You are on page 1of 7

Lie Detection and Interrogation (Polygraph) 2.

computerized - most polygraph examiners now


used this.
Polygraph - popularly referred to as lie detector. -
measures and records several psychological indices Types of Questions in a Polygraph Test
such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration and skin 1. Control Question - preliminary information question
conductivity while the subject is asked and answers a 2. Irrelevant Question -
series of questions. 3. Relevant Question
- literally means "many writings". - In a polygraph test, the types of questions alternates,
- is derived from two Greek words "Poly"- which means the test is passed if the physiological responses during
many and "Graphos"- which means writing. the probable lie control questions are larger than those
during the relevant question.
blood pressure - is the pressure exerted by
circulating blood upon the walls of blood Lie Detection - is the practice of determining whether
vessels and is one of the principal vital signs. someone is lying.
pulse - represents the tactile arterial
Three Basic Approaches to The Polygraph Test
palpitation of the heartbeat by trained
1. The Control Question Test (CQT) - this test compares
fingertips. It can also be measured by listening
the physiological response to relevant questions about
to the heart directly using a stethoscope.
the crime with the response to questions relating to
respiration - the transport of oxygen from possible prior misdeeds. This test is often used to
the outside air to the cells within tissues and determine whether certain criminal suspects should be
the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite prosecuted or classified as uninvolved in the crime.
direction. 2. The Directed Lie Test (DLT) - this test tries to detect
skin conductivity - also known as Galvanic lying by comparing physiological responses when the
sin response - is a method of measuring the subject is told to deliberately lie to responses when
electrical conductance of the skin which varies they tell the truth.
with its moisture level. 3. The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) - this test
ohmmeter - is an electrical instrument that compares physiological responses to multiple choice
measures electrical resistance, the opposition type questions about the crime, one choice of which
to an electric current. contains information only the crime investigators and
galvanometer - an instrument for detecting the criminal would know about.
and measuring electric current.
3 Phases of A Polygraph Examination
stimuli - is applied to sensory receptor, it
1. Pre-Test Phase - the examiner discusses with the
influences a reflex via stimulus transduction.
subject the test issue, review the test questions that
will be ask during the test and assess the subjects
emotional and physiological suitability to undergo the
Personalities who contributed to the development polygraph test.
of the polygraph machine. 2. Testing Phase - subjects physiological responses are
recorded as the subject answers a set of questions
reviewed earlier.
Cesare Lombroso - he invented in 1895 a
3. Post Test Phase - examiner reviews test data
device to measure changers in blood pressure
obtained and interprets the polygraph chart.
for police case.
Conclusions That a Polygraph Examiner May
John Augustus Larson - a medical student Reach
at the University of California at Berkeley, 1. Subject is telling the truth
invented the polygraph in 1921.The device 2. Subject is not telling the truth
record both blood pressure and galvanic skin 3. The result is inconclusive
response. Further work on this device was
done by Leonarde Keeler. * A polygraph test normally lasts between one and a
Leonarde Keeler - was the co-inventor of the half hours to two and a half hours.
polygraph. He developed the so-called cardio-
pneumo psychogram capable of detecting * Polygraph test result in the Philippines is not
deception and worked on to produce the admissible in evidence as proof of the guilt of an
modern polygraph. accused.
William Marston - an american who used * Polygraph test is voluntary.
blood pressure to examine german prisoners
of war. * The accuracy of polygraph test is about 90%
John Reid - In 1948, developed a device provided the examiner is competent and the polygraph
which recorded muscular activity machine is in good working condition.
accompanying changes in blood pressure. He
claimed greater accuracy could be obtained by * Polygraph is an investigative tool.
making the recordings simultaneously with
standard blood pressure, pulse, and * The principle behind a lie detection test is that when
respiration recordings. the subject hears a questions which he or she intends
to lie, the brain interprets and triggers automatic and
Two types of present day polygraph uncontrollable physiological changes captured by the
instrumentation polygraph.

Who Uses The Polygraph


1. analog
1. Law Enforcement Agencies 7. He developed a method of measuring the amount of
2. Legal Community sweat a suspect produced during interrogation. This
3. Private Sector was determined by the electrical conductibility of the
suspects skin.
Kinds of Errors in a Polygraph Test A. B. Sticker
1. False Positive - occurs when a truthful examinee is B. C. Lombroso
reported as being deceptive.
C. D. Sticker
2. False Negative - when a deceptive examinee is
D. C. Beccaria
reported as truthful.

Causes of Polygraph Errors 8. The first polygraph machine was actually a copy
1. Failure of examiner to properly prepare the machine invented in
examinee for the examination. A. 1801
2. Misreading of the physiological data on the B. 1803
polygraph charts. C. 1802
3. Defective polygraph machine. D. 1804

Reactions - changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, 9. In the early 1900s, He invented what he called the
breathing and sweat activity. ink polygraph. This was used to monitor
cardiovascular responses by measuring pulse and blood
Lie Detection and Interrogation Reviewer 1 pressure.
A. Ken Adler
B. Vittorio Benussi
1. A portion of rice spit from a persons mouth revealed
C. James MacKenzie
whether he or she was lying. Spitting out dry rice
D. Cesare Lombroso
indicated the dry mouth of a liar. This form of lie
detection originated in
10.In 1914, He used pneumatic tubing to study an
A. India
individuals breathing rates. The device wrapped around
B. China
the persons chest and measured depth and rate of
C. England
breath.
D. Africa
A. Vittorio Benussi
2. During the Middle Ages, torture was used as a B. Ken Adler
means of forcing a person to tell the truth. This was C. James MacKenzie
prevalent in what continent? D. Cesare Lombroso
A. Asia
B. Africa Remember the following: Lie Detection and
C. South America Interrogation
D. Europe
1. A portion of rice spit from a persons mouth revealed
3. In the early 1700s, He was the first to move away whether he or she was lying. Spitting out dry rice
from torture by suggesting that deception could be indicated the dry mouth of a liar. This form of lie
evaluated by monitoring the heart rate. detection originated in China.
A. Ceasar Lombroso
B. Daniel DeFoe 2. In Europe, During the Middle Ages, torture was
C. William Marston used as a means of forcing a person to tell the truth.
D. Ken Adler
3. In the early 1700s, Daniel DeFoe was the first to
4. In 1764, He wrote of torture, By this method, the move away from torture by suggesting that deception
robust will escape, and the feeble be condemned. could be evaluated by monitoring the heart rate.
A. Cesare Lombroso
B. Daniel DeFoe 4. In 1764, Cesare Beccaria wrote of torture, By this
C. Cesare Beccaria method, the robust will escape, and the feeble be
D. William Marston condemned.

5. He became the first person to use science as a 5. The Father of Modern Criminology Cesare
method of detecting deception. Lombroso, became the first person to use science as a
A. Cesare Lombroso method of detecting deception in the year 1895.
B. Daniel DeFoe
C. Cesare Beccaria 6. Cesare Lombroso became the first person to use
D. William Marston science as a method of detecting deception.

6. The Father of Modern Criminology Cesare Lombroso, 7. B. Sticker developed a method of measuring the
became the first person to use science as a method of amount of sweat a suspect produced during
detecting deception in the year interrogation. This was determined by the electrical
A. 1895 conductibility of the suspects skin.
B. 1925
C. 1896 8. The first polygraph machine was actually a copy
D. 1926 machine invented in 1804.
9. In the early 1900s, James MacKenzie invented 7. The first to discover the phenomenon we now know
what he called the ink polygraph. This was used to as electrodermal response.
monitor cardiovascular responses by measuring pulse A. Leonarde Keeler
and blood pressure. B. Ron Adler
C. John Larson
10. In 1914, Vittorio Benussi used pneumatic tubing D. Marie Gabriel Vigouroux
to study an individuals breathing rates. The device
wrapped around the persons chest and measured 8. Cesare Lombroso was the first to experiment with a
depth and rate of breath. device measuring blood pressure and pulse to detect
deception in criminal suspects, He called it
Answer: Lie Detection and A. Sphygmograph
Interrogation B. Hydrosphygmograph
C. Cardiograph
1. C D. Pneumograph
2. D
3. B 9. The First Polygraph machine suitable for use in
4. C criminal investigation was invented by
5. A A. Cesare Lombroso
6. A B. Leonarde Keeler
7. A C. Vittorio Venussi
8. D D. John Larson
9. C
10. A 10. An instrument for recording variations in pressure,
e.g., in sound waves or in blood within blood vessels,
by the trace of a stylus on a rotating cylinder.
A. Kymograph
Lie Detection and Interrogation Reviewer 2 B. Galvanograph
C. Pheumograph D. Cardiograph
1. The First Polygraph school.
A. Keeler Institute
B. Scherers Institute Remember the following: Lie Detection and
C. Marston Institute Interrogation
D. Larsons Institute
1. Keeler Institute - The First Polygraph school.
2. The First Full Time professional polygraph examiner.
A. Leonarde Keeler 2. Leonarde Keeler - The First Full Time professional
B. William Marston polygraph examiner.
C. John Larson
D. Ron Decker 3. Sphygmomanometer - It measures systolic blood
pressure as a means of determining whether a suspect
3. It measures systolic blood pressure as a means of was lying during an interrogation.
determining whether a suspect was lying during an
interrogation. 4. Frye vs. U.S - A U.S case wherein the examiners
A. Sphygmomanometer testimony regarding a defendants fact of passing the
B. Emotograph polygraph test was not accepted in evidence.
C. Kymograph
D. Psychogalvanometer 5. John Larson - He invented the modern polygraphy
machine in 1921.
4. A U.S case wherein the examiners testimony
regarding a defendants fact of passing the polygraph 6. Polygraph literally means "many writings".
test was not accepted in evidence.
A. U.S vs. Ohio 7. Marie Gabriel Vigouroux - The first to discover the
B. Keeler vs. U.S phenomenon we now know as electrodermal response.
C. Frye vs. U.S
D. Larson vs. U.S 8. Cesare Lombroso was the first to experiment with a
device measuring blood pressure and pulse to detect
5. He invented the modern polygraph machine in 1921. deception in criminal suspects, He called it
A. Leonarde Keeler Hydrosphygmograph.
B. William Marston
C. John Larson 9. The First Polygraph machine suitable for use in
D. Ron Decker criminal investigation was invented by John Larson.

6. Polygraph literally means 10. Kymograph - This device allows the chart paper
A. Many Writings to be pulled under the recording pens at constant
B. Different Writings speed.
C. Various Writings
11. The Following sectors uses the polygraph
D. Cursive Writings
examination
1. Private Sector B. Cesare Lombroso
2. Legal Community C. Vittorio Benussi
3. Law enforcement, Military and Government D. Dr. William Marston

1. A 8. He conducted experiments in lie detection by


2. A measuring and recording the rate and depth of the
3. A subject's respiration.
4. C A. John Larson
5. C B. Cesare Lombroso
6. A C. Vittorio Benussi
7. D D. Dr. William Marston
8. B
9. D 9. An Italian physiologist accidentally discovered that a
10. A dissected frog leg would twitch and contract
spasmodically at the touch of a scalpel charged with
electricity.
A. Mosso
Lie Detection and Interrogation Reviewer 3 B. Luigi Galvani
C. Vittorio Benussi
1. An Italian scientist who in 1895, theorized that when D. Dr. William Marston
in emotional stress or tension, blood would rush to the
head. 10.He had found that current or "galvanic
A. Mosso Electricity" flowed through animal tissue.
B. Cesare Becarria A. Mosso
C. Cesare Lombroso B. Luigi Galvani
D. William Marston C. Vittorio Benussi
D. John Larson
2. He built a delicately balanced board with a center
fulcrum. A person lying on this board was placed under Remember the following: Lie Detection and
stress and blood would rush to his head causing the Interrogation
board to tilt down at the head.
A. Mosso 1. Mosso - An Italian scientist who in 1895, theorized
B. Cesare Becarria that when in emotional stress or tension, blood would
C. Cesare Lombroso rush to the head.
D. Dr. William Marston
2. Mosso - He built a delicately balanced board with a
3. In 1895, he used measurements of blood pressure center fulcrum. A person lying on this board was placed
changes during interrogations using a water pressure under stress and blood would rush to his head causing
apparatus. the board to tilt down at the head.
A. Mosso
B. Cesare Becarria 3. Cesare Lombroso - In 1895, he used
C. Cesare Lombroso measurements of blood pressure changes during
D. Dr. William Marston interrogations using a water pressure apparatus.

4. This water pressure apparatus is known today as 4. This water pressure apparatus is known today as
A. Cardiograph Hydrosphygmograph
B. Cardiosphygmograph
C. Pneumograph 5. Dr. William Marston - He established in 1915 the
D. Hydrosphygmograph relevance of blood pressure changes in the systolic
blood pressure.
5. He established in 1915 the relevance of blood
pressure changes in the systolic blood pressure. 6. Dr. John Larson - He developed the first instrument
A. Mosso to record simultaneously a person's blood pressure,
B. Cesare Becarria pulse rate and respiration changes.
C. Cesare Lombroso
D. Dr. William Marston 7. Vittorio Benussi - He found out in 1914, that
distinct changes
6.He developed the first instrument to record
simultaneously a person's blood pressure, pulse 8. Vittorio Benussi - He conducted experiments in lie
rate and respiration changes. detection by measuring and recording the rate and
A. Mosso depth of the subject's respiration.
B. Cesare Lombroso
C. Dr. John Larson 9. Luigi Galvani - An Italian physiologist accidentally
D. Dr. William Marston discovered that a dissected frog leg would twitch and
contract spasmodically at
7. He found out in 1914, that distinct changes occur in
the respiratory patterns during attempt to deceive. 10.Luigi Galvani - He had found that current or
A. John Larson "galvanic Electricity" flowed through animal tissue.
B. Veraguth
11. The 3 Basic components of a polygraph C. Cesare lombroso
machine D. A.R. Luria
1. Cardiosphygmograph - Records heart/blood
pressure. 6. He is the father of polygraph.
2. Pneumograph - Records breathing. A. Leonard Keeler
3. Galvanograph - Records electrical current in the skin. B. William Marston
Known as Galvanic skin response and Galvanic skin C. John Larson
conductance. D. Cesare Lombroso

Answers: Lie Detection and Interrogation 7. He devised the first structured test questions. The
test is made up using relevant questions interspersed
1. A with irrelevant questions. The R and I test.
2. A A. Leonard Keeler
3. C B. William Marston
4. D C. Sticker
5. D D. John Larson
6. C
7. C 8. He used Keeler's technique and after testing
8. C numerous subjects, he found that in using that
9. B technique he was getting too many inconclusive result
10. B and an unacceptable error rate.
A. A.R Luria
B. Mosso
C. Veraguth
Lie Detection and Interrogation Reviewer 4 D. John Reid

1. In 1897, He was one of the first to suggest the use 9.In the detection of deception, He developed a
of the (EDA) Galvanic Skin Response as an indicator of structured technique using comparison questions.
deception. A. A.R. Luria
A. Mosso B. Mosso
B. Larson C. Veraguth
C. Sticker D. John Reid
D. Marston
10.He operates the National School of Lie Detection and
2. He was the first to make word association test using developed his known lie and probable lie question
the galvanometer. technique and the guilt complex question.
A. Veraguth A. Leonard Keeler
B. Mosso B. Mosso
C. Sticker C. John Reid
D. Marston D. Dick Arther

3. Many scientists have studied human behavior in Remember the following: Lie Detection and
relation to lie detection. Among them was this man Interrogation
who did not use an instrument approach but many of
his theories in the psychology of deception are 1. Sticker - In 1897, He was one of the first to suggest
embodied in polygraph procedure today. the use of the (EDA) Galvanic Skin Response as an
A. Veraguth indicator of deception.
B. A. R. Luria
C. Sticker 2. Veraguth - He was the first to make word
D. Mosso association test using the galvanometer

4. In 1932, He wrote, the criminal is certainly far from 3. A. R. Luria - Many scientists have studied human
being indifferent to his experience, but on the contrary, behavior in relation to lie detection. Among them was
he puts himself in an active relation to his experience, this man who did not use an instrument approach but
its trauma, urging him into activity - conditions the many of his theories in the psychology of deception are
dynamics of his behavior. embodied in polygraph procedure today.
A. Veraguth
B. A.R. Luria 4. A.R. Luria - In 1932, He wrote, the criminal is
C. Sticker certainly far from being indifferent to his experience,
D. Mosso but on the contrary, he puts himself in an active
relation to his experience, its trauma, urging him into
5. He developed in 1926, the metal recording bellows. activity - conditions the dynamics of his behavior.
He also incorporated the kymograph and the rolled
chart paper. He used these developments together with 5. Leonard Keeler - He developed in 1926, the metal
the cardio and pneumo components, developing the recording bellows. He also incorporated the kymograph
first polygraph instrument known today. and the rolled chart paper. He used these
A. Leonard Keeler developments together with the cardio and
pneumo components, developing the first polygraph 5. If the suspect's tongue was not burned, he was
instrument known today. judged innocent. If the suspect's tongue was burned,
he was judged guilty. This ancient deception detection
6. Leonard Keeler - He is the father of polygraph. is known as
A. The hot iron test
7. Leonard Keeler - He devised the first structured B. Bear the hot iron test
C. The ordeal of the hot iron
test questions. The test is made up using relevant
D. The ember test
questions interspersed with irrelevant questions. The R
and I test. 6. What company is the leader in the manufacture of
polygraph?
8. John Reid - He used Keeler's technique and after A. Lafayette instrument company
testing numerous subjects, he found that in using that B. Axciton
technique he was getting too many inconclusive result C. Stoelting
and an unacceptable error rate. D. Limestone

9. John Reid -. In the detection of deception, He 7.Where is the largest polygraph market in the world?
developed a structured technique using comparison A. Russia
questions. B. Ukraine
C. U.S.A
D. Georgia
10.Dick Arther - He operates the National School of
Lie Detection and developed his known lie and probable
8. Depending on the complexity of the case and the
lie question technique and the guilt complex question. number of issues being tested a polygraph examination
generally takes
Answers: Lie Detection and Interrogation A. 1-2 hours
B. 3-4 hours
1. C C. 2-3 hours
2. A D. 4-5 hours
3. B
4. B 9. What is the longest phase of the polygraph
5. A examination?
6. A Ans. Pre-test interview
7. A
10.Who is the most prominent polygraph examiner of
8. D
all time?
9. D
A. Leonarde Keeler
10. D B. John Larson
C. William Marston
D. Cleve Backster

Lie Detection and Interrogation Reviewer 5 Remember the ff: lie detection and interrogation

1. He introduced the symptomatic question or myth to 1. Cleve Backster - He introduced the symptomatic
disclose whether or not an outside issue is bothering question or myth to disclose whether or not an outside
the subject. issue is bothering the subject. Now Known as Backster
A. Dick Arther Zone Comparison technique.
B. Leonard Keeler
C. John Reid 2. Associated Research Inc. - Manufactured the first
D. Cleve Backster commercial polygraph instrument for Leonard Keeler.

2. Manufactured the first commercial polygraph 3. Keeler polygraph instrument - The name of the
instrument for Leonard Keeler. first manufactured polygraph instrument.
A. Associated Press Inc.
B. Associated Research Inc. 4. If a subject looked down and moved his toe in a
C. Associated manufacturing Inc. circular motion while being interrogated, he was taught
D. Associated Detection Inc. to be deceptive. This ancient deception detection is
known as Nervous behaviorism.
3. The name of the first manufactured polygraph
instrument. 5. If the suspect's tongue was not burned, he was
A. Keeler polygraph instrument judged innocent. If the suspect's tongue was burned,
B. Associated Detecting instrument he was judged guilty. This ancient deception detection
C. Larson polygraph instrument is known as the ordeal of the hot iron.
D. Marston polygraph instrument
6. Lafayette instrument company is the leader in the
4. If a subject looked down and moved his toe in a manufacture of polygraph instrument.
circular motion while being interrogated, he was taught
to be deceptive. This ancient deception detection is 7. The largest polygraph market in the world is
known as Ukraine.
A. Nervous behaviorism
B. The ordeal of the sacred donkey 8. Depending on the complexity of the case and the
C. The ordeal of rice number of issues being tested a polygraph examination
D. The sacred ass generally takes 2 to 3 hours.
9.The longest phase of the polygraph examination is
the Pre-test interview.

10.The most prominent polygraph examiner of all time


is Leonard Keeler.

11. Present day manufacturers of polygraph instrument


1. lafayette
2. stoelting
3. Axciton
4. Limestone

1. D
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. C
6. A
7. B
8. C
9.
10. A