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http://ijopaar.org/ijopams.php/; 2017 Vol. 1(1); pp.

37-43, ISSN: 2456-4516

The Socio-Economic Conditions of Tribal Communities in India


Dr. M. M. Abu Tayyab
Assistant Professor,
Department of Sociology, Shia P. G. College, Lucknow-20

Abstract
The central and state governments and planners have developed and enforced numerous policies
aiming at raising the social and economic conditions of the Scheduled Tribes (STs); those are
remained historically backward for historical reasons. This study analyses numerous socio-economic
positions of the tribal communities in India. The results of the study show that there's a requirement to
boost socio-economic conditions of the tribal people. Thus, the study has shown that in spite of the
many organic process programs, the economic standards of the tribes continues to be terribly low and
thus, there's a requirement for joint efforts and higher coordination of all the stake holders those are
operating directly or indirectly influences the development of tribal community.
Keywords: Communities, Social groups, Social and economic conditions, Tribal societies.
1. Introduction
Over the years, the Central and State Governments are taking varied initiatives for socio-economic
upliftment of tribal population of the country. This includes the social group Sub set up Strategy (TSP
Strategy) enforced since 1974-75. These efforts have brought out some enhancements for Scheduled
Tribes in terms of assorted indicators with reference to acquisition, health, livelihood, etc. as mirrored
in Census 2011 and alternative socio-economic survey reports. However, there are still extended gaps
within the human development indices between Scheduled Tribes and general population.
Government through varied interventions has strategized the general development and welfare of
tribal communities across the country that takes care of necessary support for education, health,
sanitation, water system, livelihood, etc. to enhance their economic, instructional and social
conditions. The main a part of development activities is distributed through varied schemes/ programs
of involved Central Ministries and therefore the State Governments, whereas the Ministry of Tribal
Affairs provides additive to those initiatives by manner of plugging crucial gaps.
The erstwhile commission got a holistic analysis study conducted through a third party agency on the
effectiveness of the TSP strategy in terms of delivery of products and services to the tribal group
population. The report of the study was created public throughout could 2013. The Study, inter alia,
reportable underperformance of TSP funds in taking tangible results and triggering development of
tribals. Additionally, the then commission had undertaken analysis studies through its program
analysis, Organization to assess the performance of the assorted welfare schemes from time to time.
The recommendations created in these analysis studies were communicated to the involved Nodal
Implementing Agencies. Besides, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs controls many consultations with the
stakeholders within the Central Governments furthermore as State Governments and out of doors
consultants / agencies to determine the deficiencies effort tribal development with the required pace
(PIB GOI, 2015).
2. Literature Review
Rao, D. Pulla addresses the socio-economic conditions of the scheduled tribes in Visakhapatnam
district of State Andhra Pradesh in India. Within the sample, the bulk of the households are the tribe
of Konda Dora. Further, the bulk of the sample households within the study space are Hindus and
over 70 % of the sample population is illiterate. Cultivation is that the primary occupation participated
by the utmost heads of the sample households. Financial gain from cultivation supports the bulk of the

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sample population. Over 53 % of the cultivators have farm financial gain around Rs. 2,000.00 to Rs.
5,000.00. Albeit, the wage laborers are a lot of within the sample population, the share of financial
gain derived from that's less compared to cultivation. Therefore, there's a necessity to place a lot of
attention on academic aspects of scheduled tribes, wherever this solely will inspire them for future life
(Rao, 2013).
Jana et al., have mentioned the assorted socio-economic values of Odhisha, they need been analyzed
and compared for representing district-level patterns of quality of life and checking out the variation
among the Primitive tribal households within the study space. Additionally, Mayurbhanj has
additionally been taken as a case study to represent the socio-economic condition and quality of life at
the block level. Its going to be acknowledged during this context that out of thirty districts in Odisha,
consistent with Location Quotient worth Mayurbhanj is that the highest tribal targeted district. The
objective of this study is to get a stronger understanding of disparities and variations in socio-
economic standing in Odisha in addition as in Mayurbhanj and additionally determine some remedial
measures to beat the issues to bring the Primitive tribal community within the main stream of the
society. From the analysis of the health-related indicators it's clear from the analysis that the standard
of life within the district has improved remarkably over the years however socio-economic disparities
in terms of caste and gender still be a significant downside largely in tribal and backward areas (Jana
et al., 2015).
Kispotta, S., intends to review the socio-economic conditions of the tribals residing within the remote
rough and forest areas, within the space of Dhanwar. The individuals are terribly poor economically,
socially and politically. Theyre living hand to mouth. They rely totally on the forest manufacture and
agriculture for his or her living. The author needs to draw in the eye of the govt. officers for the
upliftment and development of the tribals over there. The Govt. programs are actually negligible
except MNREGA. However, this Program is additionally beneath the clutch of the corruption
(Kispotta, 2014).
3. Methodology
Taking all the details and data, into consideration, this present study outlines the following objectives:
Objectives
To collect information and data; and perform the analysis.
To study the reality of the socio-economic conditions of tribals.
To suggest future action plan.
4. Hypothesis
On the basis of studies conducted on this line and in order to substantiate the objectives, the following
hypotheses were framed to test their validity.
The analytical approach brings a difference in the impact of the developmental program in
terms of physical, social and economic growth among the tribal people.
The alternative sources of earning generated by the program help in bringing down the
migration rate. There is a significance difference in the life style of the people by the
implementation of the program.
5. Research Design

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The activities conducted in the study area, especially in the context of tribal development program,
still leave many questions unanswered. It is with this consideration and to gain more insights in the
subjects, the present study is based on a Descriptive Design.
6. Sampling
The data from the secondary sources were collected on the concept and context of the developmental
activities. Help was taken from the published books and journals, unpublished articles and documents.
The data have been taken from Press Information Bureau, Government of India, and Ministry of
Tribal Affairs.
7. Data Analysis & Discussion
In a study on traditional economic activities pursued by the tribes of India, Vidyarthi et al., have
delineated the categories: Hunting, Hill-cultivation, Plain agriculture, Simple artisan, Pastoral and
cattle-herding, Folk-artists, and Agricultural and non-agricultural labour (Vidyarthi et al., 1985).
7.1 Operational Holdings (Quinquennial) All-India Level
For the calculation of the Operational Holdings (OH), data from the Agricultural Censuses is used, as
the information on Scheduled Tribes is available for the comparison with all-India level data from the
quinquennial survey of the decades 1980-81 to 2010-11.the comparative data is given in the table
(Xaxa et al., 2014).
Table-1

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7.2 Agricultural Productivity in Tribal States


The agricultural productivity in the tribes is shown by the table-2 (Xaxa et al., 2014).
Table-2

In the rural areas, for scheduled Tribe males, between 1983 and 1993-94, WPR was from 56.7 % to
59.1 percent, whereas between 1999-00 and 2009-10, its levels weakened to between 55.8 % and 56.2
%. Whats vital here is that the agricultural scheduled Tribe males exhibit higher levels of WPR, in
every of the rounds than those of all social teams. In 2004-05 and 2009-10, the agricultural male
scheduled Tribes have WPR of 56.2 % and 55.9 % as against 54.6 % and 54.7 % severally for all
teams. For rural feminine scheduled Tribe class, between 1983 and 2004-05, the WPR was between
43.8 % (1999-00) and 48.2 % (1993-94). In 2009-10, a similar was 35.9%.
In urban areas, the WPRs with relation to scheduled Tribe males are the typical of all teams for pretty
much all the years. In 1983, the male Scheduled Tribe class exhibited 53.1 % of WPR that was
marginally on top of that of all teams (51.2 %). Between 1987-88 and 2009-10, the WPR of male
scheduled Tribes varied between 48.0 % (1999-00) and 52.3 % (2004-05), whereas a similar for all
teams lay between 50.6 % (1987-88) and 54.9 % (2004-05) (Xaxa et al., 2014).
7.3 Occupational Distribution among Scheduled Tribes and Others
The occupational distribution of the ST and others are given by the table-3 (Xaxa et al., 2014).
Table-3

7.4 Work Force Participation

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The worker population ratio of the rural and urban; males and females of the years 1983 and others
with respect to whole population are shown by the table-3 (Xaxa et al., 2014).
Table-4

7.5 Debt Ratios


The total Amount of Outstanding Cash Dues (TD), Average Debt (AOD) per Household, Average
Value of Assets (AVA), Debt Asset Ratio (DAR), Incidence of Indebtedness (IOI) as on 30.6.02 for
each social group are given in the table-5 (Xaxa et al., 2014).
Table-5

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8. Conclusion
The tribal community remains relying upon moneylenders for its domestic purpose and social
liabilities. The plus formation was significantly restricted and confined to population of the world the
fundamental infrastructure facilities weren't satisfactory. Theres a desire to enhance accomplishment,
health facilities, establishments and assets development. Thus, the study has shown that in spite of the
many organic process programs, the economic standards of the tribals remains terribly low and thus,
there's a desire for joint efforts and higher coordination of all the stake holders those are operating
directly or indirectly influences the event of social group community. So as to form use of land
obtainable with the social group farmers, they must be intended to undertake organic farming and eco-
forestry. This needs conjunct efforts by the Departments of Agriculture and Forest to encourage the
social group farmers to undertake such activities. Tribals ought to be inspired to use their content to
fulfill their desires by recreating their forest system and forest-based living. The significantly
vulnerable tribal teams (PVTGs) among the tribes would like special attention because of their
vulnerability within the current scenario.
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