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Define plagiarism and avoid plagiarising Convention 3

Quote appropriately When citing two or more authors within an in-text citation, use an ampersand in the
parentheses e.g. (Burns & Sinfield,2002)
What is Plagiarism?
Using another persons words, images or ideas without acknowledgement of However, when mentioning the authors in the text, use the word and e.g.
that person as your source. Burns and Seinfeld (2002) argue
When you acknowledge the person and your version is similar. Adapted from : Wiggins, C. (2009) The University of York

What is Plagiarism? Convention 4


When you quote, paraphrase or summarise another persons work, you When citing two or more authors within the text, use the full list of names the first
must show the source of the idea by putting certain information in time e.g.
parenthesis immediately after the material used.
(White, Green, Brown, Grey, Black & Pink, 2008)
Why is Plagiarism a serious offence in universities? Subsequently, use (White, et al.2008)
How can you avoid Plagiarism? Adapted from : Wiggins, C. (2009) The University of York
Give credit when you take words, images and ideas from books, magazines,
Web pages, statistics etc. Convention 5

All work taken from another source must be acknowledged and documented When the same author and text is referred to more than once in a single paragraph,
there is no need to give the date for the second reference.
When you borrow another persons words or ideas by quoting, paraphrasing or
summarizing them, you must show where you got the ideas by putting certain Convention 6
information in parenthesis immediately after the material you have borrowed. When a direct quotation is used, give the year and page/s numbers immediately
after the quotation
Source: Oshima & Hogue,1999
Convention 7
2 ways of giving acknowledgement: Two works by the same author published in the same year are differentiated by
a,b,c and cross-referenced accordingly
1. Direct method i.e. quotation e.g. In-text (Carroll, 2007a)

2. Indirect method by summarizing and paraphrasing References:


Carroll, J. (2007a) A handbook for deterring plagiarism in higher education. Oxford
Direct method Centre for Staff and Learning Development: Oxford Brookes University
Copying word-for-word from a published text, transcript etc. Carroll, J.(2007b) .
Do not change words or sentence structure from the original or this is no
longer a direct quote. Adapted from : Wiggins, C . (2009) The University of York
Statistics are good supporting details for opinions. Like quotations their
source must also be cited. Convention 8
Two works by the same author published in different years require the year of
Ways of quoting publication for both works e.g.
Carroll (2005, 2007) maintains.
For a short quotation of less than 40 words, use a brief phrase as an introduction to
the quotation e.g. Convention 9
When pulling together several sources to support your argument, use one in-text
Pennycook (1996) claims all language learning is to some extent a process of citation. List the names alphabetically as they appear in the bibliography e.g.
borrowing others words.
Longer quotations stand alone in the text e.g. As widely stated in the literature. (Carroll,2002; Mallon, 1991;Neville,2007)
In an article on plagiarism, Pennycook cautioned Adapted from : Wiggins, C . (2009) The University of York

All language learning is to some extent a process of borrowing others words and we Convention 10
need to be flexible, not dogmatic, about where we draw boundaries between When two authors have the same family name include initials to avoid confusion e.g.
acceptable and unacceptable textual borrowings(1996:227).
Hyland,K. (2008) and Hyland,F. (2007) reportedVarious studies were conducted on
Documenting sources within the text the effectiveness of written feedback (Hyland, K.,2008; Hyland, F., 2007).
What?
Convention 11
The practice of citing original sources of information
When there is an omission in a direct quotation use an ellipsis (three spaced periods)
When?
e.g.
Direct quotations and paraphrased information from another source, except
dictionaries and encyclopedias
Williams (2008) asks Is Persaud a narcissist, in other words, or a man so plagued by
Why?
self-doubt that he doesnt obey the rules of academia?He claims to have been so
Readers can find the original source
busy he became confused (p.37).
Writer not responsible for all information
Adapted from : Wiggins, C. (2009) The University of York
Plagiarism is avoided
There are a number of methods Convention 12
When there is an omission in a direct quotation at the end of the sentence, use four
APA or American Psychological Association periods to close the quotation e.g.
Number reference system (IEEE)
Are frequently used in natural science, social science and technical fields. Williams (2008) asks Is Persaud a narcissist, in other words, or a man so plagued by
The conventions of the APA system are: self-doubt ?....(p.37)
Adapted from : Wiggins, C . (2009) The University of York
Convention 1
When authors name begins a sentence, place the date of the work in parentheses When the researchers ideas are considered important:
immediately after the name of the author e.g.
The researchers name/s take subject position e.g.
As Neville (2007) emphasizes, you should cite all sources and present full details of
Pennycooks (1996) interviews with students at the University of Hong Kong revealed
these in your list of references (p.36).
plagiarism was usually due to carelessness rather than intention to deceive.
Adapted from : Wiggins, C. (2009) The University of York
When the research is considered important:
Convention 2
The paraphrased information takes subject position e.g.
When an author is not referred to directly in a sentence, place both the authors last
name and the year of publication, separated by a comma, in parentheses e.g.
References list full details of all sources used (Neville,2007).
Adapted from : Wiggins, C. (2009) The University of York
Plagiarism is regarded as dishonest conduct which is incompatible with the ideals of
academic integrity (University of Maryland, 1996).

Numbered Reference System


Organized in two ways:

1. List the items alphabetically by last name of author.

2. List the items in the order they are cited in the text.

Conventions of the numbered reference system:


Page numbers are included in the parentheses, separate from the reference number
by a colon.

Sentences may begin with Reference 6 states. However, for readability, rewrite
as often as possible to include the reference later in the sentence.

Example
An intelligent tutor is a form of interactive instructional material that trains a student
in how to perform a procedural task, and that tailors itself to the students progress,
Koedinger et al. [5]. Intelligent tutors had proven effective in teaching about
humanities [6], science [7], Math [8], Software Engineering [9] and introductory
programming concepts, such as loops and lists [10 12].
A question to end the lecture

Why is it necessary to provide in-text citations?


This is the final slide for today

Thank you for your kind attention