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Calculation Pressure Drop

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Note: The head difference due to elevation and velocity changes between two points can

be neglected

1. Velocity of fluid

Q=A x V

Where

Q = flow rate (m3/s)

d = inner diameter of pipe work (m)

V = velocity of fluid (m/s)

A= Area of cross-section A = (/4) d2

2. Reynolds Number

Where

V = Average fluid velocity, m/s

d = Pipe diameter, m

= Kinematic viscosity.m2/s

Ht = Hm + Hi

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Where

h = head loss (m)

f = friction factor

L = length of pipe work (m)

d = inner dia of pipe work (m)

v = velocity of fluid (m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

5. Friction factor

When Re number is >2300 the fluid flow is Turbulent.

Turbulent flow (Re > 2300) 1/sqrt (f) = -1.8 log [(6.9/Re) + ((k/3.7)^1.11 ]

Where

k =Relative roughness factor

Re=Reynolds Number

f = friction factor

Inside pipe roughness is noted from Table 1

Relative roughness =

Inside pipe diameter

Table 1: Average inner roughness of commercial pipes (k)

Copper tubing 0.0015 mm

Glass tubing 0.0001 mm

Polythene 0.0010 mm

Flexible P.V.C. 0.2000 mm

Rigid P.V.C. 0.0050 mm

Cast iron tube 0.2600 mm

Concrete tube 2.0000 mm

Hi = Total 'K' x v / 2g

where

h = head loss (m)

total 'K' = total of 'K' factors for each fitting can be noted from Table 2

v = velocity of fluid (m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

It is convenient to calculate pressure drops in fittings from added equivalent lengths of straight

pipe, rather than directly in terms of velocity heads or velocity pressures when making pipe-flow

calculations. This means that a fictitious length of straight pipe is added to the actual length, such

that friction due to the fictitious pipe gives rise to the same loss as that which would arise from the

fitting under consideration. In this way various fittings, for example bends and elbows, are simply

equated to equivalent lengths of pipe and the total friction losses computed from the total pipe

length, actual plus fictitious

Hi = K x v / 2g

where

h = head loss (m)

K = K factor for fittings

v = velocity of fluid (m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

The 'K' factor of a fitting may be calculated from the 'Equivalent length' (Eq.) (in m or ft.)

K = (Eq. * f) / i.d.

Where

Eq =Equivalent length (in m or ft.)

f = friction factor

i.d. = inner diameter (in m or ft.)

Equivalent length of the fitting can be noted down from Table 3

The total fluid head resistance may be used to calculate the pressure required to

overcome the resistance to fluid flow.

Pd = Ht x p x g / 100000

where

Pd = pressure drop (bar)

Ht = head loss (m)

p = fluid density (kg/m3)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

Table 2: K factor for fittings

Table: 3 Equivalent length for pipe fittings

SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR DRILL WATER PIPE NO:21

DATA:

Length of pipe L= 42m

Inner diameter of pipe =0.1281m

Discharge Q=150m3/hr =0.4166m3/s

Inlet pressure =7 bar

Specific gravity of drill water S=0.8735

Kinematic viscosity for drill water =67.6 cs = 0.676x10-4 m2/s

Density of drill water=873.5 kg/m3

1. Velocity of fluid

Q=A x V;

V= Q/A =0.4166/0.01288

V = 3.233 m/s

Where

Q = flow rate (m3/s)

d = inner diameter of pipe work (m)

V = velocity of fluid (m/s)

A= Area of cross-section A = (/4) d2; A = (/4) (0.1281)2 =0.01288 m2

2. Reynolds Number

Re= (3.233 x 0.1281)/ 0.676x10-4 = 6126 > 2300 therefore turbulent flow

Where

V = Average fluid velocity, m/s

d = Pipe diameter, m

= Kinematic viscosity.m2/s

3. Friction factor

Laminar flow (Re < 2300) f = 64/Re

When Re number is >2300 the fluid flow is Turbulent.

Turbulent flow (Re > 2300) 1/sqrt (f) = -1.8 log [(6.9/Re) + ((k/3.7)^1.11 ]

1/sqrt (f) = -1.8 log [(6.9/6126) + ((3.6x10-4/3.7)^1.11 ]

f = 0.035

Where

k =Relative roughness factor

Re=Reynolds Number

f = friction factor

K= Relative roughness =

Inside pipe diameter

Copper tubing 0.0015 mm

Glass tubing 0.0001 mm

Polythene 0.0010 mm

Flexible P.V.C. 0.2000 mm

Rigid P.V.C. 0.0050 mm

Cast iron tube 0.2600 mm

Concrete tube 2.0000 mm

4. Total head loss (Ht)

Ht = Hm + Hi

Ht = 6.26 + 4.46

Ht = 10.72m

Hm = f (L/d) x (v /2g).. Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Hm =0.035x (42/0.1281) x ((3.233) /2x9.81) = 6.26m

Where

h = head loss (m)

f = friction factor

L = length of pipe work (m)

d = inner dia of pipe work (m)

v = velocity of fluid (m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

Fluid head loss of these fitting can be calculated from Hi = Total 'K' x v / 2g

where

Hi = head loss (m)

total 'K' = total of 'K' factors for each fitting can be noted from Table 2

v = velocity of fluid (m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

no

1 90 elbow 17 0.255 4.335 0.5327 2.3092

2 45 elbow 11 0.1275 1.4025 0.5327 0.7471

3 Tee 03 0.32 0.96 0.5327 0.5114

4 Gate valve 01 0.13 0.13 0.5327 0.0692

5 N.R.V 01 0.825 0.825 0.5327 0.4394

6 Butterfly valve 01 0.725 0.725 0.5327 0.3862

Total Hi= 4.4625 m

The total fluid head resistance may be used to calculate the pressure required to

overcome the resistance to fluid flow.

Pd = Ht x p x g / 100000

Pd = 10.72 x 873.5 x 9.81 / 100000

Pd =0.986 bar

Where

Pd = pressure drop (bar)

Ht = head loss (m)

p = fluid density (kg/m3)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s )

Outlet Pressure = Inlet pressure Pd

Outlet Pressure = 7 - 0.986

= 6.014 bar

Therefore the pressure at consumers end is 6.014 bars.

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