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Topic: Introduction to Guidance and Counselling

I. CONCEPTS OF GUIDANCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO EDUCATION problems, make personal-social adjustment, acquire knowledge, habits,
skills, and information so that he can live happily, efficiently and become
The real meaning of guidance can be perceived by considering
a useful, upright member of society.
the common use of the term to guide. To guide means to point out, to
show the way or to direct. But guidance is more than guiding and giving The Education Commission (EC-1964-66) observes, Guidance
directions. Rather, guidance is assistance made available by personally should be regarded as an integral part of Education and not as a special,
qualified and adequately trained men or women to an individual of any psychological or social service which is peripheral to educational
age to help him manage his own life activities, develop his own point of purposes. It is meant for all students not just for those who deviate from
view, make his own decisions and carry his own burden. the norm in one direction.
Shirley Hamrins (1950) - definition of guidance is helping John to see Jone, A.J., pointing out the relationship between guidance and
through himself, in order that he may see himself through is a simple and education observes, All guidance is Education but some aspects of
practical but challenging concept of guidance. Education are not Guidance. Their objectives are the same- the
development of the individual- but methods used in education are by no
Downing (1968)- guidance is an organized set of specialized
means the same as those used in Guidance.
services established as an integral part of the school environment
designed to promote the development of students and assist them
toward a realization of sound, wholesome adjustment, and maximum
accomplishments commensurate with their potentialities.
According to Crow and Crow:
Chrisholm (1951) believes that guidance seeks to help an
individual become familiar with facts about himself his interest, abilities, All round development of individuals
previous development and plans. Principles of individual differences
Guidance is related to every aspect of life
Jones (1965) stated that guidance involves personal help given
Cooperating among persons
by someone.
Guidance is a continuous and lifelong process
Traxler (1954) says that guidance enables each individual to Guidance for all
understand his abilities and his interest. Principles of elaboration
Responsibility of teachers and parents
Glenn F. Smith stated that counselling is essentially a process in which the
counselor assists the counselee to make interpretations of facts relating
Principles of evaluation
to a choice, plan or adjustment that he needs to make.
Guidance by a trained person
Carl Rogers said that counselling is a series of direct contacts with Principle of periodic appraisal
the individual, which aims to offer him assistance in changing his attitude
Aims of Guidance Program
and behaviors.
1. To provide services which contribute to a realization of
Relation of Guidance to Education
According to Crow, guidance is assistance made available by 2. To provide teachers with encouragement and stimulation
qualifies and adequately trained men to an individual of any age to help toward better teaching.
him manage his own life activities, develop his own point of view, make 3. To provide teachers with technical assistance.
his own decisions, and carry his own burdens. The focus of guidance is the 4. To contribute to the mutual adjustment of students and
individual not the problem. Guidance is a systematic service given to help the school.
the individual understand himself, make wise choices, solve his own 5. To identify students with developing problems.
The Need for Guidance and Counseling pressing problems facing Boston systems was the selection of
students for overcrowded vocational high schools.
The need for guidance and counseling can be summarize as
2. Educational Guidance - Increasing recognition among
1. To help is the total development of the students. parents of the value to their children of continued education
2. To arise students in leading a healthy life by abstaining from resulted in not only a growing secondary school population
whatever is deleterious to health. but also diversified curriculum offering. This meant that
3. To help the proper selection of educational program. students entering high school needed help in selecting a
4. To select career according to their interest and abilities. curriculum in consonance with their interest and/or wishes of
5. To help students in vocational development. their parents.
6. To develop readiness for change and to face challenges. 3. Personal Guidance and Mental Hygiene -Various conditions
7. To help freshens to establish proper written. inherent in the 20th century life represents maladjusted factors
8. To identify and motivate students of the weaker society. causing leaders to become concerned about the personal
9. To help the students to overcome the period of turmoil and welfare of the children and adults. The mental hygiene
confusions. movement provided another source of support for the
10. Ensure proper utilization of time spend outside the class. conservation of human resources stressed by the vocational
11. To help in tackling problems arising out of student exploration guidance movement and the humanization of education
and co-education. stressed by the progressive education movement. Beers
12. To minimize the indiscipline. autobiography (1908) attracted the attention of educators as
13. To motivate youth for self-employment. well as social reformers.
4. Child Guidance Clinic - From the small clinic established in
Chicago for the purpose of studying and applying therapies
III. PHILOSOPHY BEHIND GUIDANCE to young people who gave evidence of serious
maladjustment, the Illinois Institute of Juvenile Research was
The underlying philosophies of guidance are as follows:
developed. At present, child-guidance, psychological and
1. Know the individual. educational clinics serve children, adolescents and adults in
2. Guidance is primarily dedicated to implement the practically every large city in the country, and some small
essential concern of democracy for the dignity and worth communities.
of the individual. B. Early Pioneers of Counselling
3. Guidance is a lifelong process. 1. Frank Parsons
4. Guidance is based on human needs. Credited as the first counselor and often referred to as the
5. Guidance is an art of heling individuals to plan their own Father of Guidance.
action wisely, in the full of light of all the facts about the To individualized counseling, he established the Vocational
world in which they will live and work. Bureau of Boston in 1908.
At the Bureau, Parsons worked with young people who were
in the process of making career decisions. He envisioned a
IV. HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE OF GUIDANCE practice of vocational guidance based on rationality and
reason with service, concern for others, cooperation, and
A. History of Guidance
social justice among its core values. He theorized that
1. Vocational Guidance - The first recorded attempt of providing
vocational assistance to young people was the guidance choosing a vocation was a matter of relating three factors: a
movement started in Boston by Frank Parsons. The Boston knowledge of work, a knowledge of self, and a matching of
Vocational Bureau started training teachers to serve as the two through true reasoning. Thus, Parsons devised a
vocational counselors immediately because one of the most number of procedures to help his clients learn more
about themselves and the world of work. One of his devices
was an extensive questionnaire that asked about Eli Weaver established teacher guidance committees in every
experiences, preferences, and morals. high school in New York City. These committees worked
In 1909, a year after his death, his book Choosing a Vocation actively to help youths discover their capabilities and learn
was published wherein he discussed the role of the counselor how to use those talents to secure the most appropriate
and techniques that might be employed in counseling. employment. He believed in working within the framework of
2. Lysander S. Richards the existing society and looked upon counseling as a means
In 1881, he published a slim volume titled Vocophy. This was of keeping the wheels of the machinery well oiled.
the New Profession, a system enabling a person to name the 5. Davis Spence Hill
calling or vocation one is best suited to follow. He organized the first guidance and counselling services in
His work has been dismissed because there is no documented New Orleans. As Director of Research for the New Orleans
proof that he actually established the services he advocated. schools, he discovered a need for guidance to assist youth in
3. Jesse B. Davis assessing their abilities and in learning about the opportunities
Founder of the Educational Guidance and was the first that would best help them use those abilities.
person to set up a systematized guidance program in the He advocated and worked for a diversified curriculum
public schools complemented by Vocational Guidance.
He implemented his ideas among his students on self-study
6. Carl Rogers
and the examination of self in relation to the chosen
occupation throughout the 7th to 12th grades. Advocator of the Client-centered Counseling, which he
His description of counseling seem to suggest that students introduced in 1942 in his publication, Counseling and
should be preached about the moral value of hard work, Psychotherapy.
ambition, honesty, and the development of the character as He offers nondirective counseling as an alternative to the
assets to any person who planned to enter the business world. older, more traditional methods.
He use the call concept in relation to the way one should He stressed that the individuals had the capacity to explore
choose a vocation. When an individual was called, he would themselves and to make decisions without an authoritative
approach it with the noblest and highest ideals, which would judgement from a counselor (stressing the clients
serve society best by uplifting humanity. responsibility in perceiving his or her problem and enhancing
What he and other progressive educators advocated was not the self).
counseling in the modern sense but a forerunner of Since there was no advice given or persuasion used to follow
counseling: school guidance (a preventive educational a certain course, this system was better known as Non-
means of teaching students how to deal effectively with life directive counseling.
7. Clifford Beer
4. Anna Y. Reed and Eli Weaver
American counselors who established counseling services A former Yale student who was hospitalized for depression
based on Social Darwinian concepts. Social Darwinism is an several times during his life. He found conditions in mental
application of Darwins biologic theory of evolution to social institutions deplorable and exposed them in his book, A Mind
organizations. That Found Itself (1908), which became a popular best seller.
Anna Y. Reed established guidance services in the Seattle. He used the book as a platform to advocate for better mental
She came to the need for counseling services through her health facilities and reform in the treatment of people with
study of newsboys, penal institutions and charity schools. She mental illness
believes that guidance could be important as a means of His work was the impetus for the mental health movement in
developing the best possible educational product. She the United States, as well as advocacy groups that exist today
believed in stiff competition and that people needed to give including the National Mental Health Association and the
their best effort to any assigned task in order to see themselves National Alliance for the Mentally Ill. His work was also a
as successful. forerunner of mental health counseling.
C. Development of Guidance in the Philippines In view of the interest developed in Psychology and
Before 1925, guidance as movement, as it is now Guidance, colleges and universities started offering courses such
practiced and accepted, was unknown in the Philippines. It was as Counseling Psychology, Industrial Psychology, Clinical
when Dr. Sinforoso Padilla, Dean of Men of the University of the Psychology and Human Services Technology.
Philippines started in 1932 a Psychological Clinic which dealt with
student cases of discipline, emotional, academic, and
In November 1945, the first Guidance Institute seminar held
In 1951, the Philippines has its own beginning in the legal
at the National Teachers College (NTC), Manila from November
foundation of guidance when the Joint Congressional Committee on
23 to December 13 with the United States Arm Psychologist as
Education, in its report to Congress, stated that: there should be
resource persons. Educators from all levels of the school system
established in every secondary school a functional and counseling
were given a series of guidance lectures. After his seminar, the
program to help the students, to guide them in their work in school and
participants organized the Guidance Association of the
at home and to help them solve their problems.
Philippines. The Bureau of Public Schools started to send teachers
and officials for observation and study of guidance services To give more impact on the role of guidance in the Philippine
abroad. educational system, Section 4- Declaration of Objectives of Batas
Cognizant of the role of guidance in our schools, the Joint Pambansa Blg. 232, an act providing for the establishment and
Congressional Committee on Education, in its report in 1951 to maintenance of an integrated system of education which shall be known
Congress stated; as the Education Act of 1982 states that the educational system shall aims
There should be established in every secondary to:
school a functional guidance and counseling program to help
1) provide for a broad general education that will assist each
the students select courses, activities, occupations and friends
individual, in the peculiar ecology of his own society, to: a)
and future mates; to guide them in their work in school and at
attain his potentials as a human being; b) enhance the range
home and to help them solve their personal problems.
and quality of individual and group participation in the basic
functions of society: and c) acquire the essential educational
In 1952, the Division Superintendent of Schools
foundation of is development into a productive and versatile
recommended the establishment of guidance services in the
public schools. The City of Manila at present has the most up-to-
2) Train the nations manpower in the middle-level skills for national
date organization and maintenance of functional guidance
program in general secondary school.
3) Develop the profession that will provide leadership for the nation
in the advancement of knowledge for improving the quality of
In December 1953, another organization was organized.
human life; and 4) respond effectively to changing needs and
This was the Philippine Association of Guidance Counselors. The
conditions of the nation through a system of educational
objectives of the Association are:
planning and evaluation.
1. To study the needs, interest, potentialities of our young
people on order to promote their welfare. The realization of these objectives are stipulated under Section 3,
2. To establish a Testing Bureau which would undertake Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution to wit: All educational institutions shall
research with a view to develop local tests. inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for
human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical
Advisement and Guidance Section was established by
development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship,
the United States Veterans Administration, composed of both
strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and
American and Filipino psychologists like Dr. Sinforoso Padilla, Dr.
personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden
Jesus Perpinan, and Mr. Roman Tuason, setting up first systematic
scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational
guidance program in the Philippines.
It can be summarized that the Constitution is ordering all the 1.6 Physiognomy- It is the art discovering temperament,
schools to know the needed objectives and that the guidance office is personality trait and character from outward appearance.
the only office that can effectively discharge the services needed in 1.7 Spiritualism- A belief that spirits of the dead communicate
order to attain the goals embodied by the Constitution. with the living usually through a medium.
Bases of Present Guidance Approach Nowadays, still thousands of individuals believe in this kind of
pseudo-sciences, which indicates a great need for helping this people.
As time goes by and life becomes more complex and dynamic,
more recent guidance practices and approaches were discovered, 2. Changing concepts of psychology. Guidance is an outgrowth of
providing a more scientific method of helping individuals to find various movements dealing with patters of human life. Early
themselves. These methods are based on research in the natural and psychologists discovered that human behavior does not always
social sciences attuned to our present condition to make it more effective follow philosophical determined patterns. Hence, psychologists
and efficient. There are many factors that changes the approach of our embark on a series of research studies, investigations and
present guidance programs and these are: experiments to discover what causes human begins to think and
act as they do.
1. Pseudo-scientific approaches. It is a system of theories or
3. Industrial and scientific progress. The invention of machineries
assertions about the natural world that claim or appear to be
and the rapid increase of industrialism have led to a degree of
scientific but that, in fact, are not. This kind of approach has
occupational specialization unheard in earlier times. Increased
different forms as follows:
production, distribution and consumption of goods have
1.1 Numerology- It is the study of the occult significance of
increased the number of special jobs to be performed; they have
numbers. Many of our people still believes in the effect of
also led to the development of many other forms of service
numbers into their lives.
occupations to meet the complexities of urban life and to provide
1.2 Astrology- It is the divination of the supposed influences of the
for the leisure time activities of workers.
stars and planets on human affairs and terrestrial events by
4. Changing educational objectives. Twentieth century educational
their position and aspects. The most common instrument used
emphasis on the learner rather than the materials to be learned
by astrologers is the horoscope. A horoscope is
had done much to further interest in guidance. Schools on every
an astrological chart or diagram representing the positions of
level evidence an interest in all phases of the individuals
the Sun, Moon, planets, astrological aspects, and sensitive
angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a
5. Increase in school population. The increase in the number of
person's birth.
children and adolescents who are expected to be receiving
1.3 Graphology- It is the study of handwriting especially for the
formal school training has caused serious consideration of the
purpose of character analysis. An individual personality is
problems of administration, organization and guidance. There
analyzed from characteristic patterns or features of his writing
are budgetary difficulties involved in the matter of providing
on the basis of intensity of strokes, shapes, size and slant of the
building and school personnel sufficient to meet the needs such
as large number of pupils. Almost unavoidable problems that
1.4 Palmistry- The art or practice of reading a persons character
crop-up are:
or future from the lines on the palms. The belief that line on
ones hand tells the faith and the destiny of an individual is still
Lack of classrooms
prevalent in our society.
Lack of teachers and school personnel.
1.5 Phrenology- The study of the conformation of the skull as
Multiple tasks assigned to counselors other than guidance
indicative of mental faculties and character traits.
work counseling
Phrenologist claim that if a person has a wide or prominent
forehead, he is said to be intelligent. The phrenology head is
composed of 35 different regions
VI. THE RATIONALE FOR THE INCLUSION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING as citizens have a deep sense of nationalism and are committed
AND VALUES EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES to the progress of the nation as well as of the entire world
community through global solidarity; and
Manifest in actual life an abiding faith in God as a reflection of
The Values Education in the Philippines their spiritual being.
The Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) provides Principles and Guidelines
and promotes values education at all three levels of the educational
Values education, pursued at the national, regional, local, and
system for the development of the human person committed to the
institution levels, should be guided by the following general principles:
building "of a just and humane society" and an independent and
democratic nation. It must be oriented toward the total person of the learner-mind,
heart, and entire being.
Values Education
It must take into consideration the unique role of the family in ones
Values Education as a part of the school curriculum is the process personal development and integration into society and the nation.
by which values are formed in the learner under the guidance of the In the school context, more important than lesson plans and any
teacher and as he interacts with this environment. But it involves not just list of values are the teachers themselves who have the proper
any kind of teaching-learning process. sense of values, awareness of their inner worth, and utmost respect
for the person of the other.
First, the subject matter itself, values, has direct and immediate
relevance to the personal life of the learner.
Second, the process is not just cognitive but involves all the Guidance Counseling
faculties of the learner. The teacher must appeal not only to the mind but
A. Beliefs
to the hearts as well, in fact, the total human person.
An effective school counseling program:
Third, one learns values the way children learn many things from 1. teaches life skills
their parents. Children identify with parents, and this identification 2. involves all students
becomes the vehicle for the transmission of learning, be it language or 3. allows for goal setting opportunities
the values of thrift and hard work. Hence, the teachers personal values 4. provides a safe place for problem solving
play an important role in values learning. 5. helps all children to become successful adults
6. understands and values the student's capabilities
The goal of Values Education is...
7. facilitates and supports reciprocal integration of the
To provide and promote values education at all three levels of the curriculum
educational system for the development of the human person 8. promotes supportive and collaborative issues among parents
committed to the building o a just and humane society" and an and the community
independent and democratic nation. 9. include age appropriate issues such as careers, academics,
and personal/social
For the objectives,
B. Other beliefs:
Proper implementation of the program will develop Filipinos who: Additionally, effective school counseling programs:
1. encourage life-long learning
are self-actualized, integrally developed human beings imbued with
2. believe that all students are capable of learning
a sense of human dignity;
3. believe that when students trust in themselves they are more
are social beings with a sense of responsibility for their community and
open to learning
4. society benefits as a whole from a comprehensive school
are productive persons who contribute to the economic security and
counseling program
development of the family and the nation;
C. Rationale 7. Provides age-appropriate levels of interaction and instruction
8. Helps all students become more resourceful in decision-
A better job must be doane in communicating the benefit of
guidance and counseling to the entire educational community of
E. Parent Benefits:
parents and community. By applying a comprehensive school-
1. Encourages involvement of parents in students' learning
counseling program, it becomes possible for counselors to conduct
an effective and beneficial program, for all students.
2. Provides parents timely, appropriate support and resources
School counselors are expected to provide support to every when needed
student so each individual can achieve success. Counselors work with 3. Increases opportunities for parent, student, and counselor
all students, parents, teachers, and community members. Counselors interaction
support the district's educational program through professional 4. Brings about better understanding of the guidance and
organizations, development, activities, and committee work. counseling program
Counselors also support their own program through management F. Teacher Benefits:
and research activities, community outreach, and professional 1. Promotes a team effort to address school counseling
development. competencies
2. Increases teacher accessibility to counselor as a multiple
The following are rationale for a framework for school
3. Integrates curriculum and associated competencies
Benchmarking 4. Integrates interdisciplinary approach with all curriculum areas
ensuring continuity G. Administrator Benefits:
standardization 1. Creates structured program with specific school counseling
guiding and directing practitioners in program design, competencies
implementation, and evaluation 2. Provides accountability to school counseling program
providing one direction/purpose 3. Facilitates team approach between administration and
direction setting in counselor preparation school counseling program
ensuring professionalism 4. Encourages better understanding of the role of counselors
guaranteeing equity in services in public and private schools and the total guidance program
providing structure that will inform the public about the H. Local Board of Education Benefits:
importance of school counseling 1. Provides a rationale for school counseling as a comprehensive
rationalize the nature of school counseling programs program in the school system and the roles of counselors
define counselor competencies necessary to run the 2. Creates greater school-community interaction
programs I. Counseling Staff Benefits:
make public school administrators recognize the counselors 1. Provides a clearly defined set of functions.
relevance in the school system 2. Integrates the school counseling program with other school
D. Student Benefits: curriculum programs.
1. Prepares all students in all areas of academics and career 3. Articulates competencies that students are expected to
choices achieve because of participating in a comprehensive
2. Assists all students in the development of positive social and developmental school counseling program.
personal skills
3. Provides continuity for smooth and effective levels of transition
from Kindergarten through the Fifth Grade
4. Guarantees services to all students
5. Focuses on the students needs
6. Develops proactive skills