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Classification of Law

I. NATURAL LAW
This derives its force and authority from God. It is superior to other laws. It is binding to
the whole world and in all countries.
II. HUMAN POSITIVE LAW
This law is promulgated expressly or indirectly by competent human authority for the
common good, and usually, but not necessarily, imposing sanction in case of
disobedience.

Kinds of Natural Law

Physical Law universal rule of action that governs the conduct and movement of things
which are non-free and material.
Moral Law set of rules which establishes what is right and what is wrong as dictated by
the human conscience.
Divine Law
a. Divine Positive Law, i.e Ten Commandments
b. Divine Human Positive Law, i.e Commandments of the Church

Kinds of Human Positive Law

According to force and effect :


1. Mandatory and/or Prohibitory Laws those which have to be complied with,
because they are expressive of public policy: disobedience is punished either by
direct penalties or by considering an act or contract void.
2. Permissive or suppletory Laws those which may be deviated from, if the individual
so desires.

According to the scope or content of the law:


1. Public Law that which governs the relations of the individual with the State or rule
or community as a whole. (This includes Political Law, Criminaw Law and Law on
Taxation).
2. Private Law that which regulates the relations of the members of a community
with one another. (This consists of Civil Law, Labor Law and Commercial Law)

According to whether a right is given, or merely the procedure for enforcement is laid
down:
1. Substantive Law that which establishes rights and duties.
2. Remedial (or procedural or adjective law) that which prescribes the manner of
enforcing legal rights and claims.
POLITICAL LAW

That branch of public law which deals with the organization and operations of the
governmental organs of the state and defines the relations of the state with the
inhabitants of the territory.

It consists, among others, of:

Constitutional Laws I and II


Administrative Law, Law on Public Officers & Elections Laws
Public International Law

CRIMINAL LAW
That branch of law which defines offenses and specify the corresponding penalties
therefore.

It consists, among others of:


Criminal Law I
Criminal Law II

TAXATION

That branch of law which deals with the imposition and collection of taxes.

It consists, among others, of:


Taxation I
Taxation II

CIVIL LAW
That branch of law which every particular nation or state has established peculiarly for
itself. This law concerns with civil or private rights and remedies, as contracted to
criminal law.

It consists, among others, of:


Persons and Family Relations
Property
Obligations and Contracts
Succession
Sales
Credit Transactions
Agency, Trust and Partnership
Torts and Damages
Transportation Law

LABOR LAWS
That branch of law which deals with the relationship between the employer and the
employee, as well as the working conditions, wages, fringe benefits, grievances and
association of employees.

It consists, among others, of:


Labor Law I
Labor Law II

COMMERCIAL LAW
Body of law that applies to the rights, relations and conduct or persons and businesses
engaged in commerce, merchandising and trade.

It consists, among others, of:


Corporation Law
Negotiable Instruments Law

REMEDIAL LAW
It refers to the means and methods of setting the courts in motion, making facts known
to them and effectuating their judgments.

It consists, among others, of:


Civil Procedure
Criminal Procedure
Evidence
Special Proceedings

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