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# PEMP

RMD 2501

Axial Compressors

## Session delivered by:

Prof Q.H.
Prof. Q H Nagpurwala

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 1

PEMP
RMD 2501
Session Objectives

## This session is intended to introduce the following:

Basic Theory of Axial Flow Compressors
Velocity Triangles and Degree of Reaction
Three Dimensional Flow and Vortex Theory
Compressor Efficiency
Performance Characteristics
Stall and Surge Phenomena in Compressors

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 2

PEMP
Axial Compressor RMD 2501

Intake
Exhaust

PEMP

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 4

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Introduction RMD 2501

In axial flow compressors, flow enters the first blade row and leaves
the last blade row in axial direction.
Flow through the machine is parallel to the axis of the shaft.
Axial compressors are characterised by lower pressure ratio per
stage at higher mass flow rates compared to centrifugal
compressors; and hence these machines are preferred for civil and
militaryy aero engines
g as well as for industrial ggas turbines.
Higher mass flow rate produces higher thrust.
Axial compressors are classified as subsonic,
subsonic transonic and
supersonic depending on whether the relative flow Mach number at
rotor inlet is fully subsonic, partly subsonic and partly supersonic,
or fully
f ll supersonic along
l the
bl d height.
h i h

PEMP

## Basic components are: rotor and stator.

Stator has stationary rows of blades, which convert kinetic energy
of air into pressure energy and also redirect the flow at an angle
suitable for entry to the next row of moving blades.
Both, rotor and stator blade passages, are basically diffusers.
A stage comprises one rotating row followed by a stator row.
row
Sometimes, a row of so-called Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) is provided
upstream of the first rotor, forming an additional row of stator
blades. These IGV serve to direct the axially approaching flow
correctly into the first row of rotor blades to meet the design and
off-design
g requirements.
q

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 6

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Flow through an Axial Compressor RMD 2501

Rotor Stator

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 7

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Axial Compressor Stage RMD 2501

## A compressor stage is defined as a rotor blade

row followed by a stator blade row. The rotor
blades (black) are fixed to the rotor drum and the
stator blades are fixed to the outer casing. The
blades upstream of the first rotor row are inlet
guide vanes
vanes. These are not considered to be a
part of the first stage and are treated separately.
Their function is quite different from the other
bl d rows since,
b directing
di ti the th flow
fl away
from the axial direction, they act to accelerate
the flow rather than diffuse it. Functionally, inlet
guide
id vanes are theh same as turbine
bi nozzles;
l they
h
increase the kinetic energy of the flow at the
expense of the pressure energy.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 8

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Compression Process RMD 2501

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 9

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Compression Efficiency RMD 2501

## Isentropic enthalpy rise h02 s h01

isen
Actual enthalpy rise h02 h01
c p T02 s T01 02

c p T02 T01
T01 T02 s
T02 T01 1
T02 s T01 1
c c T01
1
T02 s p02

T01 p01 Compression process
1
on T-s diagram

1 p02
T01
T02-T 1
c p01

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 10
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Elementary Theory RMD 2501

Total
T l andd static
i pressure andd temperature rise
i across the
bl d due
d
Absolute flow undergoes acceleration across rotor blade rows.
rows
There is flow diffusion across stator blade rows, converting kinetic
energy into pressure.
The design pressure rise is achieved in a number of stages.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 11

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Velocity Triangles RMD 2501

Two-Dimensional

## U : Tangential blade speed

C : Absolute flow velocity
Ca: Axial component of C
Cw: whirl or tangential
component
p of C
V : Relative flow velocity
: Absolute flow angle
: Relative flow Angle

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 12

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Euler Turbine Equation RMD 2501

W k done
Work d per unit
i mass flow
fl rate or Specific
S ifi Work
W k

W U 2 C w2 U 1C w1
For U2 = U1, and Ca1 = Ca2 = Ca, we can write

W U C w2 C w1
UCa tan 2 tan 1
UCa tan 1 tan 2
Also
U
tan 1 tan 1 (1)
Ca
U
tan
t 2 tan
t 2 (2)
Ca
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 13
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Euler Turbine Equation RMD 2501

## The input energy is absorbed usefully in raising the pressure,

temperature and velocity of the air and wastefully in overcoming
various frictional losses.
W c p Tos UCa tan 1 tan 2
UCa
Tos tan 1 tan 2
cp
And, if C3 = C1
UCa
Tos Ts tan 1 tan 2
cp

p 03 T os - 1
Total pressure ratio
ratio, 1 s
s = stage
g isentropic
p efficiency
y
p 01 To1 T01= inlet stagnation temperature

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 14

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Work Done Factor RMD 2501

## Axial velocity is not uniform

The
Th endd wall
ll boundary
b d layers
l
are responsible for the nature of
spanwise axial velocity
di ib i as shown.
distribution, h
The axial velocity profile
becomes more and more peaky
as the flow proceeds down-
stream and settles down in the
fourth stage
stage.
There is no appreciable change
in the axial velocity profile
beyond fourth stage.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 15

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Work Done Factor RMD 2501

Work
W kDDone FFactor is
i the
h ratioi off the
h actuall workk absorbing
b bi
capacity of the stage to its ideal value as calculated from the Euler
turbine equation.
q
W UC a tan 1 tan 2
For a given rotor
U U C a tan 1 C a tan 2 blade,, 1 and 2 are
almost constant
U U C a tan 1 tan 2
Hence, less work is done at the region where Ca is high and the
actual temperature rise is given by
UC a
Tos Ts tan 1 tan 2
cp
is the work done factor,
factor which is less than unity.
unity Its value may range from 0.96
0 96
at the first stage to about 0.85 at the fourth and subsequent stages.
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 16
PEMP
Work Done Factor RMD 2501

W UC a tan 1 tan 2
U U C a tan 1 C a tan 2
U U C a tan 1 tan 2
Since 1 and 2 are approximately
pp y constant for a ggiven design,
g ,
an increase in Ca will result in a decrease in W and vice
versa, hence less work at the region where Ca is high.

Actual temperature rise Tos UC a tan 1 tan 2
cp

T os - 1
and pressure ratio R s 1 s
T o1
s : Stage isentropic efficiency
T01 : Inlet stagnation temperature

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 17

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Degree of Reaction RMD 2501

## Degree of reaction is the ratio of static enthalpy rise in the

rotor to static enthalpy rise in the whole stage
TA : Static
S i temperature risei ini the
h rotor
T B : Static temperature rise in the stator
W cp TA TB cp Ts
UC a tan 1 tan 2
UCa( tan 2 tan 1 )
Since all the work input to the stage is transferred to the air by
means of the rotor, the SFEE yields
C1 C a sec 1
W c p T A C 2 C 1
1 2 2

2 C 2 C a sec 2
c p T A UC a ( tan 2 tan 1 )-
1 2
2

C 2 C12
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 18
PEMP
Degree of Reaction RMD 2501

c p TA UCa tan 2 tan 1 Ca sec 2 2 sec 2 1
1 2
2

UCa tan t 1 Ca tan
t 2 tan
1 2
2
t 2 2 tan
t 2 1
R = Degree of Reaction
T A

T A T B

UC a tan 2 tan 1 - C a2 tan 2 2 tan 2 1
1
2

UC a tan 2 tan 1

Ca
1 ( tan 2 tan 1 )
2U

PEMP

## By adding equations (1) and (2)

2U
tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2
Ca
Ca 2U 2U
R tan 1 tan 2
2U Ca Ca
Ca
tan 1 tan 2
2U
1 U
If R then tan 1 tan 2
2 Ca
From equation (1) & (2) It is assumed that = 1
1 2
Since cannot be 1, the degree of
1 2 reaction achieved will be slightly
different from 0.5
05
This results in symmetrical
velocity triangles across the rotor
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 20
PEMP

## If R > 0.5, then 2 > 1 and

the velocity diagram is If R < 0.5, then 2 < 1 and the
skewed to the right. The static velocity diagram is skewed to
enthalpy rise in the rotor the left. The stator enthalpy
exceeds that in the stator (this (and pressure) rise exceeds
is also true for the static that in the rotor.
pressure rise).

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 21

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Three Dimensional Flow RMD 2501

## Two dimensional flow analysis is reasonable when blade height is

small i.e. hub/tipp radius ratio > 0.8.
Three dimensional analysis is to be considered when hub/tip
In three dimensional flow, the radial component of velocity also
needs to be considered alongwith axial and tangential
components.
However, the radial velocity can be ignored if the flow is assumed
di l equilibrium
ilib i from hub
h b to tip.
tip

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 22

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Vortex Theory RMD 2501

## The Vortex theoryy is based on the radial equilibrium

q between
centrifugal forces and pressure forces experienced by the flowing
It is used to obtain the axial velocity distribution across the
blade rows from hub to tip by specifying a whirl distribution. With
the knowledge of whirl and axial velocity distribution across the
radius, one can complete the velocity triangles.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 23

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Radial Equilibrium of Fluid Element RMD 2501

## A fluid element in radial

equilibrium (Cr = 0)

PEMP

## The basic assumption

ass mption of the radial equilibrium elocit Cr is
eq ilibri m is that the radial velocity
zero at entry and exit from a blade row.
Starting from the equation of motion in cylindrical coordinates, the variation in
Cr is written as
Cr C Cr Cr C2 1 p
Cr Cx
r r x r r
If there are large number of blades, then variations in direction may be
neglected.
Cr Cr C2 1 p
Cr Cx
r x r r
Further, if there is no component of velocity in the radial direction, i.e. if there is
radial equilibrium, then Cr = 0, and the above equation reduces to

## 1 p C2 Radial equilibrium equation indicating that

the
h pressure forces
f on the
h fluid
fl id particles
i l
r r are balanced by the centrifugal forces
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 25
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Alternate Approach
Consider a small element of fluid of mass dm of unit depth and subtending an
angle d at the axis,
axis rotating about the axis with tangential velocity C at radius r.
r
The element is in radial equilibrium so that the pressure forces balance the
centrifugal forces.

W iti
Writing

and ignoring terms of the second order of smallness, the above equation reduces to:

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 26

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Axial Velocity Distribution RMD 2501

## For incompressible flow:

1

p0 p C x2 C2
2

1 dp0 1 dp dC x dC
and Cx C
dr dr dr dr

C2 dC x dC
Cx C
r dr dr
dC x C d
Cx r.C
d
dr r dr
d
If the total pressure is assumed constant along the radius, then

dC x C d
Cx r.C 0
dr r dr

or
d 2
dr
1 d
Cx 2
r dr
r.C 2 0 Gives variation
Gi i ti off axial
i l

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 27

PEMP
Axial Velocity Distribution RMD 2501

## Similarly, for compressible flow: h0 h

1 2
2

C x C2
dh0 dh dC x dC
Cx C
dr r dr dr
ds dh 1 dp
But T
dr r dr
dh0 ds 1 dp dC x dC
T Cx C
dr dr dr dr dr
dC x C d
Cx r.C
dr r dr
dh0 ds
If 0 and T 0
dr rr
dC x C d
Then Cx r.C 0
dr r dr
or
d 2
dr

Cx 2
1 d
r dr
r.C 2 0 Gives variation
Gi i ti off axial
i l

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 28

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Types of Whirl Distribution RMD 2501

## The whirl (vortex) distributions normally used in compressor

design practice are:
Free vortex r C = constant
Forced vortex C / r = constant
Constant reaction R = constant
Exponential C 1 = a b/r (after stator)
C 2 = a + b/r (after rotor)

Free
F vortex
t whirl
hi l distribution
di t ib ti results
lt in
i highly
hi hl twisted
bl d
The current design practice for transonic compressors is to use
constant pressure ratio across the span.
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 29
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## If h01 and h02 are constant along the radius, then

W = constant

n=0 Exponential
E ti l design
d i
n=1 Constant reaction design
a=0 Free vortex design
b = 0 and n = 1 Forced vortex design

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 30

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Free Vortex Design RMD 2501

r C = constant
Putting this in the equation for axial velocity distribution, we get
dCx / dr = 0 Cx = constant,
enabling the radial variation in flow angles, reaction and work to be found.

## Let r C1 = K1 before the rotor and r C2 = K2 after the rotor.

Then W = constant

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 31

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Free Vortex Design RMD 2501

Degree of reaction

## Since k is positive, the reaction increases from root to tip.

Likewise, as is always positive, so the static pressure increases from root
to tip.
tip
For the free-vortex flow r C = constant. Hence, the static pressure variation is

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 32

PEMP
Free Vortex Design RMD 2501

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 33

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Constant Reaction Design RMD 2501

n=1 and
Implicit is the
Degree of reaction assumption
ti that
th t the
th
axial velocity across the
rotor remains constant,
which is tantamount to
equilibrium in this case.

Assuming constant stagnation enthalpy at entry to the stage and integrating the
equation for axial velocity, the distribution of Cx before and after the rotor is
given by:

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 34

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Constant Reaction Design RMD 2501

## Radial variation of air angles,

angles constant 50% reaction

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 35

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Comparison of Vortex Designs RMD 2501

vortex exponential
and constant reaction designs
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 36
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Comparison of Vortex Designs RMD 2501

are compared in the figure (previous slide) both at inlet and exit to the rotor.
The free vortex design exhibits most marked twist over the blade span,
with the constant reaction showing the least; the exponential design gives a
compromise between the two.
two
The aerodynamic loading at the root section of the free vortex is substan-
tially higher than that for either of the other two designs.
The constant reaction design looks quite attractive, but the radial equili-
brium is ignored. This will result in flow velocities not in agreement with
the predicted air angles,
angles leading to some loss in efficiency.
efficiency
The exponential design results in a substantial variation in axial velocity,
both across the annulus and through
g the stage.
g

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 37

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Compressibility Effects RMD 2501

## The effect of excessive air velocities past the blades can be

detrimental to the compressor performance.
Variation of entry Mach Numbers are shown in the figure.

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## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 40

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Choice of Whirl Distribution RMD 2501

## Method of Work variation Whirl Axial velocity Variation of Radial Remarks

design with radius distribution variation with reaction with equilibrium
Free vortex Constant r.C = constant Constant Increases with yes Highly twisted

Forced vortex Increases with r2 C /r = constant From radial Varies with yes Rarely used

## Constant Constant C = ar + b/r From radial Constant yes A logical design

reaction equilibrium method. Highly
Exponential Constant C = a + b/r From radial Varies with yes A logical design
Constant 2 Supposed constant Fixed by the Supposed Approx. constant Ignored Blades with lesser
condition
diti that
th t constant
t t t it
twist
C2 = constant;
C1 = a b/r

Deviation Angle
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RMD 2501

Deviation Angle
PEMP
RMD 2501

## Referring to cascade notations, if i = 0, then 1 = 1; but the

blade outlet angle 2 can not be obtained from the air outlet
anglel 2 until
til the
th deviation
d i ti angle l = 2 - 2 has
h been
b
determined.
Ideally, the mean direction of the air leaving the cascade
would be that of the outlet angle of the blades, but in practice
it is found that there is a deviation which is due to reluctance
of the air to turn through the full angle required by the shape
of the blades (shown in the figure).
The analysis of the relation between the air and the blade
outlet angles
g from cascade tests shows that their difference is
dependent mainly on the blade camber and the pitch/chord
ratio. It is also dependent on the shape of the camber line of
b de section
sec o andd on
o thee air ou
outlet
e angle
g e itself.
se .

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 43

Deviation Angle
PEMP
RMD 2501

s
Deviation angle m
c
2
2
2a
where m 0.23 0.1
c 50
a is the distance of the point of maximum camber from the leading edge
The formula for m is valid for all bade camber line shapes,
p , includingg
circular arc, parabolic arc, etc.
For circular arc camber line, 2a/c = 1
For inlet guide vanes, which are essentially nozzle vanes giving
accelerating flow, the deviation angle is given by
s
0 .19
c
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 44
PEMP
Efficiencies of Axial Compressor RMD 2501

## The isentropic efficiency c or i of axial compressor is

expressedd as the i off isentropic workk off compression to
h ratio
actual work with friction.

## h02' h01 T02' T01 T2' T1

i
h02 h01 T02 T01 T2 T1

## For small velocities the total temperature and static temperature

isentropic efficiencies are same.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 45

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Polytropic or Small Stage Efficiency RMD 2501

## In Multistage compressors, the designer tries to obtain same

efficiency for each stage.
The small stage or polytropic efficiency is defined as the
isentropic efficiency of an elemental stage (infinitesimal) of the
compressor which remains constant throughout the whole
compressor,
process of compression.
On a T-s diagram,
g , the vertical distance increases with an increase
in entropy. The isentropic temperature rise is more for an
elemental stage at higher entropy than the temperature rise of
another elemental stage at lower entropy.
entropy
The sum of the isentropic temperature rise for all the elemental
stages is greater than the single overall isentropic rise.
rise

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 46

PEMP
Polytropic Efficiency RMD 2501

## Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency of Compressor

Polytropic
y p efficiency y is the
efficiency of a compressor stage
operating between infinitesimal
pressure differential p. It is
used in comparing the
performance of two compressors
having the same pressure ratio
b operating
but i at different
diff
temperature levels.
In multistage
g compressors,
p the
polytropic efficiency is used in
defining the isentropic efficiency
of individual stages.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 47

PEMP
Polytropic Efficiency RMD 2501

## Relation between Polytropic Efficiency and Isentropic Efficiency

of a compressor
0.9 p= 0.9

1
0.8 p02
Isentropic p= 0.8
08 1
efficiency, c p01
0.7
c 1 1
p02 p
1
p= 0.7
0.6 p01

## Variation of small stage (polytropic) efficiency of compressor

with pressure ratio
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 48
PEMP
Polytropic Index RMD 2501

P l
Polytropic i d n is
i index i defined
d fi d suchh that
h
1 1 n 1 1 n
or p
p n n 1
1 p
T02 p02
From
o co
consideration
s de at o of
o small
s a stage efficiency
e c e cy
T01 p01
1
T '
p02
F id
For ideall compression
i process
02

T01 p01
Stage
g ppolytropic
y p efficiency
y can now be written as

1 n 1 ln p02 p01
p
n 1 lnT02 T01

PEMP

De Haller Number
V2
0.72 for rotor
V1
C3
0.72 for stator
C2

## Liebleins Diffusion Factor

V2 Vw s
D 1
V1 2V1 c
cos 1 cos 1 s
D 1 tan 1 tan 2 for incompressible flow
cos 2 2 c

D > 0.4-0.45 (at rotor tip) ; > 0.6 (at rotor hub)
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 50
PEMP
Subsonic and Transonic Compressors RMD 2501

## Subsonic Compressors Transonic Compressors

Inlet relative Mach number is subsonic Inlet relative Mach number varies from
from hub to tipp subsonic at the hub to supersonic
p at the tip
p
Pressure ratios up to ~1.2 Pressure ratios form 1.2 to 2.3
Moderate tip Mach numbers High tip Mach numbers

Flatter pressure ratio-mass flow rate Steep pressure ratio-mass flow rate
characteristics characteristics
Good stall margin Low stall margin
tailing ends trailing ends
Typical blade profiles used are: NACA 65, Requires special blade profiles, like Multiple
NACA 63,
63 C4,
C4 Double Circular Arc (DCA),
(DCA) Circular Arc (MCA),
(MCA) Arbitrary Mean Camber
Controlled Diffusion Aerofoil (CDA) Line (AMCL), Controlled Diffusion Aerofoil
(CDA)
Used in land based gas turbines, HP stages Used in modern land based gas turbines, civil
of aeroengines and military aeroengines (specially fan and LP
stages)

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 51

PEMP
Subsonic and Transonic Compressors RMD 2501

## Bo Song, Ph.D. Diss.,Virginia Polytechnic, USA, Nov. 2003

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 52
PEMP

## The manner of specifying the base profile is shown in the

figure.
The RAF p profiles and C series pprofiles are widely
y used in
British practice.
NACA 65 series is used in USA.
Th method
The th d can beb applied
li d to
t a selected
l t d number
b off points
i t
Pitch at the mean diameter and the number of blades are fixed,
and pitch values at the other points are determined.
s/c ratio is derived from the air angles; the chord length of the
blade at any y pparticular radius will be determined from the pitch.
p
This usually results in a blade tapering from root to tip, which
is desirable from the point of view of centrifugal stresses.
By this means,
means a complete 3-D 3 D blade form can be built up.
up

PEMP

Subsonic
Bl di

Transonic

## Multiple Circular Arc Airfoil (MCA)

06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 54
PEMP
Sources of Loss in Compressors RMD 2501

1. Profile Loss
2. End Wall Loss
3. Secondary Flow Loss
4. Tip Clearance Loss
5. Shock Loss
6. Shock Boundary Layer Interaction

p
compressor stage
g of efficiencyy

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 55

PEMP
Compressor Boundary Layers RMD 2501

## Viscous effects in turbomachines arise

due to development of boundary layers on
Flow
the blade surfaces and the end walls.
In most compressor flows, the existence
of turbulent shear stress is essential to
surmountt the
di t
boundary
Generally,
y, the pperformance of compressor
y
improves as the turbulent stresses get
stronger relative to the laminar viscous
stresses, that is as the Reynolds number
increases.
Boundary layers are the regions in which
the viscous effects are largest.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 56

PEMP
Blockage RMD 2501

## Blockage through the compressor passages is defined as

B = 1- (effective flow area)/(geometric flow area)
This can be rewritten in terms of the sum of the displacement thicknesses
B = 1- (A - *)/A
where A is the total cross-sectional area and * is the displacement
thickness, given by
1 v / V dy
d
With a uniform flow region outside the viscous one, the evaluation of
blockage
g is unambiguous.
g But, with the non-uniform flow across the
whole passage, there is some arbitrariness in defining the conditions
corresponding to the free stream. A general form useful of turbomachines
is

B 1 vdA
/ vdA
actual

no viscous regions

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 57

PEMP
Blockage RMD 2501

## Total pressure contours

plane at x/cax = 0.86
0 86
showing flow blockage
surface - hub corner

## 1. Vortex on the hub

2. In the vortex core, flow is transported
out normal to surface
3. Vortex (c) is formed by sudden
obstruction due to separation
4. Back flow inside the separated region
moves upstream
t and
d coils
il up into
i t
another vortex (d)

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 58

PEMP
Tip Clearance Flows RMD 2501

Mixing Casing

Separation
bubble

PS SS
VORTEX

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 59

PEMP
Secondary Flows RMD 2501

Secondary flows at
passage (viewed in
Secondary vorticity produced by a row of guide vanes upstream direction)

PEMP

## Mach number contours near Mach number contours near

stall point peak efficiency point

Mach number contours for back pressure Mach number contours for lowest
slightly below the choke value back pressure operating point
G.S. Bloch and W.F. O'Brien, AGARD CP 571, May 1995
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 61
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Complex Flow through an Axial Compressor Rotor RMD 2501

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 62

PEMP
Axial Compressor Characteristics RMD 2501

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 63

PEMP
Axial Compressor Characteristics RMD 2501

PEMP

PEMP

(E
(Emmons Theory)
Th )

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 66

PEMP
Classification of Rotating Stall RMD 2501

## Rotating Stall can be

classified as:
Part span and full span
Progressive and abrupt
Mild and deep

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 67

PEMP
Classification of Rotating Stall RMD 2501

Hysteresis *

## Part span stall Full span stall Full span stall

(via progressive stall) (Abrupt stall)

## Hysteresis is an important aspect of compressor characteristics. If the

width of the hysteresis loop is large, then it becomes difficult to bring
the compressor out of stall regime.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 68

PEMP
Development of Surge RMD 2501

I. J. Day [7]

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 69

PEMP
Stall and Surge in a Multistage RMD 2501

Compressor

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 70

PEMP
Definition of Stall Margin RMD 2501

## Normally, stall margin (SM) is defined

as the difference of compressor mass
flow rates at design point and stall point

SM m design m stall
S D

100% speed
NASA Definition

PRdesign m
SM 1 stall
PRstall m design

D: design
g ppoint
S: stall point
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 71
PEMP
Off-Design Operation RMD 2501

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 72

PEMP
Choke Last Stage RMD 2501

## Axial compressors are normally designed for a constant axial

velocity through all stages. This means that the annulus area should
progressively decrease from inlet to exit because of the increasing
density.

m A Ca constant

## When the compressor is run at a speed lower than design,

design the
temperature rise and pressure ratio will be reduced and the density
at the rear stages will be lower than the design value. This will
i
increase the
h axial
i l velocity
l i in i the
h rear stages where
h choking
h ki willill
eventually occur and limit the mass flow. Thus at low speeds the
mass flow will be determined byy choking g of the rear stages.
g

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 73

PEMP
Choke First Stage RMD 2501

## As the speed of the compressor is increased, the density in the

rear stages is
i increased
i d to the
h design
d i value
l andd theh rear stages off
the compressor can pass all the flow provided by the early stages.
y however, chokingg will occur at the inlet; the vertical
Eventually,
constant speed line is due to choking at the inlet of the compressor.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 74

PEMP
Stall Last Stage RMD 2501

## When the compressor is operating at design point, all stages are

operating at the correct value of Ca/U, and hence at the correct
incidence. If the operating point is moved from design point A to
surge point B at the design speed, the density at the compressor exit
will increase due to the increase in pressure ratio
ratio. But there is
slight reduction in the mass flow rate. Both these effects reduce the
axial velocity in the last stage, thus increasing the incidence. A
relatively small increase in incidence will cause the rotor blades to
stall. Thus, surge at high speeds is due to stalling of the last stage.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 75

PEMP
Stall First Stage RMD 2501

## If the speed is reduced from A to C, the mass flow generally

reduces more rapidly than the speed, thus decreasing the axial
velocity at inlet and causing the incidence on the first-stage blade to
increase. The axial velocity in the later stages, however, is increased
because of the lower pressure and density, so causing the incidence
to decrease. Thus at low speeds, surging is probably due to stalling
of the first stage.
ItI is
i possible
ibl for
f axial
i l compressors to operate with
i h severall off the
h
upstream stages stalled. And, this is thought to account for the
g line which is often encountered in high
kink in the surge g
performance compressors.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 76

PEMP
Stall due to Negative Incidence RMD 2501

## At conditions far removed from from surge, the density will be

q
much lower than required. The resulting
g high
g axial velocities will
induce large decrease in incidence, which will eventually result in
stalling at negative incidences. The efficiency will be very low
under these operating conditions
conditions.

PEMP

## As the design pressure ratio is increased, the difference in density

between design and off design conditions will be increased and the
probability of blades stalling due to incorrect axial velocities will be
much higher. The effect of increased axial velocity towards the rear
of the compressor can be alleviated by means of blow off, where air
is discharged from the compressor at some intermediate stage to
reduce the mass flow through the later stages.
Blow
Bl off ff is
i wasteful,
f l but
b sometimes
i it
i is
i necessary to prevent the
h
engine running line intersecting the surge line.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 78

Twin Spool Compressor PEMP
RMD 2501

## Reduction of compressor speed from the design value will cause an

increase of incidence in the first stage and a decrease of incidence in the
g ; clearlyy the effect will increase with pressure
last stage; p ratio. The
incidence could be maintained at the design value by increasing the speed
of the last stage and decreasing the speed of the first stage as indicated in
tthee figure.
gu e. These
ese conflicting
co ct g requirements
equ e e ts canca be metet by splitting
sp tt g the
t e
compressor into LP and HP compressor driven by LP and HP turbines.
The speed of the two spools are mechanically independent but a strong
aerodynamic coupling exists, which has the desired effect on the relative
speeds when the gas turbine is operating at an off-design point.

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 79

PEMP
Rotor Construction RMD 2501

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 80

PEMP

The
Th use off a constant outer diameter
di results
l ini the
bl d speedd
increasing with stage number, and this in turn implies that for a
given temperature rise, Cw is reduced. The fluid deflection is
correspondingly reduced with a beneficial increase in de Haller
number.
Alternatively,
Alternatively because of the higher blade speed,
speed a higher
temperature rise could be achieved in the later stages ; this might
permit the required pressure ratio to be obtained in less number of
stages.
stages
Note that the simple equations derived on the basis of U = constant
are then not valid, and it would be necessary
y to use the appropriate
pp p
values of U1and U2 ; the stage temperature rise would then be given
by (U2Cw2- U1Cw1)/cp.
Compressors
C which
hi h use constant
t t inner
i diameter,
di t constant
t t mean
diameter or constant outer diameter will all be found in service.
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 81
PEMP

The
Th use off a constant inner
i diameter
di is
i often
f found
f d in
i industrial
i d i l units,
i
permitting the use of rotor discs of the same diameter, which lowers the
cost.
Constant outer diameter compressors are used where the minimum
number of stages is required, and these are commonly found in aircraft
engines.
engines
The compressor annulus of the Olympus 593 engine used in Concorde
employs a combination of these approaches; the LP compressor annulus
has a virtually constant inner diameter, while the HP compressor has a
constant outer diameter.
The accessories are packed around the HP compressor annulus and the
engine when fully equipped is almost cylindrical in shape, with the
compressor inlet and turbine exit diameters almost equal. In this
application,
li ti frontal
f t l area is
i off critical
iti l importance
i t because
b off the
th high
hi h
supersonic speed.
06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 82
PEMP
Olympus 593 Mk 610 Engine RMD 2501

Compressor: Axial
7 high pr. stages;
7 low pr. stages
Turbine: 1 low pr.
stage; 1 high pr.
stage
Weight: 3180 kg
Length: 7.11m
Diameter: 1.21m
Concorde aircraft Thrust: 170kN

## 06 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 83

PEMP
Session Summary RMD 2501

## Axial compressors are used in almost all gas turbine systems.

Velocity triangles represent the changes in flow parameters
Tip clearance, secondary flows, boundary layers and shocks are
responsible
ibl for
f loss
l generation
ti in
bl d rows.
Stall and surge are important phenomena that limit the stable
operating range of the compressors.
compressors
It is a complex piece of equipment to design and manufacture.

PEMP
RMD 2501

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