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Hand Position

Feet Position

Perform the fundamental positions of the arms and feet without music first. Then, select any
music in 2/4 time and repeat performing the said fundamental positions one at a time. In responding to
2/4 time rhythm, take 2 measures for each position then rest for 4 measures. Repeat the same
fundamental position but alternate moving the R and the L arm/foot on the 3rd position, after 16

Other positions and movements of the arms:


In 2/4 Time

Touch step touch R (ct. 1); close R (ct. 2) 1 M
Step point step R (ct. 1); close L (ct. 2) 1 M
Close step step R (ct. 1); close L (ct. 2) 1 M
Slide step slide R (ct. 1); close L (ct. 2) 1 M
Step swing step R (ct. 1); swing L (ct. 2) 1 M
Step hop step R (ct. 1); hop on R (ct. 2) 1 M
Gallop step step R (ct. 1); cut L (ct. ah); step R (ct. 2); cut L (ct. ah) 1 M
Change step step R (ct. 1); close L (ct. and); step R (ct. 2) 1 M
Cut step cut or displace R with L (ct. 1) 1 count
Heel and toe polka Polka place R heel (ct. 1); point R toe (ct. 2); step R (ct. 1); close L (ct. and); step R
(ct. 2); pause (ct. and) 2 M
Polka step R (ct. 1); close L (ct. and); step R (ct. 2); pause (ct. and) 1 M

In 3/4 Time

(Some dance steps done in 2/4 time rhythm can also be done in time. Review the step patterns of the
following basic dance steps which are done in time and identify which dance step can be done in 2/4
and time signature.)

Touch step touch R (cts. 1,2); close R (ct. 3) or touch R (ct. 1); close R (cts. 2,3) 1 M
Step point step R (cts. 1,2); point L (ct. 3) or step R (ct. 1); point L (cts. 2,3) 1 M
Step swing step R (cts. 1,2); swing L (ct. 3) or step R (ct. 1); swing L (cts. 2,3)
Step hop step R (cts. 1,2); hop R (ct. 3) 1 M
Close step step R (cts. 1,2); close L to R (ct. 3); step R (ct. 1); close L to R (cts. 2,3) 1 M
Slide step slide R (cts. 1,2); close L to R (ct. 3) or slide R (ct. 1);close L to R (cts. 2,3) 1 M
Bleaking step place R heel (cts. 1,2); close R to L (ct. 3) or place R heel (ct. 1); close R to L (cts. 2,3)
Waltz step R (ct. 1); close L to R (ct. 2); step R again (ct. 3) 1 M
Three-step turn step R (ct. 1) turn and step L (ct. 2); turn and step R (ct. 3); close L to R (ct. 1); pause
(cts. 2,3) 2 M

Note: These steps can be done in place or while moving. It can also be done starting with the L foot.

Sway Balance The first step is usually done obliquely forward, cts. 1,2, the cross-step is done sideward
(ct. 3). The succeeding step is done obliquely backward (ct. 2) and the last two counts are done in front,
in place. Arms open from the first position to the fourth position R or L arms high. Kumintang R (L) hand
when pointing with L (R) foot on cts. 2, 3 of the second measure.
Sway balance with a point step R, cross step L /step R, point L 2M (1, 2 3 1 2, 3)
Sway balance with a brush step R, cross step L /step R, brush L 2M (1, 2 3 1 2, 3)
Sway balance with a close step R, cross step L/step R, close L 2M (1, 2 3 1 2, 3)
Sway balance with a hop step R, cross step L /step R, raise L, hop 2M(1, 2 3 1 2, 3)
Sway balance with a raise step R, cross step L /step R, raise L 2M (1, 2 3 1 2, 3)
Sway balance with a waltz step R, cross step L /step R, close L, step R 2M (1, 2 3 1 2 3)


Bow or saludo Kumintang Curtsy Salok

Hands on waist Bilao Do-si-do Point
Hands holding skirt Arms in Reverse T Folded arms Link elbows / hook elbows
Arms in lateral position Brush Free Foot Salok
Hayon-hayon Clockwise Free hand Panadyak
Abrasete Counter clockwise Inside hand/foot Sarok
Jaleo Stamp Outside hand/foot Slide

Hayon-hayon (dance in one arm bent on front of waist)

Abrasete (To perform: girl at the right side of the boy, holds right arm of the partner with her left hand, free hand
down at the side. This term is Spanish in origin and is use in regodon and in other dances.)

Kumintang (move the hande from the wrist either in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.)

Bilao (the females mime the act of threshing the rice stalks to separate the grains and the heaps followed by the
males miming the act of pounding the rice stalks)

Curtsy (one foot is pointed in front and the body leans forward.)

Jaleo (It is danced with limping step , the weight always with the same foot)


Countries of the world have their own cultures made more colorful, beautiful and vibrant
because of folk dances that are a reflection of who they are and what they are. In the East, the Chinese
have their symbolical dragon dance; the Japanese have the ancestral dance Bon Odori. In the West, the
Americans have their Square Dance. The Scottish people have their world-famous dances (Highland and
Country Dance, Jig and Reel). On the other hand, the Philippines will not be left behind! The Pearl of
the Orient boasts of a variety of Philippine folk dances.

The Filipinos pay tributes and owe itself to cultural heritage. One way of showing such love and
respect for the country gave birth to the development of Philippine ethnic folk dances. And there are
several of these; namely, Binasuan, Sublian, Itik-itik, Tinikling, Maglalatik, Cariosa etc.
Binasuan is a native dance of Pangasinan. This dance literally means dancing with glasses. The
steps are executed with glasses filled with rice wine balanced on the head and the hands of the dancers.
Danced to show balance and to reflect rural gaiety, Binasuan is performed usually in wedding
ceremonies and occasions in the barangay.

Sublian owes its meaning to native words subsub meaning to fall with the head and bali or
broken. This meaning is reflected in the dance steps. The dancers move feebly and tortuously as if
without vigor. This dance, however, traces its roots to Batangas where it was originally played as a ritual
dance which evolved into a symbol of religious tradition performed during town fiestas.

Itik-Itik is one of the Philippine folk dances which have an interesting origin. According to stories,
a Filipina maiden-dancer of Surigao del Norte was asked to perform a native dance in one special
occasion. She started to improvise new steps and imitate the courtship movements of a local species of
duck known as itik. The spectators began to imitate her and that is how the dance came to be.

Tinikling is another Philippine folk dance that is inspired by an endemic bird called tikling. The
steps of this dance are an imitation of the movements of a tikling bird that hops and escapes the traps
set by hunters. Moving with poise and grace, the dancers skip in-between two bamboo poles that are
held to pound rhythmically against each other. This dance is a specialty of Leyte.

Maglalatik is danced to mimic the early battle against Christians and Moros to win coconut meat
or latik during the time of Spanish colonization. This is also performed to pay homage to the town
saint of Bian, Laguna San Isidro Labrador. This dance is divided into four parts: baligtaran, palipasan,
paseo and escaramusa. This is performed by all-male dancers who wear blue pants to represent the
Christians and red pant for the Moros. All dancers, however, have coconut shells mounted on their body

These aforementioned Philippine folk dances are ethnic in nature and origin. On the other hand,
there are several Philippine folk dances that were influenced by some Western countries as some of
these had colonized Philippines in the past. One such country is Spain. Some of the so-called
influenced Philippine folk dances are the following: Pandango sa Ilaw, Cariosa, Balitao and Rigodon.

To conclude, these folk dances whether ethnic in origin or not reflect the lively culture that the
Filipinos have. These dances may be diverse but through these cultural forms, the Filipinos are unified
and proud by way of having Philippine folk dances that are truly one of the bests in the world.

1. Cordillera Dances

Cordillera, a name given by the Spanish Conquistadors when they first saw the mountain ranges.
Meaning "knotted rope", the Spanish term refers to the jumbled rolls and dips of this long-range
traversing the northern part of Luzon Island.
Today, if one is to generalize one of the six ethno-linguistic tribes as an "Igorot" is considered
degrading. Living amidst the rice terraces that tower over Northern Luzon are a people whose way of life
existed long before any Spaniard or other foreigners stepped foot on the Philippines. The Bontoc,
Ifugao, Benguet, Apayo, and the Kalinga tribes reign over Luzon's mountain terrain.
They are pagan people, living simple lives to appease their gods. Their rituals celebrate their
daily lives - a good harvest, health, peace, war, and other symbols of living. Such traditions have survived
the changing scope of the Philippines and the tribes continue to maintain their cultures that are a part of
the colorful cultural fabric known as Philippine culture.
(a) Banga (Kalinga)
"Banga" literally mean pots. The Banga or pot dance is a contemporary performance of Kalinga
of the Mountain Province in the Philippines. This dance illustrate the languid grace of a tribe otherwise
known as fierce warriors. Heavy earthen pots, as many as seven or eight at a time, are balanced on the
heads of maidens as they trudge to the beat of the "gangsa" or wind chimes displaying their stamina and
strength as they go about their daily task of fetching water and balancing the banga.
(b) Bendayan (Benguet Province)
Also popularly called Bendian, this circle dance of the Benguet of Mountain Province is restaged,
keeping true to the dance's context and meaning. Long known as a dance to celebrate the arrival of
successful headhunters, the Bendayan has taken a new face. It is part of every Benguet festivity with the
circles slowly giving way to other formations and interpretations.
(c) Lumagen / Tachok (Kalinga)
When the Kalinga gather to celebrate a happy occasion like the birth of a first-born baby boy, a
wedding, or a budong (peace pact), the Kalinga Festival Dance (Tachok) is performed. This is danced by
the Kalinga maiden. The dance imitates birds flying in the air. Music is provided by gangsa, or gongs,
which are usually in a group of six or more.
(d) Uyaoy / Uyauy (Ifugao)
The Ifugao people are said to be the "children of the earth." The term Ifugao is derived from the
word ipugao which literally means "coming from the earth." The Spaniards, however, changed it to
Ifugaw, a term presently used in referring not only to these people but also to their province. This Ifugao
wedding festival dance is accompanied by gongs and is performed by the affluent to attain the second
level of the wealthy class. Wealthy people (Kadangyan) who have performed this dance are entitled to
the use of gongs at their death.
(e) Turayen (Cagayan Valley)
Gaddang comes from the word ga, meaning "heat" and dang, meaning burned". The Gaddang
live in the middle of Cagayan Valley and speak a language similar to Ilokano. Most of them converted to
Christianity, and those who live alongside Christianized Ilokano groups have more or less adjusted to
settled agriculture of mixed crops. Small and scattered groups in southeastern Kalinga, eastern Bontoc,
and Isabela regions retain their indigenous religion and practice swidden agriculture (the cutting back
and burning of existing vegetation to produce temporary farming plots) with supplementary hunting and
fishing. In this dance, the Gaddang imitate birds attracted to tobacco trees.
2. Muslim Dances

Aside from the colorful contributions of its regional tribes, Mindanao is home to the largest
cultural minority in the Philippines - the Muslims. Brought by Javanese and Middle Eastern traders, Islam
is the religion of approximately 20 percent of the Philippine population.
They are known for their mysticism, royalty, and beauty which are evident in their music and
dances. Accompanied by the agong and kulintang, Filipino Muslim dance is marked by intricate hand and
arm movement along with shimmering costumes.

(a) Pangalay (Zamboanga Del Sur)

A pangalay native to the Badjao, sometimes known as the "Sea Gypsies." Pangalay is a
dance that emphasizes the agility of the upper body. The rhythmic bounce of the shoulder with
simultaneous alternating waving of arms are the basic movement of this dance. The pangalay is
commonly performed at weddings and other social gatherings.
(b) Asik (Lanao Del Sur)
A solo slave dance performed by the umbrella-bearing attendant to win the favor of her
sultan master. The girl wears long metal fingernails and dances and poses in doll-like motions. Asik
usually precedes a performance of Singkil.
(c) Singkil (Lanao)
Sinkil dance takes its name from the bells worn on the ankles of the Muslim princess.
Perhaps one of the oldest of truly Filipino dances, the Singkil recounts the epic legend of the "Darangan"
of the Maranao people of Mindanao. This epic, written sometime in the 14th century, tells the fateful
story of Princess Gandingan, who was caught in the middle of a forest during an earthquake caused by
the diwatas, or fairies or nymph of the forest. The rhythmic clapping of criss-crossed bamboo poles
represent the trees that were falling, which she gracefully avoids. Her slave loyally accompanies her
throughout her ordeal. Finally, she is saved by the prince. Dancers wearing solemn faces and
maintaining a dignified pose being dancing at a slow pace which soon progresses to a faster tempo
skillfully manipulate apir, or fans which represent the winds that prove to be auspicious. The dancers
weave expertly through criss-crossed bamboos. When performed by ladies of the royalty of Lanao, the
dancer is usually accompanied by a waiting lady, who holds a beautifully decorated umbrella over the
Princess' head wherever she goes. Royal princesses to this day in the Sulu Archipelago are required to
learn this most difficult and noble dance.
(d) Kapa Malong Malong
Also called Sambi sa Malong, this Maranao dance shows the many ways of wearing a
malong, a simple tubular yet highly functional piece of cloth. The traditional womens version shows this
cloth of countless colorful designs; used mostly as a skirt, woven in many different ways, depending on
the purpose of the wearer. Other ways the women wear malong is as a shawl, a mantle, or a head-piece.
During more recent dance documentation, a mens version was derived. This version shows in masculine
rendition, how men don the malongdisplaying its use as a sash or waist-band, shorts or bahag, and a
head-gear that can be either functional while working in the fields, or decorative as a turban.
3. Tribal Dances

Mindanao, the Philippines' southernmost island, is the country's cultural melting pot. It houses
influences from Spain, China, Indonesia, and the Middle East. Although Mindanao carries a strong flavor
from other lands, there are people who have lived there before it became a breeding ground of foreign
trade. Tribes such as the T'boli, Bilaan, Manobo, Bagobo, and other groups inhabit the vast regions of
Like their Northern Luzon counterparts, these groups honor pagan gods for the fruits and trials
of daily life. What distinguishes them from other tribes in the Philippines is their intricate craftsmanship
in metal, clothing, and jewelry. These tribes pride themselves in their concept of beauty and are known
for creating colorful sets of jewelry and clothing out of dyed pineapple and banana fibers with are
showcased in their traditional dances.
(a) Malakas at Maganda (National Folklore)
Cradled amidst thick rain forest, shrouded with the mists of legend and ancient
traditions, one folklore has it that a weary bird perched on a large bamboo heard strange noises inside.
It pecked the bamboo, split open and from inside came the first man and woman, Malakas the strong,
Maganda the beautiful, the parents of all peoples of the island.
(b) Binaylan (Agusan)
The Bagobo tribe from the central uplands of Mindanao originated this dance which
imitates the movement of a hen, her banog, or baby chicks, and a hawk. The hawk is sacred, and it is
believed that the hawk has the power over the well-being of the tribe. The hawk tries to capture one of
the chicks and is killed by the hunters.

4. Rural Folks

Laughter and gaeity commonly used to describe the Filipino people takes root in the Philippine
country-side. Life in the Barrio is simple, but Filipinos always manage to find time to celebrate life's gifts.
The annual fiestas to celebrate the patron saints of the barrios symbolize the mixture of pagan
and Catholic belief. Fiestas not only honor the patron saint, but give homage to the barrio's namesake
for a good harvest, health, and perserverance. These fiestas are marked with celebrations of holy mass,
music, dance and song.
(a) Tinikling (Leyte)
This 'Visayan' dance was found in Leyte where this dance originated. Dancers imitate
the tikling birds legendary grace and speed as they skillfully play, chase each other, run over tree
branches, or dodge bamboo traps set by rice farmers. Hence it is named after the bird, tikling. this
version of the dance is done between a pair of bamboo poles.
The older people claim that the Tinikling Ha Bayo from which the tinikling dance
evolved is more difficult to perform. It was originally danced between bayuhan, two wooden pestles
used to pound the husks off the rice grain.
(b) Maglalatik (Laguna)
During the Spanish regime, the present barrios of Loma and Zapote of Bian, Laguna,
were separated. With coconut shells as implements the people of these two barrios danced the
Maglalatik, or Magbabao, a war dance depicting a fight between the Moros and the Christians over the
latik (residue left after the coconut milk has been boiled).
(c) Binasuan (Pangasinan)
This colorful and lively dance from Bayambang in the Pangasinan province shows off the
balancing skills of the dancers. The glasses that the dancers gracefully, yet carefully, maneuver are half-
filled with rice wine gracefully who whirl and roll on the floor.
(d) Itik-Itik (Surigao del Norte)
At one baptismal party in the Surigao del Norte province, a young lady named Kanang
(the nickname for Cayetana), considered the best dancer and singer of her time, was asked to dance the
Sibay. She became so enthusiastic and spirited during the performance that she began to improvise
movements and steps similar to the movements of itik, the duck, as it walks with short, choppy steps
and splashes water on its back while calling to its mate. The people liked the dance so much that they all
imitated her. There are six separate foot sequences in the series of Itik-Itik steps.

5. Spanish Influence Dances

Nearly 400 years of Spanish rule left an unremovable mark on the Philippines. Spain brought
with them all aspects of their culture to the Islands. This includes the Catholic faith, clothing, and dance.
The barong tagalog and the terno are Philippine interpretations of Spanish dress made to fit the humid
climate of the Philippines. Aside from creating their own versions of European fashion, Philippine
aristocrats created Filipino adaptations of European dance as well. These include jotas, fandanggos,
mazurkas and waltzes that were danced by young socialites to the stringed music of the rondalla.
(a) Paseo de Iloilo
This is one of the most sophisticated courtship and flirtation dances of the Spanish era.
The gentlemen compete among each other to win the heart of the dalaga, or young lady, by
exemplifying chivalry, grace, and confidence. One of the most sophisticated courtship and flirtation
dances of the Spanish era. The gentlemen compete among each other to win the heart of the dalaga, or
young lady, by exemplifying chivalry, grace, and confidence.
(b) Jota Paragua
A dance originating from Zamboanga, displays steps with very strong Castillian
influence, but using Philippine bamboo castanets held loosely. The woman in Jota de Paragua waves a
shawl called manton.
(c) Habanera Jovencita
A dance typical of a womans debut or even her wedding. The accompanying love ballad
was written by Maestro Nitoy Gonzales when he was courting Jovita Friese, who then choreographed
the graceful and beautiful habanera dance that accompanies it. Jovencita means young lady in
(d) Jota Cagayana
The Jota brought by the Spaniards from Southern Spain found its way into many places
in the islands. One such jota is named after the valley it adapted. Though Filipinized in many ways that
one, Jota Cagayana still displays the fire and fury of its European origin. Until the turn of the century the
Ibanag of Cagayan Valley perform this fast tempo dance which ncludes familiar European steps, the
mazurka, polka, gallop and waltz.
(e) Danza
Danza is a folk dance of Cuban origin which became popular in the late 19th century,
also known as habanera or danza habanera. The habanera is a social dance in duple time and performed
in a ballroom or on a stage.
The Argentine writer Carlos Vega (1898-1966) traces its origin to the English contra
dance or square dance, which was then assimilated into Spain as contradanza or danza. Around 1825, it
was brought to Cuba in this form where it was combined with Afro-Cuban rhythms; and around 1850, it
was transformed into the habanera.
(f) Abaruray
Abaruray is a contraction of the words Aba and Ruray. Aba is an exclamation which is
equivalent to Hey! or Hi! in English. Ruray is a nickname for Aurora.
(e) Pandanggo sa Ilaw (Mindoro)
This popular dance of grace and balance comes from Lubang Island, Mindoro in the
Visayas region. The term pandanggo comes from the Spanish word fandango, which is a dance
characterized by lively steps and clapping that varies in rhythm in 3/4 time. This particular pandanggo
involves the presence of three tinggoy, or oil lamps, balanced on the head and the back of each hand.
After a good catch, fishermen of Lingayen would celebrate by drinking wine and by
dancing, swinging and circling a lighted lamp. Hence, the name "Oasiwas" which in the Pangasinan
dialect means "swinging." This unique and colorful dance calls for skill in balancing an oil lamp on the
head while circling in each hand a lighted lamp wrapped in a porous cloth or fishnet. The waltz-style
music is similar to that of Pandanggo sa Ilaw.

The Majority Group (Christianity as main religion)

The Visayan people are mainly found in the Visaya region and also in some parts of Mindanao.
The Visayans speak a large number of dialects that they collectively call the Bisaya language. There more
than 33 million speakers of these languages and most of them are Christians.

The Tagalog is the most widely spread ethnic group in the Philippines that inhabit Manila,
Mindoro, and Marinduque. There are about 22 million speakers of the Tagalog Language that was
chosen as the official language of the nation in 1930.

The Ilocanos inhabit the lowlands and the coastal regions of Luzon. There are 8 million
individuals of this group. Most of them are Christians.

These are the descendants of the Austronesians who came to the region in the Iron Age. They
live in the peninsula of Luzon and speak the Bicol or the Bicolano language. There are about 3.5 million
speakers of this language. Most of them are Roman Catholics.

The Kapampangan people originated from the central plains of Luzon starting from Bataan and
extending up to Nueva Ecija. There are more than 2 million members of this group who are known to
have been valiant soldiers in the Spanish Colonial Era. Majority of them are Christians.

This is the ninth largest ethnic group in the Philippines. They were the first people of Philippines
to have direct contact with the Chinese through trade.

The Minorities

Ang katagang Ethnic Group ay tumutukoy sa mga grupo ng mga taong nagkakamukha sa
minananng kalinangan. Maaari silang manggaling sa ibat-ibang lahi.

1. Katangian ng Grupong Etniko

a. May sariling wika
b. May sariling relihiyon
c. Iisang pamantayang panlipunan (social norms)
d. May tularang panlipunan (cultural pattern)
e. Itinuturing na minority o hindi
2. Mga Paghahanay ayon sa pagkakabuklod-buklod sa Pilipinas
a. Ayon sa wika (Tagalog, Ilokano, Bisaya, Kapampangan, Bikolano, atbp.)
b. Ayon sa relihiyon (Kristyanismo, Muslim, Buddhist, Hinduist, Pagano, atbp.)
c. Ayon sa pamantayang panlipunan (Bagobo, Tasaday, Ilonggot, Mandaya, atbp.)
3. Mga batayan ng kalagayan (status) ng grupong ethniko
a. Ang kinalabasan ng digmaan
b. Ang pananakop (colonization)
c. Ang nakararaming sangkap gaya ng wika, relihiyon, atbp.
d. Ang lawak ng hangganang pulitikal at heograpikal
e. Ang lakas pangkatawan at pangkatalinuhan
f. Ang pandarayuhan

Pag nasabing minority ay di kaagad pakakahulugang mas maliit ang bilang ng grupo sa
karamihan dahil sa Africa, ang mga Negro, na nahahanay sa ethnic minority ay bumubuo ng
pinakamarami sa kanilang lipunan.

Sa Pilipinas naman, ang Muslim ay minority dahil nakahihigit ang relihiyong Kristyano kaysa
Islam at dahil din sa tinitirahang lupa ng Kristyano ay higit kaysa sa mga Muslim.

Ayon sa Pananim Research Center, ang populasyon ng Pilipinas, kahit majority (nakararami) o
minority ay kaanib ng pantimog na grupo at lahing Mongoloid (southern Mongoloid racial group) at
may wika at mga pangungusap na kasama ng pamilya ng Malayo-Polynesian.

Ilan sa mga cultural minorities ang ilalarawan dito:

Ito ay mga grupong sumusunod sa kaugalian at tradisyon ng Muslim. Maaaring sa
anumang apat na pangkat sila nakasapi:
a) Maguindanao
b) Maranao
c) Tausug
d) Samal (Badjao, Yakan, Sangil, Melebugnon, Jama Mapun, Palawani)

Ang hangganan ng teritoryo nila ay sa Sulu at Timog Cotabato, at Lake Lanao

Ang pangalan nila ay hango sa kagubatang tinitirahan nila. Naninirahan sa mga kuweba
at kagubatan ng Timog Cotabato. Gumagamit sila ng mga kasangkapang bato. Hindi sila
nagpapalipat-lipat at di nag-iimbak ng pagkain. Ang pagkain nila ay mga gulay, isda, palaka,
alimasag, at ulang at pinaghahati-hatian kahit maliit na piraso. Karamihan sa kanila ay
magkakamag-anak. Nakikipag-ugnayan sa ibang tribo gaya ng Tasafang, Sabduka, at
Manobo. Likas silang tahimik at di palaaway. Walang namumuno, at walang hatian ng
trabaho. Payak ang kanilang lipunan.

Ang pangalan nila ay hango sa Mang-yan-san (pangalan ng Intsik) at Ka-ma-yan (tuwid
na salin ng Ka-Mangyan o lupain ng Mangyan). May tatlong pangkat:
a) Baybay Oksidental at bundok ng Palawan mapayapa, di kaitiman, may makapal at
tsokolateng buhok
b) Ilog Cabra at Pinamalayan di kaitiman, may mahahabang ilong at humpak na mga
c) Timog Pinamalayan masisipag, mukhang intsik.
Mula sila sa bulubundukin ng Abra. Napapangalagaan nila ang kanilang katutubong
kultura gaya ng pananamit, pagpapamilya, at pagsasama-sama.Ang pinuno ng kanilang
pamayanan at lakay na inihahalal. Ang paghahalal ay binabatay sa kayamanan, karunungan,
katapangan, at kagandahag asal. Ang lakay ay sumasangguni sa konseho ng mga tao.

Sila ang pinaka minority sa mga minority. Kulang sa 20,000 ang kanilang bilang at
naninirahan sila sa Davao del Sur at Norte at Davao Oriental. Ang pangalan nila ay hango sa
pangalan ng bayan ng Karaga, Davao Oriental. Ang mga Karagan ay nakatira malapit sa
dagat. (Ang mga nakatira sa bundok ay tinatawag na Manday at Mansaka). Ang ilan sa
kanilang kaugalian at ang: pakikipag-ayos sa kasalanan; bigay-kaya; diborsyo; ang polygamy
(pakikipag-asawa ng higit sa isa), relihiyong Islam at mga pagsunod sa batas.

Nakatira sa pinakatimog ng Cordillera, sa gitna ng Hilagang Luzon. Sama-sama, tintawag
silang Igorot. Karamihan, ay sa Benguet, at Mt. Province makikita. Ang mga pamilya nila ay
matriarchal o tumitira sa bahay ng babae. Sila ay naghahalaman at naghahayupan. Kilala
sila sa paglikha ng rice terraces.

Sila ang kauna-unahang tao sa Pilipinas. Tinatawag din silang Aeta, Ati, at Ita. Sila ay mga
pandak, matitipuno, may maitim na balat, maliliit at sarat na ilong at may makakapal na
kulot na buhok. Karamihan ay nakasaplot ng dahon lamang at palaboy-laboy ang uri ng
pamumuhay. Nabubuhay sila sa pangingisda, panghuhuli ng hayop sa pamamagitan ng
busog at pana, at pagtatanim sa kaingin. Walang sistema ang kanilang pamayanan.

Sila at nakatira sa Bontoc, Mt. Province. Sila sa lahat ang nakapanatili ng kanilang kultura
nang di nasasalin ninuman. Nabubuhay sila sa pagsasaka, may tipikal na pamilya, maibigin sa
pagdiriwang, may awitan, sayawan at kainan.

Nakatira sila sa kaitaasan ng Timog Cotabato malapit sa Suralak. Naglalala, nagsasaka, at
nagkukuwintas ng mga sigay na gamit ang paa at kamay. Ang mga damit ng babae at may
katangi-tanging Tboli zigzag at rick-rack at mga sigay at sequin. Grupo-grupo sila kung
gumawa. Malaki ang mga pamilya dahil ang mga lalaki ay higit sa isang asawa. Mahilig
mamustura ang mga babae, at mahilig mag make-up ang mga lalaki, at ang kuko nila ay
kinukulayan ng dagtang galling sa berries at ibang halaman. Ang kilay ay ginuguhitan din.
Marami silang kuwintas at singsing na suot.

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