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The Eaton UPS and Power Management

Fundamentals Handbook
April 2015
2 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Introduction 4
Questions to consider 5
Top UPS design considerations 6
Other UPS design considerations 8
How to size a UPS 9
Head-to head UPS comparison 10
UPS cost justification worksheet 11
UPS form factors 12
Input plugs and output receptacles 13
UPS startup 15
The difference between VA and watts 16
Decentralized or central UPS? 17
What is three-phase power? 19
Increase server energy efficiencies by using high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs 20
Worldwide voltage map 21
Worldwide voltages 22
The nine power problems 23
UPS topologies 24
UPS battery overview 25
Factors affecting battery life 27
UPS software overview 28
Make health-checking your UPS a top priority 29
Service overview 30
Frequently asked questions 31
Electric transmission distribution system 33
Eaton's Blackout Tracker 35
Overview of 2014 national power outage data 36
Commonly used acronyms 38
Glossary of power terms 40

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 3

Welcome to the Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Why a UPS?
In general, a UPS protects IT equipment and other electrical loads from
From plug and receptacle charts and facts about power problems to an problems that plague our electrical supply, performing the following three
overview of various UPS topologies and factors affecting battery life, youll basic functions:
find a wealth of pertinent resources designed to help you develop the 1. Preventing hardware damage typically caused by surges and spikes.
optimum solution. Many UPS models continually condition incoming power as well.
This handbook is your one-stop source for essential information ... whether 2. Preventing data loss and corruption. Without a UPS, devices that are
you need power protection for small, medium or large data centers; health subjected to a hard system shutdown can lose data completely or have
care facilities; or other environments in which ensuring uptime and it corrupted. In conjunction with power management software, a UPS
safeguarding data are critical. can facilitate a graceful system shutdown.
3. Providing availability for networks and other applications while
preventing downtime. In some cases, they provide enough battery
runtime to ride through brief outages; in other cases, they provide hours
of runtime to ride through extended power outages. UPSs are also
paired with generators to provide enough time for them to power up.
Thanks to Eaton, IT pros are spending fewer nights
and weekends at work, leaving their desk toys at
the office all alone.

4 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook


Questions to
When it comes to backup power, here are
some basic questions to ask yourself.

Applications Accessories

1. How often do you refresh and maintain 1. How is power getting from the UPS to
your IT hardware (including servers)? your equipment?
What about your UPS equipment? 2. Do you have a need for enclosures,
2. If you have a converged data-voice communications, seismic mounting, floor
network, have you protected all critical stands or rail kits?
switches? 3. Is a maintenance bypass switch needed?
3. If you have virtualized your servers, have 4. Are unorganized cables hindering your
you considered the impact on your UPS efficiency or coming a safety concern?
4. What would happen if the power went Software
out at your facility right now?
1. Is there a need to have orderly scheduled
5. Have you thought about the impact of shutdowns?
damaged or corrupted data?
2. Do you want to remotely monitor the
6. How much energy do your UPS units UPS?
consume? How efficient are they?
3. Would you like to remotely notify others
7. What is the air speed velocity of an of UPS events?
unladen swallow? An African swallow.
4. How will your UPS software manage
virtual servers during an extended power
1. What size UPS do you need? (kVA or 5. Does your power management software
amperage) integrate easily with your virtualization
2. What voltage is currently available at platforms?
your site?
3. What voltage do you need? Service
4. What runtime do you want? 1. Do you need immediate factory
5. Are there any clearances or size
constraints? 2. What kind of parts and labor coverage do
you need?
6. Do you have bypass requirements?
3. Do you want any type of preventive
7. What types of input and output maintenance?
connections are required?
4. Whens the last time you checked the
8. Is there a generator on site? batteries in your existing UPS units?
9. Does the UPS need to be scalable?
10. Do you need redundancy?

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 5

Top UPS design

The following factors outline the key design considerations to take into account when
analyzing your needs. FAT. F RANKLY, I 'M A
1. Power environment: single- and three- 3. Power load There are four basic battery runtime
phase The VA or watt rating of your power loads configurations:
Understanding your existing power is one of the most important factors in 1. UPS with 10 to 15 minutes of runtime and
infrastructure is a crucial step in the identifying the right UPS. After identifying no generator. You are covered for 90 to 95
qualification and sales process. While you the power environment (if the UPS needs percent of power outages. You can either
may focus on larger, three-phase power to be single- or three-phase), the size of the use UPS shutdown clients to save your
systems, the majority of IT managers are UPS further narrows the selection. In data or stay online as long as possible
dealing primarily with single-phase single-phase deployments especially, it before the system crashes.
equipment, often at the rack level. often makes sense to select a UPS that 2. UPS with 10 to 15 minutes of runtime and
exceeds current power requirements but a generator. You have a very reliable setup
Many existing computer rooms and small
offers greater runtimes and allows for and most generators will startup within
to mid-sized data centers have single-phase
future growth. one minute (five minutes maximum). You
loads at the rack level. Ground-up designs
are increasingly moving three-phase power are covered for most situations.
to the point of utilization to gain efficiencies 4. Availability and battery runtime
3. Redundant UPSs, generator and two
and reduce costs, creating great opportunity This is where you need to determine your power feeds for dual-corded servers. You
for three-phase solutions in new true runtime requirements. While runtime have a lot of money and/or are really
construction. may seem like a simple thing to quantify, worried about the power failing. It's time
understanding the facts behind the numbers to get a consultative person on-site to
2. Installation environment help contribute to the development of help you figure it out.
end-to-end solutions.
Its imperative to understand how a 4. UPS with two or more hours of battery
prospective UPS will be deployed. Since Generally, the amount of runtime required runtime. In some cases, generators may
most environments support several different can significantly affect the solution cost, not be practical and you must rely entirely
solutions, you may need to evaluate these but many Eaton solutions are actually upon batteries.
options. more cost-effective in extended runtime

6 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook


5. Form factor You may want to service the UPS yourself. If 8. Manageability 9. Operation and maintenance
thats the case, look for a unit that allows
How much space are you willing to While a UPS protects the attached load While you may value the ability to service
you to add capacity with power and/or
designate to your UPS? Where do you during a power outage, power management your own equipment, the vast majority of IT
battery modules.
plan to install it? Answering these questions software is required to ensure that all and facility management professionals
will help you determine whether your While modular solutionsincluding multiple, work-in-progress is saved and that sensitive prefer the peace of mind that comes with
environment is better suited for a tower or paralleled systemsare often a more electronic equipment is gracefully shut full factory support through on-site service
rackmount model. Some UPSs have a 2-in-1 affordable option initially, they can be a more down if the power outage exceeds the or an advanced UPS exchange agreement.
form factor, allowing you to deploy the unit expensive solution over the long term due to battery runtime of the UPS. Without To make an informed decision on service
either way. added hardware and installation costs. software, the UPS simply runs until its support, you must accurately assess your
Depending on your needs, a larger, batteries are depleted and then drops the own technical and service capabilities.
6. Scalability centralized, non-modular system with load. In addition to this basic functionality of Consider UPS and battery safety as there is
inherent scalability might ultimately be the UPS software, you should consider the
Its always important to consider your future inherent danger when maintaining them.
most cost-effective solution. following monitoring and manageability
expansion needs when evaluating solutions. The more complicated the equipment, the
capabilities: more important it is to have experts perform
Eatons scalable UPS solutions provide a 7. Power distribution
competitive advantage by offering a Power event notifications, including the maintenance.
cost-effective way to increase capacity. It is important for you to consider how emails, pop-up alerts and text messages
Virtually all Eaton UPSs with a 6 kVA or power will be delivered to your critical to pre-designated recipients 10. Budget
greater power rating offer some form of equipment. In some cases, you may simply Logging of power events Although the latest performance features of
scalability, either through a simple firmware plug loads directly into the UPS. In others,
Advanced capabilities in virtual a UPS may fit nicely with what you are
upgrade, the addition of modular hardware you may need large PDUs to distribute
environments, including integration into looking for, budget constraints may force
components or the paralleling of multiple power. You may also incorporate rack-based
VMwares ESXi and vSphere and you to make trade-off decisions. Be
UPSs. power strips or ePDU units into your design.
Microsofts Hyper-V prepared to prioritize your needs for
For cost-conscious or budget-constrained redundancy, scalability, efficiency, software
Dedicated battery monitoring and management, modularity and serviceability.
customers, a UPS with inherent scalability
advanced service notifications
often proves to be the best value in the long
run, allowing you to increase capacity Remote monitoring by service personnel
without purchasing additional hardware. A from the UPS manufacturer.
simple kVA upgrade is all thats needed to
enable a UPS with inherent scalability to
operate at full capacity.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 7

Other UPS design considerations

The following design guidelines should be 4. Verify that the floor is strong enough to 7. Hardwired connections. 9. Using a UPS and a generator together.
reviewed and followed prior to ordering the support the UPS and battery cabinets.
Hardwired outputs are generally useful if A UPS provides backup power and actively
appropriate UPS solution.
The UPS and its battery cabinets can be you want the UPS output to be distributed conditions and regulates voltage. Similarly,
heavy, so make sure the site has the proper via electrical panels. Using an electrical an auxillary generator provides backup
1. Check to see if theres an adequate floor loading capacity. distribution panel allows for flexibility with power, but typically takes 10-15 seconds to
electrical supply near the UPS. receptacles types. If theres no other UPS start up, depending on its type. For long-
Compare UPS fuse ratings (amps) and 5. Confirm that the UPS will have that fits your receptacle and power require- term backup servers and IT equipment, this
breaker types and whether any electrical adequate ventilation. ments, you may need to hardwire it. isnt an optimal situation, so during that
work may be needed (i.e., cabling to the Hardwired UPS models typically require the downtime the UPS kicks in. Basically, the
Eaton UPS models use internal fans to cool use of a certified electrician to wire them to UPS bridges the power gap between loss of
UPS terminal block input).
them. You shouldnt install the UPS in a the electrical distribution panel, which could power and generator coming online.
sealed container or small, sealed room. be a more costly option.
2. Find out the dimensions of the UPS When choosing your UPS solution, its
and include any battery cabinets. important to keep power ratings in mind;
6. Always be sure which wall receptacle 8. Installing small UPS models behind
Make sure your installation site has enough is required to plug in the UPS. you cannot size a generator in a 1:1 match
larger UPS models. to the UPS and expect successful results.
space available.
Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500 If youre installing a smaller UPS behind a There are two reasons for this: first, UPSs
VA plug into a standard 15-amp wall outlet. larger UPS, you must consider the total arent 100 percent efficient and second,
3. Ensure the UPS can be placed in its All others require a larger receptacle, which generators need to account for step loads.
final position. potential power of the smaller UPS as well
must be installed by an electrician. Things as other loads that will be powered by the In addition, very small generators dont often
Will the UPS components fit through doors? go more smoothly if you arent waiting for larger UPS. For example, if youre plugging a provide enough kinetic energy to provide a
Are there any stairs? Do you have existing this to be done after all of the equipment 1500 VA UPS into a 10,000 VA UPS, you smooth transition. As a rule of thumb, for 20
racks that the UPS must fit into? Please has arrived. Most small and rackmounted must consider the load of the smaller UPS kVA and above, auxiliary generators should
consult Eatons website for detailed UPS computers run on normal 120 volt, 15-amp rather than just the load thats plugged into be sized 1.5 times the size of the output
dimensions and specifications: electrical service. Some computers have it. In addition, the larger UPS must be at rating of the UPS in kW, while for 20 kVA
powerquality.eaton.com. power cords that require a higher voltage of least five times larger than the smaller UPS. and below, they should be two times larger.
208V or 240V, in which case youll need a This design guideline must be followed due Its also important to note that gas-powered
3000 VA or larger UPS. to charging capacity that may be required by generators should be sized a bit larger.
the smaller UPS; any anomalies associated
with the building power, and to avoid 10. Building codes.
overheating or potential over loading of the Verify that the final UPS solution meets local
larger UPS which may result in failure of the building codes.
all UPS models in the string.

8 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

How to size a UPS
You have decided that you need a UPS. UPS sizing worksheet
Whats next? Well, you have to pick the
right one! 1 2 2 2 3 3
Alternative #1: Equipment Amps x Volts = VA x Quantity = VA Subtotal
Visit Eaton.com/UPSselector
x = x =
Alternative #2:
Call our knowledgeable inside sales team: x = x =
x = x =
Alternative #3:
Do it the old fashioned way. Completing x = x =
these steps is also very useful for the first x = x =
two alternatives.
1 List all equipment to be protected by the x = x =
UPS. (Remember to include monitors,
x = x =
external hard drives, routers, etc.)
2 List the amps and volts for each device. x = x =
These ratings can typically be found on
the label on the back of the equipment. x = x =
Multiply amps by volts to determine
x = x =
VoltAmps (VA). Some devices may list
their power requirements in watts. To x = x =
convert watts to VA, divide the watts by
power factor. For servers, the power x = x =
factor is often 0.9.
4 Total
3 Multiply the VA by the number of pieces
of equipment to get the VA subtotals. 5 x1.2
4 Add the VA subtotals together.
6 Grand Total
5 Multiply the total by 1.2 to get the grand
total. This step accounts for future
6 Use the grand total to select a UPS.
When choosing a UPS, be sure that the
total VA requirement of supported
equipment does not exceed the VA
rating of the UPS. I C HAT W ITH T HE I NSIDE
Alternative #4: S ALES T EAM A LL T HE

Eatons UPS Tool for iPhone , iPad and
iPod touch helps you find the best UPS T IME. T HEY'RE COOL.
solution without being tied to your desk:

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 9

Head-to-head UPS comparison
Youve narrowed down your UPS choices to Factor UPS 1 UPS 2
two or three models. Now what? How can
you make sure that youre making an Voltage
apples-to-apples comparison? Are you Be sure the input and output voltages are the same. For example, a 208V UPS will cost more than a standard 120V UPS.
considering all aspects related to total cost Power rating
of ownership (TCO)? Weve created this UPSs are typically rated in volt-amperes (VA) and watts. Watts measures real power and is the key rating. For example a UPS rated at 1000 VA /
quick checklist so you can ask yourself the 900 watts provides one third more power than one rated at 1000 VA / 600 watts.
right questions for network closet and
server room applications. Input plug
Do both UPSs have the same input plug? Does it match your wall socket? UPSs 1500 VA and below plug right into a standard wall socket. Larger
models may require you to hire an electrician to install a new wall socket.
Output receptacles
Does each UPS have the same quantity of output receptacles? The same type? Be sure the UPS has enough output receptacles and that theyll
accommodate the power cords of your servers, etc.
Are the warranties the same duration? How long does the warranty cover the batteries?
User interface
Do both UPSs utilize the same interface? Do both have an intuitive LCD or basic LEDs?
Network card
If you need/want a network card, does the UPS price include one? Some UPSs include a card while others do not and this can impact the price.
Do both UPSs have equivalent software capabilities? For example, if integration into VMware vCenter is a priority, be sure the UPS software can
do it.
Mounting hardware
Do you plan to mount the UPS in a rack enclosure or 2-post rack? If the mounting is not included with the UPS, youll likely need to purchase
hardware separately.
Rack height
If you are evaluating rack mount UPSs, are they the same rack height (U)? For example, going with a 1U UPS over a 2U model may allow you to
fit another server in your rack.
Maintenance bypass
Have you considered the price of a maintenance bypass module that will allow you to keep your IT equipment up and running if you ever need to
replace the UPS or if the UPS fails?
Have you considered the cost of additional battery packs? The cost of replacing the batteries in the UPS?

Professor Wattson
has lessons on
demystifying sizing, ratings,
maintenance bypass and
network-class UPSs on

10 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

UPS cost
This worksheet helps you determine the estimated dollar savings that a UPS can deliver.
Simply fill in the information to calculate the costs of one hour of downtime. Actual dollar
amounts will vary from company to company, location to location, and industry to industry.

1. Number of critical loads:

Critical loads = any equipment running or supporting your
applications (servers, routers, PCs, network devices, etc.)
2. Number of employees using critical loads:
3. Employees average hourly earnings:
4. Estimated cost of lost business per hour of downtime
($1,000, $5,000, $10,000)
5. Cost of service calls per hour:
6. Cost of recreating or salvaging data (if applicable):
7. Cost of replacing hardware (if applicable):
8. Cost of reinstalling software (if applicable):

9. Lost employee time (line 2 x 3):

10. Lost business (line 4):
11. Service (line 5):
12. Recreating or salvaging data (line 6):
13. Replaced hardware and software (line 7 + 8):

14. Estimated total cost per hour of downtime: $

This is only one hour. Imagine if your systems were down all day!

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 11

UPS form factors
With applications spanning from desktops to large data centers, UPSs come in a variety
of form factors.

1 2 1. Desktop and tower UPS 4. Two-in-one rackmount/tower UPS

a. The Eaton 3S UPS also fits easily The Eaton 5PX UPS can be mounted in
on top of or under a desk. a rack or installed as a tower model.
b. The Eaton 9130 tower UPS fits under
a desk or in a network closet. 5. Scalable UPS
a. The Eaton BladeUPS is a scalable,
2. Wall-mount UPS redundant rackmount UPS.
The Eaton 5P rackmount UPS includes b. The Eaton 9170+ is also a scalable,
b hardware to mount it to a wall. redundant UPS.
c. The Eaton 93PM is a vertical or horizontal
3. Rackmount UPS scalable white or grey space solution.
3 4
The Eaton 9130 rackmount UPS occupies
only 2U of rack space (fits both 2- and 6. Large tower UPS
4-post racks). The Eaton Power Xpert 9395 UPS is
designed to be a central backup for multiple
loads, including data centers.


a b c

12 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Input plugs and E LECTRICAL P OWER,
output receptacles
When you receive a UPS, you should be Input plug and output receptacle chart
able to plug it in right away. If a UPS cant
be plugged into the wall socket, or their 5-15R 5-15P 5-20R 5-20P
equipment can't be plugged into it,
youve got a problem.
Any UPS with a rating of 1500 VA or below
can be plugged into a standard household
receptacle/socket. UPS models with ratings
higher than 1500 VA use input plugs that
L5-30R L5-30P 6-15R 6-15P
cant be plugged directly into a standard
receptacle. Many higher rated UPSs (above
1500 VA) may also be hardwired directly into Know your North American receptacles
the electrical distribution panel at the instal-
lation location by a licensed electrician. In North American markets, most facilities
utilize plugs and receptacles conforming to
Many UPS models offer a fixed set of input
L6-20R L6-20P L5-20R L5-20P standards established by the National
and output receptacles. Other UPS models Electrical Manufacturers Association
can be configured with a custom set of (NEMA), which uses a smart code to define
input and output connections. what each part number represents. If you
For reference weve included the following know the part number of your connector,
chart to help you visually confirm input and you can find its voltage and amperage
output plug/receptacle options: ratings. Always check with your local
IEC-320-C13 (female) IEC-320-C14 (male) IEC-320-C19 (female) IEC-320-C20 (male)
electrician to verify proper wiring and

How big can I go?

L14-30R L14-30P IEC-309, 16A IEC-309, 32A

L 6 - 30 R
* 5-15P can plug into 5-20R L Locking Amperage R Receptacle
R = Receptacle, P = Plug, L = Locking matches breaker P Plug
rating feeding the
For the number before the hyphen:
5 = 125V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded)
6 = 250V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded) Value Max Voltage Wires in connector
14 = 125/250V, three-pole, four-wire (grounded) L6-30R L6-30P Terminal Block (Hardwired) 5: 125V L1, N, G
6: 250V L1, L2, G
The number after the hyphen indicates the amperage.
14: 125/250V L1, L2, N, G
For example, the L5-30R is a 30A receptacle.
15: 250V L1, L2, L3, G
21: 250V/125V L1, L2, L3, N, G

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 13

1. Fixed 4. Additional receptacles
Smaller UPS models like the Eaton Eaton ePDU products mount easily into
9130 UPS provide a fixed set of output racks and provide additional receptacles

2. Customized
UPS models like the Eaton 9355 can be
customized with a variety of output
A common question from IT managers is, I have a receptacle at my facility; what is the
biggest UPS can I connect to it? If youre looking at UPSs 6 kVA or lower, its a pretty 3. Hardwired
straight forward question to answer as shown below: Large UPS models like the Eaton 93PM are
hardwired to incoming utility power though
some models leverage output receptacles

Typical largest UPS

Local outlet
rating per outlet

5-15R 1500VA 120V

5-20R 2200VA 120V

1 2

L5-30R 3000VA 120V

L6-20R 3000VA 208V

L6-30R 6000VA 208V

IEC C13 2200VA 230V

IEC C19 3000VA 230V

3 4

14 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook


Self-startup Assisted startup

UPSs equipped with a standard input plug You may not feel comfortable installing
(units 1500 VA and below) that fits into electrical equipmentjustifiably so. UPS
standard wall sockets are very easy to installation deals with electrical power and
UPS install. Units 2000 VA and above require a batteriesboth of which can be dangerous
different wall socket that may not already if not handled properly. In addition, UPS
exist in the location where the UPS will be batteries can be very heavy and some units
installed. In these cases, an electrician can require a hardwired connection. As a result,
install the proper wall socket, after which UPS manufacturers usually offer a startup
startup you should have little problem with UPS service for an additional fee. You can also
installation. hire a systems integrator, electrician or
third-party service organization for UPS

Manufacturer-required startup
Many three-phase UPS models (typically
>40 kVA) must be started up by the UPS
manufacturer to ensure theyre properly
installed and calibrated. In general,
electricians and contractors dont have the
required in-depth knowledge of the UPS.
Manufacturer-trained field technicians
provide an overview of the equipment and a
tutorial of how to operate the UPS.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 15


The difference
between VA
and watts
The engineering answer: To correctly size a Apparent power (measured in VA or volt- Using one of the following formulas, a The answer for the rest of us:
UPS, its important to understand the amps) is a mathematical combination of calculation can be made to determine the
relationship between watts and VA. real power and reactive power. missing quantity:
However, we must first have a brief Watts = VA * Power Factor or VA = Watts /
discussion about power terminology. Real Apparent Power (VA) Power Factor
power (measured in watts) is the portion of Real power
Reactive Since many types of equipment are rated in Apparent
power flow that results in the consumption
Power watts, its important to consider the PF power (VA); (watts);
of energy. The energy consumed is related
VAR when sizing a UPS. If you don't take PF into Full capacity Actual usable
to the resistance in an electrical circuit. An }
account, you may under size your UPS. As power
example of consumed energy is the filament
in a light bulb. an example, a piece of equipment thats
Reactive power (measured in VAR or volt-
amps reactive) is the portion of power flow
Real Power (Watts)
The geometric relationship between
rated at 525 watts and has a power factor
of 0.7 results in a 750 VA load.
due to stored energy. Stored energy is apparent power, reactive power and real 750 VA = 525 Watts / 0.7 PF Converting amps to VA
related to the presence of inductance and/or power is illustrated in the power triangle Sizing the UPS to operate at 75 percent Single phase: Multiply amps by voltage (120
capacitance in an electrical circuit. An below: capacity results in a UPS with a 1000 VA volts in the U.S.). 10A x 120V = 1200 VA.
example of stored energy is a charged flash Mathematically, real power (watts) is related rating (750 VA / 0.75 = 1000 VA). Three phase: Amps x volts x 1.732 = VA.
bulb in a camera. to apparent power (VA) using a numerical
ratio referred to as the power factor (PF),
which is expressed in decimal format and
always carries a value between 0 and 1.0.
For many newer types of IT equipment,
such as computer servers, the typical PF
is 0.9 or greater. For legacy personal
computers (PCs), this value can be
View the Professor 0.60 0.75.
Wattson video on
VA vs Watts:

16 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Decentralized or central UPS? less than or equal to six kVA. In a central
Is a single, larger UPS better, or is it best to UPS configuration (see Figure 1), a larger
Decentralized have multiple, smaller UPSs? Naturally, the UPS supports multiple devices. A centralized
answer is that it depends on a number of UPS is typically hardwired into an electrical
factors. In a decentralized (also known as panelboard. The following tables include a
distributed) UPS configuration (see Figure number of factors to consider when making
2), multiple UPSs support a handful of a decision between a decentralized and
devices or perhaps only a single piece of central UPS. In the end it's often best to
or central UPS? equipment. Decentralized UPSs typically use simply go with the strategy that you are
plug and play connections and are usually comfortable with.

Central UPS
Why youd choose a
Why you wouldnt
central UPS solution

A single UPS can mean single point of

Typically, the sales and service life of failure. You can overcome this
the UPS is longer. concern with an N+1 or N+X UPS for

The single UPS may not be close

A single UPS is easier to monitor,
physically to the equipment it will
service and maintain than lots of
protect. A single electrical distribution
smaller UPSs.
panel may not feed all equipment.

Larger UPSs will be three-phase and/

or 208V, 400V or 480V and often result
There is no space for a large UPS.
in more efficient operation and lower
operating costs.
A central UPS is often housed away
A central UPS generally requires a
from high traffic areas. As a result,
trained service technician or
its less easily disrupted, accidentally
electrician to service, maintain or
damaged or maliciously interfered
A central UPS can be located where
cooling is more tightly controlled. A central UPS may incur higher
Remember, heat is the enemy of the installation and wiring costs.
batteries inside a UPS.
Though a technician may need to
replace the batteries, you only have to
worry about a single UPS. A
distributed UPS configuration may
result in various models that require
different batteries. Do you want to
take the time to replace the batteries
on five to 20 UPSs?

Figure 1

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 17

Combining the configurations
Its important to keep in mind that decentralized and
centralized power protection deployment strategies arent T HAT O FFICE
necessarily mutually exclusive. The two strategies can be
used in combination to provide redundancy to mission- F URNITURE I S
critical applications. For example, an entire facility may be
protected by a large, centralized UPS, but a specific depart- LOOKING R EALLY
ment such as a 24x7 call center may have decentralized
UPSs as well to provide redundant protection and possibly O LD. I L IKE I T.
extend runtime for call center equipment.

Decentralized UPS
Why youd choose a
Why you wouldnt
decentralized UPS configuration

No rewiring is required. Use existing If a generator supports the building,

wall sockets. Easy plug and play smaller standby and line-interactive
installation. Can also be redeployed UPSs may not be able to function
easily if IT systems are moved. while its running.

Requires lower capital outlay and

installation costs. Fits within IT
manager purchase limits. Generally
No central panelboard exists or
dont need to approve a large capital
theres no room for the UPS.
expense. Will most likely not require
additional installation costs from

You dont want to monitor or service a

bunch of UPS units. A decentralized
You have no idea how much your
design may require more time and
company will grow and dont want to
focus to keep up with replacing
get locked into a particular UPS.
batteries and maintaining multiple

You want a single UPS that can be

You already have a number of smaller
shut down using emergency power
UPS units that are fairly new and you
off. Also, a decentralized design may
dont want to discard them. (Most
not offer redundancy and other
UPS manufacturers offer a trade-in
capabilities provided by a larger,
central UPS.

Power conditioning is implemented at

the point of use, which mitigates any Adding redundancy, extended runtime
electrical disturbances that may be or maintenance bypass functionality
coupled into the distribution wiring of to multiple UPSs can be costly.
a centralized system.
Diverse applications within a building
may require varying levels of power
protection and functionality. For
example, extended runtime can be Multiple audible alarms/alerts may be
configured for specific applications, irritating.
eliminating the need to add additional
battery modules for less critical Figure 2

18 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

What is
90 180 270 360
Figure 1. Three-phase power

Three-phase power, the most efficient Single-phase or three-phase power? 90 180 270 360
way to distribute power over long
distances, allows for large industrial Single-phase Three-phase
equipment to operate more efficiently. advantages advantages
Its characterized by three single-phase The standard for Can help balance the Figure 2. Single-phase power
waves that are offset in their phase angle locations where three- loads on the utility
by 120 degrees, or one-third of the sine phase power is power of the building.
wave period as illustrated in Figure 1. unavailable.

Three-phase voltage can be measured from Usually easier to Usually easier to

distribute power in low distribute power in
each phase to neutral or from one phase to kVA and low-density higher kVA and high-
any other. The voltage relation between applications. density rack I L IKE T HE R HYTHM O F
phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase is a applications.
factor of the square root of three (e.g., 120V
Allows for smaller
versus 208V). amperage electrical
Conversely, single-phase power is distrib- devices within the
solution (breakers,
uted through common household outlets to wiring, panels, etc.).
power everyday equipment such as laptops,
lighting and televisions. When looking at an
oscilloscope image of the voltage coming
out of a single-phase outlet as illustrated in
Figure 2, theres only a single wave. Single-
phase power is obtained by simply using
only one phase of a three-phase system. Its
root mean square (RMS) voltage is 120V (for
North America) and it oscillates between its
peaks of 170V at 60 Hz (or 60 times a

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 19

Increase server energy efficiencies by using
high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs
Maximizing energy efficiencies in todays When operating at 208 volts, a 1 to 2 Making the connections
data centers has become an important percent difference in efficiency can be
factor in saving costs and reducing an experienced for a 1000W power supply,
organizations carbon footprint. While depending on the load level. When the loss
there are new energy-saving tools and in the power distribution transformer (PDU)
technologies being introduced every day, needed to get to the 120V is added, theres
understanding existing methods and an additional 1.5 to 2 percent savings.
systems can bring immediate efficiencies Factor in cooling efficiencies and the savings
and savings, often without an additional can add up to between 4 and 8 percent,
investment. which translates to about $70 per power
supply. When multiplied by the number
One such method is to operate equipment of power supplies in the server rack, the H IGH VOLTAGE
at high-line voltage and use 208V UPSs, savings certainly justifies making the switch
which maximizes energy efficiency and to 208 volts, especially when expanding or M AKES M E S IZZLE!
uptime, and saves money. IT devices moving into a new location.
equipped with a C14 plug are capable of
running on high voltage, which can One of the main reasons that U.S.
Remove the standard 5-15P/C13 power cord that
dramatically increase efficiency. customers have been reluctant to switch to
shipped with your IT equipment and replace it with
high voltage is that high voltage UPSs are
Even small increases in UPS efficiency can one of the C13/C14 jumper cables that shipped
typically fitted with IEC outlets (or even
quickly translate into tens of thousands of with your UPS. Your IT equipment is now
inlets) and customers dont know how
dollars in savings. For example, assuming a operating at 208V, running more efficiently and
to connect them to IT equipment with a
saving you money.
utility rate of 10 cents per kWh, a 60 kW traditional NEMA plug. However, all IT
N+1 redundant configuration would save power supplies come with a detachable
more than $30,000 over five years. High input cord with a NEMA plug on one side
UPS efficiency also extends battery and an IEC plug on the other. By simply
runtimes and produces cooler operating changing the standard NEMA/C13 power
conditions, resulting in lower utility bills. cord to an IEC C13/C14 power cord, these
At first glance, high-voltage input power additional IT equipment efficiencies can be
seems counter-intuitive when thinking about captured. IEC cables are fully UL-listed and
energy savings. However, in the real world, are the standard method of connection in
power supplies operate more efficiently at large mission-critical data centers across
high voltage. The typical server switch-mode the U.S.
power supply has an efficiency rating
between 65 and 80 percent, with some
special-purpose products able to reach 90
percent efficiency. Lower voltage causes
the power supply to operate at the lower
end of this range.

20 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Worldwide voltage map

50 Hz

60 Hz

*Mixed voltages are present in several countries, including Vietnam, South Korea, Philippines, Brazil, Peru and Saudi Arabia

Single-phase voltages*
110-127V; 60 Hz (also 208V; 60 Hz)
110-127V; 60 Hz T HERE W ERE
220/230V; 50 Hz
240V; 50 Hz

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 21

Worldwide voltages Single-
voltage voltage Frequency voltage voltage Frequency voltage voltage Frequency voltage voltage Frequency
Country (V) (V) ) (Hz) Country (V) (V) ) (Hz) Country (V) (V) ) (Hz) Country (V) (V) ) (Hz)

Afghanistan 220 380 50 Denmark 220-230 400 50 Laos 220 400 50 Runion Island 230 400 50
Albania 230 400 50 Djibouti 220 380 50 Latvia 220 400 50 Romania 220 400 50
Algeria 127/220 400 50 Dominica 230 400 50 Lebanon 110-220 400 50 Russia 220 400 50
American Samoa 120/240 208 60 Dominican Republic 110 120/208/ 60 Lesotho 240 380 50 Rwanda 220 400 50
Andorra 230 400 50 227/480 Liberia 120 208 60 Saudi Arabia 127/220 190/380 50/60
Angola 220 380 50 Ecuador 120 190 60 Libya 127-230 220/400 50 Scotland 220 400 50
Antigua 230 400 60 Egypt 220 380 50 Liechtenstein 220 400 50 Senegal 220 400 50
Armenia 230 380 50 El Salvador 115 200 60 Lithuania 220 400 50 Serbia 230 400 50
Argentina 220 380 50 England 240 400 50 Luxembourg 220-230 400 50 Seychelles 240 240 50
Aruba 115/127 220 60 Estonia 220 400 50 Macau 220 380 50 Sierra Leone 230 400 50
Australia 240 415 50 Ethiopia 220 380 50 Macedonia 230 400 50 Singapore 230 400 50
Austria 220-230 400 50 Faeroe Islands 230 400 50 Madagascar 220 220/380 50 Slovakia 220 400 50
Azerbaijan 220 380 50 Falkland Islands 240 415 50 Madeira (Portugal) 220 400 50 Slovenia 230 400 50
Azores (Portugal) 220 400 50 Fiji 240 415 50 Malawi 230 400 50 Somalia 110/220 380 50
Bahamas 120 208 60 Finland 220-230 400 50 Malaysia 240 415 50 South Africa 220-230 400 50
Bahrain 220 400 50 France 220-230 400 50 Maldives 230 400 50 Spain 220-230 400 50
Balearic Islands 230 400 50 French Guiana 220 380 50 Mali 220 380 50 Sri Lanka 230 400 50
Bangladesh 220 380 50 Gabon 220 380 50 Malta 240 400 50 St. Kitts & Nevis 230 400 60
Barbados 115 200 50 Gambia 220 400 50 Martinique 220 380 60 St. Lucia 240 400 50
Belarus 220 380 50 Gaza 230 400 50 Mauritania 220 220 50 St. Vincent 230 400 50
Belgium 220-230 400 50 Georgia 220 380 50 Mauritius 230 400 50 Sudan 240 400 50
Belize 110 190/380 60 Germany 220-230 400 50 Mexico 127 220/480 50 Surinam 115 220 60
Benin 220 380 50 Ghana 220 400 50 Moldova 220 380 50 Swaziland 230 400 50
Bermuda 120 208 60 Gibraltar 240 400 50 Monaco 220 400 50 Sweden 220-230 400 50
Bhutan 230 400 50 Greece 220-230 400 50 Mongolia 220 400 50 Switzerland 220-230 400 50
Bolivia 110-115/220 400 50 Greenland 220 400 50 Montserrat 230 400 60 Syria 220 380 50
Bosnia-Herzegovina 220 400 50 Grenada 230 400 50 Morocco 220 380 50 Tahiti 220 380 50
Botswana 220 400 50 Guadeloupe 220 400 50 Mozambique 220 380 50 Taiwan 110 190 60
Brazil 110-127 220/380/ 60 Guam 110-120 190 60 Myanmar 230 400 50 Tajikistan 220 380 50
220 440 60 Guatemala 120 208 60 Namibia 220-250 380 50 Tanzania 230 400 50
Brunei 240 415 50 Guinea 220 208 50 Nauru 240 415 50 Thailand 220/230 380 50
Bulgaria 220 400 50 Guinea-Bissau 220 380 50 Nepal 220 400 50 Togo 220 380 50
Burkina Faso 220 380 50 Guyana 110 190 50/60 Netherlands Antilles 120-127/220 220/380 50/60 Tonga 115 415 60
Burundi 220 380 50 Haiti 110-120 190 50/60 Netherlands 220-230 400 50 Trinidad & Tobago 115/23 200 60
Cambodia 120/220 400 50 Honduras 110 190 60 New Caledonia 220 380 50 Tunisia 220 400 50
Cameroon 220-230 380 50 Hong Kong 200 380 50 New Zealand 230 415 50 Turkey 220 400 50
Canada 120 208/240/600 60 Hungary 220 400 50 Nicaragua 120 208 60 Turkmenistan 220 380 50
Canary Islands (Spain) 220 400 50 Iceland 220 400 50 Niger 220 380 50 Uganda 240 415 50
Cape Verde 220 400 50 India 220-250 400 50 Nigeria 230 400 50 Ukraine 220 380 50
Cayman Islands 120 208 60 Indonesia 220 400 50 Northern Ireland 240 400 50 United Arab Emirates 220/230 415 50
Central African Republic 220 380 50 Iran 220 400 50 Norway 220-230 400 50 United Kingdom 240 400 50
Chad 220 380 50 Iraq 220 400 50 Okinawa 110-120 200/230 60 United States 120 277/480 60
Channel Islands 240 400 50 Ireland 220 400 50 Oman 240 415 50 Uruguay 220 220 50
Chile 220 380 50 Isle of Man 240 400 50 Pakistan 230 400 50 Uzbekistan 220 380 50
China 220 380 50 Israel 230 400 50 Palau 120 208 60 Venezuela 120 240 60
Colombia 110-220 440 60 Italy 220-230 400 50 Panama 110-120 190 60 Vietnam 120/220 380 50
Congo 220 400 50 Ivory Coast 220 380 50 Papua New Guinea 240 415 50 Virgin Islands 120 190 60
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 220 380 50 Jamaica 110 190 50 Paraguay 220 380 50 Wales 220 400 50
(formerly Zaire) Japan 100 200 50/60 Peru 110/220 220 50/60 Western Samoa 230 400 50
Cook Islands 240 415 50 Jordan 220 400 50 Philippines 115 380 60 Yemen 220 400 50
Costa Rica 120 240 60 Kazakhstan 220 380 50 Poland 240 400 50 Zambia 220 400 50
Croatia 220 400 50 Kenya 240 415 50 Portugal 220 400 50 Zimbabwe 220 415 50
Cuba 120 190 60 Korea, South 220 380 50/60 Puerto Rico 220-230 208 50
Cyprus 240 400 50 Kuwait 240 415 50 Qatar 240 415 50
Czech Republic 220 400 50 Kyrgyzstan 220 380 50

22 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

The nine power problems
In an ideal world, your wall socket would provide an infinite stream of perfect power, at
constant voltage and cycling exactly the same number of times per second. Dont count on it.

Power Problem Definition

Power Failure When a superhero loses his ability to fly or a total loss of utility power.
Power Sag Post-lunch sleepiness or short-term low voltage.
Power Surge Rush of energy following a double shot of espresso or short-term high voltage more
3 (Spike) than 110 percent of normal.

When your amps too wimpy to handle the bass line or reduced line voltage for an
Under-voltage extended period of a few minutes to a few days. Often happens during the summer
4 (Brownout)
months when everyone is cranking up their air conditioners.

Inhuman cheefulness exuded by aerobics instructors or increased line voltage for an

5 extended period of a few minutes to a few days.

Electrical Excuse you use to get off the phone quickly or a high power frequency power wave A H, M ORE
6 Line Noise caused by radio frequency interference (RFI) or electromagnetic interference (EMI). M INIONS F OR
Frequency Fluctuation in how often you do laundry from week to week or a loss of stability in the
7 Variation power supplys normal frequency of 50 or 60 Hz.

Switching Breaking up with your significant other only to get back together every six months or
8 Transient instantaneous under-voltage in the range of nanoseconds.

Harmonic Music blaring from your nephews headphones or the distortion of the normal power
9 Distortion wave, generally transmitted by unequal loads.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 23

AC to DC DC to AC
Rectifier Inverter


UPS topologies Buck Boost

DC to AC
Charger Inverter
There are several different UPS topologies that provide varying degrees of protection. Selecting Online UPSs provide the highest level of protection by isolating equipment from raw utility
the best fit depends on several factors, including the level of reliability and availability desired, powerconverting power from AC to DC andBattery back to AC. Unlike other topologies, double
the type of equipment being protected and the application/environment. While all four of the conversion provides zero transfer time to battery for sensitive equipment. This topology is best
most common UPS topologies outlined below meet the input voltage requirements for IT applied to mission-critical equipment and locations where power generally is poor.
equipment, there are key differences in how the result is achieved, as well as the frequency
and duration of demands on the battery.
Standby UPSs allow equipment to run off utility DC topower
AC until the UPS detects a problem, at
Inverter Capacitor
Internal Static Bypass
which point it switches to battery power to protect against sags, surges or outages. This
topology is best suited for applications requiring simple backup such as small office/home office
and point-of-sale equipment.
AC to DC
Rectifier DC to AC

DC to AC Battery
Inverter Capacitor
BatteryDC to AC
AC to DC
Rectifier Inverter


Line-interactive UPSs actively regulate voltage either by boosting or decreasing utility power Ferroresonant UPSs operate similarly to line-interactive models with the exception that a
as necessary before allowing it to pass to the DC
AC to DCBuck Boost
to AC equipment or by resorting to battery ferroresonant transformer is used to condition the output and hold energy long enough to
power. Line-interactive models Inverter
Rectifierare ideal for applications where protection from power cover the time between switching from line power to battery power which effectively means
anomalies is required, but the utility power is relatively clean. MDF and IDF communication a no-break transfer. Many ferroresonant UPSs are 82-88 percent efficient and offer excellent
closets, non-centralized server and network rooms, and general IT enclosures are ideally suited isolation. Although no longer the dominant type of UPS, these robust units are still used in
for this topology. industrial settings such as the oil and gas, petrochemical, chemical, utility and heavy
Battery DC to AC
Inverter industry markets.

Buck Boost

Battery DC to AC
Charger Inverter
Internal Static Bypass

Battery DC to AC
Inverter Capacitor
AC to DC
Rectifier DC to AC

Normal Operation Internal Static Bypass
Battery Power

AC to DC AC to DC DC to AC
24 EATON Eaton UPS Rectifier DC to AC Fundamentals Handbook
and Power Management Rectifier Inverter
Valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries, 2. Is there any difference between the
also known as sealed or maintenance free batteries used by smaller UPSs, from 250
are most commonly used in UPSs. VRLA VA to 3 kVA, and the ones used by larger
batteries are sealed, usually within UPSs?
polypropylene plastic, which offers the
UPS battery advantage of not containing any sloshing
While basic battery technology and the risks
to battery life remain the same regardless of
liquid that might leak or drip. Because water
UPS size, there are some inherent
cant be added to VRLA batteries,
differences between large and small
recombination of water is critical to their life
applications. Smaller UPSs typically have
and health, and any factor that increases the
overview rate of evaporation or water losssuch as
only one VRLA battery that supports the
load and needs maintenance. As systems
temperature or heat from the charging
get larger, increasing battery capacity to
Its well known that the battery is the most vulnerable part of a UPS. In fact, battery failure currentreduces battery life.
support the load gets more complicated.
is a leading cause of load loss. Understanding how to properly maintain and manage UPS Larger systems may require multiple strings
batteries can extend their service life and help prevent costly downtime. of batteries, introducing complexity to
Frequently asked battery maintenance and support. Individual
batteries must be monitored to prevent a
questions: batteries single bad battery from taking down an
entire string, and putting the load at risk.
1. What is the end of useful life? Also, as systems get larger, wet-cell
The IEEE defines end of useful life for a batteries become much more common.
UPS battery as the point when it can no
longer supply 80 percent of its rated
Positive Flag Extruded Intercell capacity in ampere-hours. When your
Valve Terminal Welded Connection, battery reaches 80 percent of its rated
Low Resistance capacity, the aging process accelerates and
Current Path
the battery should be replaced.

Strap Joining Battery Day
Plates in happens every
year on
February 18th
Pasted Plate
Lead Alloy

Polypropylene Figure 1. VRLA batteries are frequently used in UPS or

Container/Jar other high-rate applications.

Figure 2. Internal and external components of a valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery.
View the Professor
Wattson video on

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 25

3. My UPS has been in storage for over a 6. If I add more batteries to a UPS, can I typical life of an Eaton UPS with ABM 14. What are the risks associated with a
year. Are the batteries still good? add more load? technology is 50 percent longer than with lack of battery maintenance?
As batteries sit unused, with no charging Adding more batteries to a UPS can standard models.
The primary risks of improperly maintained
regimen, their life will decrease. Due to the increase the battery runtime to support the batteries are load loss, fire, property damage
self-discharge characteristics of lead-acid load. However, adding more batteries to the 10. Why are batteries disconnected on and personal injury.
batteries, it is imperative that they be UPS doesnt increase the UPS capacity. Be small, single-phase UPSs when theyre
charged after every six to 10 months of sure your UPS is adequately sized for your shipped?
15. What is thermal runaway?
storage. Otherwise, permanent loss of load and then add batteries to fit your This is done to ensure theyre in compliance
capacity will occur between 18 and 30 runtime needs. Thermal runaway occurs when the heat
with Department of Transportation
months. To prolong shelf life without generated in a lead-acid cell exceeds its
charging, store batteries at 10C (50F) or ability to dissipate it, which can lead to an
less. explosion, especially in sealed cells. The
11. Does the UPS need to have a load on heat generated in the cell may occur without
it to charge its batteries? any warning signs and may be caused by
4. What is the difference between
hot-swappable and user-replaceable The UPS should have a minimum of overcharging, excessive charging, internal
batteries? 10 percent load to charge its batteries. physical damage, internal short circuit or a
Once connected to a standard supply of hot environment.
Hot-swappable batteries can be changed out
electricity (via input plug or hardwiring), your
while the UPS is running. User-replaceable
UPS should charge its batteries regardless 16. Why do batteries fail?
batteries are usually found in smaller UPSs
of how much load, if any, is attached to it.
and require no special tools or training to Batteries can fail for a multitude of reasons,
replace. Batteries can be both hot- but common reasons are:
swappable and user-replaceable. 12. How can you be sure UPS batteries
Figure 4. Adding extended battery modules are in good condition and ensure they High or uneven temperatures
increases runtime but doesnt increase the power have maximum holdover in the event Inaccurate float charge voltage
rating or capacity of the UPS. of a power failure? What preventive
maintenance procedures should be done Loose inter-cell links or connections
7. Can I mix batteries by type or age? and how often? Loss of electrolyte due to drying out or
damaged case
No, its important that you never mix The batteries used in the UPS and
batteries by manufacturer, type or age. associated battery modules and cabinets are Lack of maintenance, aging
Always remove and replace all the batteries sealed, lead-acid batteries often referred to
in the device at the same time, and follow as maintenance-free. While these types of 17. How is battery performance generally
the manufacturers recommendations to batteries are sealed and you dont need to measured?
which to use. Remember to read the check their fluid level, they do require some
attention to assure proper operation. You Batteries are generally rated for 100+
warnings and small print before installing. discharges and recharges, but many show a
should inspect the UPS a minimum of once
per year by initiating a self-test. marked decline in charging capacity after as
8. If my UPS is in storage, how often few as 10 discharges. The lower the charge
Figure 3. UPS models like the Eaton 9130 feature should I charge the batteries? the battery can accept, the less runtime it
hot-swappable batteries for maximum uptime.
13. How long does it take for the UPS
The batteries should be charged every three can deliver. Look for batteries with a high-
batteries to recharge?
or four months to prevent loss of capacity. rate design that sustains stable performance
On average, it takes 10 times the discharge for a long service term.
5. How is battery runtime affected if I
time for the UPS batteries to recover. (A
reduce the load on the UPS? 9. What is the average lifespan of UPS
30-minute battery discharge requires about
The battery runtime will increase if the load 300 minutes to recharge.) After each power
is reduced. As a general rule, if you reduce The standard lifespan for VRLA batteries is outage, the recharge process begins
the load by half, you triple the runtime. three to five years. However, expected life immediately. Its important to note that the
can vary greatly due to environmental load is fully protected while the batteries are
conditions, number of discharge cycles, and recharging, but if the batteries are needed
adequate maintenance. Have a regular during that time, the holdover time available
schedule of battery maintenance and will be less than it would have been if the
monitoring to ensure you know when your batteries were fully charged.
batteries are reaching their end-of-life. The

26 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Factors affecting
battery life
All UPS batteries have a limited service life, 2. Battery chemistry capacity can be used up over a large 5. Shelf life, storage and acceptance
regardless of how or where the UPS is number of short cycles or fewer cycles of testing
Positive grid corrosion has been the most
deployed. While determining battery life can longer duration.
common end-of-life factor for UPS batteries, Its important to ensure that batteries are
be tricky, there are four primary factors that
which is a result of the normal aging Lead-acid chemistry, like whats used in properly stored prior to being installed and
contribute to a batterys overall lifespan.
process due to UPS battery chemistry rechargeable batteries, can only undergo a placed into service in order to improve
and involves the gradual breakdown of the certain number of discharge/recharge cycles service life expectations and reliability.
1. Ambient temperature inner segments of the positive grid within before the chemistry is depleted. Once the Storage facilities should be climate
The rated capacity of a lead acid battery is the battery. chemistry is depleted, the cells fail and the controlled with proper ventilation capabilities
based on an ambient temperature of 77F. battery must be replaced. so batteries can be kept cool and dry. Failure
Its important to know that any variation 3. Cycling to comply with proper storage can lead to
from this operating temperature can alter 4. Maintenance shortened runtimes and reduced capacity.
the batterys performance and shorten its During a utility power failure, a UPS
operates on battery power. Once utility Battery service and maintenance are critical All battery manufacturers have shelf life and
life. To help determine battery life in relation storage parameters. In terms of time, a
to temperature, remember for every 15F power is restored, or a switch to generator to UPS reliability. A gradual decrease in
power is complete, the battery is recharged battery life can be monitored and evaluated good rule of thumb is no more than six
average annual temperature above 77F, the months of storage in a properly designed
life of the battery is reduced by 50 percent. for future use. This is called a discharge through voltage checks, load testing or
cycle. At installation, the battery is at 100 monitoring. Periodic preventive maintenance storage facility.
Ambient temperatures below 77F may
reduce the battery backup time, similar to a percent of rated capacity. Each discharge extends battery string life by preventing To validate runtime and capacity
car battery on a cold morning. and subsequent recharge reduces its loose connections, removing corrosion and expectations, an acceptance test should be
relative capacity by a small percentage. identifying bad batteries before they can performed. The acceptance test will be able
The length and quantity of discharge cycles affect the rest of the string. to determine if there are any flaws within
determine the reduction in battery capacity. Even though sealed batteries are sometimes the manufacturing process, improper
referred to as maintenance-free, they still storage or perhaps even hidden damage as
A good analogy is a loaf of bread. It can be
require scheduled maintenance and service. a result of shipping and handling. This test
sliced into many thin slices, or a few thicker
Maintenance-free simply refers to the fact might be the most important procedure any
slices. You still have the same amount of
that they dont require added water. operator can have performed to ensure
bread either way. Similarly, a UPS batterys
reliability of the battery systems.
Without regular maintenance, a UPS battery
can experience heat-generating resistance at To validate runtime and capacity
the terminals, improper loading, reduced expectations, an acceptance test should be
protection and premature failure. With proper performed. The acceptance test will be able
to determine if there are any flaws within
B ATTERIES A RE maintenance, the end of battery life can be
the manufacturing process, improper
accurately estimated and replacements
H EAVY. T HEY G ET scheduled without unexpected downtime or storage or perhaps even hidden damage as
loss of backup power. a result of shipping and handling. This test
M E P UMPED U P. might be the most important procedure any
operator can have performed to ensure
reliability of the battery systems.
For additional information on UPS batteries, to use
the Eaton battery replacement selector, or to request
a free copy of Eatons battery handbook, visit

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 27



Operating UPS power without power Once youve selected a power management
management software is like driving in the software solution that seamlessly integrates
rain without windshield wipers you may into your major virtualization platform and
be protected from the downpour, but your meets the needs of your environment, you
visibility is hindered. Together, a UPS will be able to enjoy a number of
solution and monitoring and management advantages.
software is the perfect complement. Cost savings
Most businesses today are leveraging some Less hardware, power used, cooling, and
level of virtualization (whether it be management
application, storage, network, or server
virtualization). Read the top two criteria to Increased productivity no need to
consider when choosing software that recreate your work-in-progress
safeguards your equipment and expands the Business continuity and disaster
capabilities of your virtual environment. recovery (BCDR)
Data integrity and graceful shutdown in
1. Establish which software integrates the event of an extended outage
with your virtualization platform
Initiate planned migrations to a cloud
(VMware, Citrix, Microsoft, or Red Hat) and recover site
other devices that support a network
Extended runtime to critical applications
interface (UPSs, environmental sensors,
with load shedding
ePDUs, etc.)
Management ease
2. Identify what you want to accomplish A global view across the network on one
with the software. screen often from any PC with an
Internet browsers A complete log of
Do you want it to plug directly into your Figure 1. Eatons Intelligent Power Manager facilitates easy and versatile remote monitoring and management of
events and UPS utility data
virtual dashboard? multiple devices, keeping you apprised of power and environmental conditions.
Centralized alarms
Do you want to initiate planned
migrations? Organized data by customized views
Event logs for preventive maintenance of
Do you want to perform load shedding?
the entire installed equipment base
Do you want to remotely shut down a If you are interested in keeping a pulse on
host in a cluster without needing to install your networks health and secure the
shutdown agents on each host or each availability on your data through software,
virtual machine? view an online demonstration of Eatons View the Professor
power management software capabilities. Wattson video on
Visit: Eaton.com/intelligentpower virtualization:

28 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Make health-checking your UPS
a top priority
In order to avoid an unexpected 2. Perform an early spring cleaning. 3. Verify UPS communication. 4. Keep service information up-to-date.
breakdown, your vehicle needs regular Clutter, dust and general disorganization can Properly oonfigured communications ensure Nothing can be more frustrating than finding
preventive maintenance, such as routine cause unwanted issues and decrease the that IT managers can respond to alerts and out your UPS is no longer under warranty
oil changes and tune-ups. Likewise, an reliability of your system, so be sure to: take corrective actions, so: after it fails. Be sure to:
annual visit to your physicians office
helps identify any potential problems that a. Check the air flow. Make sure there is a. Run a test email. If your UPS is a. Double-check your service contract.
could become health concerns. Ensuring nothing blocking air-flow in your IT equipped with a Network Interface Card Review your coverage and consider
environment, since heat is one of the (NIC), run a trial email. Sometimes storing contract information in one place,
the ongoing optimal performance of your
biggest reducers of battery life. You changing email servers or domains can either physically or electronically.
UPS is much the same.
should have enough air flow to keep your cause settings to be out b. Register your product. If you do not
UPS at room temperature (77 degrees is of date. have a service contract, at least make
The following checklist will help you keep it optimal). b. Check the software. Make sure the UPS sure your UPS is registered with the
in tip-top shape: b. Dust! Caked-on grime can damage fans and NIC both have the most up-to-date manufacturer. This helps you stay
1. Make sure your batteries are in and cause electronics board damage. versions. informed on updates, and allows the
good health. A simple wipe down is often all you need. manufacturer to respond quickly if an
If you have a larger, centralized UPS, you issue does arise.
Batteries are the No. 1 cause of UPS failure, may need to replace your air filter or
so its wise to do the following: These simple steps will go a long way
make sure that it is clean. toward ensuring the ongoing reliability of
a. Note their age. UPS batteries can last your UPS, and in turn, the critical equipment
anywhere from 2-5 years, so if yours are and data it is protecting.
4 years old or older, you should probably
begin planning a replacement. I H AVE A Q UESTION.
b. Run a UPS battery self-test. Most W HICH D ESERVES
network-class UPSs have the capability to
run a quick self-check from the front N EW L IFE M ORE ? YOUR
c. Check under the hood. Remove the
front bezel and make sure there are no OR M E?
signs of battery swelling or damage.
d. Consider a preventive maintenance
(PM) visit. For customers with larger,
centralized UPSs, consider having an
electrician or factory-authorized technician
test each individual battery, which provide
a much more detailed picture of your
system reliability.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 29

Service overview
One of the best ways to protect your
investment is by including a service
plan. Scheduled preventive maintenance
can help detect a wide range of ailments
before they become serious and costly

Types of UPS service Types of service

There are several UPS service delivery agreements
methods, including:
A variety of different UPS service options
Factory warranty repair or replace.
are available, any of which will likely save
You contact the UPS service provider and
you time and money by minimizing business
ship your UPS to a repair facility. The Figure 1. Smaller UPS models are usually sent to a Figure 3. Eaton is one of the UPS companies that
interruption and the costs of downtime, as
service provider returns the repaired unit repair facility. provides remote monitoring services.
well as enhancing overall return on
or a refurbished unit.
investment by extending the lifespan of
Extended warranty advance swap critical power equipment.
depot exchange. Time and material (T&M) service is a
Support agreements, or service
You contact your UPS service provider, pay-as-you-go approach through which the
contracts, usually combine parts and The Eaton service
which ships a refurbished unit to you; the service provider makes a repair only
labor coverage (electronics, batteries or
original UPS unit is returned to a repair when something breaks. T&M can be
both), one or more UPS preventive offering
facility. Typically this expedites a done either via depot repair or onsite,
maintenance inspections annually, and a
replacement UPS by the next business Eaton offers power quality services for
combination of coverage hours and arrival depending on the UPS. This method
day and freight costs are paid both ways its UPS products as well as for related
response time. Plans can be tailored to can be an unacceptable service solution
by Eaton. equipment such as power distribution units
meet almost any need. Special features for some customers, since its often
(PDUs) and batteries. Eaton also services
Onsite repair. You contact your UPS like remote monitoring, battery expensive, and theres the uncertainty
products from legacy brands, including
service provider and factory-trained field replacement insurance and spare part kits of not knowing when a field technician
Powerware, Exide Electronics, Best Power,
technicians travel to your site to diagnose may also be added. will arrive. Because support agreement
MGE Office Protection Systems, IPM,
and repair electronic or battery-related (contract) customers always take priority,
Extended warranty (or basic warranty) Deltec and Lortec. Eaton has more than
problems. T&M response times can be up to five
may also be purchased for many UPS 40 years of experience designing and
Smaller UPS products (below 1000 VA) days, based on the product and location.
products. A warranty commonly covers servicing industry-leading UPSs for
generally can be repaired at a depot, while specified parts and labor such as government, healthcare, industrial and
products over 1000 VA and up to 18 kVA can electronic components for a fixed period data center applications.
either be repaired at a depot or serviced of time. Warranties may have limited
onsite. Larger UPSs that are either response times or exclude features like
hardwired (cant be unplugged) or too heavy scheduled preventive maintenance. The
to ship can only be serviced onsite by more services added to a warranty, the
trained technicians. closer it becomes to a support For more information on UPS service, and to
access service-related white papers, please visit

30 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

We compiled the following set 4. How is battery runtime impacted if 8. How is reliability measured?
of questions based on our extensive I reduce the load on the UPS?
Power reliability is usually stated as a
experience dealing with resellers and end
There can be a significant increase in percent of time the power is available. For
users. For frequently asked questions about
runtime. Generally speaking, a UPS that example, the power grid system in the U.S.
UPS batteries, please visit the UPS battery
provides five minutes at full load will provide provides three nines of reliabilitythe
overview section on page 25.
15 minutes at half load. power is available for 99.9 percent of the
time. Because those 8.8 hours of downtime
1. Whats the difference between a surge translate into significant downtime and
5. My business is too small for protective
protector and a UPS? expense, IT and telephone network services
measures. Do I really need a UPS? asked
A surge protector provides just thatsurge require at least five nines of reliability.
Power problems are equal-opportunity
protection. In addition to surge protection, a
threats. Your PCs, servers and network are Reliability average Non-availability per year
UPS continually regulates incoming voltage
just as critical to your business as a data 99% 88 hours
and provides battery backup in the event of
center is to a large enterprise. Downtime is
a power failure. You'll often see surge
protectors plugged into a UPS for added
costly in terms of hardware and potential
99.9% 8.8 hours
loss of goodwill, reputation and sales. Also 99.99% 53 minutes
surge protection and additional output
add in the delays that inevitably occur when 99.999% 5.3 minutes
rebooting locked-up equipment, restoring 99.9999% 32 seconds
damaged files and re-running processes that 99.99999%+ 3.2 seconds
2. How much capacity of a UPS should were interrupted. A sound power protection
I use? strategy is cost-effective insurance.
To allow for future expansion, we 9. How are phone systems and IT
recommend that you install a UPS at 6. Why is power quality such a problem equipment affected by inconsistent
approximately 75 percent capacity. In today? power?
addition, the batteries degrade over time; Fluctuating power is a waste of valuable
Todays high-tech IT equipment and control
by oversizing, you provide room for error. time and money. If customers expose their
units are much more sensitive to electrical
In the online Eaton UPS sizing tool telephone systems (and any other electronic
disturbances and are more important to the
(Eaton.com/UPSselector) weve included equipment) to inconsistent utility power,
critical functions of many businesses than
a capacity used column. theyre vulnerable to hardware and software
in the past. As a result, power quality
problems today are more frequent and damage, data corruption and communication
3. How much UPS battery runtime do more costly than ever. breakdown. The time and cost of replacing
I need? equipment, as well as the business lost
during breakdown and replacement, can
During an outage, you need enough battery 7. Are power quality problems always greatly affect a companys bottom line.
runtime to gracefully shut down systems or noticeable?
switch to backup generators. You may add
No. In many cases, disturbances can cause 10. I have a UPS. Am I really protected by
an optional external battery module (EBM)
imperceptible damage to circuits and other lightning?
to increase runtime.
components, a major cause of premature
equipment failure and problems like No UPS or any other form of surge
computer lockups. Many power quality protection device can provide total
problems go unresolved, resulting in lost protection against lightning-induced power
revenue and data. surges. A good UPS will suppress the
majority of surges without itself suffering
damage. For larger surges, it will also offer
one-off protection, where the surge
protection device does its job of protecting
the connected equipment, but is destroyed
in the process and can, therefore, provide
no further protection. While a well specified

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 31

good quality UPS will provide a very useful C. Local outlet level surge protector. A 17. Why is power management software 19. My data center only went down for a
level of surge protection, it will do an even simple surge strip; small plug-and-play UPSs important? couple of minutes. Whats the big deal?
better job if it is used as part of a often have this as well. Brings voltage down
Although UPSs are typically rugged and When a data center goes down and then
comprehensive surge protection system to levels that will not permanently damage
reliable, they do require ongoing monitoring back up during a power outage without a
with several levels of protection with high- connected equipment (typically ~380V).
and support. Power management software managed shut down, it doesn't come up
energy protection devices installed at the Lightning strikes have such an incredible continuously monitors and diagnoses the nicely. Storage arrays initialize after servers
point where the supply enters the building, amount of energy that only an expensive state of the grid, batteries and power that try to mount their shares, while some
and smaller devices installed at other critical lightning arrestor would protect you from a sources, together with the condition of the servers boot without access to DNS servers
points throughout the buildings power direct hit and they often don't guarantee UPSs internal electronics. Eaton UPS that are also booting and thus have other
distribution system. complete protection. For the best protection software and connectivity cards enable problems. Although the outage was short, it
against lightning strikes, you want to remote monitoring and management can take hours to get everything back
11. We have a generator. Do I still need develop a two-stage defense with capability, including graceful shutdown and online. In addition, data corruption is a
a UPS? something at your panel and something at load segment control. serious concern.
A generator will NOT protect your the outlet level. Visit Eaton.com/spd for
equipment against power problems. You some informative videos and additional 18. Will my current UPS software 20. Where can I get technical help?
need a UPS to guarantee that the information. monitor my new Eaton UPS?
Contact your territory representative or call
equipment stays up until the generator
14. What happens if the UPS is Yes, you can monitor your Eaton UPS with the Eaton UPS hotline at 1-800-356-5794 for
kicks on and stabilizeswhich often requires
overloaded, for example, if the protected any UPS or facility management software pre-sales support and 1-800-356-5737 for
several minutes.
equipment and/or load draws more that supports the industry standard technical support. You can also visit
current than it can provide? Management Information Base (MIB, RFC www.powerquality.eaton.com.
12. How much UPS capacity do I need? 1628) as long as you install the optional
Determine the total load (in watts) of The UPS transfers the load to bypass (for a connectivity card. Most UPS vendors
the equipment you want to protect. few minutes) until the overload condition is support this MIB and all good facility
Add 1020 percent for future growth and reversed. If the overload condition management software, including
decide the minimum amount of runtime continues, some UPS models automatically OpenManage, OpenView and Tivoli also
you need. Use the online sizer at shut down. Some models can run at 110V support it. Extended Eaton Advanced MIBs
(powerquality.eaton.com) to identify indefinitely in bypass. are available for greater levels of detail. A G ENERATOR?
the right solution for your application.
15. What causes a UPS to be overloaded? You can remotely control your Eaton UPS I A LREADY H AVE
13. What are the different levels of surge using the Eaton UPS management software
There are two possible answers: (1) the UPS or through a secure web interface if you M Y O WN!
protection? was undersized (e.g., the load is rated at choose the optional connectivity card, which
There are three typical levels: 1200 VA, but a 1000 VA UPS was provided), also allows for automated email alerts for
or (2) you plugged more equipment into the power events without needing to install any
A. Lightning arrestors. Big and mean, usually UPS than it was designed to handle.
found in large facilities located in high-risk software.
areas. Takes an extremely high voltage and
16. I have a 3000 VA UPS. Can I just plug
clamps it down.
the unit into a standard 15A wall outlet?
B. Surge Protective Devices (SPD or TVSS).
Mounted on your panelboard or load center; Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500
sometimes larger UPS models may have VA plug into a standard 15A wall outlet. All
some level of this, but typically not a great others require a larger receptacle, which
amount. Clamps voltage down two even must be installed by an electrician.
lower tolerances (~1 kV or less).

32 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Electric transmission
distribution system
The flow of electricity begins at the The transmission substation then increases
utility company, where its created at the the voltage, which depends on the distance
generating station. A generator trans- the power needs to travel and the amount
former at the station switchyard then desired. Electricity then enters the
steps up the voltage to minimize cable transmission system, traveling at nearly the
size and electrical losses. speed of light, over heavy cables strung
between tall towers. A step-down
transformer located at a substation near the
final destination reduces the voltage to
between 22,000 and 69,000 volts, so the
electricity can be carried on smaller
distribution lines that carry it to the end
user. Transformers that adjust the voltages
down to the proper level for use are located
at or near each end user facility. For
commercial use, the load can range from
416 volts to 480 volts, while residential use
is typically 208/120 volts in the U.S. and

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 33

Transmission Residential Residential Load Commercial Customer
Lines Small Business 120V and 280V Service Equipment
Overhead Customer Service
Transformer Main Lateral Lightning
Breaker Switchgear Feeder Static Fuse Arrestors

9 10 Pad Mounted 13 14

4 Transformer
Powers Poles
Conduits 11
5 6


Underground 230,000 Volts Underground 7 Underground Commercial Load

Transmission Main Feeder Service 480/277 volts
Lines 380/220 volts
416/240 volts

Threats to the system

At each stage, there are a number of threats 1 Fire sparked by weak wire 6 Squirrels and raccoons chew through 10 Mylar balloons drift into power lines
that can interrupt the flow and distribution of burns through line a wire or wander into the wrong area 11 Three-car collision strikes utility pole
electricity. Everything from lightning strikes
2 Lightning strike damages 7 Underground explosion causes cable 12 Failure of underground cable
to failed equipment can severely affect the
transmission line failure
end user and disrupt important and vital 13 Equipment failure
processes. 3 Bird flies in causing short circuit 8 Storm blows branches and limbs down
that crash into power lines 14 The power goes out and no one
4 Thieves steal copper knows why
5 Blown fuse at substation transformer 9 Equipment malfunction
15 Utilities conduct a planned outage for
repairs or upgrades



34 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Eatons Blackout Tracker monitors power outages across the U.S. and Canada to
provide a snapshot of reported power outages. The Blackout Tracker is an interactive Impact of power
Blackout and educational way to share information about the causes, frequencies and impact
of power outages. You can view a region or individual state or province to see specific outages
information about power outages, including their cause, duration and number of Every day, an interruption to electrical
Tracker people affected. Visit Eaton.com/blackouttracker to see this interactive tool and order service in homes, businesses and public
the latest Blackout Tracker annual report. sector organizations occurs, and the losses
from these power outages can be extensive
and of great consequence. For a business,
the recovery time is significant and the
costs are high. According to Price
Waterhouse research, after a power
outage disrupts IT systems:
>33 percent of companies take more than
a day to recover
10 percent of companies take more than
a week
It can take up to 48 hours to reconfigure
a network
It can take days or weeks to re-enter
lost data
90 percent of companies that experience
a computer disaster and don't have a
survival plan go out of business within
18 months
Power outages can cause substantial losses
for the companies affected. According to
the U.S. Department of Energy, when a
power failure disrupts IT systems:
33 percent of companies lose $20,000-
20 percent lose $500,000 to $2 million
15 percent lose more than $2 million

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 35

The following data was compiled by
Overview Eaton based on reported power outages
during 2014.
of 2014 Total number of people affected by outages 14,268,989
(This is the sum of the number of people affected by reported power outages in the
U.S. for 2014.)
151,366 minutes (approximately
Total duration of outages
US national 2,522 hours or 105 days)
(This is the sum of the durations of the reported power outages.)
power outage Total number of outages 3,634
(This is the sum of the number of reported power outages.)
Average number of people affected per outage 3,996
(This number is determined by dividing the Total number of people affected by
outages by the number of outages that reported the number of people affected.
data Not all reports of outages included number of people affected. The number of outages
used for this calculation can be found in the note following this table.)
Average duration of outage 43 minutes
(This number is determined by dividing the Total duration of outages by the number
of outages that reported durations. Not all reports of outages included the duration.
The number of outages used for this calculation can be found in the note following
this table.)

A. Note: Total number of people affected (and average) is based on 2,404 (66%) of the total reported outages.
Total duration of outages (and average) is based on 671(18%) of the total reported outages. These are
the number of outages that had reports that included data for number of people affected and duration,
B. Reports from news services, newspapers, websites, etc. used as sources, sometimes give statistics using
different terms. For example, some reports may be based on people while others may be based on
addresses, homes and businesses or utility customers. For purposes of this report, all of these are
assumed to be and counted as people.

36 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Reported power outages by cause in 2014


Reported power outages by cause in 2014 Reported power outages by month/year

Note: Each power outage was grouped into one of seven possible causes. The outages by cause were totaled Note: Data collection began February 16, 2008.
and the results displayed in the chart above. The number adjacent to the pie piece is the number of outages
attributable to that cause.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 37

Commonly used acronyms
UPS and electrical acronyms
A Ampere HVAC Heating, Ventilating and PDU Power Distribution Unit VA Volt Ampere
Air Conditioning
AC Alternating Current PE Protective Earth (also Physical Vac Volts Alternating Current
HW Hardwired Education)
AFCI Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter Vdc Volts Direct Current
Hz Hertz PF Power Factor
AH Ampere Hour VRLA Valve Regulated Lead Acid
IEC International Electrotechnical PFC Power Factor Correction W Watt
ANSI American National Standards
Commission (IEC)
Institute PM Preventive maintenance
IEEE Institute of Electrical And
ASCII American Standard Code for PoE Power over Ethernet Eaton acronyms
Electronics Engineers
Information Interchange
PPDM PowerPass Distribution ABM Advanced Battery
IGBT Insulated Gate Bi-polar
AVR Automatic Voltage Regulation Module Management
BBM Break-Before-Make (Bypass PPE Personal Protective AFC American Football Conference
ISO International Standards
Switch) Equipment
Organization AM Advanced Monitored (ePDU)
BDM Bypass Distribution Module PUE Power Usage Effectiveness
ITIC Information Technology ARG Amphibious Ready Group
BTU British Thermal Unit Industry Council REPO Remote Emergency Power
Off BA Basic (ePDU)
CRAC Computer Room Air kAIC Kiloampere Interrupting
Conditioning Capacity RFI Radio Frequency Interference CSE Customer Service Engineer

CRAH Computer Room Air Handler kVA Kilovolt ampere RM Rackmount (also Rectifier EOSL End of Service Life
Magazine) EMS Energy Management System
CSA Canadian Standards LAN Local Area Network
Association RMS Root Mean Square ESS Energy Saver System
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
DC Direct Current RoHS Restriction of Hazardous ME Metered (ePDU)
LED Light-Emitting Diode
DCIE Data Center Infrastructure MI Ethernet Monitored (ePDU)
LV Low Voltage
Efficiency SCR Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
MBB Make-Before-Break (bypass NFC National Football Conference
EBC Extended Battery Cabinet SLA Service Level Agreement
switch) PDR Power Distribution Rack
EBM Extended Battery Module SNMP Simple Network Management
MIB Management Information RMA Return Material Authorization
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility Base
SPD Surge Protection Device RPM Rack Power Module
EMF Electromagnetic Force MOV Metal Oxide Varistor
THD Total Harmonic Distortion ROO Remote On/Off
EMI Electromagnetic Interference MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
TVSS Transient Voltage Surge RPO Remote Power Off
FCC Federal Communications MTTR Mean Time To Repair
Suppressor RPP Remote Power Panel
NEC National Electrical Code
UL Underwriters Laboratory SEAL Sea Air Land
GFCI Ground-Fault Circuit
NEMA National Electrical
Interrupter UPS Uninterruptible Power System SW Switched (ePDU)
Manufacturers Association
(or Supply)
GND Ground T&M Time and Material
NIC Network Interface Card
USB Universal Serial Bus
HV High Voltage VMMS Variable Module Management
PDM Power Distribution Module
V Volt System

38 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Other acronyms
BCDR Business Continuity and IP Internet Protocol SATA Serial Advanced Technology
Disaster Recover Attachment
ISP Internet Service Provider
BYOD Bring Your Own Device SOA Service-Oriented Architecture
KVM Keyboard, Video, Mouse
CI Converged Infrastructure SQL Structured Query Language
LEED Leadership in Energy and
CPU Central Processing Unit Environmental Design SSL Secure Socket Layer
DCIM Data Center Infrastructure MSP Managed Service Platform SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
MTDC Multi-Tenant Data Center TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/
DISA Defense Information Systems Internet Protocol
M2MI Machine-to-Machine Interface
TDM Time-division Multiplexing
NAS Network Attached Storage
DNS Domain Name System
UC Unified Communications
NIC Network Interface Card
DR Disaster Recovery
URL Uniform Resource Locator
NOC Network Operations Center
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
VDI Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
PABX Private Automatic Branch
DVV or Data, Voice, Video
Exchange VGA Video Graphics Array
PaaS Platform as a Service VLAN Virtual LAN
E911 Enhanced 911
PBX Private Branch Exchange VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol A LLOW BYOD. M Y I T
ELT Emergency Locator
Transmitter PC Personal Computer VM Virtual Machine P RO B ROUGHT M E .
EMEA Europe, Middle East, Africa PEBKAC Problem Exists Between VPN Virtual Private Network
Keyboard and Computer
FMC Fixed/Mobile Convergence WAN Wide Area Network
PHI Personal Health Information
FTP File Transfer Protocol
PICNIC Problem in chair not in
GUI Graphical User Interface
GoT Game of Thrones
PMDC Portable Modular Data Center
HDD Hard Disk Drive
POTS Plain Old Telephone System
HPC High-Performance Computer
PSAP Public Safety Answering Point
HTML HyperText Markup Language
PSTN Public Switched Telephone
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol Network
IOT Internet of Things P2V Physical to Virtual
MDF Main Distribution Frame RAM Random Access Memory
NNM Network Node Manager ROBO Romote Office/Branch Office
IaaS Infrastructure as a Service SasS Software as a Solution
IDF Intermediate Distribution SAN Storage Area Network

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 39

Glossary of power terms
In the following glossary, weve Audible Noise Charger Converged Infrastructure
attempted to capture the common terms A measure of the noise emanating from a (1) An electronic component in a UPS that The combination of server, storage,
related to UPS and power distribution device at audible frequencies. provides regulated DC voltage to recharge networking, virtualization and sometimes
products. If you look closely, you might batteries. (2) An inferior mascot for an other resources into an integrated
Backup Time
see us trying to have a little fun! inferior team in the AFC West. solution that is managed as a whole
The amount of time the battery in a UPS
rather than through separate
is designed to support the load. Cloud Computing
management systems.
(1) Internet- (cloud-) based development
Balanced Load
and use of computer technology. This Converter
Advanced Battery Management (1) AC power system using more than
new supplement, consumption and A device that delivers DC power when
A three-stage charging technique that two wires, where the current and voltage
delivery model for IT services typically energized by a DC source. Its also a
automatically tests battery health. are of equal value in each energized
involves the provision of dynamically section of a switching power supply that
Provides advance notification when conductor. (2) Laundry with equal parts of
scalable, and often virtualized, resources performs the actual power conversion
preventive maintenance is needed, light and dark clothes.
as a service over the Internet. (2) Work and final rectification.
allowing ample time to hot-swap batteries Battery String done while traveling on a plane.
without ever having to shut down Crest Factor
A group of batteries connected together
connected equipment significantly Common Mode Noise Usually refers to current. Its the
in a series.
extending the life of your UPS's battery An undesirable voltage that appears mathematical relationship between RMS
(and, quite possibly, your contract). Blackout between the power conductors and and peak current. A normal resistive load
A zero-voltage condition lasting for more ground. will have a crest factor of 1.4142, which is
Alternating Current (AC) than two cycles. Also known as a power the normal relationship between peak and
An electric current that reverses its Commercial Power
outage or failure. RMS current. A typical PC will have a
direction at regularly recurring intervals, The power supplied by local utility
crest factor of 3. Unrelated to toothpaste.
as opposed to direct current, which is British Thermal Unit (BTU) companies which can vary drastically in
constant. Usually in a sine wave pattern, Used to measure heat dissipation and is quality throughout the U.S. depending on Critical Equipment
for optimal transmission of energy. the amount of energy required to raise location, weather and other factors. Equipment such as computers,
one pound of water one degree communications systems or electronic
Ampere (A or Amp) Communication Bay
Fahrenheit. One pound of water at 32F process controls, which must be
The unit of measure for the rate of flow Also known as an option slot, a UPS
requires the transfer of 144 BTUs to continuously available.
of electricity, analogous to gallons per feature that enables the addition of various
freeze into solid ice.
minute. VA x 0.7 (power factor) = watts connectivity cards for Web, SNMP, Delta Connection
Brown Field Modbus or serial connectivity interface A circuit formed by connecting three
Apparent Power An existing data centeroften with capabilities. electrical devices in series to form a
Applied voltage multiplied by current in an limited possibilities for sustainable and closed loop; most often used in three-
AC circuit which doesnt take the power energy-efficient designs. phase connections. If you fly Delta
factor into account. Unit is volt amperes Airlines, this most likely takes place in
(VA). Brownout Atlanta, Salt Lake City or Cincinnati.
A steady state of low voltage, but not
Arc zero voltage. Brownouts often occur Derating
Sparking that results when undesirable during summer months when energy use A reduction of some operating
current flows between two points of is high. parameters to compensate for a change
differing potential due to leakage through in one or more other parameters. In
the intermediate insulation or a leakage Canadian Standards Association (CSA) power systems, the output power rating
path due to contamination. In astronomy, An independent Canadian organization is generally reduced at elevated
an arc is the part of a circle representing that tests for public safety, similar to the temperatures.
the apparent course of a heavenly body. function of Underwriters Laboratories
(UL) in the U.S. As far as we know, it Eaton 9130 equipped with a communication bay. Direct Current (DC)
doesnt set the rules for hockey. An electric current in which the flow of
electrons is in one direction, such as
Capacitor supplied by a battery.
An electronic component that can store
an electrical charge on conductive plates.

40 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

DC Distribution (DCD) ePDU High Efficiency Mode Kilovolt Ampere (kVA)
A module in a DC power system that A power distribution unit that mounts to A mode of UPS operation that cuts A common measurement of equipment
distributes DC power to the loads. It also rack enclosures and distributes power to energy usage and operating costs. capacity equaling 1000 volt-amperes. An
provides protection for the load cables. connected devices via a wide variety of approximation of available power in an AC
High Voltage (HV)
output receptacles. system that does not take the power
DC Power System In the context of UPS products, high
factor into account.
An AC to DC power supply with Federal Communications Commission voltage is anything 200V: 200V, 208V,
integrated control and monitoring, and (FCC) 220V, 230V, 240V, 250V, 480V and 600V. Kinetic Energy
standby batteries designed to supply A U.S. federal regulating body whose new The energy an object possesses because
High Voltage Spike
no-break DC power (usually 24V or 48V) EMI limitations are affecting the design of its motion.
Rapid voltage peaks up to 6,000 volts.
to telecommunications and IT network and production of digital electronics
Line Conditioner
equipment. systems and their related subassemblies. Hot Swappable
A device intended to improve the quality
The ability to change a module without
Double Conversion Flooded Batteries of the power thats delivered to electrical
taking the critical load off the UPS. Also
A UPS design in which the primary power A form of battery where the plates are load equipment. A line conditioner is
see user replaceable.
path consists of a rectifier and inverter. It completely immersed in a liquid generally designed to improve power
isolates the output power from all input electrolyte. quality (e.g., proper voltage level, noise
anomalies such as low voltage surges and suppression, transient impulse protection,
frequency variations. etc.).
The number of complete cycles of AC
Downtime voltage that occur during one second Line Interactive
The time during which a functional unit (Hz). In North America, electrical current An offline UPS topology in which the
cant be used because of a fault within it is supplied mainly at 60 Hz, or 60 cycles system interacts with the utility line to
or the environment. per second. regulate the power to the load. Provides
The batteries on this Eaton 9130 UPS are hot
better protection than a standby system
Dry Contacts Green Field swappable.
but isnt as fully prepared against
Dry contact refers to a contact of a relay A new data center with many possibilities
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) irregularities as a full double-conversion
which does not make or break a current. for sustainable and energy-efficient
A three-terminal power semiconductor system, making it the "Goldilocks" of UPS
Efficiency device, noted for high efficiency and fast topologies.
The ratio of output to input power. Ground switching. It switches electric power in
Linear Load
Generally measured at full-load and A conducting connection, whether many modern appliances such as electric
AC electrical loads where the voltage and
nominal line conditions. If the power intentional or accidental, by which an cars, trains and UPSs.
current waveforms are sinusoidal. The
efficiency of a device is 90 percent, you electric circuit or equipment is connected
Impedance current at any time is proportional to
get back 90 watts for every 100 you put to the earth, or to some conducting body
The total opposition to alternating current voltage.
in, and the rest is mainly dissipated as of relatively large extent that serves in its
flow in an electrical circuit.
heat from the filtration process. To think place. Load
of it another way, this would be Input Voltage Range The equipment connected to and
equivalent to a bartender pouring off The voltage range within which a UPS protected by a UPS. Pretty rockin
about an ounce and a half of your beer operates in normal mode and doesnt Metallica album.
before handing you the remaining 14.5 require battery power.
Earth ground symbol Load Segment
Inrush Current UPS configuration with separate
Electrical Line Noise Harmonics The maximum, instantaneous input receptacle groups, enabling scheduled
Radio frequency interference (RFI), A sinusoidal component of an AC voltage current drawn by an electrical device shutdowns and maximum backup power
electromagnetic interference (EMI) and thats multiple of the fundamental when first turned on. Some electrical time for critical devices.
other voltage or frequency disturbances. waveform frequency. Certain harmonic devices draw several times their normal
patterns may cause equipment problems full-load current when initially energized.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Electrical interference that can cause Harmonic Distortion Inverter
equipment to work improperly, EMI can Regularly appearing distortion of the sine UPS assembly that converts internal DC
be separated into conducted EMI wave which is converted into a complex power to output AC power to run the
(interference conducted through cables waveform at a multiple of the users equipment. When the inverter is
out of the UPS) and radiated EMI fundamental frequency. supporting 100 percent of the load at all
(interference conducted through the air). times, as with an online UPS, there is no
Hertz (Hz)
break from utility to battery power.
Energy Saver System (ESS) A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per
Innovative technology from Eaton that second. IT Mulllet or Business Mullet
enables select UPS models to operate at Blazer on the top, jeans on the bottom.
This Eaton 9130 UPS is equipped with two load
99 percent efficiency without segments, each with three 5-15R
compromising reliabilitynot to be
confused with inferior eco modes.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 41

Low Voltage (LV) Ohms Law communication cables. Cable that runs
In the context of UPS products, low The voltage (E) is equal to the current (I) between floors in non-plenum areas is
voltage is anything <200V (100V and times the resistance (R). The formula is rated as riser cable.
120V). written: E=IR.
Plug and Play
Maintenance Bypass Online An electrical device that doesnt require
An external wiring path to which the load (1) A UPS that provides power to the load extensive setup to operate. Four-post rail kit
can be transferred to upgrade or perform from its inverter 100 percent of the time,
Power Factor (PF)
service on the UPS without powering regulating BOTH voltage and frequency,
(1) The ratio of real power to apparent
down the load. usually using double-conversion topology.
power. Watts divided by VA. Most power
(2) The most convenient way to shop,
Make-Before-Break supplies used in communication and
bank, get news, etc.
Operational sequence of a switch or relay computer equipment have a power factor
where the new connection is made prior Orderly Shutdown of 0.9.
to disconnecting the existing connection, The sequenced shutdown of units
(PF = 0.9)
thats also know as soft-load-transfer comprising a computer system to prevent
VA x PF = W
switching. damage to it and subsequent corruption
or loss of data.
(2) Why DeNiro can get immediate UPS in a two-post rack
A serial communications protocol thats Output Waveform (UPS)
seating in any restaurant he wants, and
the most commonly available means of The shape of the graph of alternating Rectifier
you cant.
connecting industrial electronic devices. It current on the output side of a UPS. The A UPS component that converts incoming
allows for communication between many highest quality of an output waveform Power Sag AC power to DC power for feeding the
devices connected to the same network. from a UPS is the sine wave, but, some Low voltage (below nominal 120 volts). inverter and charging the battery.
UPSs provide step waves or modified
Network Transient Protector Power Surge Rectifier Magazine (RM)
sine waves.
UPS feature that isolates networks, High voltage (above nominal 120 volts). A module in the DC power system used
modems and cables from power threats, to connect the rectifiers in the power
including surges and spikes. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
90 180 270 360 A circuit used in switching regulated
Noise power supplies where the switching Redundancy
(1) A disturbance that affects a signal; it frequency is held constant and the width The ability to connect units in parallel so if
Sine Wave
can distort the information carried by it. of the power pulse is varied, controlling one fails the other(s) will provide
(2) Random variations of one or more Parallel Operation both lines and load changes with minimal continual power to the load. This mode
characteristics of any entity, such as The ability of UPSs to be connected dissipation. is used in systems when power failure
90 180 270 360
voltage, current or data. (3) Loosely, any so the current from corresponding cant be tolerated.
disturbance tending to interfere with Rackmount
outputs can be combined into a
normal operation of a device. (4) What Ability to mount an electrical assembly Relay Communication
single load.
parents with children deal with every day. into a standardized rack. Generally Communication between a UPS and
Partition stacked up to 42U and 19 inches wide a computer through the opening and
Nominal Output Voltage A logical division of a hard disk created about the size of a pizza box but not closing of solid-state relays that are
The intended, ideal voltage of any given to have different operating systems on as greasy. pre-defined to indicate UPS status.
output. the same hard disk or to create the
Rack Unit (U) Root Mean Square (RMS)
appearance of having separate hard
Non-linear Load A unit of height measurement in a rack A modified average. Averaging a sine
AC electrical loads where the current is enclosure. A U is equivalent to 1.75 wave would give a zero, so to obtain
drives for file management, multiple
not proportional to the voltage. Non-linear inches. meaningful values, the wave is first
users, or other purposes.
loads often generate harmonics in the squared (S), then averaged over one
current waveform that lead to distortion Peak Demand period (M) and finally the square root
of the voltage waveform. The highest 15- or 30-minute demand taken (R). In a sine wave, the factor
recorded during a 12-month period. between RMS and peak is the square
root of two. If you know what that
Any UPS that doesnt fit the definition of Phase
The Eaton 5PX UPS occupies 2U of rack space and means, youre pretty smart!
online. Line-interactive and standby The time relationship between current
topologies are offline, as are minor the optional extended battery module also
and voltage in AC circuits. RS-232
occupies 2U.
skirmishes that take place just outside (1) The standard for serial interfaces
the boardroom. Plenum Cable
Rail Kit (serial refers to the eight bits of each
Cable thats laid in the plenum spaces of
A set of metal brackets that allows the character successively sent down one
Ohm buildings to facilitate air circulation for
installation of a UPS or extended battery wire) used by most computers, modems
The unit of measurement for electrical heating and air conditioning systems. The
module in a 2- or 4-post rack. and printers. (2) A little known droid in the
resistance or opposition to current flow. plenum space is typically used to house
Star Wars trilogy.
computer and telephone network

42 EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook

Server room external transformer. The capabilities for Topology (UPS) used in some applications.
Dedicated computer room with some output are: The core technology of a UPS. Typically, a
Uninterruptible Power System (UPS)
power and cooling, typically within an UPS is either standby, line interactive or
Phase to neutral 100, 110, 120 or (1) An electrical system designed to
office environment. Minimal redundancy online though other hybrid technologies
127 Vac provide instant, transient-free backup
for power and cooling distribution. have been introduced.
power during power failure or fault. Some
Singular source of power and cooling. Phase to phase 200, 208, 220, 230, 240
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) UPSs also filter and/or regulate utility
(451 Research) Vac
(1) How much the circuit voltage deviates power (line conditioning). (2) A Device
Server closet Standby from a perfect sine wave. When viewed whose sole purpose is to save your
Small room or closet with little to no (1) UPS type that "stands by," waiting for on a meter, a poor voltage THD is most equipment, your data and your job.
redundancy power and cooling a power problem from the utility company often manifested in a flat-topped
User Replaceable
distribution. Singular source of power and rapidly switching to UPS battery waveform that comes from the inability
Capable of being replaced by an end user.
and cooling. (451 Research) power to protect equipment against of a power source to respond to the
Connected equipment may need to be
power failures, sags and surges. (2) The demands of highly nonlinear loads. (2)
Simple Network Management Protocal shut down first. Also see hot
person you call after your hot date falls The parts of a difficult lecture that didn't
(SNMP) swappable.
through, and the two of you go out for quite make it into your brain, but rather
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP)-based
milkshakes in your sweatpants instead. united in a "blahblahblah" cacophony of Variable Module Management System
network protocol. Its used mostly in
scratchy-sounding jargon and esoteric (VMMS)
network management systems to Static Switch corollaries. Innovative technology from Eaton that
monitor network-attached devices for An electrical component in a UPS that
maximizes UPS efficiencies at low load
conditions that warrant administrative turns power flow on and off on command Transfer Time
levels while supplying the load with
attention. without moving or mechanical The length of time it takes a UPS to
continuous double-conversion power.
components. transfer to battery power. Typically
Sine Wave
measured in milliseconds (ms). Virtualization
A mathematical function that plots three Step Load
The creation of a virtual (rather than
qualities of an electrical signal over time: An instantaneous change in the loading Transformer
actual) version of something, such as an
amplitude, frequency and phase. Clean, conditions presented to the output of (1) A magnetic device that converts AC
operating system, server, storage device
uninterrupted power is represented by a a UPS. voltages to AC voltages at any level. An
or network resource. Operating system
sine waves, which can also resemble ideal transformer is a lossless device in
Switching Frequency virtualization is the use of software to
ocean waves, though they're rarely which no energy is stored that requires
The rate at which the source voltage allow a piece of hardware to run multiple
perfect. no magnetic current. (2) An alien robot
is switched in a switching regulator operating system images at the same
that can disguise itself by transforming
Single Phase or chopped in a DC-to-DC converter. time.
into everyday machinery.
(1) Power system with one primary
Technischer Uberwachungs-Verein (TUV) Volt/Voltage (V)
waveform. Lower-capacity distribution of Transient
An independent non-profit organization Electrical pressure that pushes current
power using only one portion of a power (1) A temporary and brief change in a
that tests and certifies electrical through a circuit. High voltage in a
source thats three-phase, like what's given parameter, typically associated with
equipment for public safety in the U.S. computer circuit is represented by 1,
supplied by most electric utilities. Used input voltage or output loading
and worldwide. while low (or zero) voltage is represented
for heating and lighting, no large motors parameters. (2) Transient killer whale pods
by 0.
or other heavy-drain devices. (2) That part The Far Side are generally comprised of an adult
of junior high school in which you briefly The greatest cartoon strip ever. Created female and two or three of her offspring. Volt Amps (VA)
but fiercely embrace an unusual hobby or by Gary Larson. Among the differences between residents (1) The voltage applied to a given piece of
interest, like lawn bowling, never to return and transients are that while resident equipment, multiplied by the current it
to it. Thermal Regulation orcas of both sexes stay within shouting draws. Not to be confused with watts,
Monitoring the temperature of the distance of their mothers their entire which are similar but represent the actual
Sliding Demand batteries to ensure proper charging. lives, only first-born male transients power drawn by the equipment, and can
Calculating average demand by averaging
Three Phase maintain such intense fidelity to their be somewhat lower than the VA rating.
demand over several successive time
(1) Power supplied through at least three mothers. (2) Legendary Brigadier General from
intervals, advancing one interval at a time.
wires, each carrying power from a Planet Zap.
Unbalanced Load
Split-phase UPS common generator but offset in its cycle (1) An AC power system using more than Watts (W)
A UPS with two output phases from the other two. Used for heavy-duty two wires, where the current is not equal The measure of real power. Its the rate of
referenced to a neutral connection with a applications. (2) The universal healing due to an uneven loading of the phases. doing electrical work. W x 1.3 = VA.
specific phase displacement between process after buying inferior power (2) A load that makes your washing
phases, which allows flexibility in load protection: Wye Connection
machine go, whump, whump, whump.
configuration while maintaining the A connection of three components made
availability of bypass. A split-phase UPS 1. Denial Underwriters Laboratories (UL) in such a manner that one end of each
can provide 120V and 208V on the output 2. Anger An independent non-profit organization component is connected. Its generally
simultaneously without the use of an 3. Calling Eaton that tests for public safety in the U.S. UL used to connect devices to a three-phase
recognition is required for equipment power system.

EATON Eaton UPS and Power Management Fundamentals Handbook 43

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