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ForumIAS MGP+ 2017 (Schedule B) GS Test 1 Reference Text

Q.1) Emotional intelligence is of special of a public leader or during


significance to civil servants both in management of communal violence
persons EI is put to test.
conduct of their duties and in their
personal capacities. Do you agree? Give Dealing with diverse people: As
reasons for your answer. with changing times people are be ing
more vociferous and are more involved
in governance activities. EI will he lp a
Structure
servant to better deal such situations.
Introduce by defining what is
Implementing the government
Emotional Intelligence
activities with optimism: In orde r to
Highlight conditions/ constraints
successful implement any government
in which public servants operate
policy/scheme it requires the support
Why it is necessary for Public
of public and people made an active
Servants in official capacity part in it. Thus, EI would be of great
Why in personal capacity? importance to win the mind and
hearts of people.

It helps motivate and lead a te am as


there may be civil servants at lowest
Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to ability
level lack self-motivation.
to recognize, understand, and manage our
own emotions as well as the ability to be
EI in bureaucrats helps in
sensitive to others emotions and influe nces
maintaining good relation with their
the emotions of others. It means le arning to
subordinates.
manage our emotions as well as others
especially under pressure.
Emotional intelligence and personal life:
People working in key bureaucratic positions
Staying away from personal
are constantly under the emotional demands
prejudices: EI helps a civil in keeping
being placed on them by their peers, and
personal domain (attachment to family
members of the community.
and other prejudices) and professional
aspects separate from each other.
Emotional intelligence and civil service:
Maintain personal calm: Under
Tolerance for peoples concerns : A
high work pressure it is important
civil servant with high levels of EI
that it doesnt disturb ones personal
would be able to be empathetic
calm.
towards peoples concerns during his
discharge of duties. Eg: When an old
Maintaining healthy relationship:
under privileged person approaches
Be it family or friends it is important
him/her, the concerns would have
ability to understand their emotions is
heard an tried to be addressed in a
highly needed despite of personal
quick manner
clamor one holds by being a civil
servant.
Impulse control: Under conditions
of high tension as instances of death
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Thus, EI is an important trait for civil Q.2) What role does religion play in
servants as it not only helps in having a inculcating morality? Is religion
balanced approach but also helps in essential for living a moral life? Justify
marinating integrity, objectivity and being
your answer.
empathetic to the concerns of the public. It is
also helps in developing self- awarenessand
relationship management for efficient Structure
mechanism of a people-serving institution.
Introduce by showing why religions
was basis for early concepts of
morality
How religion makes morality easier
to enforce
Why religions in not essential for
ethics - secular moral frameworks

Religion forms the basis for earliest sources


of ethics.

Role played by religion in inculcating


morality.

It makes morality binding in nature.


Provides uniformity in morality
Creates universal values.
Puts morality into practise which
may otherwise remain an abstract
idea.

Arguments against that religion is


essential for morality.

Morality is a universal while religion is


confined to community.

Even religion is unable to come u- with


single moral solution for one question. The re
are differences among people of same
religion.

If morality is based on religion, it makes


every atheist or a follower of another religion
an immoral person. However, this is not true.

A radical interpretation of finding ethics in


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religion is source of conflict, communalism Q.3) Write short notes on


and creates more problem than it solves.

(a) Virtue Ethics & Situation Ethics

Virtue Ethics

Virtue based ethics says an act is


right if a virtuous person would do it
in a similar circumstance.
They are more of person based
rather than action based.
In ethics, it is a useful the ory since
people are more interested in
assessing the character of other
persons than they are in assessing the
goodness or badness of a particular
action.
Virtue ethics thus says that a good
society can be built if it helps its
members to become good.
As opposed to action ethics it doesnt
believe in the use of laws and
punishment to prevent bad action.

Virtue ethics has however, certain


limitations

1. It doesnt provide clear guidelines


on what to do in case of moral
dilemma.

2. It assumes the virtuous to


automatically know what to do and
expects other people to follow them as
role model.

3. There is no general agreement on


what virtues exactly would make a
virtuous person. This is problematic
as list of virtues change from culture
to culture.

Situation Ethics.

Situation ethics says that right and


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wrong depend upon situation about the topic but expresses those feelings.

There are no universal moral value s When an emotivist says "murder is wrong"
and rights. it's like saying "down with murder or
murder, yecch!" or just saying "murder"
Situation ethics rejects 'prefabricated while pulling a horrified face, or making a
decisions and prescriptive rules. thumbs-down gesture at the same time as
saying "murder is wrong".
It teaches that ethical decisions should follow
flexible guidelines rather than absolute rules, So, when someone makes a moral judgme nt
and be taken on a case by case basis. they show their feelings about something.
Some theorists also suggest that in
So, a person who practices situation ethics expressing a feeling the person gives an
approaches ethical problems with some instruction to others about how to act
general moral principles rather than a towards the subject matter.
rigorous set of ethical laws and is prepared
to give up even those principles if doing so
will lead to a greater good. Moral Absolutism

The elements of situation ethics were Some people think there are such
described by Joseph Fletcher, its leading universal rules that apply to everyone.
modern proponent, like this: This sort of thinking is called moral
absolutism.
Moral judgments are decisions, not
conclusions Moral absolutism argues that there
are some moral rules that are always
Only one thing is intrinsically good, true, that these rules can be
namely, love: nothing else discovered and that these rules apply
to everyone.
Love and justice are the same, for
justice is love distributed Immoral acts - acts that break the se
moral rules - are wrong in themselves,
The rightness depends on many regardless of the circumstances or the
factors consequences of
those acts.

(b) Emotivism and Moral Absolutism Absolutism takes a universal vie w of


humanity - there is one set of rules for
Emotivism everyone - which enables the drafting
of universal rules - such as the
Emotivism is the view that moral claims are Declaration of Human Rights.
no more than expressions of approval or
disapproval. Religious views of ethics tend to be
absolutist.
This sounds like subjectivism, but in
emotivism a moral statement doesn't provide
information about the speaker's feelings

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W hy people disagree with moral Q.4) What do you understand by


absolutism? Consequentialism? Critically examine the
limitations of consequentialism in solving
Many of us feel that the
ethical problems.
consequences of an act or the
circumstances surrounding it are
relevant to whether that act is good or Structure
bad
Introduce by defining consquetialism
Absolutism doesn't fit with respect How it helps in resolving ethical issues
for diversity and tradition Limitations

Consequentialism is based on the principle


that morality of the action depends on the
consequences of a particular act. It means
the better an act does it is morally more
right.

Consequentialism is based on two


principles:

Whether an act is right or wrong


depends only on the results of that act

The more good consequences an act


produces, the better or more right that
act.

In solving ethical dilemma:

Maximise good consequences: It


helps in solving the ethical dilemma
by choosing actions that maximises
good consequences

Multiple views into consideration:


Consequentialism helps in taking
multiple views into consideration so as
to solve an ethical dilemma. E.g.: Any
instance very there is clash between
the rules and the concerns of the
public at large it helps to take a stand
that does greater good to large number
of people.

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Limitations of Consequentialism situation is unique and working on


the consequences of the act be come s
1. Future Actions are difficult to difficult
predict. In almost every case the most
we can do is predict the probability of Consequences of slow decision
certain consequences following an act making overweigh the outweigh the
and not the exact consequence good consequences of making a
perfect decision
2. Measuring and comparing the
'goodness' of consequences is very Bad for the society: If everyone acts
difficult in their individual prerogative on
which act is good or bad it would be
3. It is easy to bias in favour of difficult to predict the moral decisions
particular groups. An act that of people.
produces a good result for group X
may at the same time produce a bad Thus, while implementing any action
result for group Y, or for society in along with the consequences of the
general. actions the means used to achieve it
are also important.
4. Results-based ethics is only
interested in the conse quences of an
act the intentions of the person doing
the act are irrelevant so an act with
good results done by someone who
intended harm is as good as if it was
done by someone who intended to do
good.

5. It doesn't take account of the


'fairness' of the result. We cannot
predict every outcome of event Simple
forms of consequentialism say that the
best action is the one that produces
the largest total of happiness. This
ignores the way in which that
happiness is shared out and so would
seem to approve of acts that make
most people happy, and a few people
very unhappy, or that make a few
people ecstatically happy and leave
the majority at best neutral.

Criticism:

Slow decision-making: As every


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Q.5) Given are two quotations of moral fake encounters which are being carried out
thinkers/philosophers. For each of these, from the orders of the state, American
bring out what it means to you in the citizens went against their government for
present context. waging war against Vietnam, in the recent
move of demonetisation, it has caused
Structure suffering to the poor and created slowdown
in the economy, Pakistans state sponsored
Explain the meaning of the terrorism should also be criticised by their
statements citizens.
Analyze the subparts of the
statements (b) " Educating the mind without
Give examples, wherever applicable educating the heart is no education at
all."

It depends on what you mean by e ducating


the mind and educating the heart.
(a) " Never do anything against conscience
even if the state demands it."
By educating the mind, we would
mean learning about the facts of science,
(a) Conscience is an aptitude, faculty,
history, psychology, etc. By educating the
intuition or judgment that assists in
heart, we would mean cultivating wisdom
distinguishing right from wrong. Conscie nce
which would entail an understanding of the
is related to our moral conduct in our day-to-
meaning and use of that knowledge. That
day lives with respect to individuals.
would entail learning about and appreciating
the wisdom of philosophy, ethics, the beauty
Never do anything against conscience even if
of art, literature, poetry, and music.
the state demands it simply means that one
should not compromise his or her conscience
With those interpretations in mind we would
for the personal gain of top bosses of the
say that educating the mind without
state. This means that one should not work
educating the heart would be a limited
for unethical gains to benefit state.
education. We can see what this education
leads to in the many students who take a
Given these facts, how is a moral person to
completely utilitarian approach to education,
act? The answer is, by ones own conscience.
learning only what they see as relevant to
Any resemblance between the laws and
their career or interests. Once they comple te
moral behaviour is now purely coincide ntal;
their education, the cease to learn and grow.
this is not a problem for those of us who
Their view of the world is limited and
have always relied upon our own moral
consists of largely unconnected bits of
compasses rather than guidance from
knowledge.
authority figures, but those whose pe rsonal
senses of right and wrong have been stunte d
On the other hand, someone with a more
through reliance upon external dictates will
rounded education, of the mind and heart,
be much slower to adapt. Its true that, as
would have a grasp of the basics of wide
Voltaire said, Its dangerous to be
array of knowledge and also the intricate
right when the
ways this knowledge is connected. A strong
Government is wrong.
sense of interconnection is a foundational
part of that persons knowledge. Also, a de e p
Example: There are many recent cases of
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appreciation of nature and the beauty of Q.6) What are the various components
various artistic works. A person with that of attitude? Explain with suitable
sort of education recognizes that le arning is examples.
a lifelong pursuit and has a humility before
the nearly infinite amount of knowledge that Structure
is out there to learn. Define attitude
List components of attitude
In many tribal traditions, the imagination Support with examples
seems to be used in this way, where visual
thinking informed by the heart (compassion)
is the primary mode of reasoning, the basis
An attitude is an expression of favour or
by which wisdom is generated and shared.
disfavour toward a person, place, thing, or
Unfortunately, in modern socie ties much of
event (the attitude object). A relatively
the information we have been taught in
enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and
schools has been separated and divided up,
behavioural tendencies towards socially
compartmentalized.
significant objects, groups, events or symbols
Examples; Component of Attitudes
In the context of India, we have many
Attitudes component can be described in terms
government jobs like civil services where
of three components.
ethics and integrity matters a lot. In the civil
services examination, the mind is greatly Affective component: this involves a
educated, thats why they qualify in the persons feelings / emotions about the
exam. However, if their heart is not prope rly attitude object. For example: I am scared
educated or free from unethical practices of spiders.
they can never benefit the society at large.
They will be looking everything for their
Behavioural (or conative) component:
personal gains. If their heard is educated
the way the attitude we have influences
properly i.e. if they are ethical they will work
how we act or behave. For example: I will
for the society and country and do their
avoid spiders and scream if I see one.
duties for the best of their abilities.
Cognitive component: this involves a
Recent threats of cyber-attack by various
persons belief / knowledge about an
educated minds of unethical hackers.
attitude object. For example: I believe
spiders are dangerous.
Presence of doctors, engineers among the
ranks of terrorist organisation.
This model is known as the ABC model of
This clearly display that literacy (educated
attitudes.
mind) is incomplete without humane e thical
and moral values (educated heart).
All these factors are dynamic in nature and
works in tandem at varying levels. So, with
these factors only an overall estimation ones
behaviour can be made since each individual
is designed to work in different ways with his
dominant character reflecting each time.

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Example Q.7) What do you understand by an


ethical dilemma? How can one resolve an
There is a Cleanliness Drive under 'Swach ethical dilemma? Give an example from
Bharat Abhiyan' is organised in a society, your life when you have been able to
One's view towards Cleanliness is positive as resolve an ethical dilemma that you
per his or her knowledge ((cognitive or C faced.
component). Feels good when see's
cleanliness around reflects the affective Structure
(emotional), or A component), taking part in Explain the meaning of ethical
the Cleanliness Drive shows the behavioural dilemma
or B component of attitude towards Different techniques of resolving
Cleanliness. ethical dilemma
Example from own life
A link between attitude and behaviour is
the consistency means the people assume to
behave accordingly to their behaviour like a
person of positive attitude is always The definition of ethical dilemma is a choice
productive and vice- verse. between two options, both of which will bring
a negative result based on society and
But there can be different attitudes about a personal guidelines.
single object in different situation like a
person feels +ve about blood donation but An example of an ethical dilemma is
shows -ve attitude because of their fear of choosing between hitting a deer that has run
needles and medical procedures. in front of your car or swerving into
oncoming traffic to avoid it.

3 steps to solving ethical dilemmas

#1 Know your values

There are certain values about which socie ty


agrees. For example, we tend to value
honesty. Our discussion here isnt de signed
to change your values instead, its about
applying them. Before you can apply them,
you have to know what they are.

If you havent formally contemplated your


values, or even if you havent thought about
it for a while, make it.

Application: Create your list of core values.

#2 Select a model

Ethical theories can be divided into two


classifications: consequential theories (the
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formal term for these is teleological theories) not limited to: fidelity, gratitude, justice,
and non-consequential theories (formal name beneficence, self- improvement, and non-
is deontological theories). injury.

The following is not a complete list of ethical Maximin Principle of Justice (Rawls) An
theories, but it certainly covers the most act is moral if it provides an equal amount
significant ones for business people.
of liberty for you and others, except when
Consequential theories social or economic inequalities exist. In that
case, the worst-off in society should bene fit
With consequential theories, actions are more from the act
judged by outcomes. If an action results in a
positive result, it is morally right. If not, it is Proportionality (Garrett) An act is moral
wrong. if, in engaging in it, you dont will a major
evil to you or anyone else and if you dont
Egoism An act is moral if it promote s your will, risk or permit a minor evil to yourself or
best long-term interest. anyone else without a proportionate reason.

Utilitarianism An act is moral if it produce s However, once you select the e thical the ory
the great ratio of good to evil for everyone. that you feel is most closely aligned with
Situational An act is moral if it creates the your core values, youll find solving ethical
greatest amount of love. dilemmas much easier. You can recognize
the weakness of your method, while fe eling
Non-consequential theories confident in your process.

According to non-consequential theories, a Application: Choose the ethical theory


factor (single rule non- consequential which most closely aligns with your
theories) or factors (multiple rule non- values.
consequential theories) other than the
outcome should be considered when faced
with an ethical dilemma. #3 Use a problem-solving process

Now you know your values and you have a


Single rule
model with which to apply them. The
Golden Rule An act is moral if you treat remaining piece is to follow an orderly
others the way you would wish to be treated. process to solve the problem, because not all
ethical dilemmas are as simple as your friend
Categorical Imperative (Kant) An act is and her baby that we discussed earlier.
moral if you would wish that everyone
behaved in the same manner. We recommend that you SOLVE IT! Thats
our acronym for the timeless problem-solving
process. When you follow a process such as
Multiple rules
this to solve an ethical dilemma, or any
Prima Facie Duties (Ross) An act is moral problem for that matter, you feel good
if you fulfil your duties; if there is conflict, about your ultimate decision. You know
youve considered all of the alternative s and
fulfil the duty to which you are most
chosen the best alternative under the
obligated. Prima facie duties include, but are
circumstances.
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Q.8) How does ethics in private life these principles. They do not have a choice .
differ from ethics in public relations. Also, this approach is imperative in
Give examples. professional settings as it brings a sense of
discipline in people as well as helps maintain
Structure decorum in offices. Some examples may
include confidentiality, fairness,
Briefly explain the terms - Public transparency and proficiency. These ethics
Ethics and private ethics make employees responsible.
Differentiate between the two
Personal/Private vs Professional/Public
Examples should clearly explain
Ethics
the difference
W hats the difference between
personal/private and professional/public
Basically, ethics are your sense of right and
ethics?
wrong. Your morals and values that define
how you are as a person are your private The ethics that you adhere to in your
ethics. On the contrary, how you behave and
personal life and those that you comply with
conform to the rules in a professional setting
in your professional life are different in
are your professional or public ethics. Still,
certain aspects. Without certain ethics,
the two types of ethics are not limited to how human beings would be incomplete and
they are defined. A professional or public shallow. Thus, they have different systems of
environment may always demand some
ethics in different places.
personal ethics.
The biggest difference between personal and
professional codes of conduct is perhaps the
Private ethics refer to a persons personal or strictness with which people conform to
self-created values and codes of conduct. them. The values that you define for yourse lf
From the very beginning, these ethics are
are up to you to be followed or not to be
instilled in an individual, with a large part
followed. However, those defined in a
having been played by their parents, friends,
company or by a profession must be followed
and family. Common examples may include by you, since breach of these principles or
honesty, openness, commitment,
rules may harm your reputation and status.
unbiased behaviour, and sense of
But if you do not adhere to your personal
responsibility. What a person develops
ethics, it might hardly make a difference,
regarding fairness or learns during childhood depending on the circumstances. Even the n,
remains with him all through his life and is you must keep in mind that violation of your
reflected by his actions and words. No matter
own rules may harm others around you.
if he is talking to a friend or his re latives or
Comparison Chart
an elderly, his ethics would be clear from
what he says and how he says it. A pe rsons
personal ethics are revealed in a professional Personal/Private Professional/Public
situation through his behaviour. Ethics Ethics

Professional/Public ethics are those value s


and principles that are introduced to an
individual in a professional organization.
Each employee is meant to strictly follow
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Includes your Rules imposed on an Q.9) Is morality of outcomes more


important than the morality of means
personal values employee in a
employed to achieve those outcomes?
and moral company, or as Justify your answer with examples.
qualities. member of a
profession, e.g. doctor Structure
or lawyer.
This question asks for means vs ends
Incorporated by Learnt when you are in an action
family, friends a part of a Highlight the significance of Means &
and ends in making moral choices
professional setting
Explain why means are more
surroundings or when you are important (2nd ARC)
since your being trained or
childhood. educated for working
there.
The means are the methods you use.
Examples: Examples: no
honesty, care, gossiping, time The ends are the goals or the final results.
and sincerity. management,
How you do something is more important
punctuality, than what you achieve if you say the me ans
confidentiality, are more important than the ends.
transparency. If you say something was a means to an end,
it means it was what was necessary to do to
Not conforming Not adhering to these achieve the goal.
to these may may harm your
In an extreme form, the idea of
harm or hurt professional consequentialism is commonly encapsulated
others. reputation. in the English saying, "the end justifies the
means", meaning that if a goal is morally
Your personal important enough, any method of achieving
Your professional
needs are it is acceptable.
needs are satisfied by
satisfied by
following these. The answer to this question depends on what
following these.
the ends or goals are and what means are
being used to achieve them. If the goals are
good and noble, and the means we use to
achieve them are also good and noble , the n
yes, the ends do justify the means. But thats
not what most people mean when they use
the expression. Most use it as an excuse to
achieve their goals through any means
necessary, no matter how immoral, illegal or
unpleasant the means may be. What the
expression usually means is some thing like
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It doesnt matter how you get what you want If means are Displacement of
as long as you get it. compromised to tribals).
The ends justifying the means usually achieve ends, i t .
involves doing something wrong to achie ve a
positive end and justifying the wrongdoing by
pointing to a good outcome. An example
would be lying on a resume to get a good job
and justifying.

the lie by saying the larger income will


enable the liar to provide more adequately for
his family. Another might be justifying the
abortion of a baby to save the life of the
mother. Lying and taking an innocent life are
both morally wrong, but providing for ones
family and saving the life of a woman are
morally right. Where, then, does one draw
the line? sets a bad precedent. It runs
counter to universal moral principles

Means Based Ends / Results Based


Ethics Ethics
It is coherent with It seems sensible to
the ideal of justice base ethics on the
and fairness. consequences of what
we do, since we
While outcomes usually take
cannot be decisions about what
predicted, the to do by considering
means employed what results will be
can be regulated. produced.
It becomes difficult
It seems easy to
to penalize a bad
understand and to be
act which
based on common
employed bad sense.
means but had
Good outcomes. Outcomes are
difficult to predict
Leads to
and achieve
establishment of
(deforestations for
rule of law and a
interlinking of rivers
law based society. which may lead to

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Q.10) 'The citizens of the country must


realize that they live in a nation and are Humans are social creatures who desire a
duty bound to show respect to National sense of belonging, the nation remains an
Anthem which is the symbol of the important basis for identity worldwide and
Constitutional Patriotism and inherent national symbols remain powerful tools for
national quality.' In the light of above socialization and inspiration. Thus, thereby a
statement, answer the below questions. uniting

(a) What does patriotism mean to you? Patriotism is an abstract value just like love ,
How far does symbolism play a role in honour and respect. It needs to be inculcated
inculcating patriotism? in a human from childhood just like any
(b) In your opinion, how can we other ethical and moral values. Some of the
inculcate patriotism in citizens? ways we can inculcate patriotism in citizens
are:

Structure a) Compassion and empathy of


government institutions towards her
Meaning of Patriotism; citizens.
Explain why symbols are used for
patriotism b) Highlighting the role of freedom
Breakdown how to inculcate struggle and socio-religious reformers
patriotism feelings for different
segments of society c) Inculcating value education in
school curriculum as well as bringing
forth the significance of national
Patriotism symbols.

A love for ones own country, homeland or Patriotism need not be loud and imposed
culture is generally termed as patriotism always, a human carrying on his daily work
Patriotism is about disinterestedly or self- contributing to development and bette rment
sacrificingly exerting oneself to promote the of nation is also considered a patriot.
well-being of his/her country."
Sense of patriotism in society should always
Patriotism is to maintain and defend his come from within and this happens when the
country's freedom or rights. society starts taking pride in its culture,
history and ideals.
Symbols & Patriotism

In most cases, symbols projects strength and


power.
Nations use symbols. They are used to give
people a sense of belonging and to show
others what is important about the nation.
National symbols are easily recognized
entities that are used as means to
communicate the history and culture of a
particular nation.
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Q.11) Write short notes on the below Thus, the need is to incorporate development
audit along with social audit in all the
a) Collusive and Coercive Corruption schemes and projects of the government to
make them broad based, all-inclusive and
Coercive corruption: The bribe giver is a thereby increasing their acceptability among
victim of extortion. He is compelled to pay citizens.
for a simple service. If he does not submit
extortionary demands of the public se rvant,
he ends up losing much more than the bribe.
The delays, harassment, uncertainty, lost
opportunity, loss of work and wages e tc. are
the ways of coercive corruption.

Collusive Corruption: In collusive


corruption, there is collusion between the
bribe giver and corrupt public servant. In
such cases of collusive corruption, both
parties benefit at immense cost to
society. Common wealth games corruption,
2G spectrum case and coal block allocation
case are major examples of collusive
corruption.

As the economy is freed from state controls,


coercive corruption declines and collusive
corruption tends to increase.

b) Development and Social Audit

Social audit is a way of measuring,


understanding, reporting and ultimately
improving an organizations social and
ethical performance. A social audit he lps to
narrow gaps between vision/goal and reality,
between efficiency and effectiveness. It
provides venues for citizen participation
and realizing development according to
their needs and aspirations. MGNREGA
has incorporated social audit to check its
performance.

Development audit has a broader focus


including environment and economic
issues, such as the efficiency of a proje ct or
programme. It helps us in realizing
sustainable and inclusive development.

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Q.12) How does code of conduct different Q.13) What do you understand by ethical
from code of ethics? Discuss the need for governance? Are democratic governments
a code of ethics for public servants. always ethical? Justify your answer.

CODE OFCONDUCT CODE OF ETHICS Structure


Introduce by defining ethical
A list of acceptable Cover broad guiding governance
and unacceptable principles of good
List out the values included in ethical
behaviour and action behaviour and governance
governance
You can take for or against stance in
Has a list of dos Covers broad public showing weather democratic
and dont service values and Governments are ethical or not.
philosophy of You need to provide arguments in
organisation favour of your stance
And may support your claim with
Its not Provide guidance on Examples.
comprehensive and how civil servants
may not address all should uphold the Ans: Ethical governance is inclusion of
situations highest standards of public accepted values in delivering
constitutional and governance. Ethical governance is a
ethical conduct in normative expression. Impartiality,
the performance of accountability, transparency, honesty,
their duties integrity, probity, perseverance, truthfulness,
citizen centricity, patriotism among other are
Easy to enforce and Difficult to enforce. some of the values which are must for
follow. attainment of ethical governance.

Code of Ethics is necessary because Democratic governments may not be


always ethical.
It is broader based on the overarching duty
of civil servants to comply with the law, to The representatives of people in
uphold the administration of justice and to democracy may follow corrupt
protect the integrity of public life. practices which may not be acceptable
by people (e.g. corruption in
It will help them to prevent conflict of government and in electoral practices)
interest.
Majority in democracy may not
Itll develop a broad understanding about ensure right conduct and behaviour
their roles and responsibilities to fulfil towards minority (e.g. communal
organizational goals. violence; discrimination in laws etc)

Conclusion: The Code of Conduct is a Laws formulated and decisions taken


starting point for ensuring good conduct of by democratic government might not
civil servants. It must be supplemented by foster trust and faith among people
the code of ethics which will try to implant
values in their conduct. India has democratic government but we are
far from having ethical governance. While in
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Scandinavian countries ethical principles are Q.14) What do you understand by


realized to a large extent and they are ahe ad corporate ethics? How far have Indian
us in being ethically governed countries. corporate laws promoted ethics in
In present world democracy, may act as a corporate governance? Explain with
starting point in realization towards e thical examples.
governance.
Structure
Introduce by defining or brief
detailing about corporate ethics
Briefly explain why there is need
for corporate ethics
Enlist the provisions of Indian
corporate laws which have
promoted ethics in corporate
world.
Explain in brief how this
provisions have promoted the
public good.
you may support it with
examples

Corporate ethics is a form of applied


ethics or professional ethics that examines
ethical principles and moral or ethical
problems that arise in business environment.
It applies to all aspects of business conduct
and is relevant to the conduct of individuals
and entire organizations.

Corporate ethics are based on the principles


of extended responsibility of corporates
towards society at large. Corporates are
making profits on the resources of the
society, so its their duty to give back to the
society.

In India, many provisions of the corporate


laws have promoted ethical governance, such
as:

1) The provision of mandatory


corporate social responsibility is to
spend a share of profits in
development and betterment of
society.

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Q.15) Given are two quotations of moral


2) Provision for independent director thinkers/philosophers. For each of
and auditor is there to secure the these, bring out what it means to you
interest of society at large and minor
shareholders in particular. (i) "If liberty and equality, as is thought
by some are chiefly to be found in
3) National rehabilitation policy has democracy, they will be best attained
set the guidelines to minimize the
when all persons alike share in the
resettlement and ensuring integration
of resettled communities in government to the utmost"
developmental process.

4) Provision of taking permission from Structure


gram Sabha in PESA act is also to
ensure ethical norms of de ve lopme nt Introduce by defining liberty
with consent. and equality or by why
liberty and equality are
5) Provisions for studying social necessary in democracy.
impact assessment and environmental Explain how tenets liberty
impact assessment are and equality are not
promoting ethical values of minimizing followed in democracy
the adverse effects. Suggest ways how you can
ensure their realization
Conclusion: Indian corporate laws are based And may support with examples.
on many ethical values and principles.
Corporate needs to understand this and
promote these values so that fruits of Liberty is the state in which people can act
development can be shared by all within the and speak freely, and equality is the state
society.
of being equal in rights and
opportunities. They are very basic to
realize a modern democratic government.

But it is seen that many a time in


democracy majority rules over minority
and may formulate laws, rules and
regulations which might hamper the
freedom of speech and expression of
minorities.

Also, poor in democracy might not be


protected and governments may favour
rich and well off in their policies. this may
widen inequalities within the society.

Our constitution makers have tried to

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protect the minorities and weaker sector Promote hatred and divisiveness in
sections by incorporating the protectionist society.
measures within the constitution in the
To realize the aim of the country and to
form of fundamental rights, directive
ensure development of people
principles of state policies, creation of
governments needs to govern so that
special provisions for tribals in schedule
good and ethical character of law and
5th and 6th etc.
rule following must be protected and
Also, welfare policies and schemes of the promoted and deviant behaviours must
government such as reservations to poore r be punished. Then only the purpose of
sections, MGNREGA, pension schemes etc. government to ensure peace and
are trying to promote liberty and e nsuring prosperity for its citizens can be realized.
equality with the society so that the true ,
participative democracy can be realized.

(ii) The purpose of a government is


to make it easy for people to do good
and difficult to do evil.

The aim of government is to serve the


people with better governance and prote ct
and promote the principles of liberty,
equality and democracy.

To achieve this aim government, need to


ensure the enabling atmosphere for its
citizens where they can live peacefully and
strive for their own and countrys
development.

This atmosphere can be build when

There should be same law for all.

Law abidance will be ensured.

Practice of law following will be


rewarded.

This atmosphere can be polluted by


the miscreants who

Tries to take extra favours via


corruption.
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Q.16) It is a general perception that Their evaluation They have objective


government offices are corrupt, measures are evaluation criteria.
inefficient and poorly managed while diffused.
private businesses are well organized, They need to They can discriminate
follow values of among their client
efficient and adopt best management
equality in their
practices. What, in your opinion, work
differentiates public servants from
private managers? Also, suggest
reform measures to improve the work Following are the reforms which can be
culture prevalent in government introduced to improve the work culture in
offices. government offices:

Structure Promoting usage of information and


communication technology
You may directly start by
differentiating between public Promoting single window service
servants and private managers. delivery mechanism

Then suggest reform measures to Establishing proper and timely


improve work culture in government grievance redressal mechanism
offices
Establishing objective criteria for
evaluating performance of civil
Public servants Private managers servants
They work in They work in private
government set up Company whose aim is Incorporating performance related
whose aim is to to ensure profit to its payment/incentive scheme.
secure wellbeing share holders
of its citizens Promoting lateral entry to ensure
They are guided by They are guided by new values and practices in work
official rules and company rules and laws culture.
constitution of
country Ensuring citizens participation in
Security of tenure Security of tenure is not government departments via citizen
ensured charters etc.
Fixed pay and Pay may vary according
timely promotions to work performance
and promotion may
depend on
company policies
Work under Work under
political masters professional
officers
They have more Their acts are less
public gaze visible in public domain

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Q.17) Having information about Thus, to formulate the policies with right
government will not alone lead to intent, to ensure preventive measures for
accountable, efficient and citizen centric tackling corruption and to ensure timely
delivery of services we need to institutionalize
governance. In light of this statement,
citizen participation. This can be ensured by:
what additional measures are needed to
supplement Right to Information Act, to Making legal provisions such as
realize a citizen- centric and ethical enacting right to public service
governance? delivery bill.

Institutionalize citizen participation


via strengthening citizen charters.
Structure

Introduction may be impact of Making the provisions of service


RTI or simply how access to audits and evaluations, so that fusion
information impact governance of authority with accountability may
Then mention why only take place.
information may not ensure
active citizen participation Strengthening grievance redressal
Suggest measures to mechanisms.
promote active citizen
Devolving powers to local self-
participation
governments so that need based and
participatory government can be
realized.
Access to information can empower the poor
and the weaker sections of society to demand Developing a culture of ethics and
and get information about public policies and public service in society. This will
actions, thereby leading to their welfare. This ensure ethical governance.
has been realized by right to information act.
It has made the government actions
transparent thereby opening the government Thus, to realize ethical government in true
records to public scrutiny and enhanced sense, we need to ensure participation and
accountability. capacity building at all levels. This will he lp
us in realizing inclusive, sustainable and
But transparency alone may not le ad to the moral growth of the country.
citizen centric and ethical gove rnance. Post
RTI act many scams have been unearthed
but if citizen participation has been
ensured than it may have prevented those
scams.
Transparency may place the governments
policies in public domain. But the intent
behind those policies cant be checked by the
transparency alone. Also, transparency may
not lead to timely delivery of public services.

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Q.18) Systemic reforms can help reduce


the scope for corruption. What reforms Promoting transparency within political
would you suggest in the legislative, parties, their funding and operations.
Strengthening the committee system within
executive and judicial organs of the state
legislatures.
to combat the menace of corruption? Codifying the parliament and legislative
privileges.
Structure Ensuring healthy and informed discussions
and debates.
Introduce by systemic Taking out the impact assessment of
reforms definition. various laws.
Give arguments how they
will curb corruption. Executive reforms:
Enlist some reforms in 3
organs of state. Promoting transparency and strengthening
accountability channels.
Systemic reforms are introduced to improve Emphasis should be laid on proactive
the ways of doing work so that scope for vigilance
corrupt practices can be eliminated. These Strengthening grievance redressal
reforms can be taken place in mechanism.
Reducing discretion at various levels.
Institutions Strengthening citizen participation
Policies avenues.
Processes/Procedures Promoting usage of information and
communication technology.
Systemic reforms can deal with corruption in
myriad ways: Judicial reform

1) They will institutionalize the Promoting transparency via incorporating


measures. RTI act
Establishing fair procedure for appointment
2) It will provide optimum mixture of
preventive and punitive measures.

3) It will disseminate best practices.

4) Itll ensure citizens participation in


curbing corruption.

Systemic reforms need to be taken in


Legislative, Executive and Judicial organs of
the state to attack holistically on me nace of
corruption.

Legislative reforms:
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Q.19) Graft in governance is an outcome


of the lack of ethical, legal and Designing code of ethics for
institutional framework in governance. In legislative, executive and judiciary.
this context, enlist the measures needed
to ensure probity in governance. Simplifying transactions via
incorporating single window
mechanism, minimizing hierarchies
Structure and stipulating time limits for disposal
Sensitivity training for civil servant
Introduce by making making them more people oriented.
arguments how graft is
affecting governance Provision of reward for dutiful public
Describe how probity will help servants to boost their morality and
in arresting hic graft in spirit.
governance.
Enlist measures to ensure probity. Stakeholder participation to improve
effective governance, formulate
inclusive policies and create oversight
Graft in governance is promoting mechanisms.
arbitrariness, undermining rule of law and
widening the trust deficit between the Good governance is the root of Democratic
government and citizens. To improve the country. Good probity in governance can
quality of governance, highest levels of help the people to realize the Democratic
integrity and probity needs to be values thus building trust towards the state.
incorporated in the legal and institutional
mechanism of government.

Measures which can be taken to ensure


probity in governance are:

Promoting transparency and


accountability in all the organs of the
government.

Promoting highest standards of


ethics and morality among political
leaders.

Designing simple, easy to


understand laws, rules and
procedures.

Establishing proactive vigilance


mechanism on corruption.

Ensuring accessibility and


responsiveness.
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Q.20) The raison dtre of vigilance inactions such as moral corruption, lack of
activity is not to reduce but to enhance political vision, absence of proper policy
the level of managerial efficiency and guidelines etc.
effectiveness in the organization. In the
light of this statement, answer the
(b) Discuss existing provisions to protect
following questions. Do you think honest public servants. Also, suggest
vigilance brings in policy paralysis and measures to ensure protection of the
executive inaction? Justify your answer honest in the government in the
discharge of their official duties without
fear or favour.
Structure

Introduce by defining vigilance. To promote risk taking and novelty in policy


Provide reasons why vigilance is formulation it is necessary to protect hone st
necessary. public servants. Existing provisions which
protect the honest civil servants are:
How it may have brought policy
paralysis (if any)
a) Article 311 of Indian constitution
provides them protection against
Vigilance can be defined as a process of arbitrary removal.
paying close and continuous attention to the
actions of civil servants. b) Section 19 of prevention of
It is necessary in public services because corruption act which require sanction
public servants enjoy huge discretion in their from ministers before proceedings.
functioning. Public servants need to use this
discretion for the welfare of the public, but it c) Protection to a civil servant from
has been seen that this discretion has be e n malicious prosecution.
arbitrarily used for self-benefit thereby
promoting corruption and nepotism. To d) Protection to whistle blowers.
ensure the correct usage of these
discretionary powers and to arrest the Other measures as mentioned by II arc
corruption we need to have a proper vigilance which needs to be provided to protect
mechanism. bonafide intentions of civil servants are:

As policy making has part of risk taking and Every allegation of corruption received
may cause losses in future despite having through complaints or from sources
bonafide intentions. There is a general cultivated by the investigating agency
perception among officers and managers that against a public servant must be
anti-corruption agencies do not fully examined in depth at the initial stage itself
appreciate administrative risks and that they before initiating any enquiry.
tend to misinterpret the motives where the
decision has gone awry or where a loss is In matters relating to allegations of
caused in a commercial transaction. This corruption, open enquiries should not
over vigilance has led to the promotion of be taken up straightaway on the
inaction among public servants. basis of complaints/source
information.
Also, there are other reasons which promoted
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The evaluation of the results of


verification/enquiries should be done
in a competent and just manner.

Capacity building in the


anticorruption agencies should be
assured through training and by
associating the required experts
during enquiries/ investigations.

The supervisory officers in the


investigating agencies should e nsure
that only those public servants are
prosecuted against whom the
evidence is strong.

There should be profiling of officers.


The capabilities, professional
competence, integrity and reputation
of every government servant must be
charted out and brought on record.

The need is to ensure a balance between


equality before law and protection of an
honest civil servant who has his reputation
to safeguard. Then only correct and timely
policy actions and decisions can be ta ke n to
realize the dream of good and ethical
governance.

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