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5/25/2017 ChemicalEngineering:Whyinanormaldistillationcolumndoestemperatureandpressuregradientexistfrombottomtotop?

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Chemical Engineering: Why in a normal distillation pressurethanthedesignpressureaffecttheoverhead
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Inanidealdistillationcolumnshouldtherebea
Akash Sood, A learner in search of mastery pressuredifferencebetweentopandbottom?
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Whatwillhappentotheseparationefficiencyina
Distillation is an unit operation which separates a miscible mixture to a desired distillationcolumnwhenyouincreasethereflux?
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concentration, higher concentration of lighter component at top and higher (assumingthecolumnisataconstantpre...

concentration of heavier component at the bottom. The ease of separation is directly


Howdoyousetadistillationcolumnpressurewhen
proportional to relative volatility. whatyouonlyhaveisthefeedtemperature,pressure
A pressure gradient is present due to sieve trays or packing in a distillation column. It andcompositionsoffeedandproducts...

is somewhat similar to pressure losses in a pipe (Bernoulli equation). In a normal WhyCondenserisplacedatthetopoftheDistillation


distillation column there has to be a pressure gradient for vapour and liquids to ow. Column?
There are only a few unit operations where enthalpy considerations are made. Some
ChemicalEngineering:Doesincreasingwidthof
of them are distillation, drying and humidication. In distillation column, enthalpy columnimprovetheseparationofmixtureduringa
considerations are made to calculate reboiler and condenser duties which are an distillation?

integral part of the setup. The reboiler is located at the bottom whereas the condenser
is at the top. As a result the bottom is at higher temperature whereas the top is at
lower temperature unlike the expectation due to vapours being at the top of the
column. The bottom temperature is slightly lower than the boiling point of the
heavier component whereas the top has a temperature slightly above boiling point of
the lighter component.
For a better understanding I would insist you to read distillation from Seader &
Henley which has explained it in a simplied way.
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Irving Elliott, former Chemical Engineer Then Computer Engineer. at
General Mills LastAskedMar2
AnsweredJun7,2016 Edits
The top chart shows the temperature and alcohol (for example) percentages
throughout the stack for atmospheric pressure.

The bottom diagram is similar for a higher pressure.

The the top chart shows that the percent of alcohol in the liquid and in the vapor at
any point are dierent.

The bottom chart is similar but the temperatures are higher. If this is the case, the
output will be changed and probably be undesirable.

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Jay Biwal, Chemical Engineer


AnsweredJun6,2015

Distillation is Separation Process which is Unit Operation used in various industries


for separation of component. (Refer gure)The ease of separation through distillation
usually depends on the dierence between boiling points. For a signicant dierence
between boiling points of two liquids, they can be separated by batch distillation
where one liquid remains almost completely in liquid form at the boiling point of the
other liquid.
Distillation towers use various vapor and liquid contacting methods to provide the
required number of equilibrium stages. Such devices are commonly known as "plates"
or "trays".
Each of these plates or trays is at a dierent temperature and pressure. The stage at
the tower bottom has the highest pressure and temperature.
Progressing upwards in the tower, the pressure and temperature decreases for each
succeeding stage. The vaporliquid equilibrium for each feed component in the tower
reacts in its unique way to the dierent pressure and temperature conditions at each
of the stages. That means that each component establishes a dierent concentration

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in the vapor and liquid phases at each of the stages, and this results in the separation 1
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of the components.

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Chris Marlowe, works at CDM Smith Howdoyousetadistillationcolumnpressurewhen


AnsweredJul23,2016 whatyouonlyhaveisthefeedtemperature,pressure
If you inject warm vapor at the bottom of the column, how could it be otherwise? The andcompositionsoffeedandproducts...

further you go from the source of the vapor, the more warm vapor has been removed. WhyCondenserisplacedatthetopoftheDistillation
There should be less gas and less heat after you add more cooling. BTW: its usually Column?
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ChemicalEngineering:Doesincreasingwidthof
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Savan Patel, B.Tech from Chemical Engineering


AnsweredMay6

The pressure gradient exists bcoz of the presence of various hinderence..this


hinderence may be bcoz of the trays,pool of liquid, supports, packings ,etc.

This pressure gradient is advantageous as well as disadvantageous..bcoz this


pressure gradient is the main driving force behind the ow of vapours and liquid
through the columnbut this pressure drop leads to more operating costt bcoz of
increment in pumping cost

The temperature dierence is bcoz of the dierence in the energy supplied by the
reboiler and energy rejected using condenser.bcoz of this dierence there will be
dierence in the enthalpy of vapours at top and liquid at bottom...and so the
temperature is Dierentin top section and bottom section

Also the vapours at the top are more composed of MORE VOLATILE COMPONENT
and so the vapours will be at lower temperature as compared to liquid of LOWER
VOLATILE COMPONENT at bottom
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Anonymous
AnsweredOct6,2014

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5/25/2017 ChemicalEngineering:Whyinanormaldistillationcolumndoestemperatureandpressuregradientexistfrombottomtotop?Quora
Let us consider that we are separating a binary mixture (A and B are the components), 1
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A being the MVC (More Volatile Component) and B being the LVC (Less Volatile
Component).
The distillation column has three sections, namely, RelatedQuestions
1. Rectifying section - The composition of the MVC is increased.
Howdoesoperatingdistillationcolumnatahigher
2. Stripping section - The liquid is stripped o the MVC i.e there is decrease in pressurethanthedesignpressureaffecttheoverhead
composition?
the composition of the MVC.
Whatwillhappenwhenweincreasepressureina
3. Feed section - The feed (in this case the binary mixture) is fed into the
distillationcolumn?
distillation column.
Howcanwemaintainaparticulartemperatureor
Now, let's address the existence of temperature gradient. pressureatvariousstagesinadistillationcolumn?Is
At the top of the distillation column, we have the vapors rich in component A. So, the itadjustmentofrefluxratiooraret...

temperature is maintained slightly greater than Ta (Ta - boiling point of component Inanidealdistillationcolumnshouldtherebea
A, temperature slightly greater than Ta is maintained so that component A doesn't pressuredifferencebetweentopandbottom?

condense.)
Whatwillhappentotheseparationefficiencyina
distillationcolumnwhenyouincreasethereflux?
At the bottom of the distillation column, the residue is withdrawn i.e. is rich in (assumingthecolumnisataconstantpre...

component B. Here, the temperature is maintained slightly lower than Tb (Tb- boiling Howdoyousetadistillationcolumnpressurewhen
point of component B, temperature lower than Tb is maintained so that there is no whatyouonlyhaveisthefeedtemperature,pressure
vapor formation of component B). andcompositionsoffeedandproducts...

Now, it is evident that Tb > Ta. Thus, a temperature gradient exist in distillation WhyCondenserisplacedatthetopoftheDistillation
column from bottom to top. Column?

ChemicalEngineering:Doesincreasingwidthof
Pressure gradient exist for the mere fact that the vapor must ow upwards and least columnimprovetheseparationofmixtureduringa
amount of vapor must be carried over by the liquid owing downwards. distillation?

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Pradduman Gupta, studied at GCET


AnsweredNov2,2015

To separate components from their mixture we intentionally create the temperature


dierence by installing reboiler at the bottom and condensor at the top. Now as
pressure is directly proportional to the temperature, with temperature gradient we
also notice the pressure dierence. We can increase or decrease the pressure gradient
of the tower based on our needs.
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Gaurav Sharma, works at Reliance Industries Limited


AnsweredSep12,2016

One line answer would be because the reboiler is at the bottom.

Reboiler heats and pressurizes the liquid to be distilled which then gets cooled as it
goes up and ptessure rrduces.

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Yuri Yamirnov, Engineer 1


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AnsweredSep12,2016

The most important parameter is temperatures gradient, it is to ensure the existance


of L-V phases, also, it support mass transfer process. (the pressure is almost constant). RelatedQuestions

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Inanidealdistillationcolumnshouldtherebea
in distillation column, we create contact of phases. our main objective is to separate
pressuredifferencebetweentopandbottom?
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solution ! andcompositionsoffeedandproducts...
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Anonymous
AnsweredNov4,2015

We supply heat at bottom of the column, and along the length more volatile
component get enrich with vapor liquid contact (be it on packings or on plates), so
temperature gradient exist.
as vapor passes to top section, due to skin friction (on packings) or sure to hydrostatic
head present on plates, it gets obstacle along the path , thats the reason pressure drop
occur.

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