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Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 1+ Unit 2 equations

Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 1 equations


Alkanes
with O2
Complete combustion CH4+ 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
Incomplete combustion CH4 + 1.5O2 CO + 2H2O
with Cl2, UV CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl Mechanism: free radical
substitution
Alkanes improving the quality of fuels
o
(1) Catalytic Cracking C10H22 C5H12 + C5H10 Heat (600 C), Al2O3

(2) Reformation Heat, Pt.


+ H2 Can prevent knocking, more
efficient ignition

Alkenes
with H2 (hydrogenation) H2C=CH2 + H2 CH3CH3 Heat, Ni

with Br2 dissolve in hexane CH3CH=CH2 + Br2 CH3CHBrCH2Br orange to colourless


Mechanism =
Electrophilic Addition
+Br as electrophile
Heterolytic fission of Br-Br covalent bond
with Bromine water CH3CH=CH2 + Br2 + H2O CH3CHOHCH2Br + HBr orange to colourless
Mechanism =
Electrophilic Addition
+Br as electrophile

with HBr/dry/gas CH3CH=CH2 + HBr CH3CH2BrCH3 Mechanism =


Major product Electrophilic Addition
Explanation for major product : +H of H Br as
Secondary carbocationic intermediate is more stable than electrophile
primary carbocation
Rule:
H atom of HBr added to C which already has more H
with KMnO4 / H2SO4 CH3CH=CH2 + [O] + H2O CH3CHOHCH2OH purple to colourless
H2SO4 must be added to
- 2+
convert MnO4 to Mn

Alkenes Polymerisation H H
H H

n C C C C

H X
H X
n

1
Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 1+ Unit 2 equations

Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 2 equations

1 Group 2 metals with H2O

Mg Mg(s) + H2O(g) MgO(s) + H2(g) (steam only)


Ca,Sr,Ba Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
[Ca sinks, gas bubbles, white suspension]
Sr(s) + 2H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
Ba(s) + 2H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
2 Group 2 metals with O2 2Mg + O2 2MgO 2Sr + O2 2SrO
3 Group 2 metals with Cl2 Mg + Cl2 MgCl2 Ba + Cl2 BaCl2
4 Group 2 Oxides with H2O MgO(s) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(s) CaO(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq)
5 Heating Group 2 hydroxide Mg(OH)2(s) MgO(s) + H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(s) SrO(s) + H2O(l)
6 Group 2 Oxides with acids MgO + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2O (so they are called basic oxdies)
7 Thermal stability
Group 1 Carbonates All stable to heat except for Li2CO3 : Li2CO3 Li2O + CO2
Na2CO3 X / K2CO3 X / Rb2CO3 X / Cs2CO3 X
Explaination:
+ 2-
Li smallest ionic radius cause distortion of CO3 can be decomposd by heat
Group 2 Carbonates MgCO3 MgO + CO2
2+
MgCO3 least thermal stable: Mg smallest ionic radius casue greatest distortion
2-
of CO3 can be decomposed by heat most easily
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
SrCO3 SrO + CO2
BaCO3 BaO + CO2
Group 1 Nitrates
Li: 4LiNO3 2 Li2O + 4NO2 + O2
+ -
[Li smallest ionic radius greatest distortion on NO3 so different products
with other group 1 nitrates]
Na, K, Rb, Cs 2NaNO3 2NaNO2 + O2
Group 2 Nitrates 4Mg(NO3)2 2MgO + 4NO2 + O2
-
[Group 2 ion larger charge than Group 1 cause greater distortion on NO3 so
different products with group 1 nitrate]
8 Solubility
Group 1 and 2 Sulphates Decreases down the group - BaSO4 is insoluble, MgSO4is soluble
Group 1 and 2 Hydroxides Increases down the group - Mg(OH)2 is insoluble, Ba(OH)2 very soluble

Group 7
Group 7 elements with H2O Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl
Group 7 elements with NaOH (Disproportionation)
- - -
In Cold Dilute Alkali: Cl2 + 2OH Cl + ClO + H2O
- - -
In Hot Conc. Alkali: 3Cl2 + 6OH ClO3 + 5Cl + 3H2O

2
Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 1+ Unit 2 equations

- -
Group 7 Displacement Cl2(g) + 2Br (aq) Br2(aq) + 2Cl (aq) Green gas orange bromine solution
reactions - - -
Br2(g) + 2I (aq) I2(aq) + 2Br (aq) Green gas brown solution of I3
- -
(I2 + I I3 )
Halide ions with conc H2SO4 NaCl(s) + H2SO4 NaHSO4(s) + HCl(g) Steamy fumes (HCl)
Vigorous reaction
NaBr(s) + H2SO4 NaHSO4(s) + HBr(g) Steamy fumes (HBr)
2HBr(g) + H2SO4 Br2(g) + SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) Brown vapour (Br2)
Vigorous reaction
NaI(s) + H2SO4 NaHSO4(s) + HI(g) Steamy fumes (HI)
6HI(g) + H2SO4(l) 3I2(g) + S(s) + 4H2O(l) purple fumes (I2 vapour)
8HI(g) + H2SO4(l) 4I2(g) + H2S(s) + 4H2O(l) black solid (I2 solid)
yellow solid (S solid)
+ -
Test for halide ions Ag (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) White ppt
+ -
Ag (aq) + Br (aq) AgBr(s) Pale yellow ppt
+ -
Ag (aq) + I (aq) AgI(s) Yellow ppt
2- 2- -
Iodine titration 2S2O3 (aq) + I2(aq) S4O6 (aq) + 2I Sodium thiosulphate
(brown straw colour blue black colourless) decolorize iodine solution.
Solubility of Silver halides in concentrated / dilute ammonia solution
concentrated ammonia dilute ammonia Equation Effect of light
AgCl AgCl(s) + 2NH3(aq) The ppt darkens
+ -
[Ag(NH3)2] (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl Ag + Cl2
AgBr AgBr(s) + 2NH3(aq) The ppt darkens
+ -
[Ag(NH3)2] (aq) + Br (aq) AgBr Ag + Br2
AgI -- The ppt darkens AgI Ag + I2
AgCl and AgBr cannot be distinguished by just dissolving in conc.NH3 as both of them dissolve in it. They can be
distinguished by addition of dilute ammonia.
Example
3
The student acidified about 2 cm of a solution of A (FeCl2) with dilute nitric acid in a test tube and then added
a few drops of aqueous silver nitrate solution. A white precipitate was formed.
-
(i) Give the formula of the anion present in A. Cl ion is present.
(ii) The test in (i) is usually followed by the addition of ammonia solution to test the solubility of the precipitate.
Explain why this is not a useful procedure in this case.
2+
The dissolving of white precipitate by concentrated ammonia is masked. Ammonia reacts with Fe to form iron(II)
2+ +
hydroxide. Fe (aq) + 2NH3(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) + 2NH4 (aq)
Colour of halogens
At r.t.p. Vapour form when it is heated In water In cyclohexane In KI
Cl2 Greenish Greenish yellow gas Pale green Pale yellow --
yellow gas (chlorine water)
Br2 Brown liquid Brown vapour Brown solution Orange --
(bromine water)
I2 Shiny black Purple vapour Brown solution Purple Brown solution
- -
solid (iodine solution) (I2(s)+I (aq)I3 (aq)
3
Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 1+ Unit 2 equations

Organic Chemistry
Halogenoalkanes
Reagents Equations Mechanism Remarks
- -
with aqueous OH CH3CH2Br + NaOH CH3CH2OH + NaBr Nucleophilic OH acts as nucleophile and
[halogenoalkane alcohol] substitution attack +C of C Br
(Sn1 or Sn2)
- -
with OH dissolve CH3CH2Br + NaOH H2C=CH2 + NaBr + H2O Elimination OH acts as a base and
+
in ethanol [halogenoalkane alkene] accept H from CH3CH2Br

- - -
with CN CH3CH2Br + CN CH3CH2CN + Br Nucleophilic :CN acts as nucleophile
[halogenoalkane nitrile] substitution and attack +C of C Br

+
with aqueous CH3CH2Br + H2O + Ag CH3CH2OH + AgBr Fastest Ethanol is sometime added
silver nitrate H2O (in aqueous solution) is a weak nucleophile halogenoalkane to acts as solvent of
= Iodo halogenoalkane so that it
attack +C of C Br, forming alcohol. mixes better with AgNO3
C-I bond is solution. But rememeber
- +
Br is released and form ppt with Ag . weaker than that the OH of the ethanol is
C-Br and C-Cl not the nucleophile.
with NH3 CH3CH2Br + NH3 CH3CH2NH2 + HBr Nucleophilic :NH3 acts as nucleophile
[Conc NH3 / heat / [halogenoalkane amine] substitution and attack +C of C Br
closed vessel]

Preparation of halogenoalkanes
Chloroalkanes CH3CH2OH + PCl5 CH3CH2Cl + POCl3 + HCl PCl5(s) room temperature
from alcohols
Bromoalkanes (1) KBr + H2SO4 KHSO4 + HBr NaBr / 50% H2SO4 / Heat under reflux
from alcohols (2) CH3CH2OH + HBr CH3CH2Br + H2O Not conc H2SO4 / NaBr / heat as Br2 will form
Iodoalkanes (1) 2P + 3I2 2PI3 Moist red P / I2
from alcohols (2) 3CH3CH2OH + PI3 3CH3CH2I + H3PO3 Not conc H2SO4 / NaI / heat as I2 will form

Alcohols
Reagent Equations Conditions / observation
o
1 Alcohols Partial Oxidation CH3CH2OH + [O] CH3CHO + H2O Distil aldehyde product once it is
K2Cr2O7 / dil.H2SO4 formed
o
1 Alcohols Complete Oxidation CH3CH2OH + 2[O] CH3COOH + H2O Heat under reflux
K2Cr2O7 / dil.H2SO4 Orange to green
o
2 Alcohols Oxidation CH3CHOHCH3 + [O] CH3COCH3 + H2O Heat under reflux
K2Cr2O7 / dil.H2SO4 Orange to green
- +
Reaction with sodium CH3CH2OH + Na CH3CH2O Na + H2 Colourless effervescence
Sodium dissolves

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