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PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION

Note: The head difference due to elevation and velocity changes between two points can
be neglected

1. Velocity of fluid
Q=A x V
Where
Q = flow rate (m3/s)
d = inner diameter of pipe work (m)
V = velocity of fluid (m/s)
A= Area of cross-section A = (/4) d2

2. Reynolds Number

Where
V = Average fluid velocity, m/s
d = Pipe diameter, m
= Kinematic viscosity.m2/s

3. Total head loss (h)

Total head loss= Major head loss +Minor head loss

Ht = Hm + Hi

4. Major Head loss (fluid head resistance)

Fluid head resistance can be calculated from Hm = f (L/d) x (v /2g)


Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Where
h = head loss (m)
f = friction factor
L = length of pipe work (m)
d = inner dia of pipe work (m)
v = velocity of fluid (m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

5. Friction factor

Laminar flow (Re < 2300) f = 64/Re


When Re number is >2300 the fluid flow is Turbulent.
Turbulent flow (Re > 2300) 1/sqrt (f) = -1.8 log [(6.9/Re) + ((k/3.7)^1.11 ]

Where
k =Relative roughness factor
Re=Reynolds Number
f = friction factor
Inside pipe roughness is noted from Table 1

Inside pipe roughness


Relative roughness =
Inside pipe diameter
Table 1: Average inner roughness of commercial pipes (k)

Steel tube 0.0460 mm


Copper tubing 0.0015 mm
Glass tubing 0.0001 mm
Polythene 0.0010 mm
Flexible P.V.C. 0.2000 mm
Rigid P.V.C. 0.0050 mm
Cast iron tube 0.2600 mm
Concrete tube 2.0000 mm

Or use Moodys friction factor chart to find f

Friction factor chart

6) i) Minor head loss by k factor method

Fluid head loss of these fitting can be calculated from

Hi = Total 'K' x v / 2g

where
h = head loss (m)
total 'K' = total of 'K' factors for each fitting can be noted from Table 2
v = velocity of fluid (m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

ii) Minor head loss by Equivalent length method

It is convenient to calculate pressure drops in fittings from added equivalent lengths of straight
pipe, rather than directly in terms of velocity heads or velocity pressures when making pipe-flow
calculations. This means that a fictitious length of straight pipe is added to the actual length, such
that friction due to the fictitious pipe gives rise to the same loss as that which would arise from the
fitting under consideration. In this way various fittings, for example bends and elbows, are simply
equated to equivalent lengths of pipe and the total friction losses computed from the total pipe
length, actual plus fictitious

Fluid head loss of these fitting can be calculated from

Hi = K x v / 2g
where
h = head loss (m)
K = K factor for fittings
v = velocity of fluid (m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

The 'K' factor of a fitting may be calculated from the 'Equivalent length' (Eq.) (in m or ft.)

K = (Eq. * f) / i.d.
Where
Eq =Equivalent length (in m or ft.)
f = friction factor
i.d. = inner diameter (in m or ft.)
Equivalent length of the fitting can be noted down from Table 3

7. Calculating the total pressure drop (Pd)


The total fluid head resistance may be used to calculate the pressure required to
overcome the resistance to fluid flow.

Pd = Ht x p x g / 100000

where
Pd = pressure drop (bar)
Ht = head loss (m)
p = fluid density (kg/m3)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )
Table 2: K factor for fittings
Table: 3 Equivalent length for pipe fittings
SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR DRILL WATER PIPE NO:21

DATA:
Length of pipe L= 42m
Inner diameter of pipe =0.1281m
Discharge Q=150m3/hr =0.4166m3/s
Inlet pressure =7 bar
Specific gravity of drill water S=0.8735
Kinematic viscosity for drill water =67.6 cs = 0.676x10-4 m2/s
Density of drill water=873.5 kg/m3
1. Velocity of fluid
Q=A x V;
V= Q/A =0.4166/0.01288
V = 3.233 m/s
Where
Q = flow rate (m3/s)
d = inner diameter of pipe work (m)
V = velocity of fluid (m/s)
A= Area of cross-section A = (/4) d2; A = (/4) (0.1281)2 =0.01288 m2
2. Reynolds Number

Re= (3.233 x 0.1281)/ 0.676x10-4 = 6126 > 2300 therefore turbulent flow
Where
V = Average fluid velocity, m/s
d = Pipe diameter, m
= Kinematic viscosity.m2/s
3. Friction factor
Laminar flow (Re < 2300) f = 64/Re
When Re number is >2300 the fluid flow is Turbulent.
Turbulent flow (Re > 2300) 1/sqrt (f) = -1.8 log [(6.9/Re) + ((k/3.7)^1.11 ]
1/sqrt (f) = -1.8 log [(6.9/6126) + ((3.6x10-4/3.7)^1.11 ]
f = 0.035
Where
k =Relative roughness factor
Re=Reynolds Number
f = friction factor

Inside pipe roughness


K= Relative roughness =
Inside pipe diameter

K =Relative roughness = 0.046/128.1 = 3.6x10-4

Table 1: Average inner roughness of commercial pipes (k)

Steel tube 0.0460 mm


Copper tubing 0.0015 mm
Glass tubing 0.0001 mm
Polythene 0.0010 mm
Flexible P.V.C. 0.2000 mm
Rigid P.V.C. 0.0050 mm
Cast iron tube 0.2600 mm
Concrete tube 2.0000 mm
4. Total head loss (Ht)

Total head loss= Major Head loss +Minor Head loss

Ht = Hm + Hi
Ht = 6.26 + 4.46
Ht = 10.72m

5. Major Head loss

Fluid head resistance can be calculated from


Hm = f (L/d) x (v /2g).. Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Hm =0.035x (42/0.1281) x ((3.233) /2x9.81) = 6.26m
Where
h = head loss (m)
f = friction factor
L = length of pipe work (m)
d = inner dia of pipe work (m)
v = velocity of fluid (m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

6. Minor head loss by k factor method

Fluid head loss of these fitting can be calculated from Hi = Total 'K' x v / 2g
where
Hi = head loss (m)
total 'K' = total of 'K' factors for each fitting can be noted from Table 2
v = velocity of fluid (m/s)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

S Fittings Nos Total K Nos x Total K v /2g NoxTotal K x v /2g


no
1 90 elbow 17 0.255 4.335 0.5327 2.3092
2 45 elbow 11 0.1275 1.4025 0.5327 0.7471
3 Tee 03 0.32 0.96 0.5327 0.5114
4 Gate valve 01 0.13 0.13 0.5327 0.0692
5 N.R.V 01 0.825 0.825 0.5327 0.4394
6 Butterfly valve 01 0.725 0.725 0.5327 0.3862
Total Hi= 4.4625 m

7. Calculating the total pressure drop (Pd)


The total fluid head resistance may be used to calculate the pressure required to
overcome the resistance to fluid flow.
Pd = Ht x p x g / 100000
Pd = 10.72 x 873.5 x 9.81 / 100000
Pd =0.986 bar
Where
Pd = pressure drop (bar)
Ht = head loss (m)
p = fluid density (kg/m3)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

Pd =Inlet pressure Outlet Pressure


Outlet Pressure = Inlet pressure Pd
Outlet Pressure = 7 - 0.986
= 6.014 bar
Therefore the pressure at consumers end is 6.014 bars.