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I. 6.

Mist a very thin fog

Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor. 7. Snow ice crystals resulting from sublimation
Sublimation the process of ice (solid particles) to turn directly in vapor without first turning into 8. Snowflakes ice crystals fused together
the liquid. 9. Hail small lump of ice (<5mm in diameter) formed by alternate freezing and melting,
Transpiration process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on when they are carried up and down in highly turbulent air currents
the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Gluttation 10. Freezing rain rain that falls as a liquid but freezes into glaze upon contact with the
loss of water in liquid form from the uninjured leaf or stem of the plant, principally through water ground
stomata. Mechanism of Precipitation Development
Factors that determine transpiration rates: 1. Collision-Coalescence Process
1. Temperature transpiration rates go up as the temperature goes up, esp. during the The collision-coalescence process is an important mechanism in forming raindrops in warmer
growing season clouds. In this process tiny droplets form as they collide into one another creating larger and
2. Relative humidity as the relative humidity of the air surrounding the plant rises the larger droplets.
transpiration rate falls. 2.Bergeron-Findeisen Process
3. Wind and air movement increased movement of the air around a plant will result in a Also known as the cold rain or ice crystal process the formation of precipitation in the clouds of
higher transpiration rate the mid and upper latitudes by ice crystal growth. These small, often microscopic crystals attract
4. Soil-moisture availability when moisture is lacking, plants can begin to senesce more water vapor, causing them to increase in size. As the ice crystals increase in size, the vapor
(premature ageing which can result in leaf loss) and transpire less water. pressure drops.
5. Type of plant plants transpire water at different rates. Type of Precipitation
Evapotranspiration sum of evaporation and transpiration. Evaporation from surface-water 1. Thermal Convection (convectional precipitation) in the form of local whirling thunder
bodies, even the oceans. It is the defined as the water lost to the atmosphere from the ground storms and is typical of the tropics. When accompanied by destructive winds, they are
surface, evaporation from the capillary fringe of the groundwater table, and the transpiration of called tornados.
groundwater by plants whose roots tap the capillary fringe of the groundwater table. 2. Frontal precipitation when two air masses due to contrasting temperatures and densities
Data Management the ultimate goal of data collection in hydrology, be it precipitation clash with each other, condensation and precipitation occur at the surface of contact. This
measurements, water-level recordings, discharge gaugings, groundwater monitoring and water surface of contact is called a front or frontal surface. Occlusion is when cold fronts move
quality sampling, is to provide a set of sufficient good quality data that can be used in decision faster than warm fronts and usually overtake them, the frontal surfaces f cold and warm air
making in all aspects of water resources management, in the wide range of operational sliding against each other. The resulting frontal surface is called an occluded front.
applications as well as in research. 3. Orographic lifting (orographic precipitation) the mechanical lifting of moist air over
II. mountain barriers, causes heavy precipitation on the windward side
Hydrology - is a branch of Earth Science. It is the science, which deals with the occurrence, Measurement of Precipitation
distribution and disposal of water on the planet earth; it is the science which deals with the various Rain gauge is a type of instrument used by meteorologist and hydrologists to measure rainfall
phases of the hydrologic cycle. It is the study of water in all its forms and from all its origin to all rate in a certain period of time. Rain gauges are also known as udometer, pluviometer and
its destinations on earth. ombrometer. Two type of rain gauges is non recording and recording type.
The hydrologic cycle, also known as global water cycle or the H2O cycle, is a conceptual model Non recording type rain gauge (Symons Rain Gauge) is most common type gauge used by
that describes the storage and movement of water between the biosphere, atmosphere, meteorological department. It consists of a cylindrical vessel 127mm in diameter with a base
lithosphere, and the hydrosphere. It is a continuous process by which water is transported from enlarged to 210mm diameter.
the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the sea. Recording type rain gauge (tipping bucket rain gauge) consists of cylindrical receiver 30cm
Precipitation is the process that occurs when any and all forms of water particles fall from the diameter with a funnel inside.
atmosphere and reach the ground. There are two sub-processes that cause clouds to release Weighing type rain gauge when a certain weight of rainfall is collected in a tank, which rests on
precipitation, the coalescence process and the ice-crystal process. a spring-level balance, it makes a pen to move on a chart wrapped round a clock driven drum.
Forms of Precipitation Float type rain gauge - In this type, as the rain is collected in a float chamber, the float moves up
1. Drizzle a light steady rain in fine drops (0.5 mm) and intensity <1mm/hr which makes a pen to move on a chart wrapped round a clock driven drum.
2. Rain the condensed water vapor of the atmosphere falling in drops (>0.5mm, max Radar- A weather radar is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion,
size6mm) from the clouds estimate its type (rain, snow, hail, etc.), and forecast its future position and intensity. Weather
3. Sleet frozen rain drops while falling through air at subfreezing temperature. radars are mostly Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to
4. Fog a thin cloud of varying size formed at the surface of the earth by condensation of intensity of the precipitation. Both types of data can be analyzed to determine the structure of
atmospheric vapor (interfering with visibility) storms and their potential to cause severe weather.
5. Dew moisture condensed from the atmosphere in small drops upon cool surfaces
Streamflow Gravity movement of water in channels, it may be surface and subsurface flow which Reservoir Routing - involves the application of the continuity equation to a storage facility in which
is affected by climate, land cover, soil type, etc. the storage volume for a particular geometry is a dependant only on the outflow.
Classification of Streams Computer simulation - Also known as Computer model, which is a computer program that
1. Influent Streams If the GWT is below the bed of the stream, the seepage from the stream attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system.
feeds the ground water resulting in the buildup of water mound Computer programs for hydrologic modeling:
2. Effluent streams - When the GWT is above water surface elevation in the stream, the ground TR-20 ("Technical Release No.20")
water feeds the stream. Computes direct runoff from a rainstorm, Generates flood hydrographs from surface runoff.
3. Intermittent streams - If the GWT lies above the bed of the stream during the wet season but TR-55 ("Technical Release No.55")
drops below the bed during the dry season, the stream flows during wet season (due to Calculate the Storm runoff volume, Peak rate of discharge, hydrographs, storage volumes
surface runoff and ground water contribution) but becomes dry during seasons IV.
4. perennial streams - even in the most severe droughts, the GWT never drops below the bed Hydrograph is a graph showing changes in water discharge over a period of time for a given point
of the stream and therefore they flow throughout the year. For power development a on a channel or conduit, is commonly used in many engineering applications.
perennial stream is the best; power can also be generated from intermittent streams by COMPONENTS OF HYDROGRAPH
providing adequate storage facilities. 1. Rising limb: The rising limb of hydro graph, also known as concentration curve, reflects a
Sources of Stream Flow prolonged increase in discharge from a catchment area, typically in response to a rainfall
1. Channel precipitation is the moisture falling directly on the water surface, and in most event.
streams, it adds very little to discharge. Groundwater, on the other hand, is a major source 2. Recession (or falling) limb: The recession limb extends from the peak flow rate onward. The
of discharge, and in large streams, it accounts for the bulk of the average daily flow. end of stormflow (aka quick flow or direct runoff) and the return to groundwater-derived
2. Groundwater enters the streambed where the channel intersects the water table, providing flow (base flow) is often taken as the point of inflection of the recession limb.
a steady supply of water, termed base flow, during both dry and rainy periods. Because of 3. Peak discharge or Crest: the highest point on the hydro graph when the rate of discharge is
the large supply of groundwater available to the streams and the slowness of the response greatest.
of groundwater to precipitation events, base flow changes only gradually over time, and it is Classification of Hydrographs:
rarely the main cause of flooding. However, it does contribute to flooding by providing a stage 1. Annual Hydrograph Shows the long term water balance in a watershed with a relation
onto which runoff from other sources is superimposed. between discharge and time over the year.
3. Interflow is water that infiltrates the soil and then moves laterally to the stream channel in Annual hydrographs may be:
the zone above the water table. Much of this water is transmitted within the soil itself, some a. Perennials have continuous flow over the year which is typical of a humid climate, and most
of it moving within the horizons. Next to base flow, it is the most important source of of the basin yield comes from the subsurface flow indicating that a large proportion of rainfall
discharge for streams in forested lands. Overland flow in heavily forested areas makes is infiltrated into the basin and reaches the channel as groundwater.
negligible contributions to streamflow. b. Ephemerals are typically found in arid climates with long periods when the channel is dry
4. In dry regions, cultivated, and urbanized areas, overland flow is usually a major source of indicating that the groundwater table is considerably below the channel bed. Basin yield from
streamflow. Overland flow is a storm water runoff that begins as thin layer of water that this watershed is the result of runoff from large storms.
moves very slowly (typically less than 0.25 feet per second) over the ground. Under intensive c. Snow-fed has a basin yield occurring mainly in spring and early summer from snowmelt. The
rainfall and in the absence of barriers such as rough ground, vegetation, and absorbing soil, large volume of water stored as snow and its steady release develop smoother flow variations
it can mount up, rapidly reaching stream channels in minutes and causing sudden rises in over the year than for the perennial or ephemeral.
discharge. 2. Storm Hydrograph Shows the effects of a particular rainfall event on the discharge of a
Methods of forecasting streamflow channel.
1. Unit Hydrograph Method. This method involves building a graph in which the discharge Baseflow indicates the groundwater contribution, and direct runoff indicates the runoff caused
generated by a rainstorm of a given size is plotted over time, usually hours or days. It is called by excess rainfall.
the unit hydrograph method because it addresses only the runoff produced by a particular The simplest method for the separation of baseflow and direct runoff is by drawing a straight line
rainstorm in a specified period of time- the time taken for a river to rise, peak, and fall in from B to D. (Straight-Line Method)
response to a storm. Discharge: the rate of flow (volume per unit time) passing a specific location in a river or other
2. Magnitude and frequency method. For large basins, where unit hydrograph might not be channel.
useful and reliable, the magnitude and frequency method is used to calculate the probability Lag time: the time interval from the center of mass of rainfall excess to the peak of the resulting
of recurrence of large flows based on records of past years flows. hydrograph.
III. Time to peak: time interval from the start of the resulting hydro graph.
River routing. Routing is a technique used to predict the changes in shape of a hydrograph as
water moves through a river channel or a reservoir.
Time base of the hydrograph is defined as the time duration within which the storm hydrograph 2. Heat from warm Air Turbulence resulting to speedy wind bringing large quantities of warm air
occurs. The time of concentration is defined here as the flow time from the most remote point in 3. Rainfall
the drainage area to the outlet. Degree-day factors - Defined as a departure of 1 degree in mean daily temperature above 32F.
Time base = time duration of rainfall event producing storm hydrograph + time of concentration Depth of water melted from the snow in inches or millimeter per degree-day May be determined
for the drainage area by dividing the volume of stream flow produced by melting snow within a given time period by the
A unit hydrograph is the hydrograph of direct water surface runoff that results from a total depth total degree days for the period. Usually ranging from 0.05-0.15in/Degree-F with an average value
of one unit of excess rainfall (e.g., 1 in, 1 mm, etc.) uniformly distributed over the basin and of 0.08in/Degree-F. Ranges from 2-7mm/Degree-C day
occurring within a specified duration of time. V.
Runoff is that balance of rain water, which flows or runs over the natural ground surface after Groundwater is water that exists in the pore spaces and fractures in rocks and sediments beneath
losses by evaporation, interception and infiltration. the Earths surface. It originates as rainfall or snow, and then moves through the soil and rock into
Runoff is quantity of water discharged in surface streams. the groundwater system, where it eventually makes its way back to the surface streams, lakes, or
The yield of a catchment (usually means annual yield) - is the net quantity of water available for oceans.
storage, after all losses, for the purposes of water resources utilization and planning, like irrigation, Sources Of Groundwater:
water supply, etc. 1. Connate water refers to the liquids trapped within sedimentary rocks. This happens as the
Maximum flood discharge - It is the discharge in times of flooding of the catchment area, i.e., rocks go through the process of sedimentation.
when the intensity of rainfall is greatest and the condition of the catchment regarding humidity is 2. Meteoric water is the water derived from precipitation (snow and rain). This includes water
also favorable for an appreciable runoff. from lakes, rivers, and ice melts, which all originate from precipitation indirectly.
The runoff from rainfall may be estimated by the following methods: 3. Juvenile water also called magmatic water is water that exists within, and in equilibrium
1. Empirical formulae, curves and tables Several empirical formulae, curves and tables relating with, a magma or water-rich volatile fluids that are derived from a magma. This magmatic
to the rainfall and runoff have been developed as follows: water is released to the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption.
R=aP+b 4. Condensational water This water is mainly the source of replenishment of ground waters
R=aPn particularly in desert and semi deserts, where the precipitation is scanty and there is rapid
R = 0.85P + 30.5 evaporation.
2. Infiltration method By deducting the infiltration loss, i.e., the area under the infiltration Occurrence of Groundwater
curve, from the total precipitation or by the use of infiltration indices, which are already Soil moisture zone The shallowest layer of the unsaturated zone, it contains the moisture utilized
discussed. These methods are largely empirical and the derived values are applicable only by plants
when the rainfall characteristics and the initial soil moisture conditions are identical to those Zone of aeration Area above water table unsaturated with water and openings filled primarily
for which these are derived. with air.
Runoff = Total Precipitation Infiltration loss A perched water table Is an accumulation of groundwater located above a water table in an
3. Rational method A rational approach is to obtain the yield of a catchment by assuming a unsaturated zone.
suitable runoff coefficient. Water table Top surface of the saturated zone.
Yield = CAP
4. Overland flow hydrograph Overland flow occurs as a thin sheet of water over the ground Capillary zone/fringe The zone immediately above the saturated zone where combination of the
surface (soon after a storm starts), joins a stream channel, and then flows in the channel to size of the pores between soil and rock grains and the attraction of the soil to water causes water
the concentration point. Overland flow is relatively slow and is the dominant type of flow in to move upward from the saturated zone.
the case of very small areas such as air ports, municipal block areas and flow from broad Saturated zone The zone where all the pore spaces and fractures between soil and rock particles
surfaces into storm drains and gutters. are saturated with water.
Overland flow is essentially a uniform flow over the surface as developed by C.F. Izzard Aquifer is a body of saturated rock through which water can easily move.
(1948). The Reynolds number 1. Unconfined aquifer aquifer with a lower barrier to movement caused by the presence
5. Unit hydrograph method The hydrograph of direct surface discharge measured at the outlet of of an aquiclude below, but not an upper barrier allowing water to fluctuate over
drainage area, which produces a unit depth of direct runoff resulting from a unit storm of specified distances upwards
duration (called unit period) is called a unit hydrograph of that duration. The unit hydrograph 2. Confined aquifer aquifer with a lower and upper barrier for movement.Tthere is an
method was first proposed by L.K. Sherman in 1932. The area under the hydrograph represents a aquiclude located immediately above and below the aquifer
direct runoff of 1 cm. Porosity is the percent of volume that is void space. Somewhat related to void ratio . It the ratio
6. Coaxial Graphical Correlation and API of volume of voids over the total volume.
Factors Affecting Snowmelt Permeability is the ease in which water will flow through a porous material.
1. Solar Radiation - Depends on Reflectivity or Albedo
Water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. Describe the boundary between cement or bentonite clay to prevent contamination by water draining from the surface
water-saturated ground and unsaturated ground. The water table separates the groundwater downward around the outside of the casing.
zone that lies below it from the zone of aeration that lies above it. Artesian wells -is simply a well that doesnt require a pump to bring water to the surface; this
Groundwater recharge - Water that seeps into an aquifer is known as recharge. Recharge comes occur when there is enough pressure in the aquifer. A well in which water rises under pressure
from a variety of sources, including seepage from rain and snow melt, streams and groundwater from a permeable stratum overlaid by impermeable rock.
flow from other areas. Recharge occurs where permeable soil allows water to seep into the Artesian wells are well from which water flows under natural pressure without pumping. It is dug
ground. Stream that recharge groundwater are called losing streams because they lose water to or drilled wherever a gently dipping, permeable rock layer (such as sandstone) receive water along
the surrounding soil or rock. its outcrop at a level higher that the level of surface of the ground at well sites. At the outcrop the
Groundwater discharge Groundwater can leave the ground at discharge point. Discharge points water moves down into the aquifer (water-bearing layer) but prevented from leaving it, by
include springs, stream and lake beds, wells, ocean shorelines and wetlands. Streams that receive impermeable rock layer (such as shale) above and below it. Pressure from waters weight
groundwater are called gaining streams because they gain water from the surrounding soil or rock. (hydrostatic pressure) forces water to the surface of a well drilled down into the aquifer; the
In times of drought, most of the surface water flow can come from groundwater. Plants can also pressure for the steady up flow is maintained by the continuing penetration of water into the
contribute to groundwater discharge. aquifer at the intake area.
Yield is a measure of how much and how quickly groundwater can be extracted from an aquifer. Cone of depression occurs in an aquifer when groundwater is pumped from a well. Pumping from
Yield is generally higher in large aquifers that have greater storage capacity, well-connected spaces a well in water table aquifer lower the water table near the well. This area is known as a cone of
within the aquifer material (i.e sand or gravel) and where the pressure is high. For those reasons depression. The land area above a cone of depression is called the area of influence. Groundwater
yield tend to be lower and more inconsistent in the shallow upper aquifers, and better in the floes towards the well into the cone of depression which can change the natural direction of
deeper middle and lower aquifers. groundwater flow within the area of influence around the well.
Aquifer material and yield The materials of an aquifer is the primary driver of yield. The list below Induced recharge the cone of depression from a well might extend to a nearby stream or lake.
shows the type of aquifer material in order from most permeable to least permeable or higher This lower the water table below the stream or lake level. As a result, the stream or lake begin lose
yielding to lower yielding. Gravels, Sands, Fractured basalt and limestone, Silts and clays, Shale water to the groundwater aquifer near the well. This is known as induced recharge.
and granites Rate of water percolate in the well or yield of a well in m3/hr under ahead of one meter is called
Basically, a well is a hole drilled into the ground to access water contained in an aquifer. A pipe the specific yield of well.
and a pump are used to pull water out of the ground, and a screen filters out unwanted particles VI.
that could clog the pipe. Wells come in different shapes and sizes, depending on the type of Frequency Is the number of time that a given magnitude flood may occur in a given period. Flood
material the well is drilled into and how much water is being pumped out. frequency analysis uses historical records of peak flows to produce guidance about the expected
THREE BASIC TYPES OF WELLS behavior of future flooding determination of the design flood.
1. Dug wells were excavated by hand shovel to below the water table until incoming water Two methods of collecting flood peak data:
exceeded the diggers bailing rate. The well was lined with stones, bricks, tile, or other 1. Annual-flood series Is defined as the highest momentary peak discharge in a water year. The
material to prevent collapse, and was covered with a cap of wood, stone, or concrete tile. use of only one flood in each year is the most frequent objection to the use of annual floods.
Because of the type of construction, bored wells can go deeper beneath the water table than 2. Partial duration series
can hand-dug wells. Dug and bored wells have a larger diameter and expose a large area to A flood frequency curve can be constructed by plotting a graph of discharge versus probabilities.
the aquifer. These wells are able to obtain water from less permeable materials such as very This can easily be accomplished provided you have a data set of annual peak discharge measured
fine sand, silt, or clay. Disadvantage of this type of well are that they are shallow and lack over a number of years.
continuous casing and grouting, making them subject to contamination from nearby surface We need to calculate the chronological order of each of the flood. Start by ordering our data
sources, and they go dry during periods of drought if the water table drops below the well according to the magnitude of the flood, from largest to smallest.
bottom. Number each of the floods in order, starting with the largest flood as number 1.
2. Driven wells are constructed by driving a small-diameter pipe into shallow water-bearing The order of the flood is denoted by the letter m. If you have one hundred years of records, you
sand or gravel. Usually a screened well point is attached to the bottom of the casing before will calculate flood orders for m=1, m=2, m=3..m=10.
driving. These wells are relatively simple and economical to construct, but they can tap only We find the probabilities of flood by this equation,
shallow water and are easily contaminated from nearby surface sources because they are not P = m / ( n + 1 ) Where: P = probability, m = the number we calculated, n = number of years in the
sealed with grouting material. Hand-driven wells usually are only around 30 feet deep; record
machine driven wells can be 50 feet deep or more. Probabilities will go on the x-axis; and the discharge will go on the y-axis. Title the graph Flood
3. Drilled wells are constructed by either cable tool (percussion) or rotary-drilling machine. Frequency Curve.
Drilled wells that penetrate unconsolidated materials require installation of casing and a Draw a best fit line between the data set. The resulting line is the flood frequency curve.
screen to prevent inflow of sediment and collapse. They can be drilled more than 1000 feet The likelihood of a particular event is calculated from its flood frequency as follows:
deep. The space around the casing must be sealed with grouting material of either neat F = P x 100
F = [m/ (n+1)] x 100 80% Maximum Rainfall = Mean + 0.84 x Standard Deviation.
We also draw graph between Flood Recurrence Interval and Discharge. 80% Dependable Rainfall The value of period rainfall (monthly, seasonal, etc.) that will be
The objective of the frequency analysis is to determine the magnitude of the flood which will be exceeded 80% of the time. This value ensures that on average, there will be enough water to meet
equaled or exceeded once in a specific period of years; this specified period of years is known as the crop's need four out of every five years.
Recurrence Interval. 80% Maximum Rainfall The value of period rainfall that on average, will not be exceeded 80% of
Recurrence Intervals or Return Period is the time period over which it is likely that a particular the time. This value ensures that on average, a drainage system or a sedimentation pond will have
magnitude flood will occur. adequate capacity four out of every five years.
The formula for Recurrence Interval is: Return Period (Recurrence Interval) The frequency with which, on average, a given precipitation
F = 1/P event is equaled or exceeded.
F = (n+1) / m Stochastic hydrology is the statistical branch of hydrology that deals probabilistic modeling of
Construct graph on the semi logarithmic paper. those hydrological processes which have random components associated with them.
Recurrence interval will go on the x-axis; and discharge will go on the y-axis. Stochastic hydrologist will suggest appropriate models and means of estimating the parameters
Methods of estimating maximum flood of those model, and will go on to suggest techniques for simulating process and perhaps
(a)Past Flood Marks Method The maximum flood occurred in the past can be estimated from the performing forecasts using this model.
flood marks left by flood. These marks are generally in the form of floating debris sticking to the Stochastics model are used to describe the physical processes that are observed, and about which,
banks or to walls of the structures at the river bank. data are recorded.
The Inglis Formula: This formula is used only in Maharashtra. Mean is sum of the data divided by the number of data
The Meyers formula was developed for the catchment in USA Variance is the average of the squares of the difference of the data from their sample mean
Envelope Curve Method: It is another method of estimation of peak flow. It is based on the Median is an example of an order statistic, computed by a ranking of data in size from small to
assumption that highest known peak flow per unit area registered in the past in one basin in a large or vice versa; the median is the middle of the ranked data.
region may occur in future in another basin in the same region or a region possessing similar A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged
hydrologic characteristics. shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought is
when there is a lack of precipitation over an extended period of time, usually a season or more,
Rational Method: resulting in a water shortage for some activity, group, or environmental sector. Drought is caused
This method is also based on the principle of the relationship between rainfall and runoff and by not only lack of precipitation and high temperatures but by overuse and overpopulation," said
hence can be considered to be similar to empirical method. It is, however, called rational method David Miskus.
because the units of the quantities used are approximately numerically consis-tent. This method Types of Drought
has become popular because of its simplicity. Common to all droughts is that they originate from a deficiency of precipitation that results in
Time of concentration: It is the time taken by the rain water falling at the remotest point of the water shortage for some activity or for some group.
drainage basin to reach the discharge measurement point. 1. Meteorological Drought Measured in terms of the degree of dryness (intensity) and the
Rainfall frequency The number of times, during a specified period of years, that precipitation of a duration of the dry period. Region Specific
certain magnitude or greater occurs or will occur at a station; numerically, the reciprocal of the 2. Agricultural Drought Meteorological drought that impacts agriculture. Usually the first
frequency is usually given. economic sector to be hit. Precipitation shortages, ET, soil moisture, etc Plant water demand
The Precipitation Frequency Data Server (PFDS) is a point-and-click interface developed to deliver versus available soil moisture
NOAA Atlas 14 precipitation frequency estimates and associated information. Upon clicking a state 3. Hydrologic Drought Impacts of rainfall shortages on the hydrologic system (groundwater,
on the map or selecting a state name from the drop-down menu, an interactive map of that state rivers, lakes, reservoirs). Communities vary in degree of vulnerability depending on their
will be displayed. From there, a user can identify a location for which precipitation frequency water source. Connections between basins, regions affect other regions. Out of phase or lag
estimates are needed. meteorological drought
Estimating Rainfall Quantity for Design 4. Socio-economic drought Demand exceeds supply of some economic product as a result of
The design of water management systems is based more on extreme values than on average weather-related low precipitation event(s) Precipitation or water represents SUPPLY, which
values. If the mean value is used in the design of an irrigation system then on average, in one out varies by sector, DEMAND can be for products or for the water itself. Occurs more frequently:
of every two years there will not be enough water to meet the demands of the crop and yield will change in how often or long a drought occurs, in the vulnerability within society or both
be reduced. If the mean is used in drainage design, then one out of every two years the crops will Monitoring Drought
be flooded. It is better to use design values with lower associated risk. Determine the current status of specific resources
Estimating 80% Dependable Rainfall and 80% Maximum Rainfall from mean and standard Detect changes and long-term trends
If only the mean and standard deviation of monthly rainfall are known, then Obtain knowledge of fundamental linkages and processes at work
80% Dependable Rainfall = Mean - 0.84 x Standard Deviation Enable development and implementation of early warning indicators