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Citing Information in Science

and Agriculture

SHAMIN RENWICK

FACULTY LIAISON LIBRARIAN


SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE
ALMA JORDAN LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES
ST. AUGUSTINE
2012
Objectives

At the end of this session students will be aware of


how to:

Write citations and references in the Chicago Manual of Style


16th edition (Author-Date) version.
Example of in-text citations
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De Freitas says that users need to become more information literate

so that they can be empowered to successfully participate in the


development process (de Freitas 2007).

Boodoo-Dhun (2010), in a survey of ASTT members, found that 97.3%

of persons would be willing to be trained and attend seminars to learn


about new possibilities that exist over the Internet.
Example of in-text citations
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A Caribbean Review of Books was published 1991-


1993 (Bandara 1994). There are several Caribbean
Bibliographies in print and online, including
Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography, which is posted
on the Internet (Mitchell 2003).
Why have a standard format?

Comprehend or decipher a reference easily

Saves time

Is more efficient

Citing and Referencing, like writing properly, are


skills that an academic and a professional must have
Why Cite Information

It is ethical to do so, it is about intellectual


honesty

To enable the reader to verify quotations

To allow the reader identify and retrieve the


references for their own use

To avoid plagiarism -may protect you in the case


of questionable allegations

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What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism occurs

when a writer uses someone elses

language, ideas, or other original material

and passes it off as his/her own

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How do you plagiarise
stealing, or borrowing a paper (including, copying
an entire paper or article from the Web)

copying large sections of text from a source without


quotation marks or proper attribution e.g. cyber-
plagiarism

using the words of a source too closely when


paraphrasing and not citing the source

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Reasons Students Cheat
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Everybody does it
That is how it is in the real world

All that matters is that I get it done

If I dont cheat, I will be at a disadvantage

It is no big deal
I am not hurting anyone

It is not like it really matters


Expectations and Consequences
Students are expected to know and follow
academic standards for citing sources

Consequences of intentional or unintentional


plagiarism can range from a failing grade to
expulsion from the University
Declaration form
Policy
Turnitin software

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Faculty of Science and Agriculture
The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Two formats:

Documentary Notes and Bibliography

Author-Date is used for the Sciences.

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For Chemistry Students only

ACS Style guide


Coghill, Anne M.; Garson, Lorrin R. Eds. The ACS Style Guide:
Effective Communication of Scientific Information, 3rd ed.; ACS:
Washington, 2006

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The academic style for citing and
referencing in this Foundation course is:

CHICAGO
MANUAL OF
STYLE
In-text citations
Direct quotes
Using the authors exact words
Use direct quotations sparingly, emphasising statements that
support your argument

Indirect quotes
Paraphrasing
Summarising

Do not need to cite Common knowledge


e.g. facts and dates which are well-known
If unsure, cite the source

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Steps involved
Take down the full bibliographical details of the document
from which you have taken notes,
preferably the very first time you use it

Usually do the paper with the all in-text citations noted in


the text

Create the reference list at the end of the text

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How to note citation in the text?
When quoting ensure quotation marks are used, along
with the relevant page number(s)

For example:
Larsen (2005, 98) noted that "many of the facts in this case
are incorrect"

OR
"Many of the facts in this case are incorrect" (Larsen 2005,
98)
(note no comma between author and year)

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In-text citation formats

Single author: (Blinksworth 1987, 56)

Different authors with same last name and same date:


(P. Brown 1991) (T. Brown 1991)

Multiple references: (Light 1972; Smith and Wong 1975;


Rooster 1976)

Additional works by same author: (Garcia 1941, 1944)

Same author and dates: (Keller 1896a, 1896b, 1907)


Common Formatting
Authors Names:
The authors name is inverted in the Reference List,
John Smith becomes Smith, John

If an author is not listed, this applies to editors, compilers,


translators, etc.

If an author (editor, translator, compiler) is not listed, then


use the corporate author or title.

Publication year:
The year of publication is listed after the author

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Common formatting

Titles:
Titles of books and journals are italicized

Titles of articles, chapters, etc are not italicized, they are


enclosed in quotation marks

Titles are in headline style:


Capitalize all the important words not articles, conjunctions or
prepositions
E.g. Prediction and Prevention of Famine.

Punctuation:
All major elements are separated by periods
Citation for a book:
Author: full name of author(s);
Or full name of editor(s) if no single author is listed;
Or name of institution responsible for the writing of the book.
Year
Title: full title of the book, including subtitle if there is one.
Edition, other than first

Facts of publication: city, publisher.

Full stops between elements

Author's surname, Author's first name. Year. Title of the Book.


Edition [if not first]. Place of publication: Publisher's name.

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Chicago Manual of Style

AUTHOR DATE

EXAMPLES
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Books - One Author


Reference
Williams, Eric Eustace. 2005. The
History of Chaguaramas. Trinidad and
Tobago: Chaguaramas Development
Authority.

In-text Citation
(Williams 2005, 24)

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Books Two Authors

Reference
Peltier-Davis, Cheryl, and Shamin Renwick. 2007.
Caribbean Libraries in the 21st Century: Changes,
Challenges, and Choices. Medford, NJ: Information
Today.

In-text Citation
(Peltier-Davis and Renwick 2007, 122)

Note the comma before and

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Books Three Authors

Reference
Brett, P. D., S. W. Johnson, and C. R. T. Bach.
1989. Mastering String Quartets. San Francisco,
CA: Amati Press.

In-text Citation
(Brett, Johnson, and Bach 1989)

Note the comma before and

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Books More than three Authors

Reference
Sanders, Gary, Paul Singh, John Smith, and V. S.
Naipaul. 1989. Prediction and Prevention of
Famine. Los Angeles, CA: Timothy Peters.

In-text Citation
(Sanders et al. 1989)

Note no italics with the et al. when in brackets


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Books Organisation, Association or


Corporate Author
Reference
International Monetary Fund (IMF). 1977. Surveys of
African Economies. Washington, D.C.: IMF.

In-text Citation
(IMF 1977, 45)

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Books - Chapter
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Reference
Kaiser, Ernest. 1964. The Literature of Harlem. In Harlem: A
Community in Transition, edited by J. H. Clarke, 145 156.
New York, NY: Citadel Press.

In-text Citation
(Kaiser 1964, 147)

Note that In is not in italics)


Note the punctuation
Note edited by not ed.
Elements for a Journal
Author(s) name(s)

Title and subtitle of article

Title of periodical

Issue information (volume, issue number, date)

Page reference

For online periodicals, date accessed and a URL

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Journal Article
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Reference
Persad, Paul, and Sarah Smith. 1983. Thermal Performance of
the Two-Glass Cover Solar Air Heater. Journal of Solar
Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME 105 (3): 254-
258.

In-text Citation
(Persad and Smith 1983, 255)

Note no comma or full stop after the journal name


Unless it is abbreviated e.g. J. Prob. and Stats.
Elements for Web Pages

Author (if given)


Year
Title of work
Group responsible for the site (if applicable)
Date site was last updated or copyright date
Date of access
URL-Address of the site (http://...)
(do not underline URL)
Must put in http://

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Website
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Reference
National Association of Investors Corporation (NAIC). 1999. NAIC Online.
September 20, 1999. Accessed October 1, 1999. http://www.better-
investing.org.

In-text Citation
(NAIC 1999) Note format month
date, year
Reference (Websites with no date)
National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). 2010. Vikings: The North
Atlantic Saga. Smithsonian: National Museum of Natural History. Accessed
July 16, 2010. http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/home.html.

In-text citation
(NMNH 2010)

use the year of the date you accessed the site so use 2010 if you saw the site in
2010.
Printed material with no date can use n.d. as in Smith, J. n.d. Rainy Days.
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Conference Proceedings
Reference
Nebgen, Pamela J., and Richard C. Warner. 1985. Computer
Aided Design of Hydrologic and Sediment Control
Systems. In ASEE Annual conference Proceedings:
Computer Aided Engineering 16-20 June, 1985, edited by
Lawrence P. Grayson, 272-279. New York, NY: American
Society for Engineering Education.

In-text Citation
(Nebgen and Warner 1985, 273)

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ACS Style Guide
Format for in-text citation
When citing more than one citation at one place, list the
numbers in ascending order and separate them by
commas without a space in between.

in the literature (2,5,8)


were reported (3-5,10)

OR
in the literature (2,5,8)
were reported (3-5,10)

OR
in the literature (Smith, 1990)
were reported (Jones, 2001; Smith, 2005)
Formatting for a Book

Author's surname, Author's initial.; Author's surname,


Author's initial. Title of the Book; Edition [if not first].;
Publisher's name: Place of publication, Year of
publication; Pagination.

Le Couteur, P.; Burreson, J.; Jones, T. Napoleons


Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History;
4th. ed.; Putnam: New York, 2003; pp 3247.
Journal Article
Surname, Initial(s); Surname, Initial(s). Title of article.
Abbreviated journal title Year, Volume, Inclusive pagination.

Morris, C. R.; Scott, J. T.; Chang, H.; Sederoff, R. R.; O'Malley,


D.; Kadla, J. F. Metabolic profiling: A new tool in the study of
wood formation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 1427-1434.

Year in BOLD,
Issue in italics

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Websites
Author (if any). Title of Site. URL (accessed Month
Day, Year).

Chou, L.; McClintock, R. Technology and


education: New wine in new bottles.
http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/papers
/newwine1.html (accessed Aug 24, 2000).

Do not underline the URL


Reference List
1. Hoppert, M. Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2003; pp 145-158.

2. Almlof, J.; Gropen, O. Relativistic Effects in Chemistry. In Reviews in Computational Chemistry; Lipkowitz,

K. B., Boyd, D. B., Eds.; VCH: New York, 1996; Vol. 8, pp 206-210.

3. Stocker, J. H., Ed. Chemistry and Science Fiction; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1998.

4. Wanless, E. Surface Chemistry. The Science Show, April 5, 2008. ABC Radio National.

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/feeds/science.xml (accessed Apr 24, 2008).

5. Berthod, A.; Ruiz-Angel, M.J.; Carda-Broch, S. Ionic Liquids in Separation Techniques. J. Chromatogr., A

2008, 1184 (1-2), 6-18.

6. Zahardis, J., Petrucci, G. A. The Oleic Acid-ozone Heterogeneous Reaction System: Products, Kinetics,

Secondary Chemistry, and Atmospheric Implications of a Model System A Review. Atmos. Chem. Phys.

[Online] 2007, 7 (5), 1237-1274. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/issue5.html (accessed Apr 24,

2008).

7. Graham Solomons, T. W.; Fryhle, C. B. Organic Chemistry, 9th ed.; John Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, 2008; pp 827-

832.
What do you need in order to cite?

Book Journal Article Website


Author Author Author (if provided)
Title Title of Article Webpage Title
Place of Publication Title of Journal Website Title
Publication House Volume Number Date (if provided)
Date Issue Number Date You Viewed the Page
URL or DOI Date
URL
Format (for non-print/ non- Page Numbers
electronic copies)
Date You Viewed the article
URL or DOI
Handouts
http://www.mainlib.sta.uwi.edu

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http://www.mainlib.sta.uwi.edu

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Handout
For questions, clarifications and assistance
please contact

Mrs. Shamin Renwick,


Faculty Liaison Librarian,
Science and Agriculture Division,
Alma Jordan Library,
The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
shamin.renwick@sta.uwi.edu
662-2002 ext 83596/83359
Shamin Renwick, Trinidad and Tobago, 2012