING BANK HAS NO ACCOUNT
WITH THE PAYING BANK, the paying bank reimburses itself by drawing a bill of exchange
on the issuing bank, in dollars, for the equivalent of the local currency paid to the beneficiary, at
the buyeing rate for dollar exchange. The beneficiary is entirely out of the transaction
because his draft is completely discharged by the payment, and the credit arrangement between
the paying bank and issuing bank
doesnt concern him.
> If the draft contemplated by the credit instrument, is to be drawn on
the issuing bank or on other designated banks not in the city of the
seller, any bank in the city of the seller which buys or discounts the
draft of the beneficiary becomes a negotiating bank. As a rule, whenever, the facilities of
an advising or notifying bank are used, the
beneficiary is apt to offer his drafts to the advising bank for
negotiation, thus giving the advising bank the character of a
negotiating bank becomes an endorser and bona fide holder of the
drafts and within the protection of the credit instrument. It is also
protected by the drawers signature, as the drawers contingent
liability, as drawer, continues until discharged by the actual payment of the bills of exchange.


> A commercial bank which departs from what has been stipulated under the letter of credit, as
when it accepts a faulty tender, acts on its own
risk, and it may not thereafter be able to recover from the buyer or
issuing bank, as the case may be, the money thus paid to the beneficiary
> In the case of a discounting arrangement, wherein a negotiating bank pays the draft of a
beneficiary of a letter of credit in order to save such beneficiary from the hardship of presenting
the documents directly to the issuing bank, the negotiating bank can seek reimbursement of
what has been paid to the beneficiary who as drawer of the draft
continues to assume a contingent liability thereon. Thus, the negotiating bank has the
ordinary right of recourse against the seller or beneficiary in the event of dishonor by the issuing


1. PROFORMA INVOICEall the particulars for the proposed shipment which are
then known to the buyer
2. PRICE QUOTATION FAS AND CIFFAS stands for free along side
which means that the seller will be responsible for the cost and
risks of the goods along side an overseas vessel at the stated location: the buyer bears
the costs and risks from that point. CIF
on the other hand means cost, freight and insurance, that in
exchange for this stated price, the seller undertakes not only to
supply the goods but also to obtain and pay for insurance and bear the freight charges to
the stated pointy.
a. One way for a seller to be assured of payment is to ship goods under a negotiable bill of
lading and arrange for a bank in buyers city to hold the bill of lading until the
buyer pays the draft in the usual foreign sale this
arrangement for securing payment of the price is not adequate
b. In some situations, sellers may need assurance of payment even before the time of
payment. This problem arises in contracts which call for the manufacture of goods to the
buyers specifications.
c. Although the proforma invoice may not specify, the seller
will expect the letter of credit to be confirmed by the
local bank in its location. But why does a local bank
confirm rather than issue a letter of credit? The bank that issues the letter of credit needs
assurance that it will be reimbursed by the buyer, on whose behalf it pays the
seller. The buyers bank can take steps to minimize or
remove the hazards. It will receive the negotiable bill of
lading controlling the goods which will provide security
for the customers obligation to reimburse the bank; in addition, the buyers own bank
can judge in the light of its knowledge of his financial standing whether added security is
needed and can insist on such security before it issues the letter of credit
d. To meet the sellers letter of credit requirements, the buyer will request its bank to
arrange for the issuance of a letter of credit which will comply with the terms of the
proforma invoice. The buyer will then sign a detailed
application and agreement for commercial credit prepared by the bank. The issuing
bank, after approving the buyers credit standing transmits a letter of credit by
cable to the confirming bank. This confirming bank will then deliver to seller a document
advising the latter that the issuing bank opened a letter of credit in its favor and
adding the confirming banks confirmation. In this arrangement, the seller is assured of
payment of its sight drafts drawn on the confirming bank in the amount of the
total amount of the sale, provided it presents the
documents called for in the letter of credit. An examination of the letter of credit will
also reveal that the bill of lading is to be consigned to the order of the buyers
bank, thereby giving the bank control over the goods,
with the consequent security for its claim against the buyer.
a. On the receipt of the confirmed letter of credit, the seller will send the order
acknowledgment. This document will repeat the
description and price of the goods which has
also appeared on the proforma invoice and states the number and expiration date of the
letter of credit.
b. Further, the arrival of the letter of credit is the go-signal for the seller to send the goods. The
seller then prepares the COMMERCIAL INVOICE which provides a complete
record of the transaction and is an important source of
information to such interested parties as a bank
discounting a draft or an underwriting extending issuance.
c. As the time of shipment approaches, the seller will contact its forwarder and give its
shipping instructions. It will inform that to comply with the requirements of the
letter of credit, the bill of lading must be made to the order of the issuing bank. It will
also send copies of the commercial invoice, a packing list, and a Shippers export
declaration. When the forwarder receives these
documents, he takes over all further documentation as
the agent of the shipper, the latter merely has to
dispatch the goods from the factory in accordance with the forwarders instructions.
d. The seller will then send the truck to the pier where they
are delivered to the ocean carriers receiving clerk who
signs the dock receipt. The dock receipt is a form supplied by the ocean carrier which
contains information relevant to the shipping of the bearings such as the number of the pier,
and the name of the ship. The dock receipt is NON-
NEGOTIABLE and serves as a temporary receipt for the goods until they are loaded on
e. The ocean carrier is soon ready to receive the cargo. When the goods are loaded on
board, the steamship line issues a bill of lading which, to comply with the letter of credit, is
CONSIGNED TO ORDER OF THE ISSUING BANK. The bill of lading is initially prepared by
the forwarder on a form supplied by the ocean carrier, it sets forth the
markings and numbers of the packages, description of the goods, and the number and weight
of the packages. On its dorsal side, it will state that the goods are received
for shipment, but a statement FREIGHT PREPAID ON
BOARD is initiated by a representative of the steamship line after loading. The forwarder
then delivers the bill of lading and the commercial invoice to the seller.
a. The confirming bank stated in their letter that the estimated CIF price would be
available by your drafts on us at sight when accompanied by the listed documents
b. Seller accordingly draws a sight draft on the confirming
bank. The sight draft together with the commercial
invoice, insurance certificate, full set of bills of lading,
and the packing list are presented to the confirming
bank. When the bank receives these documents, it
issues its bank draft to sellers order and transmits the
documents by air mail to issuing bank, which will
reimburse the confirming bank.
c. The documents, sent by airmail, will reach the buyers
bank well ahead of the ocean shipment. The time for release of the documents to buyer
and reimbursement to the bank will depend upon the arrangement which was
made between the bank and buyer when the letter of
credit was initially established.
d. If the buyer plans to resell the goods, he may not be able
to reimburse the bank until the goods arrive and he
resells the goods. In this event, the issuing bank may need to take further steps to secure
its claim against the buyer.



> Sometime ago, it is common in international dealings to require the
furnishing of a cash deposit as security, but with the expansion of
international trade this became prohibitively expensive for the
counterparty and in due course gave way to a more convenient safeguard, the provision of
a written undertaking by a bank in favor of the buyer or employer payable on demand
> Demand guarantees as substitute for cash are designed to provide the
beneficiary with a speedy monetary remedy against the counterparty
to the underlying contract and to that end are primary in form and documentary in
> The demand guarantee is expressed to be payable solely on presentation of a written
demand and any other specified documents. Accordingly, any demand within the maximum
amount stated must in principle be paid by the guarantor, regardless whether the underlying
contract has in fact been broken and regardless of the loss actually suffered by the


> Undertaking given for payment of a stated or maximum sum of money
on presentation to the party giving the undertaking of a demand or
payment and such other documents as may be specified in the
guarantee within the period and in conformity with the other conditions of the
> Procured by the seller in favor of the buyer for the latter to be paid in case the seller doesnt
comply with contract provisions. The economic burder is upon the party who breaches the

> Employed typically in construction contracts and contracts for international sale of
> Demand guarantees are intended to safeguard the other party against non-
performance or late or defective performance by the supplier or contractor


> Involves a minimum of three parties
1. Account party/principalparty to the underlying contract
whose performance is required to be covered by the guarantee and who gives
instruction for its
2. Issuer/guarantorthe bank or other party issuing the guarantee on behalf of the
customer the principal
3. The beneficiarythe other party to the underlying contract, in whose favor the guarantee is
> Usually the guarantee in the 3-party structure is the principals bank and carries on
business in the same country as the principal, whilst the beneficiary carries on business in a
foreign country
> Known as direct guarantees because the guarantee is issued to directly
by the principals bank, not by the local bank in the beneficiarys country


1. Tender or bid guarantee
a. Where tenders are invited it is often a condition of consideration of the tender that the
tenderer undertakes to sign the contract if its awarded to him, to procure the issue of any
performance or other guarantee required by the guarantee and not to modify or withdraw his
tender in the meantime
b. Purposesafeguard the beneficiary against breach of such an undertaking
c. If the tenderer is successful and fails to sign the contract
and to furnish the requisite performance or other guarantee, or withdraws his tender
before its expiry, the beneficiary can call upon the guarantor to pay a specified
sum designed to compensate him for the trouble and
expense he suffered in reawarding the contract, as well as any additional cost of the contract
2. Performance guarantee
a. Guarantee of the central performance of the contract from commencement to
b. Given for a specified percentage of the contract sum
c. But there are stages in the relationship between the
parties which precede and follow the central
performance, and there may be distinct segments of liability to be covered within that
3. Advance payment or repayment guarantee
a. Underlying contract may entitle the principal to payment of stated sums in advance of
b. The advance payment guarantee is designed to secure the beneficiarys right to
repayment of the advance if the performance to which it relates is not furnished
4. Retention guarantee
a. Construction contracts usually provide for stage payments against architects or
engineers certificate and for a specified percentage of the amount certified in each certificate to
be retained by the employer for a specified period of time as safeguard against defects
b. The employer may be willing to release such retention
moneys against a retention guarantee securing
repayment of the released retention moneys if defects are later found or if the contractor
fails to complete the contract
5. Maintenance or warranty guarantee
a. Construction contracts usually provide that on completion
part of the retention moneys are to be retained for a specified period to cover the cost
of any defects or malfunction which become manifest during that period


> Not all guarantees are meant to be in favor of a party in the underlying contract
> For example are customs guarantees which are issued to the customs
to cover any duty that may become payable when imported goods which would be exempt
from duty if reexported within a specified time are not in fact reexported within that time


> A demand guarantee is an abstract payment undertaking that is, a
promise of payment which, though intended to preserve the
beneficiary from loss in connection with the underlying transaction is
detached from the underlying contract between principal and
beneficiary and is in form a primary undertaking between the guarantor and beneficiary
which becomes binding solely by virtue of its issue
> A secondary guarantee is both secondary in form and intent. The intention of the parties
is that the guarantor will be called upon to pay
only if the principal defaults in performance, and then only to the extent of the principals
liability and subject to any defenses available to the principal
> A documentary credit is both primary in intent and form. The parties to the underlying
contract intend that the bank issuing the credit is a
to be the first port of call for payment, and this is the effect of the
agreement between them. Whereas in the case of a suretyship
guarantee, the beneficiary cannot look to the guarantor without
establishing default by the principal, the reverse is true of the
documentary credit. The parties have designated payment by the bank as the primary
payment method and only if it fails without fault on the part of the beneficiary is entitled to >
INTENT AND PRIMARY IN FORM. Performance is due in the first
instance from the principal, and the guarantee is intended to be resorted to only if the
principal has failed to perform. But though this is the intent of the parties, the guarantee isnt in
form linked to default under the underlying contract, nor there is any question of
performance to hold the beneficiary harmless up to the agreed maximum; and the sole
condition of the guarantors payment liability is
the presentation of a demand and other documents specified in the guarantee in the manner
of and within the period of the guarantee


> Undertaking primary in form but intended to be used only as a fallback in the event of default
by the principal under the underlying contract
> Standby credit in legal perspective is simply another term for demand guarantees
> The standby credit has developed into an all-purpose financial support
instrument embracing a much wider range of uses than the normal
demand guarantee. Thus, standby credits are used to support financial and non-
financial obligations of the principal and to provide credit enhancement for the primary
financial undertaking


1. The parties
2. A reference to the underlying contract
3. The amount or maximum amount of the guarantee and any agreement for reduction or
4. The currency of payment
5. The documents, if any, to be presented for the purpose of a demand or of reduction or
6. The expiry date or other expiry provisions as well as any agreement for extension
> Where it is intended that the guarantee shall not commence until presentation of a
particular document, this fact should be specified
> Direct guarantee: principal, guarantor, and beneficiary should be identified
> Indirect guarantee: principal, instructing party, beneficiary, and counter-guarantee
> Central to the demand guarantee is its documentary character: the rights and obligations
it creates are to be determined solely from the
terms of the guarantee and from any document presented in accordance with the
guarantee, without the need to ascertain external facts


> Guarantors commitment to the beneficiary arises solely by virtue of the issue of the
guarantee and his duty to pay is conditioned only on
presentation of demand and other specified documents in conformity with the terms and
within the duration of the guarantee
> Principal is not concerned with the contract between the guarantor and beneficiary
> Beneficiary has no concern with the contract between the principal and guarantor
> The relationship of principal and guarantor has an internal mandate
the guarantor is obliged to act in accordance with the terms of the
contract, failing which he may forfeit his right to reimbursement but
those terms are of no concern to the beneficiary, whose right to payment depends solely
on his acting on conformity with the terms of the guarantee
> In indirect contracts, there is an additional mandate which has 2 facetsthe mandate
from the instructing party to the guarantor as to
the issue of the guarantee, which the guarantor as mandatory must
comply with if he accepts the instruction; and two, the counter-guarantee which the
guarantor exacts from the instructing party as a precondition of issuing the guarantee and which
is separate from the mandate
1. Abstract character of the payment undertakingbinding
solely by virtue of issue of the guarantee, subject to the beneficiary not rejecting it
2. Independence of the guarantee from the underlying transaction
> Guarantee is separate from that contract and the
rights and obligations created by the guarantee are
independent of those arising under the underlying contract
> In the absence of established fraud by the
beneficiary, the guarantor is not entitled to refuse
payment and the principal is not entitled to have
payment restrained merely because of a dispute between the principal and beneficiary
3. Independence of the guarantee from the principal-guarantor relationship
the guarantee is separate from the contract
between the principal and the guarantor is not entitled to invoke a breach of that contract
4. Documentary character of guaranteeamount and duration of the duty to pay, the
conditions of payment and termination of
payment obligation depend solely on the terms of the guarantee itself and presentation of
required documents
5. Requirement of compliance of the demand with the terms of the guarantee
6. Guarantors duty of examination limited to apparent good order of the document
7. Guarantors duty limited the exercise of good faith and reasonable care
8. Independence of counter-guarantee from guarantee
9. Independence of counter-guarantee from mandate received from instructing party