Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

JMEPEG DOI: 10.1007/s11665-014-0968-x

ASM International

1059-9495/$19.00

Recent Developments in Friction Stir Welding of Al-alloys

Gu¨ rel C¸ am and Selcuk Mistikoglu

(Submitted January 21, 2014; in revised form March 12, 2014)

The diversity and never-ending desire for a better life standard result in a continuous development of the existing manufacturing technologies. In line with these developments in the existing production technologies the demand for more complex products increases, which also stimulates new approaches in production routes of such products, e.g., novel welding procedures. For instance, the friction stir welding (FSW) technology, developed for joining difficult-to-weld Al-alloys, has been implemented by industry in manu- facturing of several products. There are also numerous attempts to apply this method to other materials beyond Al-alloys. However, the process has not yet been implemented by industry for joining these materials with the exception of some limited applications. The microstructures and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al-alloys existing in the open literature will be discussed in detail in this review. The correlations between weld parameters used during FSW and the microstructures evolved in the weld region and thus mechanical properties of the joints produced will be highlighted. However, the modeling studies, material flow, texture formation and developments in tool design are out of the scope of this work as well as the other variants of this technology, such as friction stir spot welding (FSSW).

Keywords

Al-alloys, friction stir welding, grain refinement, hardness loss, joining, joint performance

1. Introduction

Welding is a unique manufacturing method, which allows the production of complex parts from the materials that are difficult to be formed. In these cases, the individual pieces are produced separately, and then joined by means of a suitable joining technique. Besides, welding technology, generally, is not an alternative to other manufacturing methods but a complementary process. Therefore, weldability is one of the most important factors determining the application of novel materials. Nowadays, with the advancing technology, the demand for complex products, that are impossible to manufac- ture as a single piece or their manufacturing is too costly, has increased. High speed trains, for which fuel consumption is obviously important, are examples of such products. The advances made regarding the weldability of materials used in the engineering applications through development of new welding technologies such as FSW have increased the impor- tance of welding technology. Welding of Al-, Mg-, Cu-alloys, stainless steels, which are difficult-to-weld through conventional welding methods such as arc welding or impossible to weld such as non-weldable Al 7075 alloy, is now possible by laser welding or FSW, which is a novel solid state welding method. Friction stir welding is still considered to be the most significant development in joining of materials in last 20 years (Ref 1-18). Presently, this welding technique is commercially used in several industries, such as ship-building (Ref 2, 3, 19),

Gu¨ rel C¸ am and Selcuk Mistikoglu, Faculty of Engineering, Mustafa Kemal University, 31200 Iskenderun, Hatay, Turkey. Contact e-mail:

gurelcam@gmail.com.

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance high-speed train manufacturing (Ref 2 , 19 ), and aviation

high-speed train manufacturing (Ref 2, 19), and aviation industry (Ref 2, 20, 21).Some FSW variants have recently been developed for improved joint performance. For example, the dual-rotation FSW variant was developed at TWI, whereby the probe and shoulder rotate separately (Ref 22). The dual-rotation FSW variant provides for a differential in speed and/or direction between the independently rotating probe and the rotating surrounding shoulder. Another FSW variant recently developed is Twin-stir TM technique which involves a pair of tools applied on opposite sides. This FSW variant offers certain advantages over conventional FSW, such as a reduction in reactive torque and a more symmetrical weld and heat input through the thickness (Ref 23-25). Similarly, recently developed friction stir spot welding is a candidate to replace conventional resistance spot welding (Ref 26). This method is successfully used in overlap-joining of Al-alloys plates, which are not weldable by resistance spot welding. Thus, this will make the use lightweight Al-alloys in the manufacturing of cars possible. This technique is at the stage of industrial use in automobile industry in lap joining of Al-alloys sheets. The method also presents itself as a potential candidate to replace riveting. Therefore, intense research is currently being conducted in FSSW of other alloys, such as Ti-alloys and steels. Moreover, with the application of hybrid laser-friction stir welding (laser-assisted friction stir welding); it is also possible to weld steels that have higher melting temperatures (Ref 27). This hybrid welding method is still in the development phase and it is expected to be used in industrial applications in near future.

2. Friction Stir Welding Technique

Friction stir welding, which was developed and patented in the UK in early 1990 s by The Welding Institute (TWI), is usually used in welding of plates and is different from conventional friction welding (Ref 1-18). In this method, the

plates-to-be-welded clamped together rigidly in butt or overlap condition and a stirring tool with a suitable geometry moves along them, while the pieces-to-be-joined are moved over each other in conventional friction welding method. In this method, the stirring tool rotating at a high rate is plunged into the clamped plates causing friction. The heat caused by the friction between the tool shoulder and the workpiece results in an intense local heating that does not melt the plates to be joined, but plasticizes the material around the tool. The shoulder of the tool also prevents the plasticized material from being expelled from the weld. The friction at the pin surface provides additional frictional heat to the workpieces to a lesser extent. Then, the rotating tool moves along the plates transferring the softened material around itself, stirring the plates together. The plasticized material is pressed downwards by the tool shoulder, preventing the material from flowing out from the surface. The material is transported from the front of the tool to the trailing edge where it is forged into a joint. Thus, the workpieces are mechanically mixed under severe deformation conditions during this solid state joining technique. The application of this method is shown schematically in Fig. 1 (Ref 1-16). This joining technique is originally regarded to display similar solid- state bonding conditions as the extrusion process (Ref 28, 29). However, it was reported that the solid-state bonding conditions are different in these processes. In extrusion, welding occurs between two oxide-free surfaces and the determining parameter is extrusion rate whereas the flowing material bonds on a contaminated surface which is heated and compressed by the action of the tool shoulder and the determining parameters are tool rotational speed and traverse speed (Ref 29). Generally, in friction stir butt-welding of thin plates a cylindrical tool (a pin-type probe) is employed, whereas in butt- welding of thicker plates a conical tool should be used. In both cylindrical and conical tools, the tool surfaces are threaded. On the other hand, lap-welding requires a modified tool to ensure full disruption of the tenacious oxide layer present on the surfaces of Al-alloys and a wider stir zone than butt-welding (Ref 30, 31). Hence, more complex-shaped tools must be used in lap-welding applications to break the stable oxide layers and to obtain a better metallurgical bond, Fig. 2 (Ref 31). Various friction stir welding tools have been developed and patented for different applications. More information regarding the devel- opments in stirring tool design can be found in excellent reviews of Ma and Mishra (Ref 11), Nandan et al. (Ref 15), Thomas et al. (Ref 31), and Rai et al. (Ref 32). This welding process can be performed using special friction stir welding equipments or a conventional vertical

friction stir welding equipments or a conventional vertical Fig. 1 Schematic presentation of friction stir welding

Fig. 1

Schematic presentation of friction stir welding technique

milling machine. There exist different sizes of friction stir welding devices manufactured for commercial purposes, cost- ing as much as $1 million. Even though the method was specifically developed for Al-alloys, it is also used successfully for Al-Li alloys, 7075 Al-alloy and 0.8 mm thick zinc plates, which are either difficult-to-weld or non-weldable through conventional welding methods (Ref 11, 33-35). The method also has potential for welding of Mg-, Cu-, Ti-, Al-alloy matrix composites, lead, steels, stainless steels, thermoplastics, and different materials with similar melting temperatures (welding of Al-alloys with different Al-alloys and Al-alloys with Mg- alloys). The state of art of friction stir welding of structural alloys beyond Al-alloys has been discussed in detail in an excellent recent review by C¸ am (Ref 36). Therefore, this issue is out of the scope of this current work. With this method, 50 mm thick Al-alloys plates can be butt- welded and plates up to 100 mm thickness can also be butt- joined by double-sided welding (Ref 11, 22-24, 37). The double-sided friction stir welding application is shown sche- matically in Fig. 3. This welding method can also be used successfully in lap- welding of plates. Moreover, the joining of plates with different thickness can be achieved with this welding method by plunging the tilted tool into the plates. Owing to the fact that

the tilted tool into the plates. Owing to the fact that Fig. 2 Various friction stir

Fig. 2 Various friction stir welding pins: (a) a cylindrical pin used in welding of thin plates, (b) a conical shape pin in welding of thick plates and (c) Triflute TM type pin developed for friction stir overlap- welding (Ref 31)

pin developed for friction stir overlap- welding (Ref 31 ) Fig. 3 Schematic illustration of double-sided

Fig. 3 Schematic illustration of double-sided friction stir welding applied to thicker plates (Ref 22-24, 36)

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

it is a mechanical solid state welding technique, it can also be applied under water. The welding speed is dependent on the thickness of the plate to be welded, typically 600 mm/min for 6 mm thick Al-alloy plates. The advantages of friction stir welding over conventional fusion welding processes are as follows (Ref 3, 11, 31, 33, 34):

2XXX and 7XXX series Al-alloys and Al-Li alloys, which are difficult-to-weld through conventional welding methods, can be successfully joined,

The heat input during the welding is lower, therefore, the loss in the mechanical properties is less,

Shrinkage, distortion and residual stresses are very small especially in thin plates,

Surface preparation prior to welding is not too critical as thin oxide films are tolerated,

Because it is a solid state welding, problems encountered in conventional fusion welding methods, such as cracking and porosity formation are not experienced,

There is no need for filler material,

After the welding there is no need for further surface treatment as it produces clean surfaces,

Butt- and lap-welding are possible,

Typically 1 km long welding can be achieved with the same tool,

It is environmentally friendly as there is no emission of gas, dust or arc,

It is highly energy-efficient,

It is very suitable for automation and robotic applications.

The disadvantages are:

It cannot be applied to every material. It can only be applied to materials with low strength and low melting point (higher melting point materials require special tools),

The plates to be welded have to be fixed firmly,

The speed of welding is relatively low (typically 750 mm/ min for 5 mm thick Al-alloy plates of 6XXX series),

Powerful machines are needed for joining thicker plates.

Presently, this welding technique is commercially used in ship- building (Ref 2, 3, 19), high-speed train manufacturing (Ref 2, 19), and aviation industry (Ref 2, 20, 21) as pointed out earlier. Standard length Al-extrusion panels used in high speed cruises are presently joined by this method, Fig. 4. Furthermore, this method is successfully used in welding of fuel tanks of Al-Li 2195 alloy space shuttles (Ref 21). Friction stir welding has a great potential for light-weight Al-structures such as some parts in passenger aeroplanes and further research is conducted in this field (Ref 19, 34). This welding technique is used in carriage manufacturing of high speed trains in Japan, in the production of honeycomb structures from Al extrusions (Fig. 5, 6) (Ref 19).

3. Process Parameters of Friction Stir Joining

General characteristics of FSW, namely weld variables, weld defects encountered, plastic flow, microstructural evolution, and

encountered, plastic flow, microstructural evolution, and Fig. 4 Friction stir joining of Al-extrusion panels used in
Fig. 4 Friction stir joining of Al-extrusion panels used in high speed cruises (Ref 2,
Fig. 4
Friction stir joining of Al-extrusion panels used in high speed cruises (Ref 2, 3, 19)
Fig. 5
Friction stir joining of Al-panels in manufacturing of high speed trains in Japan (Ref 19)

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

grain refinement, are very briefly discussed in this section for the sake of a better understanding. The readers may find more detailed discussions on these issues in the following reviews and books (Ref 11, 15, 16, 19, 20).

3.1 Weld Variables

The welding (traverse) speed, the tool rotational speed, the vertical pressure on the tool (axial pressure), the tilt angle of the tool, and the tool design are the main independent variables that are used to control the FSW process (Ref 15). These variables determine the peak temperature, x-direction force, torque, and the power. Peak temperature significantly increases with the increase in tool rotational speed and decreases slightly with increasing traverse speed. Figure 7 illustrates the effect of tool rotational speed on the nugget formation at constant welding speed and axial force (Ref 38). It also increases with increase in the axial pressure. Axial pressure also influences the joint quality. Very high pressures lead to overheating and thinning of the joint while very low pressures may lead to insufficient heating and in turn void formation. Higher traverse speeds may cause excessive x-direction force, which may in turn lead to tool erosion and, in extreme cases, tool breakage. Power require- ment also increases with increasing axial pressure (Ref 15). The torque depends on several parameters such as the applied vertical pressure, tool design, the tilt angle, local shear stress at the tool-workpiece interface, the friction coefficient and the extend of slip between the tool and the workpiece. The torque decreases with the increase in tool rotational speed owing to the increase in peak temperature when other variables are kept constant. On the other hand, torque is not significantly affected by the change in traverse speed. The relative velocity between the tool and the workpiece is mainly determined by the tool rotational speed. Thus, the peak temperature is not significantly affected by the traverse speed. High traverse speeds tend to reduce heat input applied to the workpieces during FSW. Therefore, the torque increases only slightly with increasing traverse speed since material flow becomes some- what more difficult at slightly lower temperatures (Ref 15).

3.2 Weld Defects

The joints obtained by friction stir welding usually exhibit a better weld profile and surface quality than those obtained by conventional fusion welding techniques. With this novel method, defect-free joints are possible provided that the welding

defect-free joints are possible provided that the welding Fig. 6 Schematic illustration of friction stir welding

Fig. 6 Schematic illustration of friction stir welding application in the manufacturing of honeycomb structures (Ref 19)

is conducted properly and optimal welding parameters are used. Surface irregularity, which is caused by unbalanced motion of the tool, and kissing-bond type defects at the vicinity of the weld root, that are encountered due to insufficient hydrostatic pressure levels obtained during joining, are the characteristic difficulties observed in this joining process (Ref 14). Another surface defect encountered in FSW is in the form of excess flash, caused by surface overheating as a result of significant heterogeneity in heat generation at the interface between the tool shoulder and the workpiece (Ref 39, 40). Another possible welding flaw is the formation of a channel- like void (wormhole defect) in the stir zone near the bottom of the weld (Ref 14, 15). The flow of the plasticized material from the stir zone beneath the shoulder may result in the formation of this defect. This can be prevented by machining suitable contours on the tool surface and under the tool shoulder, which supports the material flow towards the bottom of the weld and by keeping the depth of tool penetration constant throughout the joining. It was found out that an increase in traverse speed, at a constant rotational speed, leads to the formation of wormhole defect near the bottom of the stirred zone (Ref 15, 39). Moreover, the size of the wormholes increases with the travel speed (Ref 39) due to the inadequate material flow towards the bottom of the weld. There are indications that the ratio of travel speed to rotational speed is an important variable

of travel speed to rotational speed is an important variable Fig. 7 Macrographs showing the effect

Fig. 7 Macrographs showing the effect of tool rotation rate on the nugget zone shape of friction stir welded AA2524-T351 (constant welding speed and axial force). Note reduction in the size of nugget zone with decreasing rotation rate (Ref 38)

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

affecting the formation of the wormhole defect (Ref 15, 41, 42). Long and Khanna (Ref 42) reported that a high travel-speed to rotational-speed ratio for the same material and tool geometry tends to favor the formation of these defects. It is also worth pointing out that the propensity for voids or cracks generally increases with the welding speed although there is an alloy- dependence (Ref 39, 43). It is obvious that tool design and welding variables affect materials flow patterns. However, no relation between the material flow and the formation of voids has yet been established and no unified mechanism of void formation exists. However, Elangovan and Balasubramanian (Ref 44) investi- gated the effects of rotational speed and tool design on defect formation in friction stir processing of AA2219. Five pin profiles, namely straight cylindrical, tapered cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, triangular and square, and were employed to fabricate joints at various tool rotational speeds. It was found out that the square tool pin profile resulted in the least defect content in the weld as the flat faces produced a pulsating action which led to more effective stirring. Moreover, a square tool has higher eccentricity, which is defined as the ratio of the dynamic volume swept by the tool to the static volume of the tool. For instance, the eccentricity of a square tool is pd 2 /4:d 2 / 2 = p/2 = 1.57, where d is the diagonal of the square.

3.3 Microstructural Evolution

Typical microstructures observed in friction stir welded joint are two types as schematically shown in Fig. 8 (Ref 36). In the first type, the weld area consists of three distinct zones, namely stirred (nugget) zone (also called dynamically recrystallized zone, DXZ), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ), as seen in Fig. 8(a) (Ref 11, 14, 15, 36, 45). This three-zone weld area is typically observed in FSWed materials with low rates of recrystallization, such as Al- alloys. However, the second type exhibits a weld cross-section consisting of only two regions, namely stirred zone (also called dynamically recrystallized zone) and HAZ, as shown in Fig. 8(b). This type of microstructural evolution in the weld

8 (b). This type of microstructural evolution in the weld Fig. 8 Schematical presentation illustrating the

Fig. 8 Schematical presentation illustrating the cross-sections of the joint area obtained in friction stir welding: (a) in materials with slower recrystallization rate (e.g., Al-alloys) and (b) in materials with faster recrystallization rate (e.g., austenitic stainless steels or Ti-al- loys). A: stirred zone (SZ), B: thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), C: heat affected zone (HAZ)

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

area is usually observed in FSW of materials with a higher rate of recrystallization, such as austenitic stainless steels and Ti-alloys (Ref 36). Thus, there is no DXZ or TMAZ in this case since both the entire DXZ and TMAZ regions are completely recrystallized when the recrystallization is easily induced (Ref 36). The frictional heat and intense plastic deformation occurring within the stirred zone result in dynamic recrystallization and texture formation. The heat generated within the stirred zone is determined by two factors, namely tool rotational speed and traverse speed. The tool geometry plays an important role and is the third factor affecting the heat generated within the stir zone. Another important factor affecting the heat generated within the stir zone is the thermal conductivity of the material- to-be-welded. These factors, namely tool geometry, rotational and traverse speeds, and thermal conductivity of the material, also determine the shape of the stir zone (Ref 15). Furthermore, parameters such as plate thickness and heat dissipation may also influence the microstructural evolution in and around the weld nugget. The microstructural changes in various zones of a FSW joint have significant effect on the joint performance. Therefore, several investigations have been conducted on the microstruc- tural changes within the stir zone of friction stir welds (Ref 4-7, 9, 10, 46-84). One has to balance the heat generated during welding by optimizing the weld parameters, such as tool rotational speed and traverse speed for a given tool geometry. Low frictional heating results in undesirable material flow leading to weld defects such as voids particularly in joining of high melting point materials, whereas high frictional heating leads to extensive growth of the recrystallized grains in and around the stirred zone and dissolution of strengthening precipitates in precipitation hardened materials such as high strength Al-alloys. Intense frictional heating and plastic deformation within the stir zone leads to dynamic recrystallization resulting in fine- grained microstructure unless excessive heat generated (Ref 6, 9, 11, 46-48, 64, 65). This region is referred to as stirred zone (SZ) or dynamically recrystallized zone (DXZ). Under some conditions, onion ring structure was observed within the stirred zone (Ref 28). The formation of the onion rings is considered to be due to the process of friction heating as a result of the rotation of the tool and the forward movement extruding the material around to the retreating side of the tool (Ref 28). The spacing of the rings is found to be equal to the forward movement of the tool in one rotation (Ref 28). The excessive heat input to the material during joining due to very high rotational speeds and/or large tool shoulder diameter and surface area results in vanishing of the onion rings. The stirred zone generally comprises the material most strongly affected by the tool rotation. The peak temperatures in this region is thought to be in the range of 0.6-0.95 T m , depending on the material, tool design and operating conditions (weld parame- ters) (Ref 5, 52, 71-79). The upper portions of the stirred zone experience heating and deformation effects from the tool shoulder as well as from the tool pin. In the SZ, the material undergoes dynamic recrystallization due to intense frictional heat and plastic deformation as mentioned earlier. Some researchers proposed on the other hand that the reason for grain refinement within the SZ is extensive plastic deformation and dynamic recovery, not the dynamic recrystal- lization (Ref 72, 80). However, a mixture of recovery and recrystallization phenomena occurs simultaneously (Ref 15).

The second region next to the SZ is the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), where the material experiences lesser strains and strain rates as well as lower peak temperatures. This region is often characterized by a pattern of grain distortion that suggests shearing and flow of material about the rotating tool. The grain distortion is believed to lead to fragmentation and formation of fine equiaxed grains near the interface between TMAZ and SZ (Ref 73). Next to the TMAZ, HAZ exists on either side of the SZ, where the material experiences only a thermal cycle.

3.4 Grain Refinement

Several investigations have well demonstrated that grain refinement in the stir zones of Al-alloys (Ref 4-7, 9-11, 46-48, 51-97), carbon steels (Ref 98-106), and brasses (Ref 107-110) is achieved in friction stir welding provided that the heat input during welding is not excessively high. The reason for this is

the intense plastic deformation taking place within the stir zone as pointed out earlier. Even ultra-fine grained microstructure (average grain size <1 lm) can be achieved within stirred zone by employing special tool geometries and external cooling during welding (Ref 11, 47, 48, 51, 53-55, 70). FSW parameters, namely tool rotational and traverse speeds, tool geometry, vertical pressure applied, the heat generated, materials properties such as thermal conductivity and external cooling are the important factors influencing the grain size evolving within the stirred zone. The degree of deformation is the crucial factor determining the grain size of the recrystallized grains (Ref 11). As the degree of deformation increases the grain size decreases according to the general principles of recrystallization. On the other hand, the heat input (energy input per unit weld length) applied to the material during welding results in grain coarsening. Increasing tool rotational speed or ratio of tool rotational speed to traverse speed leads to an increase both in the degree of deformation and the heat input

both in the degree of deformation and the heat input Fig. 9 stant welding speed and

Fig. 9

stant welding speed and axial force. Note reduction in the grain size with decreasing rotation rate (Ref 38)

The influence of tool rotation rate on the size of the recrystallized grains in the SZ of friction stir welded AA2524-T351 alloy with con-

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

Fig. 10 Grain refinement in friction stir welds of 3 mm thick Cu-Zn30 and Cu-Zn37

Fig. 10 Grain refinement in friction stir welds of 3 mm thick Cu-Zn30 and Cu-Zn37 alloys (i.e., 73/30 and 63/37 brasses): (a) macrograph showing the cross-section of the joint, and microstructures of (b) base material (BM) and (c) stir zone (SZ) of 70/30 brass joint, and microstruc- tures of the SZs of the 63/37 brass joints produced at a rotational rate of 1250 rpm with different traverse speeds: (d) 100 mm/min, (e) 125 mm/ min and (f) 150 mm/min. Note grain refinement in the SZ after FSW and reduction of grain size with increasing travel speed at a constant rota- tion rate (Ref 36, 108, 109)

(Ref 11, 81). Thus, the recrystallized grain size is determined by the dominating factor between the tool rotational and traverse speeds, in other words by the competition between the degree of deformation and heat input. Several investigations have well demonstrated that the grain size in the stirred zones of Al-alloys can be reduced by decreasing the tool rotational speed at a constant traverse speed or increasing weld speed at a constant rotational speed or decreasing the ratio of tool rotational speed to traverse speed (Fig. 9, 10, 11) (Ref 11, 35, 38, 50-54, 108, 109). Studies conducted on FSW of Al-alloys have also revealed that the grain size varies within the stirred zone, from the top to the bottom as well as from the weld centerline to the sides (Ref 6, 11, 64). The variation of grain size from the weld centerline to the edge of the stirred zone is consistent with the temperature variation across the weld nugget, being maximum at the centerline and decreasing with distance on either side of it (Ref 6, 11). The grain size is also found to decrease from the top to the bottom of weld nugget,

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

nugget, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance Fig. 11 The grain size in the weld nugget

Fig. 11 The grain size in the weld nugget of FSWed AA2524 Al- alloy joints as a function of rotation rate at constant weld speed and vertical force (Ref 35)

which is believed to be due to temperature profile and heat dissipation in the weld nugget (Ref 11). Since the bottoms of the workpiece is in contact with the backing plate, the peak temperature is lower and the thermal cycle is shorter compared to the top region of the weld nugget, thus retarding the grain coarsening and leading to finer grain sizes (Ref 11). In this respect, the plate thickness is also an important factor determining the grain size variation within the weld nugget.

4. Friction Stir Welding Of Al-Alloys

The technique has initially been widely investigated for mostly low melting materials, such as Al, Mg, and Cu alloys. It has proven to be very useful, particularly in the joining of the difficult-to-fusion join high strength Al-alloys used in aero- space applications, such as highly alloyed 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloys. The difficulty of making high-strength, fatigue and fracture resistant welds in these aluminum alloys has long inhibited the use of welding processes for joining aerospace structures. Instead, mechanical fastening (e.g., rivet- ing) has been the usually preferred joining method except in production of pressure vessels for rocket propellant and oxidizer tanks. Many of the problems with welds in aerospace Al-alloys stem from the unfavorable distribution of brittle solidification products, cracking and porosity in the weld region. Encouraging results obtained in FSW of high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys, that are typically difficult-to-weld, have expanded the practical use of this technique. Friction stir welding of Al-alloys will be discussed in two subsections, namely FSW of non-heat-treatable alloys and of heat-treatable (precipitation strengthened) alloys since the welding metallurgy differs in these alloys significantly. Al-alloys have a face-centered cubic crystal structure at all temperatures up to their melting point. Thus, they do not undergo an allotropic phase transformation. Al-alloys have low density, about one third of steel or copper, and excellent corrosion resistance. They are classified into two groups, namely non-heat-treatable and heat-treatable alloys, depending on their strengthening mechanism (Ref 111-113).

4.1 FSW of Non-heat-treatable Al-Alloys

4.1.1 Physical Metallurgy of Non-heat-treatable Al- alloys. Non-heat-treatable Al-alloys are strengthened by solid solution hardening (i.e., alloying) and cold-work hardening (by cold rolling of plates at the last forming stage to certain levels) mechanisms (Ref 113). Solid solution strengthened Al-alloys exhibit the fewest problems with respect to the HAZ if they are not cold-worked. They do not undergo a solid state transformation and, therefore, the effect of the thermal cycle during welding is small, and the properties of the HAZ are almost unaffected by the welding. A slight grain coarsening in this region may take place which does not usually alter the properties significantly. On the other hand, the heat input applied to the material during fusion welding may lead to the segregation and/or evaporation of solute atoms in the FZ, which results in a loss of strength. The loss of strength in the FZ of these alloys is negligible if the alloy is welded in the annealed condition. The effect of the thermal cycle of fusion welding is much more pronounced when the material is strain- hardened. In this case, recrystallization and grain growth take place in the HAZ as the temperature exceeds that of recrystallization

leading to a significant loss of strength, i.e., softening. The loss of strength is particularly higher at regions near the FZ experiencing higher temperatures where grain coarsening is more remarkable. The FZ strength can, on the other hand, be increased by using adequate filler wires in arc welding. Hence, the hardness minimum lies within the HAZ next to the FZ. The strength of the fusion welded joints of cold-worked alloys is generally lower than that of the base material, which is another problem encountered in fusion welding. The loss of strength in the weld region can be eliminated by welding these alloys in annealed condition. Furthermore, the strength loss in the fusion zone is much more pronounced in heat- treatable Al-alloys (Ref 111-113). Non-heat-treatable Al-alloys can readily be fusion-welded. However, these alloys possess certain characteristics inherent to all Al-alloys, such as a tenacious oxide layer, high thermal conductivity, a high coefficient of thermal expansion, high reflectivity, solidification shrinkage almost twice that of ferrous alloys, relatively wide solidification temperature ranges, a tendency to form low melting constituents, and high solubility of hydrogen in molten state (Ref 111-113). Therefore, a propensity for porosity formation may be encountered in fusion welding of these alloys. Furthermore, the high reflectivity of these alloys leads to difficulties in laser beam welding (Ref 113). One of the difficulties encountered in fusion welding of non- heat-treatable Al-alloys is the formation of porosity in fusion zone as already mentioned. The porosity in aluminum alloys weldments is mainly caused by hydrogen gas entrapped during solidification, which has much higher solubility in liquid state than solid state (Ref 111-113). In order to avoid the problem of porosity formation, pre-weld joint preparation requires special care. The surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned chemically or mechanically prior to joining. Porosity formation is not a concern in FSW due to its solid-state nature. Thus, surface preparation is not critical in FSW of Al-alloys in contrast to fusion welding. Al-alloys are generally sensitive to weld metal cracking due to their large solidification temperature range, high coefficient of thermal expansion, and large solidification shrinkage. The sensitivity of non-heat-treatable grades to cracking is lower than that of the heat-treatable grades owing to the fact that they are not as much heavily alloyed. 4.1.2 Weld Microstructure and Properties of Non-heat- treatable Al-alloys. Generally, FSW does not lead to the loss strength in the joint area in the solid-solution hardened Al-alloys (Ref 114-117) since fine recrystallized grains are formed in the SZ resulting in maintenance of the strength (Ref 3, 46, 51-54, 76, 86-97) (Tables 1, 2). Several studies (Ref 46, 76, 87- 97, 117, 118) have suggested that microstructural factors govern the hardness within the joint area in FSW of the solution-hardened Al-alloys. These studies have indicated that the hardness is mainly determined by the grain size in friction stir welds of solution hardened Al-alloys. Kwon et al. (Ref 51, 53, 54) adopted a cone-shaped pin with a sharpened tip to reduce the amount of frictional heat generated during friction stir processing (FSP) of Al 1050, hence to obtain ultra-fine grains. A peak temperature of only 190 C was recorded in the FSP zone at a tool rotational speed of 560 rpm and a traverse speed of 155 mm/min, which resulted in a grain size of 0.5 lm. In an investigation on FSW of Al-alloy 5083-O, Svesson et al. (Ref 117) proposed that the hardness profile depends mainly on dislocation density, because the dominant hardening mecha- nism for this alloy is strain hardening. However, a detailed study more recently conducted on FSW of Al alloys 1080-O

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

Table 1

A summary of grain size in stirred zone of FSW non-heat-treatable Al-alloys

Material

Thickness, mm

Tool geometry

Rotation rate, rpm

Feed rate, mm/min

Grain size, lm

Ref.

AA 1050

5.0

Conical (no thread)

560

155

0.5

(Ref 51, 53, 54) (Ref 88) (Ref 115) (Ref 87) (Ref 89) (Ref 11) (Ref 115) (Ref 117) (Ref 18) (Ref 76) (Ref 18) (Ref 11) (Ref 18)

AA 1050

1.0

400, 1320

<1

AA 1080-O

4.0

……

20

AA 1100

6.0

Cylindrical

400

60

4

AA 5052-O

2.0

Standard (a)

2000-4000

500-2000

3-16.1

AA 5083-Hxx

6.35

Standard

400

25.4-50.8

6.5-8.5

AA 5083-O

6.0

……

4

AA 5083-O

6.0-10.0

46-132

10

AA 5083-H116

5.0

MX-Triflute

200

300

2-15

AA 5251-O

6.0

Standard

800

150

10

AA 5251-H34

5.0

MX-Triflute

500

500

2-10

AA 5754-Hxx

2.0

100

6.4-13.5

AA 5754-O

2.3

Frustum-shaped

500

500

2-9

(a) Cylindrical threaded tool

Table 2

A summary of FSW joint efficiency values for non-heat-treatable Al-alloys

Material

Thickness, mm

R m of BM, MPa

R m of FSW, MPa

Joint efficiency, %

Ref.

AA 1050-H24

5.0

117

85

73

(Ref 84) (Ref 13, 95) (Ref 84) (Ref 3, 11, 117) (Ref 92) (Ref 94) (Ref 97) (Ref 118)

AA 5005-H14

3.0

158

118

75

AA 5083-O

5.0

309

300-320

97-104

AA 5083-O

6.0-15.0

285-298

271-344

95-119

AA 5083-O

3.0

285-298

316-334

95-119

AA 5086-H32

3.0

354

231-265

65-75

AA 5182-H111

1.0

275

278

101

AA 5754

1.0

230

210

91

and 5083-O (Ref 115) has revealed that the factors governing the hardness within the joint area is different in particle containing and particle-free solution-hardened alloys although the grain refinement occurs in both. For instance, a hardness increase within the stirred zone was observed in the particle- free Al-alloy 1080-O and the hardness can be explained by Hall-Petch relation, indicating that the factor affecting the hardness is grain size. On the other hand, it was observed that the hardness could not be explained by the grain size in friction stir welded Al-alloy 5083-O which contains a high density of small particles. This study has suggested that the hardness profiles are mainly governed by the particle distribution (Orowan strengthening) in the friction stir welded Al alloy containing many small particles (Ref 115). Attallah et al. (Ref

18) also proposed that the intermetallic particle distribution has a greater effect on the onion ring formation than variations in the processing parameters.

A recent work was conducted by Etter et al. (Ref 93) to

determine the effect of initial sheet microstructure on the dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. For this purpose, Al alloy 5251 sheets were friction stir welded in both cold-worked (H14) and annealed (O) conditions. They proposed that the recrystallization mechanisms are different in friction stir welded

cold-rolled (pre-strained) and annealed sheets, i.e., a continuous dynamic recrystallization and a geometric dynamic recrystal- lization, respectively.

It is also worth pointing out that the hardness profiles of

friction stir welded non-heat-treatable Al-alloys are also governed by whether the material cold-rolled or annealed, depending on the heat input during welding, as clearly

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

as clearly Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance Fig. 12 Hardness distributions on transverse cross sections

Fig. 12 Hardness distributions on transverse cross sections of fric- tion stir welds in Al-alloy 5454 both in annealed, i.e., O (open sysmbols) and cold worked conditions, i.e., H32 (closed sysmbols) (Ref 35)

indicated in Fig. 12 (Ref 35). Generally, no loss of strength is experienced; even higher strength levels can be obtained in the weld zone as mentioned earlier when the material is annealed. However, a hardness decrease may be observed in the stirred zone of these alloys when welded in cold-rolled condition unless the heat input is sufficiently low, due to the loss of cold- work hardening (Table 2). For instance, a significant reduction in hardness was reported in weld region of FSWed 5454-H32 alloy (Ref 35). Similarly, C¸ am et al. (Ref 94) observed a

Fig. 13 H32 friction stir welds with the increase in weld speed at a constant

Fig. 13

H32 friction stir welds with the increase in weld speed at a constant

rotation rate (Ref 35)

Variation of transverse yield and tensile strengths of 5454-

hardness decrease in the weld region of friction stir welded Al- alloy 5086-H32, indicating that the heat input was high resulting in loss of cold-work hardening and coarsening of recrystallized grains within the SZ. The joint efficiency was about 75%. Similar joint performance values were also reported

by von Strombeck et al. (Ref 13, 95), i.e., 75%, for friction stir welded Al-alloy 5005-H14. The strength of FSWed cold worked non-heat-treatable Al-alloys can somewhat increased by increasing weld speed at a constant rotation rate. For instance, Fig. 13 shows the variation of yield and tensile strengths with increasing weld speed (Ref 35). On the other hand, joint efficiencies between 95 and 120% were obtained in friction stir welded Al-alloy 5083-O, indicating that the joints perform as good as the base material when the alloy is welded

in annealed condition (Ref 3, 117).

4.2 FSW of Heat-treatable Al-Alloys

4.2.1 Physical Metallurgy of Heat-treatable Al-alloys.

A majority of the heat-treatable Al-alloys can be fusion-welded

readily. However, the propensity for porosity formation in fusion

joining is also the case in these alloys as in non-heat-treatable Al- alloys. However, the porosity formation is not a concern in FSW

as

it is a solid-state joining technique as mentioned earlier in FSW

of

non-heat-treatable Al-alloys. The heat-treatable Al-alloys are

much more sensitive to weld metal cracking than non-heat- treatable grades, as mentioned above (Ref 111-113). Weld cracking in heat-treatable Al-alloys may be classified into two groups, namely solidification cracking and liquation cracking. Solidification cracking occurs within the fusion zone and is caused by solidification shrinkage. Liquation cracking, on the other hand, takes place in the HAZ next to the fusion zone and is caused by the formation of low melting constituents as a result of higher amount of alloying additions in these alloys. These constituents have low melting points and so liquate (melt) during welding, accompanied by tears provided that sufficient stress is present (Ref 111-113, 119, 120). Higher heat input widens the partially melted region and makes it more prone to tearing. Thus, solidification cracking is not encountered in FSW, which is a solid-state joining process. Moreover, liquation cracking is not an usual problem in low-heat input FSW owing to its nature, as the case in low heat input power beam welding (i.e., laser and electron beam welding) (Ref 111, 112).

Heat-treatable Al-alloys differ from non-heat-treatable Al-alloys in terms of strengthening mechanisms. These alloys are capable of forming second-phase precipitates for improved strength (Ref 15, 111-113). These alloys derive their strength by virtue of precipitation hardening via natural or artificial aging from the solution-treated condition. However, the HAZ of these alloys undergoes an annealing cycle in the same manner as work-hardened alloys. But, the microstructural changes in this case are much more complex. The heat input applied to the material during fusion welding also results in the dissolution and coarsening of precipitates in the HAZ as well as in the dissolution and segregation and/or evaporation of some alloying elements in the FZ, i.e., base metal degradation,. The maximum loss of strength is usually experienced in the HAZ region of arc welds where overaging takes place resulting in coarsening of precipitates as the strength of the FZ is commonly increased via alloying by the use filler wires (Ref

111-113).

Most of the precipitation hardened Al-alloys can be fusion welded, but the welds exhibit lower strength levels than those of the base materials due to the fact that the thermal cycle of a joining operation degrades the base material properties. The extent of base metal degradation is determined by the welding process and parameters (Ref 111-113, 121). Conventional arc- welding processes involve the application of 10 3 -10 4 W/cm 2 arc intensity and slow weld speeds (i.e., <15 mm/s) which lead to excessive heat input into the base metal, thus resulting in a coarse weld microstructure and a wide HAZ. The extent of overaging, hence the loss of strength, in the HAZ region of the low-heat input welds, such as autogenously laser beam (LB) or electron beam (EB) welded joints, is not as high as that in arc weldments (Ref 122-124). In these welds, the minimum strength is usually observed in the FZ, where the dissolution of precipitates takes place. Therefore, base metal degradation in the HAZ (HAZ degradation) of heat-treatable Al-alloys is of prime concern in arc welding. Generally, the loss of strength in heat-treatable alloys is much more pronounced than that in non- heat-treatable alloys (Ref 111-113). As pointed out above, metallurgical transformations in the weld region of heat-treatable alloys during fusion welding lead to base metal degradation in this region. Post-weld solution treating and aging provides the greatest improvement in joint strength, but this practice involves use of water quenching which may result in intolerable distortion in the workpiece. Post-weld aging at lower temperatures provides, on the other hand, moderate recovery of joint strength and does not require water quenching (Ref 111, 112). An alternative way of eliminating the loss of strength in the weld region is to weld these alloys in solution-treated condition (T4) and age them after welding (Ref 98). To accomplish this effectively, a welding procedure that keeps the heat input relatively low and short in duration, such as LB or EB welding, should be employed (Ref 111, 112). 4.2.2 Weld Microstructure and Properties of Heat-treat- able Al-alloys. FSW results in the temperature increase up to 400-550 C within the nugget zone due to friction between the tool and the workpiece and plastic deformation around the rotating tool (Ref 5-7, 9, 11, 46, 51, 52, 56). At such a high temperature, the base metal degradation, i.e., precipitate dissolution and coarsening, occurs in and around the stir zone (SZ) of friction stir welding of heat-treatable Al-alloys, leading to loss of strength in the joint area (Ref 6, 11, 51, 56, 58, 65, 69). For instance, Liu et al. (Ref 46) examined microstructural

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

evolution in FSW Al 6061-T6 and reported that the homog- enously distributed precipitates are generally smaller in the base plate than in the joint area, implying the coarsening of the precipitates. Similarly, Sato et al. (Ref 9) investigated the microstructural evolution during FSW of Al 6063-T5 and they could not observe any precipitates within the weld nugget in TEM, indicating that all the precipitates dissolved (Ref 11). Woo et al. (Ref 125) also reported that they did not observe any precipitates within the weld nugget of friction stir processed Al 6061-T6 alloy plate indicating that they dissolved upon welding thus leading to strength loss in weld region (Fig. 14). More recently, Heinz and Skrotzki (Ref 58) also reported complete dissolution of the precipitates in FSW Al 6013-T4 and T6. Su et al. (Ref 65) also observed that the coarsening and coarsening/dissolution of the strengthening precipitates take place in the HAZ and TMAZ of FSW Al 7075- T651, respectively. Similarly, Jata et al. (Ref 69) also observed the absence of the precipitates in the stir zone of FSW Al 7075-

T7451.

Grain refinement in the SZ also takes place in FSW of heat- treatable Al-alloys (Ref 5, 7, 10, 11, 18, 47-49, 52, 55, 58, 61- 65, 67-70, 125-133), Table3. In order to obtain finer grains, thus to achieve higher strength values within the SZ, external cooling has been employed during welding (Ref 11, 47, 51, 53- 55). For instance, Benavides et al. (Ref 47) investigated the effect of workpiece temperature on the grain size of FSW Al- 2024 and reported that the cooling the workpiece from 30 to 30 C with liquid nitrogen resulted in a decrease in the peak temperature from 330 to 140 C at a location 10 mm away

from the weld centerline, thereby leading to a reduction in the grain size from 10 to 0.8 lm. Following a similar approach, Su et al. (Ref 55) prepared bulk nanostructured Al7075 with an average grain size of approx. 100 nm via FSP, using a mixture of methanol and dry ice for cooling the plate rapidly behind the tool. Similarly, Rhodes et al. (Ref 70) also produced a grain size of about 25-100 nm within the SZ of friction stir processed Al7050-T76 alloy by cooling the workpiece with a mixture of dry ice and isopropyl alcohol. However, the grain refinement cannot recover the loss of strength due to precipitate dissolution and coarsening in these high strength alloys and hence much lower joint efficiencies are generally obtained (Table 4) (Ref 6, 11, 13, 49, 58, 67, 85, 95- 97, 126, 129-159). FSW does not lead to the loss of strength in the joint area in these age-hardenable alloys if the welding is conducted in annealed (i.e., O-treated) condition (Fig. 15, 16) (Ref 144, 145, 147, 148), as it is the case in the solid-solution hardened Al-alloys. On the other hand, as it is clearly seen from Fig. 15 and 17, it leads to a softened zone in the joint area if the alloy is friction stir welded in age-hardened condition (Ref 11, 15, 111, 112, 144, 145, 147, 148). Maximum joint efficiencies of 75 and 80% were reported for FSWed Al6061-T6 and Al 7075-T6 alloys, respectively (Ref 144, 145). However, these joint efficiency values were restored to about 90 and 100% by subsequent artificial aging treatments (i.e., 6 h at 170 C and 6 h at 140 C, respectively) (Ref 147, 148). Similarly, Mahon- ey et al. (Ref 6) investigated the joint efficiency of FSW Al 7075-T651 by transverse tensile testing at room temperature and reported a joint efficiency of 75% for this alloy, indicating a

a joint efficiency of 75% for this alloy, indicating a Fig. 14 TEM bright-field images of

Fig. 14

TEM bright-field images of friction stir processed Al 6061-T6 alloy plate: (a) base material, (b) DXZ, (c) HAZ, and (d) TMAZ regions

(Ref 125)

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

Table 3

A summary of grain size in stirred zone of FSW heat-treatable Al-alloys

Material

Thickness, mm

Tool geometry

Rotation rate, rpm

Feed rate, mm/min

Grain size, lm

Ref.

AA 2017-T6 AA 2024 AA 2024-T3 AA 2024-T351 AA 2024-T351 AA 2024-T4 (b) AA 2095 AA 2219-T6 AA 2519-T87 AA 6013-T4, T6 AA 6013-T4 AA 6061-T6 AA 6063-T5 AA 6082-T6 AA 6082-T6 AA 6181-T4 AA 7010-T7651 AA 7020-O AA 7039-T6 AA 7050-T7451 AA 7050-T651 AA 7075-T6 AA 7075 (c) AA 7475 Al-Li-Cu Cast Al-Cu-Mg-Ag-T6 Cast Al-Zn-Mg-Sc

3.0

Standard (a)

1250

60

9-10

(Ref 11)

6.35

Standard

200-300

25.4

2.0-3.9

(Ref 65)

1.6, 4.0

……

5-10

(Ref 126)

6.0

80

2-3

(Ref 61)

6.3

Frustum-shaped

468

75

2-7

(Ref 18)

6.5

Standard

650

60

0.5-0.8

(Ref 45)

1.6

1000

126-252

1.6

(Ref 59)

5.6

Standard

400-1200

100-800

8-15

(Ref 130)

25.4

275

101.6

2-12

(Ref 11)

4.0

1400

400-450

10-15

(Ref 56)

1.6, 4.0

……

15

(Ref 126)

6.3

Standard Standard Standard Non-threaded cylindrical Standard

300-1000

90-150

10

(Ref 44)

4.0

800-3600

180

5.9-17.8

(Ref 50)

4.0

1600

40-460

2.0-2.8

(Ref 128)

1.5

1810

460

2.8-3.9

(Ref 131)

1.0, 2.0

1300-2000

800-1125

8.8-14.0

(Ref 129)

6.4

180, 450 1120, 1400, 1800

95

1.7, 7.0

(Ref 62)

8.0

Standard

20, 40, 80

1.0-9.0

(Ref 132)

5.0

Standard

635

190

8.0

(Ref 133)

6.35

400

100

1-5

(Ref 67)

6.35

350

15

1-4

(Ref 63)

3.0

1500

300

3

(Ref 127)

2.0

1000

120

0.1

(Ref 53)

6.35

…… ……

2.2

(Ref 66)

7.6

9

(Ref 10)

4.0

850

75

3-5

(Ref 60)

6.7

Standard

400

25.4

0.68

(Ref 11)

(a)

Cylindrical threaded tool

(b)

Cooled with liquid nitrogen

(c)

Cooled with water, methanol, dry ice

significant loss of strength in the nugget zone, Table 4. They also tried to improve the joint strength by applying a post-weld aging (121 C/24 h), which however further decreased the strength, which is likely to be due to the high aging temperature and long aging time used. Sato et al. (Ref 115) also investigated the effect of post-weld heat treatments on the joint performance of FSW Al 6063-T5. They observed that the post-weld aging (175 C/12 h) resulted in a slight recovery of the strength while the post-weld solution heat treatment and aging (SHTA, 530 C/1 h + 175 C/12 h) increased the strength of the joint to above that of the base plate with almost completely restored ductility. Furthermore, the hardness and strength obtained in the weld region of age-hardened alloys can somewhat increased by increasing weld speed at constant rotation rate or increasing rotation rate at constant weld speed as clearly shown in Fig. 18 and 19. FSWed joints of age-hardened Al-alloys exhibit significant strength loss in the weld region in the as-welded condition as the case in fusion welding. It is thus proposed that it does not offer any advantage over arc welding in joining of these alloys with respect to the strength of the weld zone (Ref 15). The FZ strength can be restored to some extent in arc welding by using appropriate filler wires which is not possible in this solid state welding method. However, the strength of HAZ cannot be restored in fusion welding (Ref 111, 112). Moreover, the base metal degradation in the FZ and HAZ of these alloys is not that significant in low heat input welding methods, i.e., pulsed arc, laser, or electron beam welding (Ref 15, 111, 112, 122-124,

160). It is, however, worth pointing out that the degree of strength loss in friction stir welds of age-hardened alloys can be minimized by using optimum weld parameters. In order to increase the joint efficiency values of FSWed heat-treatable alloys, higher traverse speeds at a constant ratio of rotational speed to traverse speed can be used, which in turn reduces the heat input applied to the workpieces. Moreover, the alloy can be friction stir welded in the annealed condition, which is a common approach to overcome the problem of strength loss during arc welding welding (Ref 111, 112).

5. General Remarks

Most of FSW studies reported in the literature up to date concentrated on FSW of Al-alloys, for which the method is originally developed. As pointed out earlier, FSW does not generally result in the loss strength in the joint area in the solid- solution hardened Al-alloys provided that it is not heavily cold- worked prior to joining. FSW only results in the formation of recrystallized grains in the weld area of solid solution strengthened Al-alloys due to the dynamic recrystallization, provided that the plates are in the annealed condition prior to joining. The size of recrystallized grains is determined by welding conditions, hence by the heat input applied to the workpiece during joining. If the alloy is in the cold-worked condition, then there is a much more significant loss of strength

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

Table 4

A summary of FSW joint efficiency values for heat-treatable Al-alloys

Material

Thickness, mm

R m of BM, MPa

R m of FSW, MPa

Joint efficiency, %

Ref.

AFC458-T8

545

362

66

(Ref 11) (Ref 134) (Ref 11) (Ref 85) (Ref 11, 13, 95) (Ref 49) (Ref 11) (Ref 126) (Ref 126) (Ref 135) (Ref 11) (Ref 11) (Ref 136) (Ref 136) (Ref 141) (Ref 11) (Ref 126) (Ref 126) (Ref 58) (Ref 58) (Ref 97) (Ref 96) (Ref 137) (Ref 138) (Ref 143) (Ref 144, 145) (Ref 144, 145) (Ref 11, 13, 95) (Ref 139) (Ref 115) (Ref 139) (Ref 140) (Ref 131) (Ref 129) (Ref 132) (Ref 13, 95) (Ref 146) (Ref 133) (Ref 11, 67, 141) (Ref 147, 148) (Ref 147, 148) (Ref 149) (Ref 11) (Ref 6) (Ref 11)

AA 2014

8.0

459

344

75

AA 2014-T651

6.0

479-483

326-338

68-70

AA 2017-T351

5.0

428

351

82

AA 2024-T351

5.0

483-493

410-434

83-90

AA 2024-T3

3.0

457

402

88

AA 2024-T3

4.0

478

425-441

89-90

AA 2024-T3

1.6

417

369

89

AA 2024-T3

4.0

497

413

83

AA 2024-T8

3.0

476

397-453

83-95

AA 2195-T8

593

406.8

69

AA 2219-T87

475.8

310.3

65

AA 2219-O

5.0

159

159

100

AA 2219-T6

5.0

416

341

82

AA 2219-T6

5.0

416

295-329

80

AA 2519-T87

25.4

480

379

79

AA 6013-T4

1.6

346

252

73

AA 6013-T4

4.0

320

249

78

AA 6013-T4

4.0

320

300

94

AA 6013-T6

4.0

394

295

75

AA 6016-T4

1.0

226

185

82

AA 6056-T78

6.0

332

247

74

AA 6056-T4

4.0

316

180-280

57-88

AA 6056-T6

10.0

330

280

85

AA6060-T6

5.0

215

186

86

AA 6061-O

3.17

123

123

100

AA 6061-T6

3.17

345

257

75

AA 6061-T6

5.0

319-324

217-252

67-79

AA 6061-T6

3.0

342

231.6

64.2

AA 6063-T5

4.0

216

155

72

AA 6082-T6

3.0

322.9

221.3

68.5

AA 6082-T6

1.5

331

252

76

AA 6082-T6

1.5

331

252-254

76-77

AA 6181-T4

1.0, 2.0

274

249-258

91-94

AA 7020-O

8.0

251

251

100

AA 7020-T6

5.0

385

325

84

AA 7020-T6

4.4

405

340

84

AA 7039-T6

5.0

414

354

86

AA 7050-T7451

6.4

545-558

427-441

77-81

AA 7075-O

3.17

216

216

100

AA 7075-T6

3.17

580

474

82

AA 7075-T6

5.0

485

373

77

AA 7075-T7351

472.3

455.1

96

AA 7075-T651

6.4

622

468

75

AA 7475-T76

505

465

92

both in the SZ and HAZ due to the heat input during joining, which anneals and softens the material The situation is much more complicated in FSW of heat- treatable Al-alloys. A significant loss of strength takes place in the weld area of these alloys after FSW, Table 4, both in the HAZ and SZ. The loss of strength in the HAZ region is due to the overaging in this region as a result of heat input. Overaging also takes place in the HAZ of these alloys when they are fusion welded, rendering this region the weakest location across the joint Moreover, the degree of overaging is more pronounced in fusion welding due to the higher heat inputs involved. This difficulty is, however, inherent to precipitation hardened Al- alloys and encountered in almost all welding processes. Furthermore, the base metal degradation in FSW is not as high as that in fusion welding processes involving higher heat inputs

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

provided that optimum welding conditions for relatively lower peak temperatures are employed. That is why FSW has already found remarkable industrial application for Al-alloys and its industrial use is expected to increase. Presently, friction stir welding (similar butt-, lap-, and spot- welding applications in Al-alloys) is already used industrially in manufacturing of ships, aeroplanes and space shuttles, trains, and other vehicles. The applicability of FSW to join dissimilar Al-alloys plates or Al-alloys plates with other materials (such as Mg-alloys) is being currently investigated intensively. Thus, the advancement achieved in this area (namely the progress made in friction stir butt- and spot-welding of Al- and Mg-alloys, particularly in dissimilar combinations) will make the mass production of light transportation systems possible and hence significant reduction in fuel consumption will be achieved. The

Fig. 15 Hardness variations across transverse cross sections of fric- tion stir welds produced in

Fig. 15 Hardness variations across transverse cross sections of fric- tion stir welds produced in O- and T6-temper conditions: (a) AA6061 and (b) AA7075 alloys (Ref 144, 145)

(a) AA6061 and (b) AA7075 alloys (Ref 144 , 145 ) Fig. 16 Comparison of stress-elongation

Fig. 16 Comparison of stress-elongation (in percent) curves of joints produced in O-temper condition to those of the as-received O and T6 base plates: (a) AA6061 and (b) AA7075 alloy (Ref 147, 148)

plates: (a) AA6061 and (b) AA7075 alloy (Ref 147 , 148 ) Fig. 17 Comparison of

Fig. 17 Comparison of stress-elongation (in percent) curves of joints produced in T6-temper condition to those of the as-received T6 base plate: (a) AA6061 and (b) AA7075 alloy (Ref 147, 148)

plate: (a) AA6061 and (b) AA7075 alloy (Ref 147 , 148 ) Fig. 18 Hardness in

Fig. 18 Hardness in the weld nugget and HAZ of FSWed AA2524 Al-alloy joints as a function of rotation rate at constant weld speed and vertical force (Ref 35)

application of this novel welding method will increase in the coming days particularly in ship building, aeroplane and space industry, automotive sector and other manufacturing sectors. Similarly, industrial application of hybrid friction stir-laser welding (laser-assisted friction stir welding) method is highly possible in a near future. Friction stir spot welding of Al-alloys plates led to the design and manufacturing of vehicles using lighter materials and, thus, is a candidate to replace steel bodies of cars manufactured using resistance spot welding. Similarly, spot

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

Fig. 19 Hardness in the weld nugget of FSWed AA7050 Al-alloy joints as a function

Fig. 19 Hardness in the weld nugget of FSWed AA7050 Al-alloy joints as a function of weld speed at constant rotation rate and verti- cal force (Ref 35)

welding method is also candidate to replace riveting in bodies of airplanes. Moreover, newly developed dual-rotation tech- nique can significantly modify the velocity gradient between the probe center and the shoulder diameter. Early trials confirm that use of slower shoulder rotational speed lowers the HAZ temperature during the welding operation. This effectively reduces thermal softening in the HAZ region. This novel welding (namely friction stir) technology has already changed the design and manufacturing approaches in light transportation systems and will continue to make an revolutionary impact in manufacturing routes in the future.

References

1. W.M. Thomas, E.D. Nicholas, J.C. Needham, M.G. Murch, P.Temple- Smith, and C.J. Dawes, International Patent Application No. PCT/ GB92/02203 and GB Patent Application No. 9125978.8 and US Patent Application No. 5,460,317, Dec 1991

2. W.M. Thomas and E.D. Nicholas, Friction Stir Welding for the

_

Transportation Industries, Mater. Des., 1997, 18, p 269–273

3. C.J. Dawes and W.M. Thomas, Friction Stir Process Welds Aluminum Alloys, Weld. J., 1996, 75, p 41–45

 

_

4. W.B. Lee, Y.M. Yeon, and S.B. Jung, The

Improvement

of

Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded A356 Al Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 355A, p 154–159

5. C.G. Rhodes, M.W. Mahoney, W.H. Bingel, R.A. Spurling, and C.C. Bampton, Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Microstructure of 7075 Aluminum, Scripta Mater., 1997, 36, p 69–75

6. M.W. Mahoney, C.G. Rhodes, J.G. Flintoff, R.A. Spurling, and W.H. Bingel, Properties of Friction Stir Welded 7075 T651 Aluminum, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1998, 29, p 1955–1964

7. L.E. Murr, G. Liu, and J.C. McClure, A TEM Study of Precipitation and Related Microstructures in Friction-stir Welded 6061 Aluminum, J. Mater. Sci., 1998, 33, p 1243–1251

8. O.V. Flores, C. Kennedy, L.E. Murr, D. Brown, S. Pappu, B.M.

_

Nowak, and J.C. McClure, Microstructural Issues in a Friction-stir-

welded Aluminum Alloy, Scripta Mater., 1998, 38, p 703–708

9. Y.S. Sato, H. Kokawa, M. Enomoto, S. Jogan, and T. Hashimoto,

Precipitation Sequence in Friction Stir Weld of 6063 Aluminum During Aging, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1991, 30, p 3125–3130 10. K.V. Jata and S.L. Semiatin, Continuous Dynamic Recrystallization During Friction Stir Welding of High Strength Aluminum Alloys, Scripta Mater., 2000, 43, p 743–749 11. R.S. Mishra and Z.Y. Ma, Friction Stir Welding and Processing, Mater. Sci. Eng. R, 2005, 50, p 1–78

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

12.

G. C¸ am and M. Koc¸ak, Joining of Advanced Materials, Area 6:

Materials Science and Engineering, Topic 6.36.4: Materials Processing and Manufacturing Technologies, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the auspices of the UNESCO, R.D. Rawlings, Ed., Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK (online), 2002-2014. http://www.eolss.net/

13.

A. von Strombeck, G. C¸ am, J.F. dos Santos, V. Ventzke, and M. Koc¸ak, A Comparison Between Microstructure, Properties, and Toughness Behavior of Power Beam and Friction Stir Welds in Al- alloys, Proc. of the TMS 2001 Annual Meeting Aluminum, Automotive and Joining, S.K. Das, J.G. Kaufman, and T.J. Lienert, Eds., Feb 12- 14, 2001 (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA), TMS, Warrendale, PA, USA, 2001, p 249-264

14.

P.L. Threadgill, A.J. Leonard, H.R. Shercliff, and P.J. Withers, Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys, Int. Mater. Rev., 2009, 54,

p

49–93

15.

R. Nandan, T. DebRoy, and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Recent Advances in Friction Stir Welding-Process, Weldment Structure and Properties, Prog. Mater. Sci., 2008, 53, p 980–1023

16.

G. Campbell and T. Stotler, Friction Stir Welding of Armor Grade Aluminum Plate, Weld. J., 1999, 78, p 45–47

17.

P.L. Threadgill, Terminology in Friction Stirwelding, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2007, 12, p 357–360

18.

M.M. Attallah, C.L. Davies, and M. Strangwood, Influence of Base Metal Microstructure on Microstructural Development in Aluminium

Based Alloy Friction Stir Welds, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2007, 12,

p

361–369

19.

S.W. Kallee, J. Davenport, and E.D. Nicholas, Railway Manufacturers implement friction Stir Welding, Weld. J., 2002, 81, p 47–50

20.

M.R. Johnsen, Friction Stir Welding Takes off at Boeing, Weld. J., 1999, 78, p 35–39

21.

J. Ding, R. Carter, K. Lawless, A. Nunes, C. Russel, M. Suits, and J. Schneider, Friction Stir Welding Flies High at NASA, Weld. J., 2006, 85, p 54–59

22.

D.G. Staines, W.M. Thomas, S.W. Kallee, and P.J. Oakley, Friction Stir Technology—Recent Developments in Process Variants and Applications, COM 2006, Oct 1-4 2006

23.

W.M. Thomas, Friction Stir Welding and Related Friction Process Characteristics, INALCO 98 7th International Conference, Joints in Aluminium, Cambridge, UK, 1998

24.

W.M. Thomas, E.D. Nicholas, E.R. Watts, and D.G. Staines, Friction Based Welding Technology for Aluminium, The 8th International Conference on Aluminium Alloys, 2-5 July 2002, Cambridge, UK, 2002

25.

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., A New Method for Light Alloy Joining—Friction Spot Joining, 2006-2014. www.kawasakirobot.com

27.

G. Kohn, Y. Greenberg, I. Makover, and A. Munitz, Laser-assisted Friction Stirwelding, Weld. J., 2002, 81, p 46–48

28.

K.N. Krishnan, On the Formation of Onion Rings in Friction Stir Welds, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2002, 327, p 246–251

29.

G. Buffa, L. Donati, L. Fratini, and L. Tomesani, Solid State Bonding

in Extrusion and FSW: Process Mechanics and Analogies, J. Mater.

Process. Technol., 2006, 177, p 344–347

30.

G.M.D. Cantin, S.A. David, W.M. Thomas, E. Lara-Curzio, and S.S. Babu, Friction Skew-Stir Welding of lap Joints in 5083-O Aluminum, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2005, 10, p 268–280

31.

W.M. Thomas, K.I. Johnson, and C.S. Wiesner, Friction Stir Welding—Recent Developments in Tool and Process Technologies, Adv. Eng. Mater., 2003, 5, p 485–490

32.

R. Rai, A. De, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, and T. DebRoy, Review: Friction Stir Welding Tools, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2011, 16, p 325–342

33.

J. Defalco, Friction Stir Welding vs. Fusion Welding, Weld. J., 2006, 85, p 42–44

34.

J.W. Arbegast, Friction Stir Welding, Weld. J., 2006, 85, p 28–35

35.

R.S. Mishra and M.W. Mahoney, Eds., Friction Stir Welding and

Processing, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA, 2007

36.

G. C¸ am, Friction Stir Welded Structural Materials Beyond Al-alloys, Int. Mater. Rev., 2011, 56, p 1–48

37.

E. Dalder, J.W. Pastrnak, J. Engel, R.S. Forrest, E. Kokko, K. McTernan, and D. Waldron, Bobbin-Tool Friction—Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels, Weld. J., 2008, 87,

p

40–44

38.

J. Yan, M.A. Sutton, and A.P. Reynolds, Process-Structure-Property Relationships for Nugget and HAZ Regions of AA2524-T351 Friction Stir Welds, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2005, 10, p 725–736

39. R. Crawford, G.E. Cook, A.M. Strauss, D.A. Hartman, and M.A. Stremler, Experimental Defect Analysis and Force Prediction Simu- lation of High Weld Pitch Friction Stir Welding, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2006, 11, p 657–665

40. Y.G. Kim, H. Fujii, T. Tsumura, T. Komazaki, and K. Nakata, Three Defect Types in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum die Casting Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 415, p 250–254

41. H.J. Liu, H. Fujii, M. Maeda, and K. Nogi, Tensile Properties and Fracture Locations of Friction-Stir Welded Joints of 6061-T6 Aluminium Alloy, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2004, 20, p 103–105

42. X. Long and S.K. Khanna, Modelling of Electrically Enhanced Friction Stir Welding Process Using Finite Element Method, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2005, 10, p 482–487

43. R. Leal and A. Loureiro, Defects Formation in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium, Mater. Sci Forum, 2004, 455-456, p 299–302

44. K. Elangovan and V. Balasubramanian, Influences of Pin Profile and Rotational Speed of the Tool on the Formation of Friction Stir Processing Zone in AA2219 Aluminium Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 459, p 7–18

45. Dong et al., Characteristics and mechanism on the distortion of friction stir welded aluminium alloy sheet. Proc. of the 1st Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, 14-16 June 1999, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 1999

46. G. Liu, L.E. Murr, C.-S. Niou, J.C. McClure, and F.R. Vega, Microstructural Aspects of the Friction-Stir Welding of 6061-T6 Aluminum, Scripta Mater., 1997, 37, p 355–361

47. S. Benavides, Y. Li, L.E. Murr, D. Brown, and J.C. McClure, Low Temperature Friction Stir Welding of 2024 Aluminum, Scripta Mater., 1999, 41, p 809–815

48. Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra, and M.W. Mahoney, Superplastic Deformation Behaviour of Friction Stir Processed 7075Al Alloy, Acta Mater., 2002, 50, p 4419–4430

49. S.A. Khodir, T. Shibayanagi, and M. Naka, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy, Mater. Trans., 2006, 47, p 185–193

50. S.R. Ren, Z.Y. Ma, and L.Q. Chen, Effect of Welding Parameters on Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Friction Stir Welded Al- Mg-Si Alloy, Scripta Mater., 2007, 56, p 69–72

51. Y.J. Kwon, N. Saito, and I. Shigematsu, Friction Stir Process as a New Manufacturing Technique of Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum Alloy, J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 2002, 21, p 1473–1476

52. Y.S. Sato, M. Urata, and H. Kokowa, Parameters Controlling Microstructure and Hardness During Friction-Stir Welding of Precip- itation-Hardenable Aluminium Alloy 6063, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2002, 33, p 625–635

53. Y.J. Kwon, I. Shigematsu, and N. Saito, Production of Ultra-Fine Grained Aluminum Alloy Using Friction Stir Process, Mater. Trans., 2003, 44, p 1343–1350

54. Y.J. Kwon, I. Shigematsu, and N. Saito, Mechanical Properties of Fine-Grained Aluminum Alloy Produced by Friction Stir Process, Scripta Mater., 2003, 49, p 785–789

55. J.Q. Su, T.W. Nelson, and C.J. Sterling, Microstructure Evolution During FSW/FSP of High Strength Aluminum Alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, 405, p 277–286

63. A.F. Norman, I. Brough, and P.B. Prangnell, High Resolution EBSD Analysis of the Grain Structure in a AA2024 Friction Stir Weld, Mater. Sci. Forum, 2000, 331-337, p 1713–1718

64. K.A.A. Hassan, A.F. Norman, D.A. Price, and P.B. Prangnell, Stability of Nugget Zone Grain Structures in High Strength Al Alloy

Friction Stir Welds During Solution Treatment, Acta Mater., 2003, 51,

p 1923–1936

65. J.Q. Su, T.W. Nelson, R.S. Mishra, and M.W. Mahoney, Microstruc-

_

tural Investigation of Friction Stir Welded 7050-T651 Aluminum,

Acta Mater., 2003, 51, p 713–729

66. Z.Y. Ma, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney, and R. Grimes, High Strain Rate Superplasticity in Friction Stir Processed Al-Mg-Zr Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 351, p 148–153

67. I. Charit and R.S. Mishra, High Strain Rate Superplasticity in a Commercial 2024 Al Alloy via Friction Stir Processing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 359, p 290–296

68. I. Charit, R.S. Mishra, and M.W. Mahoney, Multi-sheet Structures in

7475 Aluminum by Friction Stir Welding in Concert With Post-weld

Superplastic Forming, Scripta Mater., 2002, 47, p 631–636

69. K.V. Jata, K.K. Sankaran, and J.J. Ruschau, Friction Stir Welding Effects on Microstructure and Fatigue of Aluminum Alloy 7075- T7451, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2000, 31, p 2181–2192

70. C.G. Rhodes, M.W. Mahoney, W.H. Bingel, and M. Calabrese, Fine- grain Evolution in Friction Stir Processed 7075 Aluminum, Scripta Mater., 2003, 48, p 1451–1455

71. K. Oh-Ishi and T.R. McNelley, Microstructural Modification of As- cast NiAl Bronze by Friction Stir Processing, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2004, 35, p 2951–2961

72. R.W. Fonda, J.F. Bingert, and K.J. Colligan, Development of Grain Structure During Friction Stir Welding, Scripta Mater., 2004, 51, p

243–248

73. T.R. McNelley, S. Swaminathan, and J.Q. Su, Recrystallization Mechanisms During Friction Stir Welding/Processing of Aluminum Alloys, Scripta Mater., 2008, 58, p 349–354

74. Z.Y. Ma, S.R. Sharma, and R.S. Mishra, Effect of Friction Stir Processing on the Microstructure of Cast A356 Aluminum, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 433, p 269–278

75. K. Kumar and S.V. Kailas, The Role of Friction Stir Welding and Material Flow and Weld Formation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, 485, p

367–374

76. H. Jin, S. Saimoto, M. Ball, and P.L. Threadgill, Characterisation of Microstructure and Texture in Friction Stir Welded Joints of 5754 and

5182 Aluminium Alloy Sheets, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2001, 17, p

1605–1614

77. D.P. Field, T.W. Nelson, Y. Hovanski, and K.V. Jata, Heterogeneity of Crystallographic Texture in Friction Stir Welds of Aluminum, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, 32, p 2869–2877

78. H.N.B. Schmidt, T.L. Dickerson, and J.H. Hattel, Material Flow in

Butt Friction Stir Welds in AA2024-T3, Acta Mater., 2006, 54(4), p

1199–1209

79. R.S. Mishra and M.W. Mahoney, Friction Stir Processing: A new Grain Refinement Technique to Achieve High Strain Rate Super- plasticity in Commercial Alloys, Mat. Sci. Forum, 2001, 357,

p 507–514

 

_

56. W. Tang, X. Guo, J.C. McClure, and L.E. Murr, Heat

Input and

80. M.R. Barnett and F. Montheillet, The Generation of new High-Angle

p

2285–2296

Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding, J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci., 1998, 7, p 163–172

Boundaries in aluminum During Hot Torsion, Acta Mater., 2002, 50,

57. A.P. Reynolds, Visualisation of Material Flow in Autogenous Friction Stirwelds, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2000, 5, p 120–124

58. B. Heinz and B. Skrotzki, Characterization of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 6013, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2002, 33, p 489–498

59. G.S. Frankel and Z. Xia, Localized Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 5454, Corrosion, 1999, 55, p 139–150

60. Y.S. Sato, H. Kokowa, K. Ikeda, M. Enomoto, S. Jogan, and T. Hashimoto, Microtexture in the Friction-Stir Weld of an Aluminum Alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, 32, p 941–948

61. H.G. Salem, A.P. Reynolds, and J.S. Lyons, Microstructure and Retention of Superplasticity of Friction Stir Welded Superplastic 2095 Sheet, Scripta Mater., 2002, 46, p 337–342

62. L. Litynska, R. Braun, G. Staniek, C. Dalle Donne, and J. Dutkiewicz, TEM Study of Themicrostructure Evolution in a Friction Stir-Welded Al Cu Mg Ag alloy, Mater. Chem. Phys, 2003, 81, p 293–295

81. P.A. Colegrove and H.R. Shercliff, Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Aluminum Alloy 7075-T7351 Friction Stir Welds, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2003, 8, p 360–368

82. H.J. Liu, H. Fujii, and K. Nogi, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of AC4A Cast Aluminium Alloy, Mater. Sci. Techol., 2004, 20, p 399–402

83. H. Fujii, Y.G. Kim, T. Tsumura, T. Komazaki, and K. Nakata,

Estimation of Material Flow in Stir Zone During Friction Stir Welding by Distribution Measurement of Si Particles, Mater. Trans., 2006, 47,

p 224–232

84. H. Fujii, L. Cui, M. Maeda, and K. Nogi, Effect of Tool Shape on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 419, p 25–31

85. H.J. Liu, H. Fujii, M. Maeda, and K. Nogi, Tensile Properties and Fracture Locations of Friction-Stir-Welded Joints of 2017-T351 Aluminum Alloy, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2003, 142, p 692–696

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

86.

Y.S. Sato, Y. Kurihara, S.H.C. Park, H. Kokowa, and N. Tsuji, Friction Stir Welding of Ultrafine Grained Al Alloy 1100 Produced by Accumulative Roll-Bonding, Scripta Mater., 2004, 50, p 57–60

87.

L.E. Murr, G. Liu, and J.C. McClure, Dynamic Recrystallization in Friction-Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy 1100, J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1997, 16, p 1801–1803

88.

Y.S. Sato, M. Urata, H. Kokowa, K. Ikeda, and M. Enomoto, Retention of Fine Grained Microstructure of Equal Channel Angular Pressed Al Alloy 1050 by Friction Stir Welding, Scripta Mater., 1050, 45(2001), p 109–114

89.

M.

Peel, A. Steuwer, M. Preuss, and P.J. Withers, Microstructure,

Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses as a Function of Welding Speed in Aluminium AA5083 Friction Stir Welds, Acta Mater., 2003,

51, p 4791–4801

90.

C.

Genevois, A. Deschamps, and P. Vacher, Comparative Study on

Local and Global Mechanical Properties of 2024 T351, 2024 T6 and 5251 O Friction Stir Welds, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 415, p 162–170

91.

Y.S. Sato, M. Urata, H. Kokowa, and K. Ikeda, Hall-Petch Relationship in Friction Stir Welds of Equal Channel Angular Pressed Aluminium Alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 354, p 298–305

92.

T. Hirata, T. Oguri, H. Hagino, T. Tanaka, S.W. Chung, Y. Takigawa, and K. Higashi, Influence Offriction Stir Welding Parameters on Grain Size and Formability in 5083 Aluminum Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 456, p 344–349

93.

A.L. Etter, T. Baudin, N. Fredj, and R. Penelle, Recrystallization Mechanisms in 5251 H14 and 5251 O Aluminum Friction Stir Welds, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 445-446, p 94–99

94.

G.

C¸ am, S. Gu¨c¸lu¨er, A. C¸ akan, and H.T. Serindag˘, Mechanical

Properties of Friction Stir Butt-Welded Al-5086 H32 Plate, Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech., 2009, 40, p 638–642

95.

A.

von Strombeck, J.F. dos Santos, F. Torster, P. Laureano, and M.

Koc¸ak, Fracture Toughness Behavior of FSW Joints on Aluminum Alloys, Proc. 1st Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, June 14-16, 1999

96.

A.

Denquin, D. Allehaux, M.H. Campagnac, and G. Lapasset,

Microstructural and Mechanical Evolutions Within Friction Stir Welds of Precipitation Hardened Aluminium Alloys, Mater. Sci. Forum, 2003, 426-432, p 2921–2926

97.

C.

Leitao, R.M. Leal, D.M. Rodrigues, A. Loureiro, and P. Vilac¸a,

Mechanical Behaviour of Similar and Dissimilar AA 5182-H111and AA 6016-T4 Thin Friction Stir Welds, Mater. Des., 2009, 30, p 101–108

98.

W.M. Thomas, P.L. Threadgill, and E.D. Nicholas, Feasibility of Friction Stir Welding Steel, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 1999, 4, p 365–

372

99.

T.J. Lienert, W.L. Stellwag, B.B. Grimmett, and R.W. Warke, Friction Stir Welding Studies on Mild Steel—Process Results, Microstructures, and Mechanical Properties are Reported, Weld. J., 2003, 82, p 1s–9s

100.

A.P. Reynolds, W. Tang, M. Posada, and J. DeLoach, Friction Stir Welding of DH36 Steel, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2003, 8, p 455–460

101.

P.J. Konkol, C.J.A. Mathers, R. Johnson, and J.R. Pickens, Friction Stir Welding of HSLA-65 Steel for Ship Building, J. Ship Prod., 2003, 19, p 159–164

102.

A.

Ozekcin, H.W. Jin, J.Y. Koo, N.V. Bangaru, R. Ayer, G. Vaughn,

R.

Steel, and S. Packer, A Microstructural Study of Friction Stir

Welded Joints of Carbon Steels, Int. J. Offshore Polar Eng., 2004, 14, p 284–288

103.

R.

Ueji, H. Fujii, L. Cui, A. Nishioka, K. Kunishige, and K. Nogi,

Friction Stir Welding of Ultrafine Grained Plain Low-Carbon Steel Formed by the Martensite Process, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 423, p

 

324–330

104.

H.

Fujii, R. Ueji, Y. Takada, H. Kitahara, N. Tsuji, K. Nakata, and K.

 

_

 

Nogi, Friction Stir Welding of Ultrafine Grained

Interstitial Free

Steels, Mater. Trans., 2006, 47, p 239–242

105.

H. Fujii, L. Cui, N. Tsuji, M. Maeda, K. Nakata, and K. Nogi, Friction Stir Welding of Carbon Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 429, p 50–57

106.

L.

Cui, H. Fujii, N. Tsuji, and K. Nogi, Friction Stir Welding of a

High Carbon Steel, Scripta Mater., 2007, 56, p 637–640

107.

H.S. Park, T. Kimura, T. Murakami, Y. Nagano, K. Nakata, and M. Ushio, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welds of 60% Cu-40% Zn Copper Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2004, 371, p 160–169

108.

G.

C¸ am, H.T. Serindag, A. C¸ akan, S. Mistikoglu, and H. Yavuz, The

Effect of Weld Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of Brass Plates,

Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech., 2008, 39, p 394–399

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

109. G. C¸ am, S. Mistikoglu, and M. Pakdil, Microstructural and Mechan- ical Characterization of Friction Stir Butt Joint Welded 63%Cu- 37%Zn Brass Plate, Weld. J., 2009, 88, p 225s–232s

110. W.B. Lee and S.B. Jung, The Joint Properties of Copper by Friction Stir Welding, Mater. Lett., 2004, 58, p 1041–1046

111. G. C¸ am and M. Koc¸ak, Progress in Joining of Advanced Materials, Int. Mater. Rev., 1998, 43, p 1–44

112. G. C¸ am and M. Koc¸ak, Progress in Joining of Advanced Materi- als—Part II: Joining of Metal Matrix Composites and Joining of Other Advanced Materials, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 1998, 3, p 159–175

113. ASM International, Welding, Brazing and Soldering, ASM Handbook, D.L. Olson et al., Ed., ASM International, Materials Park, 1993,

114. A.P. Reynolds, Mechanical and Corrosion Performance of TGA and Friction Stir Welded Aluminum for Tailor Welded Blanks: Alloys 5454 and 6061, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Trends in Welding Research, J.M. Vitek et al., Eds., 1-5 June, 1998 (Pine Mountain, GA), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1999, p 563-567

115. Y.S. Sato, S.H.C. Park, and H. Kokowa, Microstructural Factors Governing Hardness in Friction-Stir Welds of Solid-Solution-Hard- ened Al Alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2001, 32, p 3033–3042

116. M. Kumagai and S. Tanaka, Application of Friction Stir Welding to Welded Construction of Aluminum Alloys, J. Light Met. Weld. Constr., 2001, 39, p 22–28

117. L.-E. Svensson, L. Karlsson, H. Larsson, B. Karlsson, M. Fazzini, and J. Karlsson, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloys with Special Reference to AA 5083 and AA 6082, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2000, 5, p 285–296

118. M. Simoncini and A. Forcellese, Effect of the Welding Parameters and Tool Configuration on Micro- and Macro-mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar FSWed Joints in AA5754 and AZ31 Thin Sheets, Mater. Des., 2012, 41, p 50–60

119. P.B. Dickerson and B. Irving, Welding Aluminium: It s not as Difficult as it Sounds, Weld. J., 1992, 71, p 45–50

120. S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy, Wiley, New York, 1987, p 239

121. R.J. Brungraber and F.G. Nelson, Effect of Welding Variables on Aluminum Alloy Weldments, Weld. J., 1973, 52, p 97s–103s

122. G. C¸ am, V. Ventzke, J.F. dos Santos, M. Koc¸ak, G. Jennequin, and P. Gonthier-Maurin, Characterisation of Electron Beam Welded Alu- minium Alloys, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 1999, 4, p 317–323

123. G. C¸ am, V. Ventzke, J.F. dos Santos, M. Koc¸ak, G. Jennequin, P. Gonthier- Maurin, M. Penasa, and C. Rivezla, Characterization of Laser and Electron Beam Welded Al Alloys, Pract. Metallogr., 2000, 37, p 59–89

124. G. C¸ am and M. Koc¸ak, Microstructural and Mechanical Character- ization of Electron Beam Welded Al-alloy 7020, J. Mater. Sci., 2007, 42, p 7154–7161

125. W. Woo, H. Choo, D.W. Brown, and Z. Feng, Influence of the Tool pin and Shoulder on Microstructure and Natural Aging Kinetics in a Friction-Stir-Processed 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2007, 38, p 69–76

126. C. Dalle Donne, R. Braun, G. Staniek, A. Jung, and W.A. Kaysser, Mikrostrukturelle, mechanische und korrosive Eigenschaften re- ibru¨hrgeschweißter Stumpfna¨hte an Aluminiumlegierungen, Matt.- wiss u Werkstofftech., 1998, 29, p 609–617

 

_

127. Y.H. Zhao, S.B. Lin, L. Wu, and F.X. Qu, The

Influence of pin

Geometry on Bonding and Mechanical Properties in Friction Stir Weld 2014 Al Alloy, Mater. Lett., 2014, 59(2005), p 2948–2952

128. T.S. Srivatsan, S. Vasudevan, and L. Park, The Tensile Deformation and Fracture Behavior of friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 2024, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 466, p 235–245

129. Y. Chen, H. Liu, and J. Feng, Friction Stir Welding Characteristics of

Different Heat-treated-state 2219 Aluminum Alloy Plates, Mater. Sci.

Eng. A, 2006, 420, p 21–25

130. Z. Zhang, B.L. Xiao, and Z.Y. Ma, Effect of Welding Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded 2219Al-T6 Joints, J. Mater. Sci., 2012, 47, p 4075–4086

131. A. Scialpi, L.A.C. De Filippis, and P. Cavaliere, Influence of Shoulder Geometry on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded 6082 Aluminium Alloy, Mater. Des., 2007, 28, p 1124–1129

132. A.M. Gaafer, T.S. Mahmoud, and E.H. Mansour, Microstructural and Mechanical Characteristics of AA7020-O Al Plates Joined by Friction Stir Welding, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2010, A527, p 7424–7429

133. C. Sharma, D.K. Dwivedi, and P. Kumar, Effect of Welding Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction

Stir Welded Joints of AA7039 Aluminum Alloy, Mater. Des., 2012, 36, p 379–390

134. Y. Motohashi, T. Sakuma, A. Goloborodko, T. Ito, and G. Itoh, Grain Refinement Process in Commercial 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy Under Friction Stir Welding and Superplasticity, Matt.-wiss u Werkstofftech., 2008, 39, p 275–278

135. P. Cavalier, G. Campanile, F. Panella, and A. Squillace, Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of AA6056 Joints Produced by Friction Stir Welding, J. Mater. Processing Technol., 2006, 180, p 263–270

136. M. Cabibbo, H.J. McQueen, E. Evangelista, S. Spigarelli, M. di Paola, and A. Falchero, Microstructure and Mechanical Property Studies of AA6056 Friction Stir Welded Plate, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 460- 461, p 86–94

137. P.M.G.P. Moreira, T. Santos, S.M.O. Tavares, V. Richter-Trummer, P. Vilac¸a, and P.M.S.T. de Castro, Mechanical and Metallurgical Characterization of Friction Stir Welding Joints of AA6061-T6 with AA6082-T6, Mater. Des., 2009, 30, p 180–187

138. A. Scialpi, L.A.C. de Filippis, and P. Cavalier, Influence of Shoulder Geometry on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded 6082 Aluminium Alloy, Mater. Des., 2007, 28, p 1124–1129

139. P. Cavalier, A. Squillace, and F. Panella, Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of AA6082 Joints Produced by Friction Stir Welding, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2008, 200, p 364–372

140. P.S. Pao, S.J. Gill, C.R. Feng, and K.K. Sankaran, Corrosion-Fatigue Crack Growth in Friction Stir Welded Al 7050, Scripta Mater., 2001, 45, p 605–612

141. S. Sheikhi and J.F. dos Santos, Effect of Process Parameter on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Tailored Blanks from Aluminium Alloy 6181-T4, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2007, 12, p

370–375

142. W. Xu, J. Liu, G. Luan, and C. Dong, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints in 2219-T6 Aluminium Alloy, Mater. Des., 2009, 30, p 3460–3467

143. G. D Urso, E. Ceretti, C. Giardini, and G. Maccarini, The Effect of Process Parameters and Tool Geometry on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Butt Joints, Int. J. Mater. Forming, 2009, 2, p 303–306

_

144. G. Ipekog˘lu, S. Erim, B. Go¨ren Kıral, and G. C¸ am, Investigation into

the Effect of Temper Condition on Friction Stir Weldability of AA6061 Al-alloy Plates, Kovove Mater., 2013, 51, p 155–163

_

145. G. Ipekog˘lu, S. Erim, and G. C¸ am, Investigation into the Influence of

Post-weld Heat Treatment on the Friction Stir Welded AA6061 Al- alloy Plates with Different Temper Conditions, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2014, 45A, p 864–877

146. K. Kumar and S.V. Kailas, On the Role of Axial Load and the Effect

_

of Interface Position on the Tensile Strength of a Friction Stir Welded

Aluminium Alloy, Mater. Des., 2008, 29, p 791–797

_

147. G. Ipekog˘lu, B. Go¨ren Kıral, S. Erim, and G. C¸ am, Investigation of

the Effect of Temper Condition on Friction Stir Weldability of AA7075 Al-alloy Plates, Mater. Technol., 2012, 46, p 627–632

_

148. G. Ipekog˘lu, S. Erim, and G. C¸ am, Effects of Temper Condition and Post Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Butt Welded AA7075 Al-Alloy Plates, Int.

J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2014, 70, p 201–203

149. S. Rajakumar, C. Muralidharan, and V. Balasubramanian, Influence of Friction Stir Welding Process and Tool Parameters on Strength Properties of AA7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy Joints, Mater. Des., 2011, 32, p 535–549

150. C.S. Paglia and R.G. Buchheit, Microstructure, Microchemistry and Environmental Cracking Susceptibility of Friction Stir Welded 2219- T87, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 429, p 107–114

151. M. Pakdil, G. C¸ am, M. Kocak, and S. Erim, Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Laser Beam Welded AA6056 Al- alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2011, 528, p 7350–7356

152. Y. Bozkurt, S. Salman, and G. C¸ am, The effect of Welding Parameters on Lap-Shear Tensile Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welded AA5754-H22/2024-T3 Joints, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2013, 18, p 337–345

_

_

153. G. Ipekog˘lu and G. C¸ am, Effects of Initial Temper Condition and Post Weld Heat Treatment on the Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welded Joints Between AA 7075 and AA 6061 Aluminium Alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2014, doi:10.1007/s11661-014-2248-7

154. M.A. Safarkhanian, M. Goodarzi, and S.M.A. Boutorabi, Effect of Abnormal Grain Growth on Tensile Strength of Al-Cu-Mg Alloy Friction Stir Welded Joints, J. Mater. Sci., 2009, 44, p 5452–5458

155. R.K.R. Singh, C. Sharma, D.K. Dwivedi, N.K. Mehta, and P. Kumar, The Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Al-Zn-Mg Alloy in as Welded and Heat Treated Conditions, Mater. Des., 2011, 32, p 682–687

156. H. Aydın, A. Bayram, and I. Durgun, The Effect of Post-weld Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of 2024-T4 Friction Stir- Welded Joints, Mater. Des., 2010, 31, p 2568–2577

157. C. Sharma, D.K. Dwivedi, and P. Kumar, Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatments on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Al-Zn-Mg Alloy AA7039, Mater. Des., 2013, 43, p 134–143

158. H.J. Liu, J.C. Hou, and H. Guo, Effect of Welding Speed on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welded 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy, Mater. Des., 2013, 50, p 872–878

159. L. Wan, Y. Huang, Z. Lv, S. Lv, and J. Feng, Effect of Self-Support Friction Stir Welding on Microstructure and Microhardness of 6082- T6 Aluminum Alloy Joint, Mater. Des., 2014, 55, p 197–203

160. S.B. Nair, G. Pahanikumar, P. Rao, and P.P. Sinah, Improvement of Mechanical Properties of gas Tungsten arc and Electron Beam Welded AA2219 (Al-6 wt-%Cu) Alloy, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2007, 12, p

579–585

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance