0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

77 просмотров85 страницdesign of axial flow compressors

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

design of axial flow compressors

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

77 просмотров85 страницdesign of axial flow compressors

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 85

RMD 2501

Axial Compressors

Prof Q.H.

Prof. Q H Nagpurwala

PEMP

RMD 2501

Session Objectives

Basic Theory of Axial Flow Compressors

Velocity Triangles and Degree of Reaction

Three Dimensional Flow and Vortex Theory

Compressor Efficiency

Performance Characteristics

Stall and Surge Phenomena in Compressors

PEMP

Axial Compressor RMD 2501

Intake

Exhaust

PEMP

PEMP

Introduction RMD 2501

In axial flow compressors, flow enters the first blade row and leaves

the last blade row in axial direction.

Flow through the machine is parallel to the axis of the shaft.

Axial compressors are characterised by lower pressure ratio per

stage at higher mass flow rates compared to centrifugal

compressors; and hence these machines are preferred for civil and

militaryy aero engines

g as well as for industrial ggas turbines.

Higher mass flow rate produces higher thrust.

Axial compressors are classified as subsonic,

subsonic transonic and

supersonic depending on whether the relative flow Mach number at

rotor inlet is fully subsonic, partly subsonic and partly supersonic,

or fully

f ll supersonic along

l the

h blade

bl d height.

h i h

PEMP

Rotor carries moving blades.

Stator has stationary rows of blades, which convert kinetic energy

of air into pressure energy and also redirect the flow at an angle

suitable for entry to the next row of moving blades.

blades

Both, rotor and stator blade passages, are basically diffusers.

A stage comprises one rotating row followed by a stator row.

row

Sometimes, a row of so-called Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) is provided

upstream of the first rotor, forming an additional row of stator

blades. These IGV serve to direct the axially approaching flow

correctly into the first row of rotor blades to meet the design and

off-design

g requirements.

q

PEMP

Flow through an Axial Compressor RMD 2501

Rotor Stator

PEMP

Axial Compressor Stage RMD 2501

row followed by a stator blade row. The rotor

blades (black) are fixed to the rotor drum and the

stator blades are fixed to the outer casing. The

blades upstream of the first rotor row are inlet

guide vanes

vanes. These are not considered to be a

part of the first stage and are treated separately.

Their function is quite different from the other

bl d rows since,

blade i by

b directing

di ti the th flow

fl away

from the axial direction, they act to accelerate

the flow rather than diffuse it. Functionally, inlet

guide

id vanes are theh same as turbine

bi nozzles;

l they

h

increase the kinetic energy of the flow at the

expense of the pressure energy.

PEMP

Compression Process RMD 2501

PEMP

Compression Efficiency RMD 2501

isen

Actual enthalpy rise h02 h01

c p T02 s T01 02

c p T02 T01

T01 T02 s

T02 T01 1

T02 s T01 1

c c T01

1

T02 s p02

T01 p01 Compression process

1

on T-s diagram

1 p02

T01

T02-T 1

c p01

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 10

PEMP

Elementary Theory RMD 2501

Total

T l andd static

i pressure andd temperature rise

i across the

h rotor blades

bl d due

d

to addition of external work.

Absolute flow undergoes acceleration across rotor blade rows.

rows

There is flow diffusion across stator blade rows, converting kinetic

energy into pressure.

The design pressure rise is achieved in a number of stages.

PEMP

Velocity Triangles RMD 2501

Two-Dimensional

C : Absolute flow velocity

Ca: Axial component of C

Cw: whirl or tangential

component

p of C

V : Relative flow velocity

: Absolute flow angle

: Relative flow Angle

PEMP

Euler Turbine Equation RMD 2501

W k done

Work d per unit

i mass flow

fl rate or Specific

S ifi Work

W k

W U 2 C w2 U 1C w1

For U2 = U1, and Ca1 = Ca2 = Ca, we can write

W U C w2 C w1

UCa tan 2 tan 1

UCa tan 1 tan 2

Also

U

tan 1 tan 1 (1)

Ca

U

tan

t 2 tan

t 2 (2)

Ca

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 13

PEMP

Euler Turbine Equation RMD 2501

temperature and velocity of the air and wastefully in overcoming

various frictional losses.

W c p Tos UCa tan 1 tan 2

UCa

Tos tan 1 tan 2

cp

And, if C3 = C1

UCa

Tos Ts tan 1 tan 2

cp

p 03 T os - 1

Total pressure ratio

ratio, 1 s

s = stage

g isentropic

p efficiency

y

p 01 To1 T01= inlet stagnation temperature

PEMP

Work Done Factor RMD 2501

along the blade height.

The

Th endd wall

ll boundary

b d layers

l

are responsible for the nature of

spanwise axial velocity

di ib i as shown.

distribution, h

The axial velocity profile

becomes more and more peaky

as the flow proceeds down-

stream and settles down in the

fourth stage

stage.

There is no appreciable change

in the axial velocity profile

beyond fourth stage.

PEMP

Work Done Factor RMD 2501

Work

W kDDone FFactor is

i the

h ratioi off the

h actuall workk absorbing

b bi

capacity of the stage to its ideal value as calculated from the Euler

turbine equation.

q

W UC a tan 1 tan 2

For a given rotor

U U C a tan 1 C a tan 2 blade,, 1 and 2 are

almost constant

U U C a tan 1 tan 2

Hence, less work is done at the region where Ca is high and the

actual temperature rise is given by

UC a

Tos Ts tan 1 tan 2

cp

is the work done factor,

factor which is less than unity.

unity Its value may range from 0.96

0 96

at the first stage to about 0.85 at the fourth and subsequent stages.

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 16

PEMP

Work Done Factor RMD 2501

W UC a tan 1 tan 2

U U C a tan 1 C a tan 2

U U C a tan 1 tan 2

Since 1 and 2 are approximately

pp y constant for a ggiven design,

g ,

an increase in Ca will result in a decrease in W and vice

versa, hence less work at the region where Ca is high.

Actual temperature rise Tos UC a tan 1 tan 2

cp

T os - 1

and pressure ratio R s 1 s

T o1

s : Stage isentropic efficiency

T01 : Inlet stagnation temperature

PEMP

Degree of Reaction RMD 2501

rotor to static enthalpy rise in the whole stage

TA : Static

S i temperature risei ini the

h rotor

T B : Static temperature rise in the stator

W cp TA TB cp Ts

UC a tan 1 tan 2

UCa( tan 2 tan 1 )

Since all the work input to the stage is transferred to the air by

means of the rotor, the SFEE yields

C1 C a sec 1

W c p T A C 2 C 1

1 2 2

2 C 2 C a sec 2

c p T A UC a ( tan 2 tan 1 )-

1 2

2

C 2 C12

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 18

PEMP

Degree of Reaction RMD 2501

c p TA UCa tan 2 tan 1 Ca sec 2 2 sec 2 1

1 2

2

UCa tan t 1 Ca tan

t 2 tan

1 2

2

t 2 2 tan

t 2 1

R = Degree of Reaction

T A

T A T B

UC a tan 2 tan 1 - C a2 tan 2 2 tan 2 1

1

2

UC a tan 2 tan 1

Ca

1 ( tan 2 tan 1 )

2U

PEMP

Symmetrical Blading RMD 2501

2U

tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2

Ca

Ca 2U 2U

R tan 1 tan 2

2U Ca Ca

Ca

tan 1 tan 2

2U

1 U

If R then tan 1 tan 2

2 Ca

From equation (1) & (2) It is assumed that = 1

1 2

Since cannot be 1, the degree of

1 2 reaction achieved will be slightly

different from 0.5

05

This results in symmetrical

velocity triangles across the rotor

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 20

PEMP

Un-symmetrical Blading RMD 2501

the velocity diagram is If R < 0.5, then 2 < 1 and the

skewed to the right. The static velocity diagram is skewed to

enthalpy rise in the rotor the left. The stator enthalpy

exceeds that in the stator (this (and pressure) rise exceeds

is also true for the static that in the rotor.

pressure rise).

PEMP

Three Dimensional Flow RMD 2501

small i.e. hub/tipp radius ratio > 0.8.

Three dimensional analysis is to be considered when hub/tip

radius ratio 0.4.

In three dimensional flow, the radial component of velocity also

needs to be considered alongwith axial and tangential

components.

However, the radial velocity can be ignored if the flow is assumed

to be in radial

di l equilibrium

ilib i from hub

h b to tip.

tip

PEMP

Vortex Theory RMD 2501

q between

centrifugal forces and pressure forces experienced by the flowing

medium in a blade passage.

It is used to obtain the axial velocity distribution across the

blade rows from hub to tip by specifying a whirl distribution. With

the knowledge of whirl and axial velocity distribution across the

radius, one can complete the velocity triangles.

PEMP

Radial Equilibrium of Fluid Element RMD 2501

a rotor blade row

equilibrium (Cr = 0)

PEMP

Radial Equilibrium Equation RMD 2501

ass mption of the radial equilibrium elocit Cr is

eq ilibri m is that the radial velocity

zero at entry and exit from a blade row.

Starting from the equation of motion in cylindrical coordinates, the variation in

Cr is written as

Cr C Cr Cr C2 1 p

Cr Cx

r r x r r

If there are large number of blades, then variations in direction may be

neglected.

Cr Cr C2 1 p

Cr Cx

r x r r

Further, if there is no component of velocity in the radial direction, i.e. if there is

radial equilibrium, then Cr = 0, and the above equation reduces to

the

h pressure forces

f on the

h fluid

fl id particles

i l

r r are balanced by the centrifugal forces

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 25

PEMP

Radial Equilibrium Equation RMD 2501

Alternate Approach

Consider a small element of fluid of mass dm of unit depth and subtending an

angle d at the axis,

axis rotating about the axis with tangential velocity C at radius r.

r

The element is in radial equilibrium so that the pressure forces balance the

centrifugal forces.

W iti

Writing

and ignoring terms of the second order of smallness, the above equation reduces to:

PEMP

Axial Velocity Distribution RMD 2501

1

p0 p C x2 C2

2

1 dp0 1 dp dC x dC

and Cx C

dr dr dr dr

C2 dC x dC

Cx C

r dr dr

dC x C d

Cx r.C

d

dr r dr

d

If the total pressure is assumed constant along the radius, then

dC x C d

Cx r.C 0

dr r dr

or

d 2

dr

1 d

Cx 2

r dr

r.C 2 0 Gives variation

Gi i ti off axial

velocity with radius

i l

PEMP

Axial Velocity Distribution RMD 2501

1 2

2

C x C2

dh0 dh dC x dC

Cx C

dr r dr dr

ds dh 1 dp

But T

dr r dr

dh0 ds 1 dp dC x dC

T Cx C

dr dr dr dr dr

dC x C d

Cx r.C

dr r dr

dh0 ds

If 0 and T 0

dr rr

dC x C d

Then Cx r.C 0

dr r dr

or

d 2

dr

Cx 2

1 d

r dr

r.C 2 0 Gives variation

Gi i ti off axial

velocity with radius

i l

PEMP

Types of Whirl Distribution RMD 2501

design practice are:

Free vortex r C = constant

Forced vortex C / r = constant

Constant reaction R = constant

Exponential C 1 = a b/r (after stator)

C 2 = a + b/r (after rotor)

Free

F vortex

t whirl

hi l distribution

di t ib ti results

lt in

i highly

hi hl twisted

t i t d blades

bl d

and is not advisable for blades of small height.

The current design practice for transonic compressors is to use

constant pressure ratio across the span.

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 29

PEMP

W = constant

n=0 Exponential

E ti l design

d i

n=1 Constant reaction design

a=0 Free vortex design

b = 0 and n = 1 Forced vortex design

PEMP

Free Vortex Design RMD 2501

r C = constant

Putting this in the equation for axial velocity distribution, we get

dCx / dr = 0 Cx = constant,

enabling the radial variation in flow angles, reaction and work to be found.

Then W = constant

PEMP

Free Vortex Design RMD 2501

Degree of reaction

Likewise, as is always positive, so the static pressure increases from root

to tip.

tip

For the free-vortex flow r C = constant. Hence, the static pressure variation is

PEMP

Free Vortex Design RMD 2501

PEMP

Constant Reaction Design RMD 2501

n=1 and

Implicit is the

Degree of reaction assumption

ti that

th t the

th

axial velocity across the

rotor remains constant,

which is tantamount to

ignoring radial

equilibrium in this case.

Assuming constant stagnation enthalpy at entry to the stage and integrating the

equation for axial velocity, the distribution of Cx before and after the rotor is

given by:

PEMP

Constant Reaction Design RMD 2501

angles constant 50% reaction

PEMP

Comparison of Vortex Designs RMD 2501

vortex exponential

and constant reaction designs

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 36

PEMP

Comparison of Vortex Designs RMD 2501

The air angles for free vortex, constant reaction and exponential designs

are compared in the figure (previous slide) both at inlet and exit to the rotor.

The free vortex design exhibits most marked twist over the blade span,

with the constant reaction showing the least; the exponential design gives a

compromise between the two.

two

The aerodynamic loading at the root section of the free vortex is substan-

tially higher than that for either of the other two designs.

The constant reaction design looks quite attractive, but the radial equili-

brium is ignored. This will result in flow velocities not in agreement with

the predicted air angles,

angles leading to some loss in efficiency.

efficiency

The exponential design results in a substantial variation in axial velocity,

both across the annulus and through

g the stage.

g

PEMP

Compressibility Effects RMD 2501

detrimental to the compressor performance.

Variation of entry Mach Numbers are shown in the figure.

PEMP

Blade Section-Free Vortex RMD 2501

PEMP

PEMP

Choice of Whirl Distribution RMD 2501

design with radius distribution variation with reaction with equilibrium

radius radius

Free vortex Constant r.C = constant Constant Increases with yes Highly twisted

radius rotor blades

Forced vortex Increases with r2 C /r = constant From radial Varies with yes Rarely used

equilibrium radius

reaction equilibrium method. Highly

twisted blades

Exponential Constant C = a + b/r From radial Varies with yes A logical design

equilibrium radius method.

Constant 2 Supposed constant Fixed by the Supposed Approx. constant Ignored Blades with lesser

condition

diti that

th t constant

t t t it

twist

C2 = constant;

C1 = a b/r

Deviation Angle

PEMP

RMD 2501

Deviation Angle

PEMP

RMD 2501

blade outlet angle 2 can not be obtained from the air outlet

anglel 2 until

til the

th deviation

d i ti angle l = 2 - 2 has

h been

b

determined.

Ideally, the mean direction of the air leaving the cascade

would be that of the outlet angle of the blades, but in practice

it is found that there is a deviation which is due to reluctance

of the air to turn through the full angle required by the shape

of the blades (shown in the figure).

The analysis of the relation between the air and the blade

outlet angles

g from cascade tests shows that their difference is

dependent mainly on the blade camber and the pitch/chord

ratio. It is also dependent on the shape of the camber line of

thee blade

b de section

sec o andd on

o thee air ou

outlet

e angle

g e itself.

se .

Deviation Angle

PEMP

RMD 2501

s

Deviation angle m

c

2

2

2a

where m 0.23 0.1

c 50

a is the distance of the point of maximum camber from the leading edge

of the blade.

The formula for m is valid for all bade camber line shapes,

p , includingg

circular arc, parabolic arc, etc.

For circular arc camber line, 2a/c = 1

For inlet guide vanes, which are essentially nozzle vanes giving

accelerating flow, the deviation angle is given by

s

0 .19

c

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 44

PEMP

Efficiencies of Axial Compressor RMD 2501

expressedd as the i off isentropic workk off compression to

h ratio

actual work with friction.

i

h02 h01 T02 T01 T2 T1

isentropic efficiencies are same.

PEMP

Polytropic or Small Stage Efficiency RMD 2501

efficiency for each stage.

The small stage or polytropic efficiency is defined as the

isentropic efficiency of an elemental stage (infinitesimal) of the

compressor which remains constant throughout the whole

compressor,

process of compression.

On a T-s diagram,

g , the vertical distance increases with an increase

in entropy. The isentropic temperature rise is more for an

elemental stage at higher entropy than the temperature rise of

another elemental stage at lower entropy.

entropy

The sum of the isentropic temperature rise for all the elemental

stages is greater than the single overall isentropic rise.

rise

PEMP

Polytropic Efficiency RMD 2501

Polytropic

y p efficiency y is the

efficiency of a compressor stage

operating between infinitesimal

pressure differential p. It is

used in comparing the

performance of two compressors

having the same pressure ratio

b operating

but i at different

diff

temperature levels.

In multistage

g compressors,

p the

polytropic efficiency is used in

defining the isentropic efficiency

of individual stages.

PEMP

Polytropic Efficiency RMD 2501

of a compressor

0.9 p= 0.9

1

0.8 p02

Isentropic p= 0.8

08 1

efficiency, c p01

0.7

c 1 1

p02 p

1

p= 0.7

0.6 p01

with pressure ratio

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 48

PEMP

Polytropic Index RMD 2501

P l

Polytropic i d n is

i index i defined

d fi d suchh that

h

1 1 n 1 1 n

or p

p n n 1

1 p

T02 p02

From

o co

consideration

s de at o of

o small

s a stage efficiency

e c e cy

T01 p01

1

T '

p02

F id

For ideall compression

i process

02

T01 p01

Stage

g ppolytropic

y p efficiency

y can now be written as

1 n 1 ln p02 p01

p

n 1 lnT02 T01

PEMP

Blade Loading Criteria RMD 2501

De Haller Number

V2

0.72 for rotor

V1

C3

0.72 for stator

C2

V2 Vw s

D 1

V1 2V1 c

cos 1 cos 1 s

D 1 tan 1 tan 2 for incompressible flow

cos 2 2 c

D > 0.4-0.45 (at rotor tip) ; > 0.6 (at rotor hub)

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 50

PEMP

Subsonic and Transonic Compressors RMD 2501

Inlet relative Mach number is subsonic Inlet relative Mach number varies from

from hub to tipp subsonic at the hub to supersonic

p at the tip

p

Pressure ratios up to ~1.2 Pressure ratios form 1.2 to 2.3

Moderate tip Mach numbers High tip Mach numbers

Flatter pressure ratio-mass flow rate Steep pressure ratio-mass flow rate

characteristics characteristics

Good stall margin Low stall margin

Thick blade sections, including leading and Thinner blade sections with sharp leading and

tailing ends trailing ends

Typical blade profiles used are: NACA 65, Requires special blade profiles, like Multiple

NACA 63,

63 C4,

C4 Double Circular Arc (DCA),

(DCA) Circular Arc (MCA),

(MCA) Arbitrary Mean Camber

Controlled Diffusion Aerofoil (CDA) Line (AMCL), Controlled Diffusion Aerofoil

(CDA)

Used in land based gas turbines, HP stages Used in modern land based gas turbines, civil

of aeroengines and military aeroengines (specially fan and LP

stages)

PEMP

Subsonic and Transonic Compressors RMD 2501

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 52

PEMP

Blade Profiles RMD 2501

figure.

The RAF p profiles and C series pprofiles are widely

y used in

British practice.

NACA 65 series is used in USA.

Th method

The th d can beb applied

li d to

t a selected

l t d number

b off points

i t

along the blade height.

Pitch at the mean diameter and the number of blades are fixed,

and pitch values at the other points are determined.

s/c ratio is derived from the air angles; the chord length of the

blade at any y pparticular radius will be determined from the pitch.

p

This usually results in a blade tapering from root to tip, which

is desirable from the point of view of centrifugal stresses.

By this means,

means a complete 3-D 3 D blade form can be built up.

up

PEMP

Subsonic

Bl di

Blading

Transonic

Blading

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 54

PEMP

Sources of Loss in Compressors RMD 2501

1. Profile Loss

2. End Wall Loss

3. Secondary Flow Loss

4. Tip Clearance Loss

5. Shock Loss

6. Shock Boundary Layer Interaction

p

compressor stage

g and degradation

g of efficiencyy

PEMP

Compressor Boundary Layers RMD 2501

Blade

due to development of boundary layers on

Flow

the blade surfaces and the end walls.

In most compressor flows, the existence

of turbulent shear stress is essential to

surmountt the

th adverse

d pressure gradients

di t

without separation. Blade

boundary

Generally,

y, the pperformance of compressor

p Blade layer

y

improves as the turbulent stresses get

stronger relative to the laminar viscous

stresses, that is as the Reynolds number

increases.

Boundary layers are the regions in which

the viscous effects are largest.

PEMP

Blockage RMD 2501

B = 1- (effective flow area)/(geometric flow area)

This can be rewritten in terms of the sum of the displacement thicknesses

B = 1- (A - *)/A

where A is the total cross-sectional area and * is the displacement

thickness, given by

1 v / V dy

d

With a uniform flow region outside the viscous one, the evaluation of

blockage

g is unambiguous.

g But, with the non-uniform flow across the

whole passage, there is some arbitrariness in defining the conditions

corresponding to the free stream. A general form useful of turbomachines

is

B 1 vdA

/ vdA

actual

no viscous regions

PEMP

Blockage RMD 2501

in the blade to blade

plane at x/cax = 0.86

0 86

showing flow blockage

at the blade suction

surface - hub corner

2. In the vortex core, flow is transported

out normal to surface

3. Vortex (c) is formed by sudden

obstruction due to separation

4. Back flow inside the separated region

moves upstream

t and

d coils

il up into

i t

another vortex (d)

PEMP

Tip Clearance Flows RMD 2501

Mixing Casing

Separation

bubble

PS SS

VORTEX

PEMP

Secondary Flows RMD 2501

Secondary flows at

exit from a blade

passage (viewed in

Secondary vorticity produced by a row of guide vanes upstream direction)

PEMP

stall point peak efficiency point

Mach number contours for back pressure Mach number contours for lowest

slightly below the choke value back pressure operating point

G.S. Bloch and W.F. O'Brien, AGARD CP 571, May 1995

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 61

PEMP

Complex Flow through an Axial Compressor Rotor RMD 2501

PEMP

Axial Compressor Characteristics RMD 2501

PEMP

Axial Compressor Characteristics RMD 2501

PEMP

PEMP

(E

(Emmons Theory)

Th )

PEMP

Classification of Rotating Stall RMD 2501

classified as:

Part span and full span

Progressive and abrupt

Mild and deep

PEMP

Classification of Rotating Stall RMD 2501

Hysteresis *

(via progressive stall) (Abrupt stall)

width of the hysteresis loop is large, then it becomes difficult to bring

the compressor out of stall regime.

PEMP

Development of Surge RMD 2501

I. J. Day [7]

PEMP

Stall and Surge in a Multistage RMD 2501

Compressor

PEMP

Definition of Stall Margin RMD 2501

as the difference of compressor mass

flow rates at design point and stall point

SM m design m stall

S D

100% speed

NASA Definition

PRdesign m

SM 1 stall

PRstall m design

D: design

g ppoint

S: stall point

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 71

PEMP

Off-Design Operation RMD 2501

PEMP

Choke Last Stage RMD 2501

velocity through all stages. This means that the annulus area should

progressively decrease from inlet to exit because of the increasing

density.

m A Ca constant

design the

temperature rise and pressure ratio will be reduced and the density

at the rear stages will be lower than the design value. This will

i

increase the

h axial

i l velocity

l i in i the

h rear stages where

h choking

h ki willill

eventually occur and limit the mass flow. Thus at low speeds the

mass flow will be determined byy choking g of the rear stages.

g

PEMP

Choke First Stage RMD 2501

rear stages is

i increased

i d to the

h design

d i value

l andd theh rear stages off

the compressor can pass all the flow provided by the early stages.

y however, chokingg will occur at the inlet; the vertical

Eventually,

constant speed line is due to choking at the inlet of the compressor.

PEMP

Stall Last Stage RMD 2501

operating at the correct value of Ca/U, and hence at the correct

incidence. If the operating point is moved from design point A to

surge point B at the design speed, the density at the compressor exit

will increase due to the increase in pressure ratio

ratio. But there is

slight reduction in the mass flow rate. Both these effects reduce the

axial velocity in the last stage, thus increasing the incidence. A

relatively small increase in incidence will cause the rotor blades to

stall. Thus, surge at high speeds is due to stalling of the last stage.

PEMP

Stall First Stage RMD 2501

reduces more rapidly than the speed, thus decreasing the axial

velocity at inlet and causing the incidence on the first-stage blade to

increase. The axial velocity in the later stages, however, is increased

because of the lower pressure and density, so causing the incidence

to decrease. Thus at low speeds, surging is probably due to stalling

of the first stage.

ItI is

i possible

ibl for

f axial

i l compressors to operate with

i h severall off the

h

upstream stages stalled. And, this is thought to account for the

g line which is often encountered in high

kink in the surge g

performance compressors.

PEMP

Stall due to Negative Incidence RMD 2501

q

much lower than required. The resulting

g high

g axial velocities will

induce large decrease in incidence, which will eventually result in

stalling at negative incidences. The efficiency will be very low

under these operating conditions

conditions.

PEMP

between design and off design conditions will be increased and the

probability of blades stalling due to incorrect axial velocities will be

much higher. The effect of increased axial velocity towards the rear

of the compressor can be alleviated by means of blow off, where air

is discharged from the compressor at some intermediate stage to

reduce the mass flow through the later stages.

Blow

Bl off ff is

i wasteful,

f l but

b sometimes

i it

i is

i necessary to prevent the

h

engine running line intersecting the surge line.

Twin Spool Compressor PEMP

RMD 2501

increase of incidence in the first stage and a decrease of incidence in the

g ; clearlyy the effect will increase with pressure

last stage; p ratio. The

incidence could be maintained at the design value by increasing the speed

of the last stage and decreasing the speed of the first stage as indicated in

tthee figure.

gu e. These

ese conflicting

co ct g requirements

equ e e ts canca be metet by splitting

sp tt g the

t e

compressor into LP and HP compressor driven by LP and HP turbines.

The speed of the two spools are mechanically independent but a strong

aerodynamic coupling exists, which has the desired effect on the relative

speeds when the gas turbine is operating at an off-design point.

PEMP

Rotor Construction RMD 2501

PEMP

The

Th use off a constant outer diameter

di results

l ini the

h mean blade

bl d speedd

increasing with stage number, and this in turn implies that for a

given temperature rise, Cw is reduced. The fluid deflection is

correspondingly reduced with a beneficial increase in de Haller

number.

Alternatively,

Alternatively because of the higher blade speed,

speed a higher

temperature rise could be achieved in the later stages ; this might

permit the required pressure ratio to be obtained in less number of

stages.

stages

Note that the simple equations derived on the basis of U = constant

are then not valid, and it would be necessary

y to use the appropriate

pp p

values of U1and U2 ; the stage temperature rise would then be given

by (U2Cw2- U1Cw1)/cp.

Compressors

C which

hi h use constant

t t inner

i diameter,

di t constant

t t mean

diameter or constant outer diameter will all be found in service.

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 81

PEMP

The

Th use off a constant inner

i diameter

di is

i often

f found

f d in

i industrial

i d i l units,

i

permitting the use of rotor discs of the same diameter, which lowers the

cost.

Constant outer diameter compressors are used where the minimum

number of stages is required, and these are commonly found in aircraft

engines.

engines

The compressor annulus of the Olympus 593 engine used in Concorde

employs a combination of these approaches; the LP compressor annulus

has a virtually constant inner diameter, while the HP compressor has a

constant outer diameter.

The accessories are packed around the HP compressor annulus and the

engine when fully equipped is almost cylindrical in shape, with the

compressor inlet and turbine exit diameters almost equal. In this

application,

li ti frontal

f t l area is

i off critical

iti l importance

i t because

b off the

th high

hi h

supersonic speed.

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 82

PEMP

Olympus 593 Mk 610 Engine RMD 2501

Compressor: Axial

7 high pr. stages;

7 low pr. stages

Turbine: 1 low pr.

stage; 1 high pr.

stage

Weight: 3180 kg

Length: 7.11m

Diameter: 1.21m

Concorde aircraft Thrust: 170kN

PEMP

Session Summary RMD 2501

Velocity triangles represent the changes in flow parameters

across the blade rows.

Tip clearance, secondary flows, boundary layers and shocks are

responsible

ibl for

f loss

l generation

ti in

i blade

bl d rows.

Stall and surge are important phenomena that limit the stable

operating range of the compressors.

compressors

It is a complex piece of equipment to design and manufacture.

PEMP

RMD 2501

Thank you