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Heat Transfer Theory

A transient heat conducting system in which Bi < 0.1 is often referred to as a lumped capacitance
Recuperators. In this type of heat exchanger the hot and cold fluids are separated by a wall and heat is transferred
by a combination of convection to and from the wall and conduction through the wall.
Regenerators. In a regenerator the hot and cold fluids alternately occupy the same space in the exchanger core.
The exchanger core or matrix serves as a heat storage device that is periodically heated by the warmer of the two
fluids and then transfers heat to the colder fluid.
The number of heat transfer units is a measure of the heat transfer size of the exchanger. The larger the value of
NTU, the closer the heat exchanger approaches its thermodynamic limit.
The process by which heat is transferred from a body by virtue of its temperature, without the aid of any intervening
medium, is called thermal radiation.
The amount of radiation emitted per unit wavelength is called monochromatic radiation; it varies with wavelength,
and the word spectral is used to denote this dependence.
The spectral radiant energy emission per unit time and per unit area from a blackbody at wavelength _ in the
wavelength range d_ will be denoted by . Eb_ is usually called the monochromatic blackbody emissive power
A blackbody, or ideal radiator, is a body that emits and absorbs at any temperature the maximum possible amount of
radiation at any given wavelength. The ideal radiator is a theoretical concept that sets an upper limit to the emission
of radiation in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
The surface area on such a hemisphere with a radius of unity has the same numerical value as the so-called solid
angle measured from the radiating surface element.
The term irradiation denotes the radiation incident from all directions on a surface.
Spectral irradiation, is defined as the rate at which monochromatic radiation at wavelength _ is incident on a
surface per unit area of that surface
The absorptivity _ of a surface is the fraction of the total irradiation absorbed by the body. The reflectivity of a
surface is defined as the fraction of the irradiation that is reflected from the surface. The transmissivity _ of a body is
the fraction of the incident radiation that is transmitted.
The emissivity of a surface, , is defined as the total radiation emitted divided by the total radiation that would be
emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature
An important relation between _ and __ can be obtained from Kirchhoffs radiation law, which states in essence that
the monochromatic emissivity is equal to the monochromatic absorptivity for any surface.
Graybodies are surfaces with monochromatic emissivities and absorptivities whose values are independent of
The fraction of diffusely distributed radiation that leaves a surface A i and reaches surface Aj is called the radiation
shape factor . The shape factor is also often called the configuration factor or the
view factor.
The shape factors for surfaces that are two-dimensional, infinitely long in onedirection, and characterized by
identical cross sections normal to the infinite directioncan be determined by a simple procedure called the crossed-
string method.