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LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED

POWER CONTROL MODULE


FOR DG SETS CONNECTED
TO LOCAL GRID

R.Seshadri
Larsen & Toubro Limited
Mysore works
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1.0 Introduction :

Following sections describe a typical scheme for control of power output of a


DG set which is connected to a local grid.The plant equipments are :

a) One no. incomer transformer + breaker


b) One no. DG set
c) Plant Load Feeders

The SLD is as per fig.1 enclosed.

Under normal conditions the plant will be operating from the local grid supply.
The DG set will be synchronized with the plant bus (ie) DG will be running in
parallel with the grid. The plant is fed by the grid as well as the DG.

The objective of the scheme is :

a) as long as the grid supply is present, the DG should not develop an out
put power, more than 5% of its rated capacity. Plant load will be
predominantly fed by the grid.

b) when the grid fails, the generator should develop full power.
If the plant load is more than DG capacity, load shedding must be
carried out so that DG does not trip on over load

The scheme should have provisions to recognize grid status, to control the
active power level of the DG as required by the plant, to generate triggers for
load shedding .

2.0 Scope of work envisaged in the scheme are :

a) Grid status detection


b) Control of DG power output by giving pulses to DG governor
c) Trigger generation for load shedding
d) Interlocks required for safe operation of the plant

The hardware to provide above facilities is the Power control Module from
L&T. The constituent components of this module and each of the above scope
is explained more in detail in the following sections.

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3.0 Components of the system ;

The system is supplied in a 19 rack unit. Please see fig. 2 for the general
arrangement of various modules in the rack. The system consists of following
components :

Front panel mounted components :

a) 1 no. Load sharing relay, Type RRS


b) 2 nos. Under Voltage relays, Type MV12 for grid detection
c) 1 no. 2 stage Voltage reference Source (0.25 V DC & and 3 V Dc)
d) 1 no. Control unit with following accessories :
- multi parameter measuring meter QUASAR
- 1 no. Auto / Manual switch
- 2 nos PBs for governor control (manual mode)
- 6 nos. LED Indicating lamps for various status indications

4.0 System Operation :

The system has Auto / Manual selection facility. If the A/M switch is manual,
then, the complete power control of DG set is done by means of the inc / dec
PBs on the front panel.

The following sections describe the automatic power control process, when the
A/M switch is kept in Auto position.

5.0 System Operation Auto Mode :


5.1 Load Sharing Relay RRS

The heart of the system is the Automatic Load Sharing Relay type RRS.
Please see fig.3 for the connection diagram of RRS.

The inputs to RRS relay are the CT and two PT secondaries of the DG feeder.
The ratings of the DG can be set on the front panel of the relay .

The relay computes the DG active power from the CT / PT inputs and
generates an open circuit voltage of 3V DC at terminals H,K of the relay,
provided the active power level of the DG is 100% . If the active power is
90%, then the voltage at terminals HK would be 90% of 3 V (ie) 2.7 V .

As shown in the fig. 3 , the reference voltage source is connected to HK


terminals of RRS relay. When the incomer breaker is closed, the reference
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source gives an output of 0.15V ( corresponding to 5% of the DG rating) and


if the incomer is open, the reference source gives an output of 3 V
( corresponding to 100% rating of DG) .

Since the voltage developed by RRS relay ( Vrrs) and Voltage reference source
(Vref) , are connected in parallel, there will be a circulating current inside
RRS , whose direction and magnitude will depend upon the difference between
Vrrs and Vref. This current is processed inside RRS the relay generates
increase / decrease pulses to control the governor of DG set, by which the
generator output is controlled. Following examples explain the operation more
in detail :

a) Case-1 : Incomer is closed.


Generator output should not be more than 5%.
From the auxiliary contact of the incomer breaker, Vref is automatically
set to 0.15V.

If the DG tries to deliver more than 5% output, RRS will develop a


voltage more than 0.15 V. There will be a circulating current inside the
relay the relay will give decrease pulses to governor..

If the DG power is less than 5%, Vrrs will be less than 0.15V , relay will
give increase pulses to governor.

The relay will stop giving inc / dec pulses only when Vrrs = Vref.
( this is when the circulating current will be zero). Thus the DG will be
maintained at 5% power level.

b) Case-2 : Incomer is opened.


Generator output should be 100%.
From the auxiliary contact of the incomer breaker, Vref is automatically
set to 3.0 V

If the DG power is less than 100%, Vrrs will be less than Vref RRS
will give increase pulses to governor.

The relay will stop giving inc / dec pulses only when Vrrs = Vref.
( this is when the circulating current will be zero)

Thus , the DG will be automatically brought to 100% power level.

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5.2 Trigger for Load shedding :

When the incomer is open and the DG is delivering 100%, if the plant load is
more than the DG capacity, then the DG will get over loaded. This condition is
sensed by the Over power element of RRS Relay the relay will give a contact
output if the DG power exceeds the DG rating. This contact can be used as a
trigger for initiating load shedding.

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