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AN#ANALYSIS#OF#MUSICAL#STYLE#AND#CECILIAN#IDEALISM#IN#THE#LATIN1

TEXTED#MOTETS#OF#CAMILLE#SAINT1SANS#
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by#
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Scott#Douglas#Glysson#
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__________________________#
Copyright##Scott#Douglas#Glysson#2014#
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A#Document#Submitted#to#the#Faculty#of#the#
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SCHOOL#OF#MUSIC#
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In#Partial#Fulfillment#of#the#Requirements#
For#the#Degree#of#
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DOCTOR#OF#MUSICAL#ARTS#
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In#the#Graduate#College#
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THE#UNIVERSITY#OF#ARIZONA#
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2014#
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2

THE#UNIVERSITY#OF#ARIZONA#
GRADUATE#COLLEGE#
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As#members#of#the#Document#Committee,#we#certify#that#we#have#read#the#
document#prepared#by#Scott#Douglas#Glysson,#titled#An#Analysis#of#Musical#Style#
and#Cecilian#Idealism#in#the#Latin7Texted#Motets#of#Camille#Saint7Sans#and#
recommend#that#it#be#accepted#as#fulfilling#the#document#requirement#for#the#
Degree#of#Doctor#of#Musical#Arts.#
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_______________________________________________________________________# Date:#5/23/2014#
Bruce#Chamberlain# # # #
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_______________________________________________________________________# Date:#5/23/2014#
Elizabeth#Schauer# # # #
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_______________________________________________________________________# Date:#5/23/2014#
John#Brobeck# # # #
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Final#approval#and#acceptance#of#this#document#is#contingent#upon#the#candidates#
submission#of#the#final#copies#of#the#document#to#the#Graduate#College.##
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I#hereby#certify#that#I#have#read#this#document#prepared#under#my#direction#and#
recommend#that#it#be#accepted#as#fulfilling#the#document#requirement.#
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________________________________________________## Date:#5/23/2014#
Document#Director:#Bruce#Chamberlain# ##
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3

STATEMENT#BY#AUTHOR!
#
This#document#has#been#submitted#in#partial#fulfillment#of#the#
requirements#for#an#advanced#degree#at#the#University#of#Arizona#and#is#deposited#
in#the#University#Library#to#be#made#available#to#borrowers#under#rules#of#the#
Library.#
#
Brief#quotations#from#this#document#are#allowable#without#special#
permission,#provided#that#an#accurate#acknowledgement#of#the#source#is#made.#
Requests#for#permission#for#extended#quotation#from#or#reproduction#of#this#
manuscript#in#whole#or#in#part#may#be#granted#by#the#copyright#holder.##
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# SIGNED:#Scott#Douglas#Glysson#
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4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS#
#
#
#
Many#individuals#have#played#an#integral#role#in#the#completion#of#this#document.#
Though#it#is#not#possible#to#acknowledge#everyone,#I#would#like#to#express#my#
gratitude#to#the#following:#
#
The#members#of#my#advisory#committee:#Bruce#Chamberlain,#Elizabeth#Schauer,#
John#Brobeck,#Donald#Hamann,#and#Tami#Draves.#
#
My#parents#and#family#for#their#unending#support#throughout#my#educational#
journey.#
#
My#lovely#wife#Christie,#who#has#walked#this#journey#with#me#every#step#of#the#
way.#Without#her#love,#patience#and#support,#this#would#not#have#been#possible.#
# #
5

DEDICATION#
#
#
#
To#Christie#and#Hailey#
#
# #
6

TABLE#OF#CONTENTS#

LIST#OF#FIGURES#........................................................................................................................................#8#

LIST#OF#MUSICAL#EXAMPLES#...............................................................................................................#9#

ABSTRACT#...................................................................................................................................................#12#

CHAPTER#1:#INTRODUCTION#.............................................................................................................#14#

Summary#of#the#Cecilian#Movement#.................................................................................#14#

Cecilian#Ideal#...............................................................................................................................#17#

Purpose#of#Study#........................................................................................................................#20#

Thesis#Statement#.......................................................................................................................#22#

Review#of#Literature#................................................................................................................#22#

CHAPTER#2:#CAMILLE#SAINT1SANS:#MUSIC#AND#PROSE#WRITINGS#............................#24#

Biography#and#Sacred#Oeuvre#.................................................................................................#24#

Writings#on#Liturgical#Music#................................................................................................#26#

Deductions#and#Summary#......................................................................................................#32#

CHAPTER#3:#AVE#MARIA,#OP.#145#....................................................................................................#35#

Form#................................................................................................................................................#36#

Text#Setting#..................................................................................................................................#37#

Voice#Leading#..............................................................................................................................#38#

Harmony#........................................................................................................................................#43#

Organ#..............................................................................................................................................#44#

Expressive#Elements#................................................................................................................#50#
7

TABLE#OF#CONTENTS##Continued#

CHAPTER#4:#STYLISTIC#CONTINUITIES#........................................................................................#54#

Musical#Choices#that#either#Support#or#Enhance#the#Natural#Stress#and#
Meaning#of#the#Latin#Text#.......................................................................................#55#
#
Harmony,#Texture#and#Melody#...........................................................................................#60#

Use#of#Unobtrusive#Accompaniment#................................................................................#72#

Text#Highlighting#and#Evocation#of#Mood#........................................................................#80#

CHAPTER#5:#CONCLUSION#..................................................................................................................#89#

APPENDIX#A:#AVE#VERUM#IN#E1FLAT#MAJOR39#........................................................................#94#

APPENDIX#B:#TANTUM#ERGO#IN#E1FLAT#MAJOR40#..................................................................#97#

APPENDIX#C:#TANTUM#ERGO,#OP.#541#..........................................................................................#101#

APPENDIX#D:#AVE#VERUM#IN#D#MAJOR42#..................................................................................#109#

APPENDIX#E:#DEUS#ABRAHAM43#....................................................................................................#117#

APPENDIX#F:#AVE#MARIA,#OP.#14544#............................................................................................#122#

REFERENCES#..........................................................................................................................................#129#

#
8

LIST#OF#FIGURES#

Figure#3.1.#Formal#analysis#of#Ave#Maria,#op.#145#....................................................................#36#

#
9

LIST#OF#MUSICAL#EXAMPLES#

Musical#Example#1.1.#Bruckner,#Pange#lingua#(New#York:#C.F.#Peters,#1961),#
mm.#24127#......................................................................................................#19#
#
Musical(Example(3.1.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#519#............#38#

Musical(Example(3.2.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#21131#......................................................................................................#40#
#
Musical(Example(3.3.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#32135#......................................................................................................#41#
#
Musical(Example(3.4.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#10121#......................................................................................................#42#
#
Musical(Example(3.5.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#10114#......................................................................................................#44#
#
Musical(Example(3.6.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#112#............................................................................................................#45#
#
Musical(Example(3.7.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#15125#......................................................................................................#46#
#
Musical(Example(3.8.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#37145#......................................................................................................#47#
#
Musical(Example(3.9.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#21133#......................................................................................................#49#
#
Musical(Example(3.10.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#
mm.#32140#......................................................................................................#52#
#
Musical(Example(4.1.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),##
mm.#33144#......................................................................................................#57#
#
Musical(Example(4.2.(Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),##
mm.#82185#......................................................................................................#58#
#
#
10

LIST#OF#MUSICAL#EXAMPLES##Continued#

Musical#Example#4.3.#Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),##
mm.#80195#......................................................................................................#59#
#
Musical(Example(4.4.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),##
mm.#31133#......................................................................................................#62#
#
Musical(Example(4.5.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#
mm.#37147#......................................................................................................#63#
#
Musical#Example#4.6.#Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#
#mm.#65172#.....................................................................................................#64#
#
Musical(Example(4.7.(Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),##
mm.#431#47#.....................................................................................................#65#
#
Musical(Example(4.8.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#118#...........#66#

Musical#Example#4.9.#Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),##
mm.#119#............................................................................................................#67#
#
Musical(Example(4.10.(Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),##
mm.#116#............................................................................................................#68#
#
Musical(Example(4.11.(Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),##
mm.#10113#......................................................................................................#70#
#
Musical#Example#4.12.#Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),#
mm.#15119#......................................................................................................#70#
#
Musical(Example(4.13.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),##
mm.#37140#......................................................................................................#71#
#
Musical#Example#4.14."Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),#
### mm.#14119#......................................................................................................#72#
#
Musical#Example#4.15."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),##
mm.#1120#.........................................................................................................#75#
#
#
11

LIST#OF#MUSICAL#EXAMPLES##Continued#

Musical#Example#4.16."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#
## mm.#27136#......................................................................................................#77#
#
Musical#Example#4.17."Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),#
mm.#32134#......................................................................................................#78#
#
Musical#Example#4.18."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),#
mm.#20128#......................................................................................................#80#
#
Musical#Example#4.19."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),##
mm.#22124#......................................................................................................#82#
#
Musical#Example#4.20."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#
## mm.#33136#......................................................................................................#82#
#
Musical#Example#4.21."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),##
mm.#60172#......................................................................................................#84#
#
Musical#Example#4.22."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#
mm.#73187#......................................................................................................#85#
#
Musical#Example#4.23."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#
mm.#11121#......................................................................................................#87#
#
Musical#Example#4.24."Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),#
mm.#32134#......................................................................................................#88#
# #
12

ABSTRACT#

The#Cecilian#movement#was#a#reactionary#movement#made#up#of#

composers#who#sought#to#restore#the#musical#principles#of#the#fifteenth#and#

sixteenth#centuries#by#placing#emphasis#back#on#the#liturgy,#reviving#the#idea#that#

the#music#should#be#subservient#to#the#text.#In#his#article#The#Cecilian#Movement#

in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#A#Summary#of#the#Movement,#Patrick#Liebergen#

introduces#the#term#Cecilian#Ideal#as#a#means#of#describing#the#way#in#which#

Franz#Liszt#and#Anton#Bruckner#incorporated#elements#of#Cecilianism#into#their#

compositions.#Though#the#two#composers#never#belonged#to#the#Allgemeiner#

Ccilien7Verband#fr#Deutschland,#analysis#of#various#style#features#commonly#

found#in#their#music#reveals#that#they#accomplished#many#of#the#goals#of#the#

Cecilian#movement#while#retaining#their#own#individual#compositional#styles.##

Analysis#of#the#Latin1texted#choral#motets#of#Camille#Saint1Saens#reveals#

that#they#share#stylistic#features#that#were#endorsed#by#the#Cecilian#movement.#

That#these#features#were#a#result#of#conscious#decisions#made#by#the#composer#is#

suggested#by#the#fact#that#similar#style#traits#were#praised#by#Saint1Sans#in#two#

articles#he#wrote#about#liturgical#music#that#were#published#near#the#end#of#his#

life.#Moreover,#Patrick#Liebergen#already#has#shown#that#many#of#the#Saint1Saens#
13

beliefs#can#be#understood#through#the#application#of#what#he#terms#the#Cecilian#

Ideal#concept.1#

The#Latin1texted#choral#motets#of#Camille#Saint1Sans#have#largely#been#

overlooked#by#the#scholarly#community.#Perhaps#it#is#the#uncomplicated#nature#of#

these#pieces#that#has#led#many#to#dismiss#them#as#an#unremarkable#portion#of#the#

composers#repertoire.#Six#of#the#Latin#choral#motets#which#are#the#most#similar#in#

terms#of#style#and#function#were#chosen#for#this#study,#as#they#best#represent#the#

consistent#compositional#features#of#the#composer#in#this#genre.#These#works#span#

a#fifty1eight#year#time#period#covering#a#broad#portion#of#the#composers#life#and#

career.#By#analyzing#Saint1Sans#liturgical#music#in#the#light#shed#by#his#prose#

writings#on#the#subject#we#can#better#understand#both#his#compositional#style#and#

his#view#of#the#Cecilian#movement.#

1
Patrick#Liebergen,#The#Cecilian#Movement#in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#A#Summary#of#the#
Movement,#Choral#Journal#21,#no.9#(May#1981):13.#
14

CHAPTER#1:#INTRODUCTION#

Summary#of#the#Cecilian#Movement#

The#period#of#time#between#the#late#eighteenth#and#early#nineteenth#

centuries#was#one#of#radical#political#and#ideological#shifts.#Enlightenment#

philosophies#glorified#the#human#experience#in#contrast#to#the#belief#that#all#life#

was#to#be#lived#solely#in#the#service#of#God#and#the#church.#The#churchs#waning#

influence#affected#nearly#every#part#of#culture,#and#in#particular,#music.#Composers#

began#to#work#independently#and#seek#personal#gratification,#rather#than#relying#

exclusively#on#the#church#for#financial#support.#These#changes#were#not,#however,#

welcomed#by#the#entire#musical#community.#The#Cecilian#movement#was#a#

reactionary#movement#made#up#of#composers#who#sought#to#restore#the#musical#

principles#of#the#fifteenth#and#sixteenth#centuries#by#placing#emphasis#back#on#the#

liturgy,#reviving#the#idea#that#the#music#should#be#subservient#to#the#text.#

Though#the#Cecilian#movement#is#most#widely#thought#of#as#a#nineteenth1

century#reform#movement,#its#origins#are#actually#far#earlier.#Although#when#

considering#the#music#of#the#early#seventeenth#century#historians#have#tended#to#

focus#primarily#on#progressive#composers#such#as#Claudio#Monteverdi#and#

Heinrich#Schtz,#in#fact#more#conservative#composers#such#as#Felice#Anerio#(15601

1614),#Giovanni#Maria#Nanino#(154411607),#and#Francesco#Soriano#(154911621)#

continued#to#work#in#the#style#of#Palestrina#well#into#the#seventeenth#century.#
15

Moreover,#the#music#of#Palestrina#and#his#contemporaries#remained#alive#long#

after#his#death#through#the#work#of#institutions#such#as#the#Sistine#Chapel#Choir,#

which#operated#under#restrictions#limiting#the#use#of#instruments#in#liturgical#

music.#In#the#early#eighteenth#century,#Caecilien7Bndnisse#(Cecilian#leagues),#

began#to#form#all#across#Europe.#Their#goals#were#to#uphold#their#concept#of#

appropriate#church#music#through#minimized#instrumental#accompaniment#and#

commitment#to#intelligibility#of#text.#

At#the#beginning#of#the#nineteenth#century,#composers#from#Germany,#

Austria,#France#and#Italy#continued#to#uphold#the#ideals#of#the#Caecilien7Bndnisse.#

The#goals#of#the#Cecilian#movement#began#to#be#codified#when,#in#1814,#E.T.A#

Hoffman#wrote#the#essay#Alte#und#neue#Kirchenmusik#(Old#and#New#Church#Music),#

one#of#the#first#written#accounts#of#Cecilian#principles.#James#Garratt#describes#the#

significance#of#Hoffmans#work,#saying#the#significance#of#his#essay#lies#primarily#

in#its#synthesis#of#existing#ideas#on#reform#and#the#revival#of#old#music.2##

Arguably#the#most#important#figure#in#the#Cecilian#reform#movement#was#

the#German#priest#and#composer#Franz#Xaver#Witt#(183411888).#Dissatisfied#that#

the#movement#was#stagnant,#he#sought#to#encourage#more#widespread#reform.#In#

his#1865#pamphlet#Der#Zustand#der#katholischen#Kirchenmusik#zunchst#in#

Altbayern#(The#State#of#Catholic#Church#Music#in#Old#Bavaria),#Witt#described#his#

2
James Garratt, Palestrina and the German Romantic Imagination: Interpreting Historicism in
Nineteenth-Century Music (New York: Cambridge, 2002), 35.
16

plan#for#the#reformation#of#all#church#music.3#Three#years#later,#Witt#founded#the#

Allgemeiner#Ccilien7Verband#fr#Deutschland,#or#General#Association#of#the#

Cecilian#Movement#in#Germany,#an#institution#that#still#exists#today.##

Cecilians#exerted#their#influence#through#a#variety#of#journals#and#

publications.#The#journal#Ccilienkalender#(Cecilian#Calendar),#set#an#important#

precedent#in#1870#when#its#editors#published#the#first#catalogue#of#music#that#was#

acceptable#for#use#in#the#church.#The#catalogue#included#Gregorian#chant,#

unaccompanied#polyphonic#music,#organ#music#and#hymns.#The#catalogue#also#

included#several#works#by#Franz#Liszt#composed#between#1868#and#1873.#Liszt#

had#a#long#association#with#Witt#and#several#other#founding#members,#and#

frequently#sought#their#approval#of#his#religious#compositions.#Though#Liszt#never#

became#a#member#of#the#Allgemeiner#Ccilien7Verband#fr#Deutschland,#the#

Cecilians#published#many#of#his#works,#including#Tantum#ergo#and#O#salutaris#

hostia,#both#of#which#appeared#in#the#journal#Fliegende#Bltter;#and#Ave#maris#

stella#and#Missa#Choralis,#which#were#added#to#the#Cecilian#catalogue#by#Franz#

Xaver#Witt#himself.#Despite#support#from#the#Cecilians,#Liszt#remained#an#

independent#composer#who#never#officially#joined#the#Allgemeiner#Ccilien7

Verband#fr#Deutschland.##The#Cecilians#rejected#many#of#his#compositions#because#

they#contained#modern#compositional#practices#such#as#dissonant#harmonies#and#

dramatic#shifts#in#dynamics#and#character.#

3
Ibid., 144-145.
17

Cecilian#Ideal#

The#members#of#the#Allgemeiner#Ccilien7Verband#fr#Deutschland#found#

little#mainstream#success#with#their#musical#compositions.#Their#music#was#

viewed#by#many#critics,#including#Camille#Saint1Sans,#as#a#lesser#quality#version#

of#an#already#extensive#body#of#renaissance#repertoire.#Arguably#the#Cecilian#

movements#most#substantial#impact#was#not#in#the#Cecilian#composers#

themselves,#but#the#way#in#which#their#beliefs#affected#musicians#who#were#

outside#of#the#movement.#Many#ninteenth1century#composers#were#clearly#

influenced#by#Cecilian#thinking#in#their#sacred#compositions,#but#were#never#

official#members#of#any#Cecilian#society.#These#composers#combined#musical#

ideals#valued#by#the#Cecilians#with#their#own#individual#styles.#

In#his#1981#essay#titled#The#Cecilian#Movement#in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#

A#Summary#of#the#Movement,#Patrick#Liebergen#describes#this#concept#in#the#

music#of#Franz#Liszt#(181111886)#and#Anton#Bruckner#(182411896).#In#this#article#

he#first#identifies#the#four#principal#goals#of#the#Allgemeiner#Ccilien7Verband#fr#

Deutschland,#as#expressed#by#its#founder#Franz#Xaver#Witt#(1834188):#

1. The#use#of#chant#in#the#liturgy#
2. A#renewed#interest#in#the#contrapuntal#technique#of#Palestrina#in#newly#
composed#choral#works#
3. The#use#of#wind#instruments#for#accompaniment#
4. The#singing#of#hymns#in#the#vernacular#
18

Liebergen#goes#on#to#suggest#that#only#the#first#three#goals#actually#influenced#

choral#music#of#the#day.4#Anton#Bruckner#and#Franz#Liszt#were#both#composers#

who#are#said#to#have#composed#in#a#style#influenced#by#the#Cecilian#movement,#

despite#the#fact#that#they#never#were#members#themselves.#Instead,#they#simply#

upheld#similar#principles#and#goals,#which#they#realized#through#their#own#

individual#compositional#styles.#Liebergen#identifies#four#style#traits#that#are#

commonly#found#in#the#music#of#Liszt#and#Bruckner#that#can#be#said#to#have#been#

influenced#by#the#Cecilian#movement:#5#

1.#Counterpoint#in#the#style#of#Palestrina,#both#florid#and#note1against1note#
2.#Appropriate#textual#underlay.#Stressed#syllables#given#musical#weight,#as#
well#as#through#choice#of#harmony#and#dynamic#shifts#
3.#Modal#harmony#mixed#with#modern#harmony#
4.#Use#of#Gregorian#chant##
#
Liebergen#provides#a#specific#example#in#Bruckners#motet#Pange#lingua.#In#

Musical#Example#1.1#it#can#be#seen#that#a#diminished#seventh#chord#is#placed#on#

the#stressed#syllable#of#the#word#generosi.#This#is#an#example#of#what#Liebergen#

describes#as#appropriate#textual#underlay,#with#the#stressed#syllable#receiving#the#

emphasis#in#the#phrase.#Liebergen#also#points#out#that#the#work#contains#

harmonic#movement#by#step,#typical#of#modal#harmony,#as#well#as#harmonic#

movement#by#third,#fourth,#and#fifth,#typical#of#modern#harmony.6#In#this#case,#

harmonic#movement#by#step#does#not#refer#to#planing,#but#to#a#progression#in#

4#Patrick#Liebergen,#The#Cecilian#Movement#in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#A#Summary#of#the#

Movement,#Choral#Journal#21,#no.9#(May#1981):13.#

5#Ibid.#

#
6#Ibid.,#14.
19

which#the#root#pitch#of#the#chord#moves#by#step.7#Liebergen#is#suggesting#that#

harmonic#motion#by#step#is#influenced#by#modal#voice#leading#practices,#despite#

the#fact#that#the#piece#is#clearly#composed#in#a#modern#tonal#framework.#In#

Musical#Example#1.1,#an#example#of#this#movement#by#step#can#be#seen#in#measure#

27#when#the#G1sharp#diminished#seventh#chord#on#beat#1#resolves#up#by#step#to#an#

A#major#chord#on#beat#3.#

Musical#Example#1.1.#Bruckner,#Pange#lingua#(New#York:#C.F.#Peters,#1961),#mm.#
24127#

This#practice#of#combining#Cecilian#concepts#with#the#composers#own#individual#

style#is#termed#the#Cecilian#ideal.#Liebergen#summarizes#this#concept#as#follows:#

In#the#Cecilian#works#of#Bruckner#and#Liszt#we#find#the#ideal#of#the#
movement;#that#is,#the#use#of#certain#features#of#the#old#music#of#the#church#
in#nineteenth1century#settings.#Rather#than#rigid#conformity#to#the#various#
elements#of#the#movement,#Bruckner#and#Liszt#used#imagination#and#taste#
in#making#the#elements#of#the#Cecilian#movement#appealing#in#their#own#
time.#The#nineteenth1century#composers#who#were#not#successful#in#
Cecilian#composition#relentlessly#followed#the#elements#of#the#Cecilian#
movement.#Bruckner#and#Liszt#followed#the#Cecilian#ideal.8#

7#Planing#is#the#parallel#movement#of#two#or#more#lines.##It#is#also#refered#to#as#parallel#

voice#leading#and#harmonic#parallelism.#

8#Ibid.,#16.#
20

Purpose#of#Study#

Liebergens#research#is#focused#exclusively#on#the#works#of#Franz#Liszt#and#

Anton#Bruckner.#Examination#of#the#Latin1texted#choral#motets#of#Camille#Saint1

Sans,#however,#reveals#that#many#of#these#same,#or#similar,#Cecilian#

characteristics#can#be#seen#in#his#works#as#well.#The#purpose#of#this#study#is#

twofold.#First,#to#examine#the#musical#manifestation#of#Camille#Saint1Sans#beliefs#

about#ideal#church#music#style#expressed#in#his#prose#writings.#Second,#to#view#

these#stylistic#continuities#through#the#lens#of#Cecilian#idealism.#

Although#Camille#Saint1Sans#composed#a#substantial#amount#of#music#for#

the#church,#only#works#composed#in#Latin#were#chosen#for#this#study.#In#

nineteenth1century#France,#the#word#motet#typically#described#works#composed#

for#use#in#the#Roman#Catholic#Church,#and#thus#the#language#always#would#have#

been#Latin.#In#addition,#only#works#in#which#the#composer#himself#has#specified#a#

choir#were#chosen.#The#exception#is#Ave#verum#(1878),#in#which#the#composer#

specifies#four#female#voices.#Throughout#this#piece,#however,#these#voices#divide#

into#two#or#three#parts.#Therefore,#this#piece#can#be#considered#a#choral#piece,#

because#multiple#singers#perform#a#single#line#of#music.#Recently,#several#choral#

arrangements#of#Saint1Sans#works#originally#intended#for#solo#voices#have#been#

recorded.#Saint1Sans,#however,#is#very#specific#in#his#indications#for#performance#

groups,#going#so#far#as#to#write#out#ad#libitum#choral#parts#that#simply#double#the#

#
21

melody#when#he#deemed#them#appropriate#for#the#piece.#Benefield#addresses#

Saint1Sans#performance#indications#by#saying:#

Because#of#the#simple#style#of#many#of#these#pieces,#they#could#easily#be#
performed#by#larger#ensembles#or,#in#the#case#of#solos,#by#unison#choir.#In#
[Saint1Sans#two]#collections,#however,#the#designations#could#not#be#
clearer.#In#collections,#the#specific#designations#solo,#duo,#trio,#etc.,#are#
found#for#some#works,#while#for#others#choeur#is#specified.9#
#
Analysis#of#Saint1Sans#oeuvre#reveals#only#ten#works#that#meet#all#of#these#

criteria.#From#these,#six#works#were#chosen#for#this#study.##The#motets#Tu#es#Petrus#

(1914),#Quam#dilecta#(1915),#Laudate#Dominum#(1915)#and#Veni#creator#(1858)#

were#not#included.#These#works#differ#considerably#in#style#from#Saint1Sans#other#

motets.#Tu#es#Petrus,#Quam#dilecta#and#Laudate#Dominum#were#composed#toward#

the#end#of#Saint1Sans#life#when#he#was#not#working#as#a#church#musician,#and#

therefore#these#compositions#likely#did#not#serve#a#liturgical#function.#The#motet#

Veni#creator#was#also#not#chosen#for#this#study.##Although#this#motet#was#

composed#while#Saint1Sans#was#employed#at#the#Madeline,#the#work#is#dedicated#

to#Liszt#and#is#composed#in#a#style#meant#to#honor#him.#The#six#works#which#are#

the#most#similar#in#terms#of#style#and#function#were#chosen#for#this#study.#These#

works#span#a#fifty1eight#year#time#period#covering#a#broad#portion#of#the#

composers#life#and#career.#

9#Richard#Benefield,#ed.,#Motets#for#One#Voice:#The#Organ7Accompanied#Solo#Motet#in#

Nineteenth7Century#France,#by#Franck,#Gounod,#and#Saint7Sans,'(Middleton:#A1R#Editions,#2003),#ix.##
22

Thesis#Statement#

Camille#Saint1Sans#writings#on#church#music#can#elucidate#both#the#

stylistic#continuities#in#his#choral#motets#and#his#view#of#the#Cecilian#movement.#

Review#of#Literature#

Camille#Saint1Sans#Latin1texted#choral#motets#have#received#relatively#

little#specialized#study,#although#two#doctoral#dissertations#have#been#written#

about#his#choral#music#in#general.#Numerous#biographical#accounts#of#the#

composers#life#and#compositional#style#have#been#published#over#the#ninety1two#

years#since#his#death,#but#they#contain#little#or#no#mention#of#the#choral#motets.#

This#genre#is#frequently#dismissed#as#an#unremarkable#portion#of#the#composers#

output,#and#is#often#only#breifly#summerized,#if#it#is#mentioned#at#all.#It#is#even#

neglected#in#current#research#publications#such#as#Donna#di#Grazias#2012#book#

Nineteenth7Century#Choral#Music.#Di#Grazia#dedicates#only#three#short#paragraphs#

to#the#composers#sacred#choral#music,#with#no#specific#mention#of#his#musical#

style#whatsoever.10#Nick#Strimple#describes(his(own(experience(with(the(dismissal(

of#Saint1Sans'motets'as'follows:#

In#the#early#1970s#the#eminent#composer#and#pedagogue#Halsey#Stevens#
told#his#graduate#students#at#the#University#of#Southern#California#that#
when#they#heard#a#composition#obviously#from#the#nineteenth#century,#but#
without#any#other#identifying#characteristics,#he#assumed#it#to#be#by#Saint1
Sans.#This%assessment,%although%entertaining,%does%not%take%into%account%

10#Donna#Di#Grazia,#Nineteenth7Century#Choral#Music#(New#York:#Routledge,#2012),#275.#
23

Saint1Sans&consummate&skill&and&technique,&nor&the&continuing&
attractiveness#of#his#straightforward#harmonic#language.11#
#

Strimple#had#previously#identified#the#need#for#the#revival#of#this#important#

portion'of'Saint1Sans'output#in#his#2002#publication#Choral#Music#in#the#

Twentieth#Century,#in#which#he#wrote#In#all#likelihood#the#enduring#anonymity#of#

these#pieces#is#a#proper#assessment#of#their#value;#but#some,#especially#the#motets#

and#part1songs,#are#worthy#of#revival.12#

Saint1Sans&wrote#two#articles#specifically#devoted#to#his#beliefs#about#

church#music:#Music#in#the#Church,#published#in#1916#by#The#Musical#Quarterly,#

and#Musique#religieuse,#published#in#1913#by#cole#Buissonnire.#Although#these#

documents#are#occasionally#cited#in#the#scholarly#literature,#this#is#the#first#study#

that#relates#the#composers#written#views#on#church#music#with#specific#stylistic#

continuities#found#in#the#music.#This#study#is#also#the#first#examination#of#Cecilian#

idealism#as#a#means#of#understanding#the#musical#style#of#these#works.#

Camille#Saint1Sans#Latin1texted#choral#motets#are#works#of#simple#beauty.#

It#is#their#simplicity#that#is,#perhaps,#why#these#works#have#been#largely#

overlooked.#A#closer#analysis#and#understanding#of#the#composers#concept#of#

ideal#church#music#style#bring#new#life,#interest,#and#understanding#to#these#little1

known#masterpieces.##

# #

11#Nick#Strimple,#Choral#Music#in#the#Nineteenth#Century#(New#York:#Amadeus,#2008),#95.#

#
12#Nick#Strimple,#Choral#Music#in#the#Twentieth#Century#(Portland:#Amadeus,#2002),#53.
24

CHAPTER#2:#CAMILLE#SAINT1SANS:#MUSIC#AND#PROSE#WRITINGS#

Biography#and#Sacred#Oeuvre#

Camille#Saint1Sans#was#born#in#Paris#on#October#9,#1835.#His#father,#

Jacques1Joseph1Victor#Saint1Sans,#died#almost#immediately#after#his#birth.#Saint1

Sans#was#raised#primarily#by#his#aunt,#who#was#a#pianist,#and#his#mother.#Saint1

Sans#was#a#sickly#child,#suffering#from#tuberculosis,#the#same#illness#that#took#his#

fathers#life.#Despite#a#difficult#childhood,#he#found#his#musical#calling#in#the#piano#

at#the#young#age#of#three.#He#distinguished#himself#early#on#as#a#gifted#performer,#

and#held#his#first#performance#at#the#Salle#Pleyel#at#the#age#of#ten.#The#program#

included#works#by#Beethoven#and#Mozart#and#was#performed#completely#from#

memory.#

# Saint1Sans#entered#the#Paris#Conservatoire#in#1848#where#he#studied#

organ,#composition#and#orchestration.#From#the#beginning#it#was#clear#that#he#was#

a#talented#and#versatile#composer.#He#wrote#chamber#works,#opera#comique,#solo#

piano#and#organ#works,#and#choral#works.#He#gained#early#notoriety#when#his#Ode#

#Sainte7Ccile#took#first#place#in#a#competition#organized#by#the#Socit#Sainte1

Ccile#in#Bordeaux.#During#this#same#period,#Saint1Sans#also#made#noteworthy#

contributions#to#the#complete#editions#of#Gluck,#Beethoven,#Mozart,#and#his#

personal#friend,#Franz#Liszt.#Throughout#his#life,#Saint1Sans#championed#Liszts#

music#and#enjoyed#Liszts#good#opinion#of#his#own#organ#virtuosity.#Liszt#is#said#

once#to#have#remarked,#he#is#the#greatest#organist#in#the#world.#In#fact,#Saint1
25

Sans#personally#funded#performances#of#Liszts#music#and#was#the#first#to#

perform#Liszts#symphonic#poems#in#France.#

# Though#he#found#success#over#the#course#of#his#life#through#performance#

and#compositional#activities,#Saint1Sans#primary#occupation#was#as#an#organist#

and#composer#in#a#variety#of#church#positions.#He#served#24#years#at#some#of#the#

most#prestigious#churches#in#Paris,#first#as#the#organist#for#Saint1Merri#from#1853#

until#1857,#and#then#at#the#famous#l'glise#de#la#Madeleine#from#1857#until#1877.#In#

1877#when#he#was#finally#financially#stable#enough#to#retire#from#the#Madeleine,#

he#left#his#career#as#a#church#musician#in#order#to#travel#the#world#and#undertake#

various#compositional#projects.#

Although#Saint1Sans#spent#the#majority#of#his#life#working#in#the#church,#

history#does#not#generally#view#him#as#a#sacred#music#composer.#It#is#likely#that#

even#the#composer#himself#did#not#see#himself#in#this#role.#The#subject#of#the#

composers#religious#convictions#is#highly#debated.#Throughout#his#life,#

particularly#in#his#later#years,#he#expressed#several#beliefs#which#have#led#many#to#

describe#him#as#an#atheist.#In#his#1894#essay#Problmes#et#mystres,#however,#he#

refutes#these#claims#in#the#following#words:#atheism#is#in#very#poor#taste,#owing#

to#the#rabble#which#denies#God#in#order#to#free#itself#from#all#rules,#and#to#have#no#

other#law#than#the#satisfaction#of#its#lowest#appetites.13##

13#Jacques1Gabriel#Prod'homme#and#Frederick#H.#Martens,Camille#Saint1Sans,#The#

Musical#Quarterly#8#(1922):#480.#
26

Regardless#of#his#personal#faith,#Saint1Sans#relationship#with#the#church#

had#a#profound#influence#on#his#compositional#output.#Throughout#his#long#career#

he#wrote#nearly#50#sacred#compositions,#including#oratorios,#masses,#works#for#

solo#ensembles,#and#motets.#He#composed#many#motets#intended#for#liturgical#

usage.#His#Latin1texted#motets#are#typically#scored#for#choir#and/or#soloists#and#

organ.#The#choral#works#are#simple,#and#very#little#information#about#their#genesis#

has#been#provided#by#either#the#composer#or#historians.#Given#the#composers#

primary#occupation#and#the#characteristics#of#the#compositions,#such#as#relatively#

simple#harmonic#language,#homophonic#textures,#Latin#text#and#primarily#colla#

parte#organ#parts,#it#seems#likely#that#these#works#were#meant#to#be#used#during#

liturgical#worship,#and#not#in#concert.#

Writings#on#Liturgical#Music#

Even#in#his#own#day#Saint1Sans#was#not#well#known#for#his#vocal#church#

compositions,#but#rather#was#known#as#a#brilliant#organist#and#an#insightful#critic.#

Throughout#his#lifetime#he#wrote#numerous#articles#and#critiques#that#commented#

on#a#variety#of#contemporary#composers#and#musical#genres.#As#the#organist#at#

one#of#the#major#churches#in#Paris,#as#well#as#an#instructor#at#the#cole#

Niedermeyer,#Saint1Sans#opinion#wielded#considerable#influence.#In#particular,#

he#was#qualified#to#speak#authoritatively#on#the#subject#of#church#music.#In#his#

1916#article#Music#in#the#Church#Saint1Sans#stated,#As#I#was#brought#up#in#

France,#as#a#Catholic,#the#music#of#our#French#Catholic#churches#is#naturally#that#
27

most#familiar#to#me;#and#it#is#of#that#music#which#I#may#be#permitted#to#write#with#

a#certain#authority.14#Though#he#did#not#write#much#on#the#subject#of#his#own#

compositions,#his#numerous#critiques#of#the#music#of#his#peers#give#us#insight#into#

his#views#on#church#music#in#nineteenth1century#Europe.#

Though#he#was#a#champion#of#modern#music#and#music#of#the#great#

composers#of#the#baroque#and#classical#eras,#he#believed#that#many#of#these#

concert#works#simply#had#no#place#in#a#liturgical#setting.#On#the#subject#of#using#

concert#works#in#a#worship#setting#Saint1Sans#writes,#The#most#beautiful#things#

are#beautiful#only#in#their#place.#And#so,#how#can#a#fugue#or#a#toccata#by#J.S.#Bach#

make#its#way#into#an#offertory?#They#are#concert#pieces#which#bear#no#relation#

whatsoever#to#a#mass,#and#which#inspire#neither#a#meditative#nor#a#prayerful#

mood.15#It#is#striking#that#Saint1Sans,#who#was#a#driving#force#behind#the#

integration#of#seventeenth1#and#eighteenth1century#music#into#the#cole#

Niedermeyer#curriculum,#repeatedly#speaks#against#the#use#of#much#of#it#in#the#

church#setting.#A#comment#in#reference#to#J.S#Bachs#B#Minor#Mass,#BWV#232,#and#

Beethovens#Missa#Solemnis,#op.#123#further#supports#his#view#on#the#subject:##

These#marvels,#which#disarm#criticism#by#their#magnificence,#overpass#the#
frame#for#which#they#were#fashioned.#The#Bach#mass#is#too#highly#
developed#for#the#exigencies#of#the#Catholic#cult;#besides#(and#this#is#a#
bizarre#phenomenon)#the#authors#style#adapts#itself#ill#to#the#Latin#words;#
the#finest#portions#of#the#work#are#borrowed#from#his#cantatas,#and#lose#
much#through#transplantation.#These#works#are#better#adapted#for#Sacred#

14#Camille#Saint1Sans,#Music#in#the#Church,#trans.#Theodore#Baker,#The#Musical#Quarterly#

2#(1916):#2.#
#
15#Saint1Sans,#Music#in#the#Church,#8.#

#
28

Concerts#than#for#the#Church;#the#latter#has#need#of#greater#calm#and#
serenity.16#
#
Saint1Sans#was#in#fact#so#committed#to#maintaining#the#reverence#of#church#

music#that#it#often#led#to#conflict#and#strained#relationships#with#his#employers#

and#members#of#the#church#community.#In#his#writings#he#recounts#a#particular#

incident#with#a#vicar#of#the#Madeleine:#

# One#of#the#vicars#of#the#parish#sent#a#request#that#I#should#visit#him.#I#called#
upon#him,#as#desired,#and#after#a#lengthy#discourse,#which#was#quite#
unintelligible#to#me;#he#finally#came#to#the#point:#Do#not#misunderstand#
me.#The#parishioners#of#the#Madeleine#are#for#the#most#part#persons#of#
wealth,#who#frequently#go#to#the#theatre#of#the#Opra1Comique,#where#they#
have#become#accustomed#to#a#style#of#music#to#which#you#are#expected#to#
conform.#Monsieur#I#replied,#whenever#I#shall#hear#the#dialogue#of#the#
Opra1Comique#spoken#in#the#pulpit,#I#will#play#music#appropriate#to#it;#
until#then#I#shall#continue#as#hitherto.17#
#
Through#Saint1Sans#own#writings#it#is#apparent#that#he#thought#of#church#

music#as#something#that#should#be#set#apart#from#other#musical#styles.#Saint1Sans#

provides#evidence#of#his#ideal#church#music#style#through#his#critiques#of#his#

contemporaries.#No#subject#elicited#a#more#zealous#response#from#Saint1Sans#

than#the#state#of#church#music#in#mid1nineteenth#century#France.#The#list#of#things#

that#offended#him#about#many#of#his#contemporaries#is#long#and#detailed.#First,#

Saint1Sans#was#repulsed#by#the#casual#and#often#sloppy#treatment#of#liturgical#

Latin#texts#on#the#part#of#many#of#his#contemporaries.#In#one#of#the#few#early#

16#Ibid.,#617.#

17#Ibid.,#7.#

#
29

descriptions#devoted#specifically#to#Saint1Sans#musical#style,#the#famous#French#

organist#and#composer#Louis#Vierne#(187011937)#wrote:##

With#the#exception#of#Gounod,#who#was#a#cultivated#man,#church#musicians#
knew#nothing#of#their#art.#To#them#Latin#was#a#formless#gibberish#which#
they#set#in#any#way#to#any#kind#of#music#which,#most#of#the#time,#was#
contrary#to#common#sense#and#to#the#most#elementary#taste.#It#can#be#said#
that#the#period#between#1830#and#1860#presents#the#most#lamentable#
spectacle#for#sacred#musicWith#so#strong#a#classical#background,#literary#
as#well#as#musical,#Saint1Sans#immediately#understood#the#problem#and,#
since#he#entered#the#arena,#strove#to#combat#it.#He#reacted#strongly#against#
the#bad#taste#of#the#times#by#writing#music#strictly#appropriate#to#the#
character#of#the#liturgical#words#of#the#given#text.#He#banished#from#his#
works#all#useless#decoration#and#theatrical#effects.#In#particular,#Saint1
Sans#detested#works#in#which#pre1existent#text#was#substituted#for#new#
Latin#text,#simply#for#the#use#of#worship.18#
#
Saint1Sans#was#particularly#offended#by#the#common#practice#of#adapting#non1

liturgical#pieces#into#sacred#ones#by#means#of#replacing#old#text#with#new#Latin#

text.#He#wrote:##

But,#though#taste#be#in#abeyance,#one#ought#at#least#to#be#sensitive#to#the#
proprieties.#Does#it#not#argue#a#want#of#this,#to#choose#pieces#written#for#
the#theatre#or#the#drawing1room#and#adapt#Latin#words#to#them,#when#we#
possess#such#a#prodigious#quantity#of#pieces#written#expressly#for#the#
church.#What#shall#one#say#of#these#odious#canticles#which#are#imposed#on#
the#children#and#the#more#or#less#ripe#maidens#of#the#religious#societies,#
some#being#models#of#platitude#and#insignificance,#while#others#are#
parodies#on#operatic#airs,#leaving#the#prosody#quite#of#consideration,#thus#
forming#deplorable#habits#in#those#who#sing#them!19#
#
Saint1Sans#was#also#extremely#critical#of#the#popes#efforts#to#reform#the#

music#of#the#Catholic#Church.#On#November#22,#1903#Pope#Pius#X#issued#the#Motu#

18#Louis#Vierne,#La#musique#religieuse#de#Saint1Saens,#in#Saint7Sans&and&the&Organ,#ed.#

Rollin#Smith#(Stuyvesant,#NY:#Pendragon#Press,#1992),#37139.#

19#Saint1Sans,#Music#in#the#Church,#5.#

#
30

proprio,#tra#le#sollecitudini.#The#document#was#likely#co1written#by#the#Italian#

priest#and#composer#Don#Lorenzo#Perosi#(187211956),#who#is#considered#by#many#

to#be#the#most#prominent#of#the#Cecilian1influenced#Italian#composers#of#his#time.#

This#decree#called#for#the#return#of#Gregorian#chant#as#the#most#important#musical#

element#of#the#mass,#and#also#elevated#the#style#of#Palestrina#and#other#late#

sixteenth1century#polyphonists#as#the#superior#form#of#church#music.#Saint1Sans#

felt#that#the#pope#was#short1sighted#to#suggest#that#only#the#Renaissance#style#was#

to#be#glorified.#He#maintained#that#the#real#problem#was#the#practice#of#re1working#

non1sacred#works#with#new#Latin#text.#In#response#he#wrote#the#following:#Ah,#if#

his#holiness#had#confined#himself#to#demanding#some#indispensable#reforms,#such#

as#the#exclusion#of#all#secular#music#adapted#for#the#church,#he#would#have#been#

obeyed,#and#the#benefit#would#have#been#great.20#

# As#mentioned#before,#his#belief#that#church#music#should#be#reflective#of#

the#mood#and#texts#appropriate#to#the#worship#service#led#him#to#reject#many#of#

the#religious#works#of#the#very#composers#he#helped#champion#throughout#his#

career.#In#the#article#Musique#religieuse#he#wrote:#

## #I#would#ruthlessly#forbid#all#music,#even#that#of#the#great#masters,#which#
was#not#composed#to#sacred#words#but#to#which,#on#the#contrary,#words#
were#more#or#less#successfully#adapted.#Such#pieces#are#artistic#crimes;#
nothing#justifies#them#given#the#prodigious#amount#of#music#specifically#
written#for#the#Church#between#the#sixteenth#century#and#now.21#
#

20#Ibid.#

#
21#Camille#Saint1Sans,#Musique#religieuse,#in#Saint7Sans&and&the&Organ,#ed.#Rollin#Smith#

(Stuyvesant,#NY:#Pendragon#Press,#1992),#204.#
#
31

It#is#clear#that#Saint1Sans#believed#that#the#character#of#the#music#should#fit#the#

spiritual#function#of#the#service.#He#pointed#out#the#difference#between#the#

intended#effects#of#concert#music#and#that#of#the#church#service.#He#stated#quite#

simply,#There#being#no#intention,#in#the#church,#of#exciting#applause,#one#should#

not#strive#after#effect.22#

# It#is#also#evident#from#these#writings#that#although#the#composer#held#

conservative#beliefs#about#the#function#of#music#in#the#liturgy,#he#was#not#willing#

to#accept#the#sixteenth1century#model#as#the#perfect#solution#for#church#music.#He#

was#a#great#lover#of#the#Classical#Era,#and#especially#loved#a#beautifully1crafted#

melody.#This#led#him#to#criticize#the#parody#masses#of#Palestrina:#

# The#inconsistency#of#the#procedure#was#wholly#theoretical;#a#theme,#
whatever#be#its#nature,#becomes#unrecognizable#when#treated#in#this#
manner.#Take#whatever#popular#air#you#will,#turn#every#note#into#a#
semibreve#to#the#total#neglect#of#all#rhythm,#entwine#about#the#theme#
concertante#parts#in#crotchets#and#quavers,#and#then#see#what#is#left#of#the#
melody!23#
#
Saint1Sans#believed#that#both#prominent#melody#and#expressive#harmony#were#

central#attributes#of#quality#church#music.#He#was#deeply#critical#of#

contemporaries#who#recklessly#combined#plain1chant#and#modern#harmonies#by#

composing#new#block1chord#accompaniments.#Instead#he#supported#more#creative#

solutions#to#combining#the#ancient#church#style#with#modern#tonalities.#In#Music#in#

the#Church#he#wrote:#

22#Camille#Saint1Sans,#Music#in#the#Church,#6.#

23#Ibid.,#3.#

#
32

But#our#predecessors#were#not#satisfied#with#detaching#each#one#of#these#
light#notes#and#setting#them#down#ponderously#one#beside#the#other;#they#
made#an#accompaniment,#a#solid#chord#for#each#note,#and,#as#a#climax#of#
illogicalness,#they#transported,#by#means#of#said#useless#accompaniment,#
this#music#composed#in#the#ancient#modes#into#modern#tonalities.#A#
remedy#for#these#evils#was#sought#by#Niedermeyer,#who,#despairing#of#
extirpating#the#error#involved#in#an#accompaniment#to#plain1chant,#
attempted#to#render#it#at#least#rational#by#conserving#its#modal#
characterThe#task#is#accomplished;#his#system#has#made#its#way#
throughout#France,#and#has#even#overpassed#its#aim#by#showing#the#
possibility#of#introducing#the#ancient#modes#into#modern#harmony,#thus#
enriching#it#in#an#unexpected#manner.24#
#
It#is#clear#through#his#prose#writings#that#Saint1Sans#valued#the#modal#

character#of#works#and#the#fusion#of#modality#with#modern#harmony.#

Deductions#and#Summary#

As#evinced#by#the#above1mentioned#writings,#it#is#no#surprise#that#Saint1

Sans#had#serious#reservations#about#the#Cecilian#movement#that#was#spreading#

throughout#Europe#in#the#mid1nineteenth#century.#His#primary#objection,#

however,#was#not#to#the#objectives#of#the#movement,#but#rather#to#the#musical#

product#that#the#Cecilian#composers#produced.#He#regarded#their#work#to#be#sub1

standard,#useless#imitations#of#previously#composed#masterpieces.##

Let#us#come#down#to#the#sixteenth#century,#to#the#school#which#Palestrina#
gave#his#name.#It#is#flourishing,#not#alone#in#Italy,#but#throughout#the#whole#
of#occidental#Europe.#Vague#in#tonality,#this#music#pleases#more#especially#
by#its#mystery;#for#no#one#knows#precisely#what#it#signifiesIn#spite#of#
these#serious#uncertainties#and#obscurities,#this#style#has#its#fanatic#
devotees#who#proclaim#that#it#alone#has#produced#real#religious#music;#and#
some#forty#years#ago#there#was#formed#in#Germany#a#school#of#composers#

24#Ibid.#
33

writing#solely#in#this#style,#never#considering#that,#as#the#entire#sixteenth#
century#has#produced#mountains#of#such#music,#one#needed#only#to#delve#in#
this#gold#mine#instead#of#seeking#to#create#useless#imitations.#What#
illusions#alas!#were#cherished#by#these#admirable#blind#men!25#
#
As#previously#mentioned,#Saint1Sans#believed#that#church#music#could#and#

should#contain#well1crafted#melodies#and#expressive#harmonies,#both#of#which#he#

considered#to#be#lacking#among#the#works#of#Cecilian#composers.#He#expressed#

this#by#writing,#In#my#humble#opinion#this#music,#with#its#consonant#harmonies#

and#its#disdain#for#melody,#should#take#but#little#thought#for#what#we#call#

expression.26#Throughout#Saint1Sans#writings#there#are#harsh#critiques#of#the#

quality#of#music#that#the#Cecilian#composers#produced,#but#nowhere#does#he#

suggest#that#their#motives#and#goals#are#flawed.#On#the#contrary,#the#phrase#

admirable#blind#men#seems#to#indicate#that#Saint1Sans#must#have#found#some#

merit#in#their#ideology,#though#he#disliked#their#music.#Despite#his#criticism#of#the#

Cecilians,#one#cannot#deny#the#similarities#between#many#of#his#own#beliefs#about#

church#music#and#the#core#principles#of#the#movement.#

The#composers#written#opinions#on#church#music#have#a#positive#

correlation#with#his#own#musical#style#exhibited#in#the#liturgical#choral#motets.#

Traditionally,#many#scholars#have#concluded#that#Saint1Sans#music#does#not#

conform#to#any#one#specific#style.#Sabina#Ratner#summarizes#Saint1Sans#

compositional#influence,#writing,#throughout#his#career#his#art#was#one#of#

25#Ibid.,#4.#

#
26#Ibid.,#4.#
34

amalgamation#and#adaptation#rather#than#that#of#pursuing#new#and#original#paths;#

and#this#led#Debussy#to#epitomize#him#as#the#musician#of#tradition.27#Ratners#

statement#is#true#with#regard#to#the#composers#entire#compositional#output,#

however,#in#Saint1Sans#own#writings#he#clearly#indicates#that#he#conceived#of#

church#music#as#something#distinct#and#worthy#of#a#style#all#its#own.#The#opinions#

expressed#in#the#prose#writings#are#supported#through#analysis#of#style#features#

found#in#the#Latin1texted#choral#motets.#

# #

27#Sabina#Teller#Ratner,#"Saint1Sans,#Camille,"#The#New#Grove#Dictionary#of#Music#and#

Musicians.#ed.#Stanley#Sadie.#2nd#ed.,#vol.#22#(Macmillan#Publishers#Limited,#2001),#126.#
#
35

CHAPTER#3:#AVE#MARIA,#OP.#145#

The#motet#Ave#Maria#was#composed#in#1914,#toward#the#end#of#Saint1Sans'

life,#when#his#compositions#were#losing#popularity#in#France#because#of#his#non1

malleable#style#and#musical#conservatism.#He#spent#the#years#between#1898#and#

1921#traveling#and#gaining#international#popularity.#In#locations#such#as#Africa#

and#North#and#South#America,#he#was#viewed#as#the#very#embodiment#of#

nineteenth1century#French#music.#Despite#his#advanced#age,#Saint1Sans&remained&

a#prolific#composer#and#organist.#Arthur!Herveys(biography(of(Camille(Saint1

Sans,#completed#shortly#before#Saint1Sans#death#in#1921,#describes#an#elderly#

composer#who#remained#full#of#life#until#his#final#days:#

On#October#9,#1920,#he#celebrated#his#eighty1fifth#birthday.#The#years#had#
evidently#dealt#lightly#with#the#famous#musician,#for#his#many#admirers#
might#have#read#the#account#of#a#concert#which#took#place#at#the#Trocadero#
in#Paris#during#that#month#when#the#veteran#and#ever#youthful#master#
moved#an#audience#to#enthusiasm#in#the#dual#capacity#of#composer#and#
executant.28#
#
Ave#Maria,#op.#145#is#one#of#three#Latin1texted#choral#motets#known#to#have#

been#composed#during#the#final#years#of#Saint1Sans#life.#At#first#glance,#it#is#

evident#that#the#piece#contains#slightly#more#chromatic#and#unpredictable#

harmonic#language#than#many#of#his#earlier#compositions.#Closer#analysis,#

however,#reveals#striking#similarities#between#this#work#and#works#composed#

over#fifty#years#prior.#In#many#ways,#Ave#Maria#serves#as#an#example#of#Saint1

28
Arthur Hervey, Saint-Sans (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1922), 25.
36

Sans'continued'musical'greatness'and'commitment'to'conservative'

compositional#practices#in#the#final#years#of#his#life.#

Form#

Ave#Maria#is#divided#into#three#formal#sections#ending#with#a#coda.#Simple#

binary#and#ternary#forms#such#as#this#are#typical#of#Saint1Sans'choral'motets.#A#

formal#analysis#of#the#work#is#shown#in#Figure#3.1#below.##

2#
=
1+#
=

Figure#3.1.#Formal#analysis#of#Ave#Maria,#op.#145#

The#A#portion#of#the#piece#is#divided#into#two#sub1sections.#The#first#section#

is#firmly#in#the#tonic#key#of#F#major,#and#closes#with#a#half#cadence#in#the#

dominant,#C#major.#The#second#section#remains#in#the#dominant#and#concludes#

with#the#only#perfect#authentic#cadence#in#the#work#at#measures#20#through#21.#
37

The#B#portion#of#the#work#can#also#be#said#to#be#in#the#dominant#key#of#C#major,#

although#it#is#the#most#chromatically#inflected#section#in#the#work.#Much#of#the#

chromatic#pitch#content#in#this#portion#is#derived#from#the#parallel#minor#key#of#F#

minor.#The#Ave#Maria#text#is#in#two#formal#sections,#each#containing#three#lines#of#

text.#This#makes#Saint1Sans'choice'of'three'large'formal'sections,#rather#than#

two,#an#interesting#one.#As#Saint1Sans&was&interested&in&classical&forms,&he&likely&

chose#to#repeat#the#opening#text#in#the#tonic#key#in#order#to#provide#symmetry#and#

balance#to#the#piece.#Though#the#text#is#the#same,#the#third#formal#section#differs#

musically#from#the#opening#section.#The#pedal#point#at#measure#43#in#the#bass#

voice#and#organ,#however,#recalls#the#sustained#F#major#sonority#that#opens#the#

piece.#The#short#coda#that#begins#in#measure#66#recalls#the#opening#of#the#piece#

through#the#alternation#of#upper#and#lower#voices,#suspensions,#and#harmonic#

change#every#three#beats.##

Text#Setting#
#
Throughout#this#work,#Camille#Saint1Sans#gives#musical#consideration#to#

the#natural#stress#of#Latin#text.#An#example#is#found#in#the#A#portion#of#the#motet#

(Musical#Example#3.1).#In#this#example,#the#composer#uses#dissonance#to#affect#

appropriate#text#stress.#In#measures#2#through#10#the#voices#are#paired#

soprano/alto#and#tenor/bass.#Each#group#of#voices#enters#on#the#stressed#syllable#

of#the#phrase#of#the#previous#group,#resulting#in#a#series#of#suspensions#between#

the#two#groups#of#voices,#which#correspond#with#the#natural#stresses#in#the#text.##
38

Musical#Example#3.1.#Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#519#
#

#
Voice#Leading#

In#Ave#Maria,"Saint1Sans&demonstrates#a#preference#for#stepwise#voice#

leading.#Examples#of#this#can#be#seen#in#the#B#portion#of#the#work.#Beginning#at#

measure#24#(Musical#Example#3.2),#the#composer#borrows#heavily#from#the#

parallel#minor#key#of#F#minor.#This#allows#the#option#of#the#flat1six#chord#(D1flat#

major)#and#the#flat1three#chord#(A1flat#major).#Saint1Sans&approaches&phrase&

endings#by#step#in#measure#27#and#measure#31#through#use#of#enharmonically#

spelled#E#major#and#F#major#chords#respectively.#These#progressions#contain#two#

half#steps#that#resolve#to#the#root#and#the#fifth#of#the#resolution#chord.#The#tonic#of#

the#first#chord#becomes#the#third#of#the#resolution#sonority.#To#the#ear,#this#
39

stepwise#motion#implies#more#archaic#cadence#types#typical#of#modal#voice#

leading.#There#is#no#root#movement#in#any#voice#at#any#point#in#this#section.##
40

Musical#Example#3.2."Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#21131

#
41

At#measure#35#the#motion#to#the#C#dominant#seventh#chord#on#the#second#

half#of#the#second#beat#suggests#that#the#passage#will#cadence#to#the#tonic#on#beat#

three.#Instead,#the#result#is#a#deceptive#cadence#to#D1flat#major.#This#creates#a#

diversion#from#the#cadence#to#F#major,#and#allows#each#voice#to#resolve#again,#by#

step#(Musical#Example#3.3).######

Musical#Example#3.3."Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#32135#

# In#measures#10#through#20#each#voice#of#the#four1part#texture#moves#

almost#exclusively#by#step#(Musical#Example#3.4).#No#voice#has#any#ascending#leap#

of#more#than#a#third#(with#the#exception#of#the#soprano#in#measure#20),#or#

contains#a#descending#leap#of#more#than#a#fifth.#No#voice#has#any#more#than#four#

leaps#in#this#entire#section.#In#a#manner#reminiscent#of#sixteenth1century#music,#

every#ascending#leap#in#the#soprano#line#is#compensated#by#immediate#stepwise#

motion#in#the#opposite#direction.#The#one#exception#is#in#measure#21,#where#the#

soprano#must#leap#back#down#a#fifth#so#that#the#cadence#can#resolve#with#the#tonic#

in#the#soprano#voice.#
42

Musical#Example#3.4."Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#10121#

#
43

Harmony#

Saint1Sans#choral#motets#contain#a#considerable#amount#of#nineteenth1

century#chromaticism.#What#is#interesting,#however,#is#that#while#there#are#many#

chromatic#inflections,#the#large1scale#harmonic#motion#is#relatively#simple.#Each#

section#of#this#work#can#be#said#to#be#in#either#the#tonic#or#dominant#key.#Whereas#

many#composers#writing#in#the#late#nineteenth#and#early#twentieth#centuries#

explored#mediant#relationships#and#more#distantly#related#keys,#in#Ave#Maria#

Saint1Sans#remains#centered#on#F#major#or#C#major#throughout#the#work.#Rather#

than#modulating#to#distant#keys,#he#uses#modal#mixture#derived#from#the#parallel#

minor#key,#and#various#altered#chords#as#sources#for#chromatic#pitch#content.#

Another#noteworthy#feature#of#this#work#is#the#consistency#of#phrase#

length.#As#shown#above#in#Figure#3.1,#every#choral#measure#of#the#piece#is#part#of#a#

four1#or#eight1bar#musical#phrase.#This,#just#as#the#use#of#the#harmonically#closed#

form#and#closely#related#tonal#centers,#recalls#Classical#era#compositional#

practices.#

As#mentioned#above,!Saint1Sans#employs#voice#leading#that#contains#a#

considerable#amount#of#stepwise#motion.#This#sometimes#results#in#harmonic#

motion#in#which#the#root#of#the#chord#moves#by#step.#In#Ave#Maria#measure#10,#an#

example#of#stepwise#harmonic#motion#can#be#seen#on#a#macro1scale.#The#

progression#begins#at#measure#10#in#C#major.#The#addition#of#the#G#pitch#in#the#

soprano#in#measure#11#creates#a#cadence#to#D#minor#through#the#use#of#its#own#

dominant#seventh#chord.#Likewise,#the#addition#of#the#B#natural#in#measures#12#
44

and#13#creates#a#cadence#to#C#major.#Therefore,#the#four1measure#passage#can#be#

viewed#as#stepwise#motion#from#C#major#to#D#minor,#and#back#to#C#major#(Musical#

Example#3.5).#

Musical(Example(3.5.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#10114#

CM dm CM

Organ#

# In#Ave#Maria,#the#organ#primarily#functions#as#support#for#the#voices,#and#is#

frequently#set#colla#parte.#At#the#beginning#of#the#piece,#the#organ#sounds#on#the#

downbeat#of#measure#1#with#the#pitches#of#the#first#chord#in#the#choir,#which#

enters#in#measure#2.#This#provides#pitches#for#the#singers#without#the#need#for#

given#pitch#before#the#work#begins#(Musical#Example#3.6).#
45

Musical(Example(3.6.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#112#

## The#organ#also#provides#transitions#between#formal#sections#of#the#work.#

After#being#tacet#from#measures#10#through#19,#the#organ#re1enters#in#measure#20,#

overlapping#with#the#choir#and#creating#a#smooth#transition#into#the#B#section#at#

measure#24#(Musical#Example#3.7).#The#same#process#occurs#in#measures#39#

through#43,#this#time#providing#a#smooth#link#back#to#the#A#material#(Musical#

Example#3.8).#

#
46

Musical#Example#3.7.#Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#15125#

#
47

Musical(Example(3.8.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#37145#

Examples#of#the#organ#functioning#as#harmonic#support#for#the#choir#can#be#

found#in#this#work#as#well.#When#the#harmonic#language#is#easier#for#the#choir,#for#
48

example#in#measures#10#through#19#and#measures#43#through#54,#the#organ#is#

either#absent#or#simply#sustaining#pitch.#When#the#passage#becomes#more#

chromatic,#however,#the#organ#re1enters#colla#parte.#An#example#is#found#in#the#B#

section,#beginning#in#measure#24.#Once#the#pitch#content#derived#from#the#parallel#

minor#has#been#present#for#several#measures,#the#organ#is#again#tacet#(Musical#

Example#3.9).##

#
49

Musical#Example#3.9."Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#21133#

#
50

Expressive#Elements#

Throughout(the(motet,(Saint1Sans&uses&various,#subtle#methods#of#

highlighting#text.#In#some#instances,#this#is#done#through#use#of#dynamic#contrasts#

and#range#of#the#voices.#An#example#is#found#at#measure#20.#Here#the#sopranos#

state#the#highest#pitch#in#the#piece,#a#G#above#the#treble#clef#staff.#This#measure#is#

also#an#example#of#one#of#only#two#perfect#authentic#cadences#in#the#work,#

occurring#at#the#only#time#in#the#text#that#the#word#Jesus#appears.#This#technique#

powerfully#highlights#the#name#Jesus#(See#Musical#Example#3.4#and#3.7).##
51

Saint1Sans&also&highlights&moments#of#textual#importance#through#

harmonic#and#melodic#techniques.#An#example#is#seen#at#measure#38.#For#the#first#

time#in#this#work,#all#four#voice#parts#come#to#a#unison#on#the#word#mortis,#

meaning#death.#The#sudden#shift#from#four1part#dissonant#harmony#to#unison#

makes#this#word#abruptly#emerge#from#the#texture#(Musical#Example#3.10).#
52

Musical#Example#3.10.!Saint1Sans,'Ave#Maria#(Paris:#Durand,#1914),#mm.#32140#

#
53

A#third#method#of#text#and#mood#highlighting#involves#shifting#to#the#

parallel#minor.#This#shift#allows#the#composer#to#create#a#greater#contrast#in#mood#

through#use#of#a#more#distantly#related#key.#In#measures#24#through#40,#pitch#

content#derived#from#F#minor,#the#parallel#minor#of#F#major,#is#used#to#depict#a#

change#in#mood.#This#shift#in#key#occurs#when#the#text#shifts#from#the#opening#

section#to#the#second#portion#of#the#text.#The#first#section#of#text#is#the#angelic#

greeting,#while#the#second#portion#of#text#is#an#intercessory#prayer.#Prevailing#

rising#and#falling#half1step#motion#in#all#parts#also#helps#to#depict#the#pleading#

character#of#the#text#(see#Musical#Example#3.9).##

At#first#glance#Ave#Maria#is#a#simple#piece,#but#Saint1Sans&uses&various&

subtle#techniques#including#dissonance,#range,#dynamic#contrasts,#and#choice#of#

key#to#express#the#meaning#and#mood#of#the#text.#In#this#work,#he#shows#a#deep#

commitment#to#maintaining#the#integrity#of#the#Latin#text.#Through#stepwise%

melodic(and(harmonic(motion,(subtle(text(painting,(unobtrusive(organ(

accompaniment*and*carefully*placed*harmonic*and*melodic*text*stresses,*Saint1

Sans&creates&a&work&in&which&the&music&never&distracts&from&the&prominence#of#

the#text.##

# #
54

CHAPTER#4:#SYLISTIC#CONTINUITIES#

Ave#Maria#was#the#first#work#analyzed#in#this#study.#After#this#analysis,#it#is#

apparent#that#there#is#a#positive#correlation#between#the#style#features#found#in#

this#motet#and#the#beliefs#expressed#in#Saint1Sans#prose#writings.#From#Saint1

Sans'prose'writings,'as'well'as#additional#non1primary#sources,#I#have#

established#four#key#principles#which#I#believe#reflect#the#composers#concept#of#

ideal#church#music.#These#principles#are#as#follows:#

1. Musical#choices#that#either#support#or#enhance#the#natural#stress#and#
meaning#of#the#Latin#text#
2. Music#that#does#not#distract#from#the#solemn#character#of#the#mass#
3. Use#of#prominent#and#expressive#melody#
4. Use#of#modern#and#expressive#harmony#
#
In#order#to#provide#sufficient#evidence#of#a#consistent#musical#style#in#this#

genre,#similar#style#features#to#that#of#Ave#Maria#must#be#present#in#the#remaining#

five#motets.#Analysis#indicates#that#four#style#features#commonly#found#in#all#six#

works#are#supportive#of#the#composers#written#ideology.#These#style#features#

represent#the#manifestation#of#the#composers#views#of#church#music#and#Cecilian#

idealism.#These#four#style#features#are#as#follows:#

1. Musical#choices#that#either#support#or#enhance#the#natural#stress#and#
meaning#of#the#Latin#text.#This#feature#supports#principle#one.#
2. Use#of#fully#developed#functional#harmonic#language#typical#of#the#
nineteenth#century#with#application#of#stepwise#horizontal#
progressions#that#exploit#the#modal#tendencies#of#the#sixteenth#century.#
This#feature#supports#principles#three#and#four.##
3. Use#of#unobtrusive#accompaniment.#This#feature#supports#principles#
one#and#two.#
4. Subtle#text#and#mood#painting.#This#feature#supports#principle#two.#
55

In#the#next#section#of#this#chapter#I#will#explain#and#identify#each#style#

feature#in#the#Latin1texted#motets#of#Camille'Saint1Sans.#Each#of#these#features#

was#identified#in#the#motet#Ave#Maria#in#the#thorough#analysis#found#in#Chapter#

Three.#A#similar#procedure#will#be#used#to#identify#examples#of#these#features#in#

the#remaining#five#motets.#This#procedure#will#illumine#how#these#style#features#

relate#to#the#composers#concept#of#Cecilian#idealism#and#will#establish#them#as#an#

integral#part#of#the#composers#compositional#style#in#this#genre.#

Musical#Choices#That#Either#Support#or#Enhance#the#Natural#Stress#and#
Meaning#of#the#Latin#Text#
#
Camille'Saint1Sans&described&the&common&eighteenth1#and#nineteenth1

century#practice#of#adapting#sacred#texts#to#fit#previously#composed#works#with#

secular#text#in#his#article#Musique#religieuse.#In#this#article,#he#refers#to#these#

works#as#artistic#crimes,#making#clear#his#belief#that#the#music#should#match#the#

sacred#Latin#text.#Patrick#Liebergen#suggests#that#the#practice#of#making#musical#

choices#in#order#to#support#the#stress#and#meaning#of#the#text#is#a#form#of#Cecilian#

idealism.#He#describes#this#concept#in#the#music#of#Anton#Bruckner#as#follows:#

If#one#carefully#examines#the#choral#works#of#Palestrina,#it#will#be#evident#
that#normally#stressed#syllables#are#given#musical#accentuationsBruckner#
also#showed#concern#for#a#distinct#performance#of#the#text.#For#example#in#
the#Mass#in#e#minor,#the#normally#stressed#syllables#are#given#agogic#and#
tonic#accents.#However,#in#some#of#Bruckners#works,#the#nineteenth1
century#harmonies#and#instruments#further#enhance#the#correlation#of#
musical#stresses#to#syllabic#stresses.#In#these#works#counterpoint#never#
56

obscures#the#text,#and#the#rhythms#in#each#work#are#subservient#to#the#
text.29#
#
Camille'Saint1Sans'preservation'of'the'natural'stressing#of#the#Latin#text#is#

seen#consistently#throughout#his#choral#motets.#In#Ave#verum#(1860)#(Musical#

Example#4.1)"Saint1Sans&sets&the&work&homophonically,&with&the&only&melisma&in&

the#piece#falling#on#the#word#mortis,#meaning#death.#This#melisma#serves#as#a#

way#to#highlight#the#most#dramatic#moment#of#the#hymn#text.#As#suggested#by#

Liebergen,#the#use#of#homophony#makes#the#text#more#clearly#understood#by#

allowing#no#polyphonic#activity#to#blur#the#text#or#negatively#affect#the#text#stress#

in#each#musical#phrase.##

In#this#passage,#there#is#a#clear#effort#by#the#composer#to#not#accent#

unaccented#syllables.#In#measure#39#for#example,#dissonance#between#the#soprano#

and#alto#is#avoided#on#the#downbeat.#The#naturally#stressed#downbeat#is#set#to#the#

syllable#tis#in#the#soprano#and#tenor#voice,#the#unaccented#syllable#of#mortis.#

The#composer#avoids#stressing#this#syllable,#however,#by#assigning#consonant#

chords#to#the#first#two#beats#of#the#measure.#The#dissonance#is#saved#for#beat#three#

of#the#same#measure#when#the#accented#syllable#mor#is#in#the#soprano#voice.#A#

similar#procedure#is#used#in#measure#41#when#the#stress#of#the#downbeat,#which#

occurs#on#the#unaccented#syllable,#is#minimized#through#the#use#of#a#consonant#E1

flat#major#chord#in#second#inversion.#

#
29#Patrick#Libergen,#The#Cecilian#Movement#in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#A#Summary#of#the#

Movement,#14.#
#
57

Musical#Example#4.1.!Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#33144#

#Tantum#Ergo#(1856)#(Musical#Example#4.2)#provides#another#example#of#

this#style#feature.#In#measure#82,#melismas#are#passed#from#voice#to#voice#during#

the#text#phrase#compar#sit#laudatio.#Rather#than#layering#the#melismas#in#various#

voices#simultaneously,#the#composer#assigns#the#melisma#to#one#voice#at#a#time#or,#

at#most,#a#pairing#of#voices.#When#combined,#the#melismas#in#each#voice#part#fall#
58

on#every#syllable#of#the#text#and#in#the#correct#order#of#the#text#phrase.#The#correct#

text#stress#of#the#final#word#is#further#enhanced#by#the#composers#decision#to#set#

the#stressed#syllables#of#laudatio#in#thirds,#while#the#unstressed#syllables#lau#

and#ti#are#set#in#octaves.#

Musical#Example#4.2.#Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#82185#

In#Ave#verum#(1878)#(Musical#Example#4.3)#meter#and#rhythm#help#to#affect#

the#appropriate#text#stress.#Beginning#at#measure#84,#the#text#stresses#occur#on#

every#other#syllable.#For#example,#the#words#cujus#and#latus#are#both#two1

syllable#words#in#which#the#first#syllable#receives#the#stress.#The#word#

perforatum#is#a#four1syllable#word#in#which#the#first#and#third#syllables#are$
59

stressed.'Saint1Sans&emphasizes&this&by#setting#the#text#so#that#the#stressed#

syllable#is#always#placed#on#the#first#note#in#each#measure,#thereby#aligning#the#

text#stress#with#the#stressed#beat#in#the#triple#meter.#

Musical(Example(4.3.(Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#mm.#80195

#
60

Harmony,#Texture#and#Melody#

Saint1Sans&addresses&the&issues&of&combining&modality&and&modern&

harmony#in#his#article#Music#and#the#Church.#His#praise#of#Niedermeyers#ability#

to#create#a#fusion#of#ancient#modality#with#modern#harmony#suggests#that#he#

valued#combining#elements#of#both#practices.#In#Saint1Sans#article#Musique#

religieuse#he#expresses#his#distaste#for#composers#of#the#time#who#combined#

plainchant#and#modern#harmony:#

## It#will#not#be#amusing#if#our#churches#must#be#limited#to#plainchant#and#
Palestrina.#But,#on#the#whole,#one#does#not#go#to#mass#to#be#amused,#and#
this#diet#would#be#a#hundred#times#preferable#to#that#drivel#inflicted#on#us#
daily#to#the#detriment#of#art#and#to#the#benefit#of#no#one.#Reverend#Father#
Lambillotte,#who#was#probably#a#holy#man,#but#whose#dreadful#music#is#
completely#out#of#place#beneath#sacred#vaults!#Because#in#art,#holiness#is#
not#sufficient.#Talent#is#necessary.#Style#is#necessary.#And#where#will#great#
style#find#refuge#if#not#in#the#church#where#the#applause,#success#and#
miseries#of#art#do#not#exist?30#
#
Analysis(of(his(choral(motets(reveals(that(Saint1Sans'harmonic'language'is'

fully#functional#and#rarely#uses#modality#as#a#source#of#pitch#content.#Instead,#the#

influence#of#modality#can#be#seen#through#various#voice1leading#practices#and#

harmonic#progressions#that#exploit#the#modal#tendencies#of#ancient#music.#The$

modal&character&of&Saint1Sans'works#is#primarily#seen#through#his#use#of#

stepwise#motion#in#three#specific#ways;#stepwise#motion#at#phrase#endings#and#

cadences,#stepwise#harmonic#motion,#and#melodic#motion#by#step.#Patrick#

Liebergen#supports#the#idea#that#stepwise#harmonic#and#melodic#motion#can#be#

30#Camille#Saint1Sans,#Musique#religieuse,#in#Saint7Sans#and#the#Organ,#ed.#Rollin#Smith#

(Stuyvesant,#NY:#Pendragon#Press,#1992),#204.#Reverend#Father#Lambillotte#was#a#noted#
nineteenth1century#church#music#reformer.#
#
61

considered#to#be#modally#inspired#and#reflective#of#the#Cecilian#ideal.#Regarding#

the#choral#motets#of#Anton#Bruckner#he#states,#In#keeping#with#many#of#his#

Cecilian#compositions,#Os#Justi#and#Pange#Lingua#are#an#assimilation#of#modal#

harmony#and#traditional#modern#harmony.#In#these#works#there#is#harmonic#

movement#by#step,#typical#of#modal#harmony,#as#well#as#harmonic#movement#by#

third,#fourth,#and#fifth,#typical#of#modern#harmony.31#

An#example#of#stepwise#motion#at#phrase#endings#can#be#seen#in#the#motet#

Ave#verum#(1878)#(Musical#Example#4.4).#In#measure#32,#the#root#of#the#dominant#

(A)#is#not#present#in#the#texture#at#all.#The#result#is#a#diad#moving#in#stepwise#

contrary#motion#to#a#unison#cadence.#The#same#procedure#occurs#later#in#the#work#

at#measures#39#and#46,#where#the#root#of#the#chord#is#only#present#in#the#organ#

(Musical#Example#4.5).#At#no#point#in#the#entire#work#does#the#root#of#the#

penultimate#chord#occur#in#any#of#the#voices#at#a#cadence.#The#result#is#that#every#

cadence#in#the#work#is#approached#by#stepwise#motion#in#all#voices.#

31#Patrick#Liebergen,#The#Cecilian#Movement#in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#A#Summary#of#the#

Movement,#14.#
#
62

Musical#Example#4.4."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#mm.#31133#

#
63

Musical#Example#4.5."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#mm.#37147#

#
64

The#chromatic#content#in#the#B#section#of#this#motet#(measures#52#through#

95),#results#primarily#from#different#tonicizations#of#chords#found#in#the#relative#

minor,#B#minor.#For#example#in#measures#60#through#63#C1sharp#major#is#

tonicized#by#its#dominant.#In#measures#64#through#67#B#minor#is#tonicized,#and#in#

measures#68#through#71#E#minor#is#toncizied.#In#measure#67#and#measure#71#

Saint1Sans&uses&the#A1sharp#and#D1sharp#along#with#late#resolution#of#the#root#

pitch#to#create#temporary#6/4#chords,#which#must#resolve#by#step#(Musical#

Example#4.6).#

Musical#Example#4.6."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#mm.#65172#

#
65

In#Tantum#ergo#(1860)#(Musical#Example#4.7)"Saint1Sans'harmonic#

progressions#result#in#cadential#motion#by#step.#In#measures#43#through#44,#rather#

than#moving#the#bass#downward#to#C#on#beat#one#of#measure#44,#which#would#

result#in#a#dominant#cadence#to#F#Major,#he#chooses#to#approach#the#cadence#by#

step#in#all#voices.#The#result#is#a#vii1I#cadence#instead#of#the#more#commonly#used#

V1I#progression.#The#same#procedure#occurs#in#measures#45#through#46.#Instead#of#

moving#the#bass#down#to#a#D#pitch#or#the#keeping#the#soprano#on#a#D#pitch#on#the#

last#eighth#note#of#the#bar,#he#chooses#to#approach#the#cadence#by#step#in#all#

voices.#The#result#is,#again,#a#vii1I#cadence.#

Musical#Example#4.7."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),#mm.#43147#

In#his#motets#Camille'Saint1Sans&shows#an#overwhelming#preference#for#

stepwise#motion#in#all#voice#parts.#Saint1Sans'writings'indicate'that'the'crafting'

of#melody#was#of#utmost#importance#to#him.#This#is#reflected#in#his#compositional#
66

style#in#that#his#principal#melodies#are#usually#simple,#contained#within#an#octave#

range#with#one#central#peak,#and#are#usually#found#in#the#soprano#voice#at#the#top#

of#the#texture.#Saint1Sans&makes&little&to#no#use#of#the#imitative#style#of#Palestrina#

and#his#contemporaries#because,#as#he#expressed#in#the#earlier#mentioned#

writings,#it#blurs#and#often#buries#the#melody.#It#is#clear,#however,#that#the#

composer#does#limit#the#intervallic#leaps#of#each#voice#and#contains#each#melody#

within#an#octave.#This#combining!of#homophonic#textures#with#stepwise#motion#

and$controlled$range$of$the$melody$is$a$way$in$which$Saint1Sans#successfully#

combines#ancient#austerity#with#modern#harmonies.32#

In#Ave#verum#(1860)#(Musical#Example#4.8)#the#melody,#which#is#found#in#

the#soprano#voice,#is#almost#completely#stepwise#throughout.#There#are#no#leaps#

larger#than#a#sixth#in#the#entire#work#and#the#soprano#voice#contains#only#two#

leaps#of#pitch#within#the#same#musical#phrase.#Both#of#these#instances#occur#at#

melismas#set#to#the#word#mortis.#

Musical#Example#4.8."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#118#

##

32#Stephen#Studd,#Saint7Sans:'A'Critical'Biography#(London:#Cygnus#Arts,#1999),#33.#

#
67

In#Tantum#ergo#(1860)#(Musical#Example#4.9)#the#melody#found#in#

measures#1#through#9#is#exactly#one#octave#in#range.#Its#singular#central#peak#is#

found#in#measures#4#through#5,#and#its#arch1like#form#also#recalls#the#Palestrina#

style#of#melodic#composition.#This#melody#contains#predominantly#stepwise#

motion,#and#every#pitch#in#the#E1flat#major#scale#is#used.##

Musical#Example#4.9."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),#mm.#119#

Another#example#is#shown#in#the#motet#Deus#Abraham#(Musical#Example#

4.10).#The#principle#melody#begins#with#a#four1measure#phrase#which#is#almost#

completely#syllabic.#In#measure#three#the#voice#leaps#up#a#fourth,#and#immediately#

fills#in#the#skipped#pitches#with#descending#melodic#motion.#In#measure#four#the#

leap#is#of#a#seventh,#and#again#is#filled#in#with#three#descending#pitches,#ending#the#

phrase#on#the#tonic.#In#measure#five#a#descending#seventh#occurs#from#C#down#to#

D.#The#voice#then#leaps#back#up#to#a#B#pitch#before#beginning#the#downward#

stepwise#motion,#in#order#to#fill#in#the#pitches#that#were#skipped#between#C#and#D.#

One#extra#note#is#added#to#the#word#sit#in#order#to#fill#in#the#final#note#that#was#

skipped,#E.##

#
68

Musical#Example#4.10."Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),#mm.#116#

The#predominance#of#stepwise#motion#in#each#individual#voice#part#

naturally#leads#to#an#abundance#of#passages#containing#harmonic#movement#by#

step.#Unlike'many'of'Saint1Sans#fellow#French#composers#at#the#turn#of#the#

twentieth#century,#his#motets#do#not#feature#planing#as#a#compositional#element.#

Instead,#the#voices#typically#move#in#a#combination#of#contrary#and#parallel#

motion.#Harmonic#movement#by#step#usually#occurs#in#short#passages,#typically#

with#fewer#than#four#continuous#sonorities#at#a#time.#These#passages#are#a#

common#occurrence,#however,#and#are#found#frequently#in#his#choral#motets.#As#
69

mentioned#previously,#Liebergen#suggests#that#harmonic#motion#by#step#is#a#

method#that#both#Bruckner#and#Liszt#used#to#capitalize#on#the#character#of#

modality,#while#not#necessarily#using#modal#harmony.#Whether&or&not&Saint1Sans&

intended#this#harmonic#motion#by#step#to#be#suggestive#of#sixteenth1century#

modality,#or#if#it#is#simply#a#byproduct#of#his#preference#for#linear#stepwise#

motion,#is#uncertain.#What#is#certain#is#that#it#is#a#key#style#feature#of#this#genre#

and#also#is#reflective#of#the#composers#desire#to#combine#archaic#ideas#with#

modern#tonal#practices.#

# In#measure#11#of#Tantum#ergo#(1860)#(Musical#Example#4.11)#the#

composer#begins#with#a#tightly1spaced#E1flat#major#chord.#The#contrary#stepwise#

motion#of#the#voices#results#in#a#harmonic#progression#of#E1flat#major,#D#major,#C#

dominant#seven,#and#finally#D#major.#A#similar#example#is#found#beginning#in#

measure#17#beat#3#with#the#chord#progression#C#major,#tones#F1sharp#and#A#

implying#D#major,#E1flat#major,#C#major,#and#ending#with#D#major.#(Musical#

Example#4.12).#

#
70

Musical#Example#4.11."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),#mm.#101
13#

Musical#Example#4.12."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),#mm.#151
19#

Another#instance#of#harmonic#movement#by#step#can#be#seen#in#Ave#verum#

(1878),#measures#37#through#39#(Musical#Example#4.13).#From#measure#37#until#

beat#three#of#measure#39,#each#voice#in#the#four1part#texture#moves#completely#by#

step.#This#yields#the#chord#progression#B#minor,#C1sharp#diminished#seven,#D#
71

major,#E#minor,#D#major,#E#minor,#and#finally#results#in#the#dominant#resolving#to#

the#tonic.#

Musical#Example#4.13."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#mm.#37140##

#In#Deus#Abraham,#1885,#stepwise#harmonic#motion#can#be#seen#through#

direct#motion#to#keys#a#step#apart.#An#example#of#this#occurs#at#measure#16#with#

direct#motion#from#a#B#major#sonority#to#C#major#sonority#in#the#following#

measure#(Musical#Example#4.14).##

#
#
#
#
72

Musical#Example#4.14."Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),#mm.#141
19#

Use of Unobtrusive Accompaniment

Saint1Sans#was#one#of#the#most#accomplished#organists#in#nineteenth1

century#Europe.33#His#works#for#solo#organ,#such#as#his#collections#of#preludes#and#

fugues,#are#virtuosic,#and#demonstrate#his#consummate#skill#as#a#composer#of#

organ#music.#Examination#of#the#Latin#choral#motets,#however,#reveals#no#virtuosic#

writing#for#the#organ.#In#nearly#all#cases#the#instrumental#music#acts#as#transition#

33#Smith,#Rollin,#Saint7Sans&and&the&Organ#(Stuyvesant,#NY:#Pendragon#Press,#1992)#
73

or#support#for#the#voices.#Saint1Sans&spoke&about&the&function&of&the&organ&in&the&

following#terms:#

# If#the#sound#of#the#organ,#a#harmonious#noise#rather#than#exact#music,#
produces#little#that#is#worth#writing#down#on#paper,#then#it#belongs#to#the#
same#category#as#those#old#stained#glass#windows#where#you#can#scarcely#
discern#the#shapes#but#which,#nevertheless,#have#more#charm#than#their#
modern#counterparts.34#
#
The#comparison#between#the#organ#and#a#stained#glass#window#along#with#the#

claim#that#the#organ#does#not#provide#exact#music#indicate#that#the#composer#

values#the#instruments#ability#to#provide#background#support#and#color#rather#

than#to#assume#a#dominant#role#in#church#music.#The#use#of#wind#instruments#as#a#

means#to#subtly#support#the#voices#was#one#of#the#key#principles#of#the#Cecilian#

reform#movement#as#described#by#Witt.#Liebergen#describes#how#this#principle#

manifests#itself#in#the#masses#of#Liszt#and#Bruckner:#

In#all#movements#of#the#Mass#in#e#minor,#the#instruments#sound#a#firm#
harmonic#reinforcement#without#obscuring#the#vocal#lines.#Instruments#are#
also#used#in#the#mass#for#textual#emphasisLiszts#use#of#organ#as#an#
unobtrusive#accompaniment#in#the#Missa#Choralis#is#another#element#of#the#
Cecilian#movement.#Unlike#Bruckner,#who#used#mostly#woodwinds#and#
brass#in#his#Cecilian#works,#Liszt#showed#a#preference#for#the#organ.35#
#
# It#is#important#to#note#that#in#all"of"Saint1Sans'motets'the'organ'is'

indicated#in#the#score.#This#provides#evidence#that,#even#though#it#primarily#

functions#as#support#for#the#voices,#it#is#still#an#integral#part#of#the#musical#texture.#

Only#two#of#the#motets#specify#instruments#other#than#organ:#Ave#verum#(1878),#

34#James#Harding,#Saint7Sans&and&His&Circle#(London:#Chapman#&#Hall,#1965):#63.#

35#Patrick#Liebergen,#The#Cecilian#Movement#in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#A#Summary#of#the#

Movement,#14115.#
#
74

which#includes#horn,#and#Deus#Abraham,#which#includes#harp.#As#mentioned#

above,#the#horn#was#frequently#used#by#Cecilians#as#a#means#of#support#due#to#its#

voice1like#quality#in#certain#ranges.#The#harp#possesses#the#ability#to#provide#

timbrel#contrast#to#the#organ#line,#and#was#used#frequently#by#Saint1Sans&for&this&

purpose#(see#for#example#the#fifth#movement#of#the#Oratorio#de#Nol,#op.#12,#where#

the#harp#doubles#the#organ).#

# In#the#opening#portion#of#Tantum#ergo#(1856)#(Musical#Example#4.15),#the#

organ#accompaniment#has#been#crafted#to#guide#the#choir#through#the#various#

chord#changes.#Only#in#measure#1#does#the#organ#sound#before#the#choir#has#

reached#the#arrival#sonority.#It#functions#in#this#case#to#provide#the#tonality#for#the#

piece.#In#each#subsequent#case,#the#organ#simply#re1states#the#current#pitches#of#

the#choir.#The#composer#indicates#for#both#the#choir#and#organ#to#hold#over#an#

extra#quarter#note#at#the#end#of#their#respective#phrases#so#that#the#transitions#are#

fluid#and#seamless.##

#
75

Musical#Example#4.15."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#1120#

#
76

The#composer#often#uses#the#organ#to#support#the#choir#as#the#pitch#content#

becomes#increasingly#difficult.#For#example,#in#measure#23#through#31#(Musical#

Example#4.16),#the#organ#does#not#play#colla#parte#with#the#choir#but#simply#

outlines#the#chords#in#broken#fashion.#In#measure#32#as#G#major#begins#to#emerge#

as#the#tonal#center,#the#organ#is#set#colla#parte#through#measure#44.#Saint1Sans'

compositional#skill#is#shown#in#measure#34#where#he#deviates#for#a#brief#moment#

from#the#colla#parte#texture,#providing#a#smooth#transition#between#text#sections.#

The#organ#simply#continues#the#quarter1note#rising#motive#from#the#choir#in#the#

previous#measure,#helping#to#further#solidify#G#major#in#the#listeners#ear,#while#

connecting#the#two#statements#of#text.#

#
77

Musical#Example#4.16."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#27136#

Another#example#is#seen#in#the#use#of#the#harp#in#Deus#Abraham#(Musical#

Example#4.17).#The#rhythm#of#the#harp#remains#constant#while#the#choir#is#singing,#

so#that#it#does#not#distract#from#the#prominence#of#the#text.#The#only#moment#of#
78

syncopation#occurs#in#measure#33.#This#syncopation#brings#the#harp#to#the#

foreground#of#the#texture.#This#occurs,#however,#in#a#moment#in#which#the#choir#is#

tacet,#and#the#organ#is#transitioning#back#into#the#A#material.#

Musical#Example#4.17."Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),#mm.#321
34#

A#final#example#of#this#feature#is#seen#in#the#motet#Tantum#ergo#(1860).#

Throughout#the#entire#piece#whenever#the#three#voice1parts#are#all#present,#the#

organ#is#set#colla#parte.#The#only#time#the#organ#plays#separate#material#is#when#all#

the#voices#are#tacet,#or#at#moments#in#which#only#one#voice#is#present.#An#example#
79

can#be#seen#at#measures#21#through#25#(Musical#Example#4.18).#During#the#

soprano#1#and#alto#soloists#short#solo#passages,#the#organ#provides#a#counter1

melody.#This#is#to#provide#contrapuntal#interest#to#the#singular#voice#part.#As#soon#

as#all#three#voice#parts#are#joined#at#beat#three#of#measure#25,#the#organ#returns#to#

a#colla#parte#texture.#

#
80

Musical#Example#4.18."Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994),#mm.#201
28#

S1

S2

Text#Highlighting#and#Evocation#of#Mood#

The#simplicity#of#all#elements#of#music#is#reflected#in#Saint1Sans'method'of'

text#highlighting.#As#mentioned#earlier,#Saint1Sans&believed&that&church&music&

should#suit#the#spiritual#purpose#of#the#service.#In#his#mind,#this#was#to#induce#a#

feeling#of#calm#and#serenity#in#the#listener.#In#Music#in#the#Church#(1916),#Saint1

Sans&suggested&that&he&would&remove&many&of&the&works&of&the&great&composers,&
81

such#as#Bach#and#Beethoven,#from#the#church#because#they#inspire#neither#a#

meditative#nor#a#prayerful#mood.36#Saint1Sans'feelings'on'the'subject'were'

remarkably#consistent#in#his#other#writings,#as#well.#Three#years#prior#to#Music#in#

the#Church#he#professed#the#same#opinion#in#his#article#Musique#religieuse.#In#it#

he#wrote:#

It#will#surprise#many#people#that#I#would#ban#almost#all#the#works#of#
Sebastian#Bach#from#the#Catholic#Church.#His#marvelous#chorale#preludes#
are#the#very#essence#of#Protestantism#and,#with#few#exceptions,#his#
preludes#and#fugues,#fantaisies#and#toccatas#are#primarily#virtuoso#pieces.#
They#are#music#for#the#concert#hall,#not#the#church.37#
#
As#the$composer$of$over$a$dozen$operas,$numerous$stage$works,$oratorios$

and$other$dramatic$pieces,$Saint1Sans&was&clearly&capable&of&writing&in&the&

dramatic#style.#In#fact,#one#of#the#composers#most#famous#works,#the#1886#suite#

Le#carnaval#des#animaux,#is#rich#with#programmatic#and#scenic#elements.#It#is#clear#

through#these#statements,#however,#that#the#composer#believed#that#music#for#the#

church#should#not#be#overly#dramatic,#but#should#instead#depict#the#general#mood#

or#feeling#inspired#by#the#text#and#appropriate#to#the#solemn#character#of#the#

mass.#

Analysis(of(the(motets(of(Saint1Sans&shows&consistent&use&of&subtle&text&

painting,#as#well#as#a#general#mood#reflective#of#the#text.#This#mood#is#most#often#

created#through#key#contrasts,#harmonic#shifts#and#carefully#positioned#

dissonance.#In#Ave#verum#(1860),#only#two#fully1diminished#chords#are#present#in#

36#Camille#Saint1Sans,#Music#in#the#Church,#8.#

#
37 #Camille#Saint1Sans,#Musique#religieuse,#204.#
82

the#entire#work.#These#sonorities#are#carefully#placed#to#highlight#the#text.#The#

first#occurs#in#measure#23#at#the#word#sanguine,#meaning#blood#(Musical#

Example#4.19).#The#second#occurs#in#measure#36#at#the#moment#of#greatest#

intensity#esto#nobis#praegustatum,#meaning#be#for#us#a#foretaste.#(Musical#

Example#4.20).#

Musical#Example#4.19."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#22124#

Musical#Example#4.20."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#33136#

#
83

In#Ave#verum#(1878),#each#instance#of#the#word#passum,#or#suffering,#is#

colored#with#dissonance.#At#measure#63#the#B#pitch#in#the#soprano#voice#creates#a#

dissonant#9th#against#the#C1sharp#Major#chord#in#the#organ.#In#measure#65,#the#

soprano#2#voice#enters#on#the#second#of#the#chord#(G#against#F1sharp#Major),#

creating#dissonance#against#the#contralto#which#is#set#to#the#word#passum.#The#

delayed#tonic#resolution#in#measures#67#and#71#also#occurs#on#the#words#

passum#and#immolatum,#meaning#sacrificed.#(Musical#Example#4.21)#

#
84

Musical#Example#4.21.#Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#mm.#60172#

#
85

#In#the#same#work#the#composers#use#of#text#highlighting#through#range#

and#dynamic#is#shown.#The#highest#pitch#for#each#individual#voice#part#in#the#piece#

occurs#at#measure#79#on#the#word#cruce,#meaning#cross.#It#is#the#only#

indication#of#forte#in#the#entire#work#(Musical#Example#4.22).#

Musical#Example#4.22."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1878),#mm.#73187#

Analysis#reveals#a#use#of#the#parallel#minor#key#to#highlight#a#change#in#text#

mood#in#three#of#the#six#Latin1texted#motets#covered#in#this#study.#The#shift#to#the#
86

parallel#minor,#as#opposed#to#the#relative#minor,#allows#the#composer#to#create#

greater#contrast#in#mood#through#use#of#a#more#distantly#related#key.#The#first#

example#is#found#in#the#B#section#of#the#motet#Ave#Maria#and#was#identified#in#

Chapter#Three.#In#Ave#verum#(1860)#(Musical#Example#4.23),#a#shift#from#E1flat#

major#to#the#parallel#minor#in#measure#9#creates#contrast#between#sections.#The#

opening#section#of#text#is#in#praise#of#Jesus#Christ,#and#the#second#section#is#about#

Christs#suffering#on#the#cross.#The#parallel#minor#key#is#derived#from#G1flat#major,#

which#creates#a#third#relationship#with#the#opening#key.#This#is#perhaps#a#subtle#

way#of#reflecting#the#tripartite#nature#of#the#text,#or#possibly#a#reference#to#the#

Holy#Trinity.#

#
87

Musical#Example#4.23."Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884),#mm.#11121#

In#measure#32#through#33#of#Deus#Abraham#(Musical#Example#4.24),#

material#borrowed#from#F#minor,#the#parallel#minor#of#F#major,#is#used#to#provide#

a#final#moment#of#contrast#to#the#opening#text#before#the#eight1measure#closing.#

#
88

Musical#Example#4.24."Saint1Sans,'Deus#Abraham#(Paris:#Durand,#1892),#mm.#321
34#

# #
89

CHAPTER#5:#CONCLUSION#

Most#scholars#have#concluded#that#the$choral$motets$of$Camille$Saint1Sans&

are#simple#works#composed#for#specific#liturgical#functions.#At#first#glance,#they#

seem#to#lack#any#unique#style#characteristics#and#also#to#suggest#nothing#of#the#

composers#personal#ideas#of#church#music.#The#scholar#who#examines#this#music#

through#the#lens#of#the#composers#own#writing,#however,#will#notice#intricate#

details#in#its#craftsmanship."Camille"Saint1Sans,'being'a'prolific'writer'and'

musicologist#as#well#as#a#composer,#has#left#us#a#wealth#of#information#in#his#prose#

writings.#Comparison#between#his#written#opinions#on#church#music#and#the#

music#itself#has#revealed#stylistic#continuities$and$musical$details$that$help$us$to$

better%understand%this%body%of%repertoire,%as%well%as%Camille%Saint1Sans#

connection#with#the#Cecilian#movement.#

In#his#prose#writings,#Saint1Sans&suggests&that&many#French#sacred#music#

composers#of#his#day#were#ignorant#about#how#to#properly#set#Latin#text.#His#

beliefs#are#shared!by#other#contemporary#composers#and#students#of#Saint1Sans&

such#as#Louis#Vierne.#Examination#of#the#works#covered#in#this#study#shows#that#

the#composer#takes#care#to#align#stressed#syllables#with#musical#accents.#This#is#

accomplished#through#harmonic#choices#and#placement#of#dissonance,#dynamic#

and#range#contrasts,#and#meter#and#rhythmic#choices#that#fit#the#natural#stress#

pattern#of#the#text.#One#of#the#key#objectives#of#the#Cecilian#movement#was#to#

maintain#the#text#as#the#central#focus#of#the#piece.#The#Cecilians#believed#that#the#
90

music#should#always#be#subservient#to#the#text,#and#they#accomplished#this#by#

producing#music#that#had#little#harmonic#complexity.#Saint1Sans#has#

accomplished#this#goal#through#the#above1mentioned#practices,#while#managing#to#

keep#his#own#personal#compositional#style#that#is#rich#with#colorful#and#chromatic#

harmonies.#

It#is#unclear#from#his#writings#if#Saint1Sans#was#a#personally#religious#man.#

What#is#clear#is#that#he#held#great#respect#and#reverence#for#the#ritual#of#the#mass.#

Being&a&historian&as&well&as&a&virtuoso&organist,&Saint1Sans&loved&and&respected&

the#great#dramatic#works#of#the#past.#He#was#conservative,#however,#when#it#came#

to#what#was#appropriate#for#use#in#the#service.#In#his#writings#he#makes#clear#his#

belief#that#overtly#dramatic#works,#such#as#Beethovens#Missa#Solemnis,#had#no#

place#in#the#worship#setting#because#they#were#works#for#performance,#not#

worship.##

Saint1Sans&was#sensitive#to#the#solemn#character#of#the#mass#in#his#choral#

works#in#several#distinct#ways.#He#did#not#use#large#instrumental#complements,#

and#only#occasionally#incorporated#a#solo#instrument#for#purposes#of#color#and#

contrast.#In#every#work#covered#in#this#study,#the#organs#primary#functions#are#to#

support#the#voices#and#to#create#smooth#transitions#between#sections.#The#use#of#

wind#instruments#for#accompaniment#was#a#key#feature#of#the#Cecilian#movement.#

The#Cecilians#believed#that#these#instruments#were#similar#in#timbre#to#the#voice,#

and#therefore#did#not#distract#from#the#prominence#of#the#text.#Like%his%close%

friend'Franz'Liszt,'Saint1Sans&used#the#organ#to#accomplish#the#same#goal.#Saint1
91

Sans&also&carefully&used#text#and#mood#highlighting#as#a#way#to#emphasise#

important#moments#in#the#text.#By#reserving#the#most#dissonant#chords,#highest#

notes,#and#extreme#dynamics#for#the#most#dramatic#words#he#fulfilled#the#Cecilian#

ideal#of#maintaining#the#prominence#of#text,#while#still#creating#works#of#highest#

art#and#drama.#

Camille'Saint1Sans&was&a&historian#as#well#as#a#musician.#He#spent#his#life#

championing#the#works#of#Mozart#and#other#great#classical#composers.#He#favored#

the#use#of#prominent#melody,#and#his#works#contain#the#use#of#modern#harmonies.#

In#his#writings,#he#reflects#his#beliefs#through#his#criticism#of#the#Cecilian#

composers#who#favored#block#chord#accompaniments#and#melodies#based#solely#

on#chant.#One$of$the$most$striking$features$of$Saint1Sans#compositional#style#in#

this#genre#is#his#overwhelming#preference#for#stepwise#motion.#Stepwise#motion#is#

found#abundantly#in#these#works#in#the#form#of#harmonic#stepwise#motion,#

stepwise#motion#at#cadences#and#phrase#endings,#and#melodies#that#move#

predominantly#by#step.##

In#the#list#of#goals#of#the#Allgemeiner#Ccilien7Verband#fr#Deutschland,#Witt#

included#the#use#of#chant#in#the#liturgy#and#renewal#of#interest#in#the#musical#style#

of#Palestrina.#Though#Saint1Sans#did#not#employ#the#use#of#chant#in#this!choral'

motets,'one'cannot'deny'the'similarities'between'the'stepwise'nature'of'chant'

melodies(and(the(melodies(crafted(by(Saint1Sans.#The#music#of#Palestrina#and#

other#Renaissance1era#composers#is#usually#analyzed#horizontally,#with#cadences#

being#the#result#of#several#voices#coming#together#in#moments#of#tension#and#
92

release.#Saint1Sans#music#clearly#exists#in#a#Romantic1era#harmonic#construct,#

and#can#be#analyzed#vertically#as#functional.#His#preference#for#stepwise#motion#at#

cadential#moments,#however,#suggests#that#he#may#have#given#preference#to#

horizontal#textures#over#vertical#ones#in#his#sacred#works.#In#nearly#every#one#of#

these#instances,#Saint1Sans#could#easily#have#created#authentic#cadences#by#

having#one#voice#skip#to#the#root#of#the#dominant#triad.#Instead,#approaching#the#

cadence#by#step#results#in#a#sound#that#implies#more#archaic#cadence#types,#typical#

of#music#that#is#based#on#horizontal#textures,#such#as#that#of#Palestrina#and#his#

contemporaries.#Saint1Sans#music#follows#the#Cecilian#ideal#by#fulfilling#the#

essence#of#the#goals#of#the#Cecilian#movement,#while#remaining#in#his#own#modern#

compositional#style.#

Saint1Sans&composed&in#nearly#every#genre#of#music.#His#musical#style#

differed#from#genre#to#genre,#making#it#difficult#to#assign#any#style#features#that#

characterize#his#entire#output.#Scholars)such)as)Sabina)Ratner)have)suggested)that)

Saint1Sans&chiefly&drew&from#the#past#for#inspiration,#never#venturing#down#any#

new#and#original#paths.38#Though&Saint1Sans&certainly&drew&from&the&past&for&

inspiration,#his#combination#of#the#various#elements#of#ancient#and#modern#music#

into#one#cohesive#style#results#in#a#type#of#music#that#is#unique.#In#this#paper,#I#

have#identified#stylistic#continuities#present#in#a#majority#of#his#Latin1texted#choral#

motets,#and#therefore#can#serve#as#a#means#for#understanding#the#composers#

38#Sabina#Teller#Ratner,#"Saint1Sans,#Camille,"#The#New#Grove#Dictionary#of#Music#and#

Musicians.#ed.#Stanley#Sadie.#2nd#ed.,#vol.#22#(Macmillan#Publishers#Limited,#2001),#126.#
93

musical#style#in#this#genre.#It#has#been#proven#that#the#Latin1texted%choral%motets%

of#Camille#Saint1Sans#have#a#musical#language#that#can#be#identified#and#

discussed.##The#style#features#present#in#these#works#are#in#direct#alignment#with#

the#composers#prose#writings.#Given#the#substantial#amount#of#prose#writing#by#

Camille#Saint1Sans&over&the&course&of&his#long#life#and#career,#application#of#a#

similar#analytical#process#could#be#applied#to#other#portions#of#Saint1Sans'

oeuvre.#This#will#have#a#profound#impact#on#our#understanding#of#Camille#Saint1

Sans&as&a&composer,#a#critic#and#a#man.#

# #
94

APPENDIX#A:#AVE#VERUM#IN#E1FLAT#MAJOR39#

39#Camille#Saint1Sans,'Ave#verum#(Paris:#Durand,#1884).#
95

# #
96

# #
97

APPENDIX#B:#TANTUM#ERGO#IN#E1FLAT#MAJOR40#

40#Camille#Saint1Sans,'Tantum#ergo#(London:#Faber,#1994).#
98

#
99

#
100

#
101

APPENDIX#C:#TANTUM#ERGO,#OP.#541#

#
41
#Camille#Saint.Sans,'Tantum'ergo'(Paris:#Durand,#1884).#
102

# #
103

# #
104

# #
105

# #
106

# #
107

# #
108

# #
109

APPENDIX#D:#AVE#VERUM#IN#D#MAJOR42#

42
#Camille#Saint.Sans,'Ave'verum'(Paris:#Durand,#1878).#
110

# #
111

# #
112

# #
113

# #
114

# #
115

# #
116

# #
117

APPENDIX#E:#DEUS#ABRAHAM43#

43
#Camille#Saint.Sans,'Deus'Abraham'(Paris:#Durand,#1892).#
118

# #
119

# #
120

# #
121

# #
122

APPENDIX#F:#AVE#MARIA,#OP.#14544#

44
#Camille#Saint.Sans,'Ave'Maria'(Paris:#Durand,#1914).#
123

# #
124

# #
125

# #
126

# #
127

# #
128

# #
129

REFERENCES#

Books,#Articles,#Dissertations#and#Online#Sources#

Benefield,#Richard,#ed.#Motets#for#One#Voice:#The#Organ7Accompanied#Solo#Motet#in#
Nineteenth7Century#France,#by#Franck,#Gounod,#and#Saint7Sans.'Middleton,#
WI:#A1R#Editions,#2003.#
#
Brown,#Timothy,#ed.#Camille'Saint7Sans&and&Gabriel&Faur.&Six#Motets#for#Upper#
Voices.#London:#Faber#Music,#1994.#
#
Di#Grazia,#Donna.#Nineteenth7Century#Choral#Music.#New#York:#Routledge,#2012.#
#
Flynn,#Timothy.#Camille'Saint7Sans:'A'Guide'to'Research.#New#York:#Routledge,#
2003.#
#
Garratt,#James.#Palestrina#and#the#German#Romantic#Imagination#Interpreting#
Historicism#in#Nineteenth7Century#Music.#Cambridge:#New#York,#2002.#
#
Gmeinwieser,#Siegfried.#"Cecilian#movement."#The#New#Grove#Dictionary#of#Music#
and#Musicians.##Edited#by#Stanley#Sadie.#2nd#ed.#Vol.#5.#Macmillan#Publishers#
Limited,#2001.#
#
Harding,#James.#Saint7Sans&and&his&Circle.#London:#Chapman#&#Hall,#1965.#
#
Hervey,#Arthur.#Saint7Sans.#Westport:#Greenwood#Press,#1922.#
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Jacques1Gabriel#Prod'homme#and#Frederick#H.#Martens.#Camille#Saint1Sans.#The#
Musical#Quarterly#8#(1922):#480.#
#
Johnson,#Lynne.#Franz#Liszt#and#Camille#Saint1Saens:#Friendship,#Mutual#Support,#
and#Influence.#Ph.D.#diss.,#University#of#Hawai'i#at#Manoa,#2009.#
#
Liebergen,#Patrick.#The#Cecilian#Movement#in#the#Nineteenth#Century:#A#
Summary#of#the#Movement.#Choral#Journal#21,#no.9#(May#1981):#13116.#
#
Mikliss,#Ursula.#Die$Liturgische$Musik$von$Camille$Saint1Sans.#Diss.,#Universitt#
Hamburg,#1993.##
#
130

Murray,#Michael.#French'Masters'of'the'Organ:'Saint7Sans,'Franck,'Widor,'Vierne,'
Dupr,'Langlais,'Messiaen.#New#Haven:#Yale#University#Press,#1998.#
#
Ratner,#Sabina#Teller.#Camille'Saint7Sans,'183571921:#A#Thematic#Catalogue#of#His#
Complete#Works.#Oxford:#Oxford#University#Press,#2002.#
#
Ratner,#Sabina#Teller.#"Saint1Sans,#Camille."#The#New#Grove#Dictionary#of#Music#
and#Musicians.##Edited#by#Stanley#Sadie.#2nd#edition.#Vol.#22.#Macmillan#
Publishers#Limited,#2001.##
#
Rees,#Brian.#Camille'Saint7Sans:'A'Life.#London:#Chatto#&#Windus,#1999.#
#
Ruff,#Anthony.#Sacred#Music#and#Liturgical#Reform:#Treasures#and#Transformations.#
Chicago:#Hillenbrand#Books,#2007.#
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Saffle,#Michael.#The#Evidence#of#Documents#and#Scores.#In#Caecilianismus:)
Anfnge,(Grundlagen,(Wirkungen(:(Internationales(Symposium(zur(
Kirchenmusik#des#19.#Jahrhunderts.#Tutzing:#H.#Schneider,#1988.##
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Saint1Sans,'Camille,'Gabriel'Faur,'Jean1Michel#Nectoux,#and#J.#Barrie#Jones.#The#
Correspondence#of#Camille#Saint7Sans&and&Gabriel&Faur:&Sixty&Years&of&
Friendship.#Aldershot#Hants,#England:#Ashgate,#2004.#
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Saint1Sans,#Camille.#Music#in#the#Church.#The#Musical#Quarterly#2#(1916):#118.#
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_____.#Musical#Memories.#Boston:#Small,#Maynard#&#Co,#1919.#
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_____.#Musique#religieuse.#In#Saint7Sans&and&the&Organ,#ed.#Rollin#Smith,#204.#
Stuyvesant,#NY:#Pendragon#Press,#1992.#
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Smith,#Rollin.#Saint7Sans&and&the&Organ.#Stuyvesant,#NY:#Pendragon#Press,#1992.#
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Strimple,#Nick.#Choral#Music#in#the#Nineteenth#Century.#New#York:#Amadeus,#2008.#
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_____.#Choral#Music#in#the#Twentieth#Century.#Portland,#OR:#Amadeus#Press,#2002.#
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Studd,#Stephen.#Saint7Sans:'A'Critical'Biography.#London:#Cygnus#Arts,#1999.#
131

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Vierne,#Louis.#La#musique#religieuse#de#Saint1Saens.#In#Saint7Sans#and#the#
Organ,#ed.#Rollin#Smith,#37139.#Stuyvesant,#NY:#Pendragon#Press,#1992.#
#
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Musical#Scores#
#
Saint1Sans,#Camille.#Ave#Maria.#Paris:#Durand,#1914.#
#
_____.#Ave#verum.#Paris:#Durand,#1878.#
#
_____.#Ave#verum.#Paris:#Durand,#1884.#
#
_____.#Deus#Abraham.#Paris:#Durand,#1892.#
#
_____.#Quam#dilecta.#Paris:#Durand,#1916.#
#
_____.#Tantum#ergo.#London:#Faber,#1994.#
#
_____.#Tantum#ergo.#Paris:#Durand,#1884.#
#
_____.#Tu#es#Petrus.#Paris:#Durand,#1916.#
#
_____.#Veni#creator#spiritus.#Paris:#Durand,#1884.#
#